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G. Z.

e-mail: Applying Anand Model to
Z. N. Cheng
Represent the Viscoplastic
Daimler Chrysler SIM Technology,
865 Changning Road,
Deformation Behavior of Solder
Shanghai 200050, China
K. Becker A unified viscoplastic constitutive law, the Anand model, was applied to represent the
University of Applied Science Bingen, inelastic deformation behavior for solders used in electronic packaging. The material
Bingen 55411, Germany parameters of the constitutive relations for 62Sn36Pb2Ag, 60Sn40Pb, 96.5Sn3.5Ag, and
e-mail: 97.5Pb2.5Sn solders were determined from separated constitutive relations and experi-
mental results. The achieved unified Anand model for solders were tested for constant
strain rate testing, steady-state plastic flow and stress/strain responses under cyclic load-
J. Wilde ing. It is concluded that the Anand model can be applied for representing the inelastic
IMTEK, University of Freiburg, deformation behavior of solders at high homologous temperature and can be recom-
Freiburg im Breisgan D-79085, Germany mended for finite element simulation of the stress/strain responses of solder joints in
e-mail: service. 关DOI: 10.1115/1.1371781兴

Introduction and Kitano 关9兴兲 proposed a unified model for 60Sn40Pb solder
which accounts for the measured stress-dependence of the activa-
In general, temperature fluctuations experienced by IC pack-
tion energy and for the Bauschinger effect exhibited by the solder.
ages and assemblies in service cause progressive damage in solder Qian et al. 关10兴 employed the back stress to describe the transient
joints; eventually, this damage accumulation beyond certain limits stage of a stress/strain curve in a unified constitutive model for
leads to the electrical failure. One of the major goals of thermo- tin-lead solder. Some works 共Skipor et al. 关11兴; Ma et al. 关12兴兲
mechanical analysis in the electronics industry is to be able to employed the Bodner-Partom constitutive relations which use a
simulate the stress/strain responses of the solder joint and then state variable to represent the internal inelastic structure for the
predict its reliability in service. In order to gain accurate simula- solder with eutectic composition. However, some parameters of
tion and reliable prediction, realistic constitutive relations for sol- these unified models are empirical and dependent on temperature
der alloys are warranted. and strain rate, resulting in complex calculation of the stress strain
The high homologous temperatures, e.g., 0.65 T m 共in K兲 for the responses and some scattering predictions from the experiments.
eutectic tin-lead共SnPb兲 at room temperature, experienced by the Usually, a specially viscoplastic constitutive law must be de-
solder joint and the thermally activated strains imposed on it due fined as a user-defined subroutine code to represent the nonlinear
to the thermal expansion mismatch between the materials gives rate-dependent stress-strain relations in some finite element pro-
rise to a complex deformation behavior. This deformation behav- grams 共Busso et al. 关8兴, Qian et al. 关10兴兲. Such a work is often
ior is associated with the irreversible, temperature and rate 共or complex, expert dependent and largely time consumptive. Some
time兲 dependent inelastic characteristics, producing strain- user material subroutines with unified constitutive models are al-
hardening, dynamic recovery, and in many instances dynamic re- ready available in current commercial finite element codes, e.g.,
crystallization. This deformation behavior is known to be visco- the UMAT in ABAQUS 共Weber et al. 关13兴兲. A unified constitu-
plastic with, generally, revelations such as creep and stress tive model, which is referred to as the Anand model, is offered by
relaxation phenomena of materials working in high homologous the ANSYS code. In order to apply this Anand model to simulat-
temperature regime. ing the thermomechanical responses of solder joints in electronic
There has already been a great deal of effort applied to reason- packaging, the material parameters of the constitutive relations
able experimental data and constitutive models for this material. must be determined in prior.
The previous researchers 共Darveaux and Banerji 关1兴; Weinbel The objective of this paper is to obtain the material parameters
et al. 关2兴, Kashyap and Murty 关3兴兲 presented extensive experimen- of the Anand model for solders from experimental results and the
tal data on tin-lead based solders. There are also some constitutive separated elasto-plasto-creep constitutive relations. The material
relations for solder alloys, ranging from elasto-plastic model 共e.g., parameters with viscoplastic constitutive relations for solders are
Ramberg-Osgood relation兲 using empirical stress-strain curves used to simulate the steady-state creep behavior, constant strain
共Lau and Rice 关4兴兲 to a purely phenomenological model where the rate behavior, and stress/strain responses under thermal cyclic
time-dependent and time-independent deforms are artificially loading for comparison and verification. Some discussions on rec-
separated 共Sarihan 关5兴, Pao et al. 关6兴; Knecht and Fox 关7兴兲. Some ommendation of using unified Anand model in the finite element
creep models from literature 共power law creep, Harper Dorn simulation of electronic packaging reliability were also presented.
creep, hyperbolic sine creep, etc.兲 have been applied to the time
dependent creep data. However, from the viewpoint of continuum Model Formulation
mechanics, the time-dependent and time-independent inelastic
strains are assumed to arise from similar mechanisms due to dis- 1 The Anand Model. A simple set of constitutive equations
location motion. So, a unified framework for viscoplastic behavior for large, isotropic, viscoplastic deformations but small elastic de-
of solder materials is highly desired. However, there exist insuf- formations is the single-scalar internal variable model proposed
ficient works until now. Some researches 共Busso et al. 关8兴, Busso by Anand and Brown 共Anand 关14兴, Brown et al. 关15兴兲. There are
two basic features in this Anand model. First, this model needs no
Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division for publication in
explicit yield condition and no loading/unloading criterion. The
the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received by the EPPD Oc- plastic strain is assumed to take place at all nonzero stress values,
tober 20, 1998. Associate Editor: Ye-Hein Pao. although at low stresses the rate of plastic flow may be immea-

Journal of Electronic Packaging Copyright © 2001 by ASME SEPTEMBER 2001, Vol. 123 Õ 247

subgrain. internal variable to represent the isotropic resistance to plastic that is.3 0. ␥ ⫽ ␥ P⫹ ␥ S⫹ ␥ T (7) The following functional form of the flow equation was se.931 4.a. coefficient.20 237 0. 共2兲 Use shear modulus when calculating tensile strain rate in Eq. A simple form of flow offered by the internal state of the material. etc. In the separated constitutive descriptions for solder alloys. m p is the stress sensitivity of plastic the hyperbolic sine form first proposed by Garofalo 关16兴 to model strain. A is the pre-exponential fac. where h 0 is the hardening/softening constant. a is the strain rate tropic strengthening mechanisms such as dislocation density.31(109 ) 1200 7.09(10⫺2 ) 1300 5.4 97.548 440 0. which has the dimensions of stress.037 6. and n is the equivalent stress ␴.012 6.240 1. The set of Anand constitutive equations with 冋 冉 冊册 presented here accounts for the physical phenomena of strain-rate and temperature sensitivity.T 兲 ␧˙ P (4) is Table 1 Material parameters of separated model for solders „Darveaux and Banerji †1‡… Steady State Transient Elastic Creep共2兲 Creep Plastic共2兲 G 0 共at 0°SC兲 G1 C1 Q Solder (104 MPa) (102 MPA) 共K/s/MPa兲 ␣ nS 共ev兲 B ␥t C2 mp 60Sn40Pb Shear 1.896 0. strain. ␰ . be of the form as The steady-state creep rate can be described by a single expres- sion. solid sensitivity of hardening/softening.103 7.3(1013) 5.5Sn Shear 0. which is needed to rate test.0 Tensile共1兲 2. 123.6 Tensile共1兲 3. the last one is the where c is a material parameter and constant in the constant strain initial value of the deformation resistance.5Pb2.surably small. SEPTEMBER 2001 Transactions of the ASME .517 16.6(106 ) 3. ␥˙ S is the steady-state strain rate. this model employs a single scalar as an where the function g( ␴ .5Ag Shear 1. ␰ is That is the multiplier of stress.310 0. the total inelastic strain ␥ is the sum of time-independent plastic strain ␥ P .559 14. c⫽ 1 ␰ sinh⫺1 冋冉 ␧˙ P Q/RT A e 冊册 m (2) 2 The Separated Constitutive Model.050 1. ␧˙ P Q n s * ⫽ŝ exp (6) hardening and the restoration process of dynamic recovery. respectively. This internal evolution equation of Eq.6 62Sn36Pb2Ag Shear 1.0 1. R is the gas constant. 共5兲. That ṡ⫽g 共 ␴ .115 2.447 1.5 0.517 8.548 137 0. and s 0 . respectively.086 2.h 0 . where ␶ is the applied shear stress. The temperature depen- dence in Eq.09(10⫺2 ) 751 5. 共6兲.413 0. there are nine ma- terial parameters: A.22(10 9 ) 693 7.283 4. 共8兲.931 0.5Sn3. and the transient 共or primary兲 creep strain ␥ T . tor.5 Tensile共1兲 3.3 0. C 2 is While the stress and state dependence is a simple modification of the plastic strain coefficient.0 1. 248 Õ Vol. 共3兲 is incorporated via a classical Arrhenius term. the steady- where ␧˙ P is the inelastic strain rate.T) is associated with dynamic process.5 0. which is defined as determine the evolution of deformation resistance in Eq. G is the shear modulus. 共11兲 and plastic strain in Eq. state creep ␥ S . and T is the absolute temperature.8(1010) 4. That is strain rate sensitivity for the saturation value of deformation re- sistance.310 0. strain hardening and dynamic recovery.559 28. There are some reasonable s a s considerations for the simplifications that only a single scalar is ṡ⫽ h 0 1⫺ •sign 1⫺ •␧˙ P .ŝ.8(109 ) 4.3 0.021 5. 共4兲 was given by Anand 关14兴 as follows: 再冏 冏 冉 冊冎 variable is denoted by s.s.6(107 ) 4.40 147 0.720 1300 3. ŝ is a coefficient. m is the strain rate sensitivity.0(1011) 4. c⬍1 (1) From the above viscoplastic Anand model. and t is the time.40 255 0. 关15兴兲. a hyperbolic sine form from Darveaux and Baneji 关1兴.3 0. Q is the activation energy. and is called to be deformation resistance. The quantity s * represents a solution strengthening.5 96.534 751 3.s.20 137 0. a⬎1 (5) s* s* used to characterize the internal structural characteristics of a ma- terial 共Brown et al. B is the transient creep steady-state plastic flow 共secondary creep兲. ␥ t is the transient creep strain.0 共1兲 Inelastic tensile constants derived from shear constants using relations ␴ ⫽ ␶ 冑3 and ␧⫽ ␥ / 冑3 due to the assuming of von Mises yield criteria.020 2.0(1010) 4.4 Tensile共1兲 5.Q. ␴ ⫽c•s. with lected to exactly accommodate the strain rate dependence on the stress at constant structure: ␥ P ⫽C 2 冉冊␶ mp 冉 冊冋 冉 冊册 (8) Q ␴ 1/m G ␧˙ P ⫽A exp ⫺ sinh ␰ (3) RT s ␥ S ⫽ ␥˙ S •t (9) Note that the internal state variable enters into the flow equation ␥ T ⫽ ␥ t 关 1⫺exp共 ⫺B ␥˙ S t 兲兴 (10) only as a ratio with the equivalent stress. A RT The internal variable s represents an averaged isotropic resis- tance to macroscopic plastic flow offered by the underlying iso. The evolution equation for the internal variable s is assumed to respectively.066 1.m.548 762 0.447 1. strain rate history effects.548 237 0.1(1011) 5. Second. The saturation value of s associated with a set of given temperature deformation resistance s is consequently proportional to the and strain rate as shown in Eq.n. and grain size effects.689 7.282 751 3.344 1300 3.

关17兴兲 as. 共14兲. Vol.m and n in Eq. and n s is the combined term ŝ/ ␰ . 96. The material parameters of the elastic. and creep deformation behavior shown in Table 1 can be transformed to the viscoplastic Anand model. 共13兲. ␣ is the multiplier of stress.15 1787.32 39.0231 0. The steady-state plastic flow of Anand model can be derived as ␧˙ P ⫽␧˙ ⫽A exp ⫺ 冉 冊冋 Q RT sinh␰ ␴* s* 冊 1/m (13) where ␧˙ is the applied strain rate in constant strain rate test. 共d兲 Nonlinear fitting of a. this steady-state unified Anand model for solders were tested for constant strain plastic flow happens when the plastic flow has become fully de- veloped and its rate equals the applied strain rate at the given temperature and strain rate.73 n 0.25(1012) Q/R 共°K兲 10830 11262 8900 15583 ␰ 11 11 6 7 m 0. also be included. the saturation stresses given in step of the shear modulus G must be incorporated 共a兲 were also used. The elastic properties.5Pb2. e.5Sn solder materials. By using the values obtained in step 共b兲. 2 Determination Procedures and Results.m and n in Eq.ŝ/ ␰ . For viscoplastic deformation behavior.38 1. When Verification and Application steady-state plastic flow occurs.A.82 3.5Sn3.h 0 . are listed in Table 2. The Poisson’s ratios can also be derived from the rela- tionship between shear modulus and tensile modulus in Table 1.5Pb2. some investigators 共Arrowood et al. In the fitting. the stress reaches the saturation 1 Model Prediction.33 42. the temperature de- 96.303 0. ␥˙ S ⫽C 1 G T 冋 冉 冊册 冉 冊 sinh ␣ ␶ G ns exp ⫺ Q RT (11) 共c兲 Determination of ␰ and ŝ.75 4121.34 1.018 0. and G 1 gives the temperature the above procedure. For a whole deforma- dependence.09 derived from elasto-plasto-creep model. The values of the nine material parameters A.303 0. for these solders are the same as listed in Table 1.g. stress sensitivity of steady-state creep rate. 共b兲 Nonlinear fitting of Q/R. the elastic behavior should elasto-plasto-creep model for 60Sn40Pb.42 80. and n for any given solder alloy were deter- mined by following the procedures outlined below: 共a兲 Determination of the saturation stresses ␴ * under strain rates ␧˙ and temperatures T from steady-state creep relation.m. the saturation stress ␴ * is obtained as follows: ␴ * ⫽cs * ⫽ 冉 ŝ ␧˙ p Q/Rt ␰ A e 冊 n sinh⫺1 冋冉 ␧˙ p Q/RT A e 冊册 m (14) From the above. ␴ ⫽ ␴ * ⫺ 关共 ␴ * ⫺cs 0 兲 共 1⫺a 兲 ⫹ 共 a⫺1 兲 兵 共 ch 0 兲共 ␴ * 兲 ⫺a 其 ␧ p 兴 1/共 1⫺a 兲 sociated power law breakdown with a transition from dislocation (15) climb dominated steady-state plastic flow to dislocation glide The material parameters a.. the temperature dependence and strain rates.09 15.5Ag.143 ŝ 共MPa兲 80. and 97.79 73.31 3321.5Sn solders. and 97. Table 1 lists the material parameters of the separated tion response for solder due to a load.00437 h 0 共MPa兲 2640. 共14兲 can be determined by applying a nonlinear fitting method using ␧˙ p ⬃ ␴ * pair data from steady-state creep results. 123 Õ 249 . The achieved material parameters of value.h 0 and s 0 .ŝ/ ␰ . The stress of Anand bolic sine dependence of the strain rate on the stress results from model can be expressed as an assumption of forward and backward thermal activation of va- cancies.Q. G⫽G 0 ⫺G 1 •T 共 °C兲 (12) The nine material parameters for 62Sn36Pb2Ag. pendent elastic moduli.A.02 a 1. A hyper. the material parameters: Q/R. However.73 Fig. 1 Constant strain rate behavior of 60Sn40Pb solder „Ã: s 0 共MPa兲 56.30(10 ) 7 2.23(10 ) 4 3.5Pb2.5Ag. 62Sn36Pb. and s were fitted from the ␴ ⬃␧ P dominated one. From Eq.a.0212 0. the parameter ␰ was slected such that the constant c in Eq.5Sn A 共s⫺1兲 7 1.5Ag 97.5Sn3. Parameters Determination of Anand Model 1 Steady-State Plastic Flow and Saturation Stress. Table 2 Material parameters of viscoplastic Anand model for solders Solders Material Parameters 60Sn40Pb 62Sn36Pb2Ag 96. —: prediction from Anand model… Journal of Electronic Packaging SEPTEMBER 2001.h 0 . curves 共especially the transient state兲 with various temperatures To obtain the total inelastic strain. plastic. and ŝ was then determined from the where C 1 is a coefficient.81 72. ␰ . respectively. determined from where G 0 is the shear modulus 0°C.ŝ.5Sn3.49(10 ) 2.182 0. 共2兲 is less than unity. 60Sn40Pb.

can be represented as Fusaro and Darveaux 关24兴兲 have already used this rate dependent ␴ d␧ p 冉 ⫽ch 0 1⫺ s s* a 冊 (16) model to represent the hyperbolic sine steady-state creep of solders. Busso and Kitano 关9兴兲. As the together with providing an evolution equation for the state vari- representative results. 3 Plastic strain hardening data for 60Sn40Pb solder „ ␧˙ Ä1. As mentioned above.e.0⫻10⫺3 s⫺1 . 关18兴. no hardening/softening effect. respectively. the Anand model can also be simplified to be the The strain hardening data reflects the rate sensitivity and the evo... 共16兲. SEPTEMBER 2001 Transactions of the ASME . Thereafter. 4共a兲 and Fig. Solomon 关19兴. Fig. 关23兴. —: prediction from law breakdown for steady-state creep behavior. curve. the steady-state plastic flow occurs when strain curves can be clearly seen from these figures. In electronic packaging applications.5Sn3. The secondary creep of solders associated lution of the internal variable. 2 illustrate the comparisons able. Moreover.e..0Ã10À3 sÀ1. Figure 3 shows the relationship be- tween d ␴ /d␧ p and ␴ data of 60Sn40Pb solder at temperature ⫺25°C and strain rate 1. Also. Fig. A good agreement between Ashby 关11兴兲. Some researchers 共Wiese et al. Fig. The temperature of the bolic sine form of the secondary creep law 共Eq. the hardening with Norton’s equation is 250 Õ Vol. 4 and 5 indicated that the experimental data and the prediction results are coincident well.0⫻10⫺5 s⫺1. s⬍s * . One can also the deformation resistance s. Anand model… 2 Steady-State Creep Approximation. equals the saturation value s * 共see see there are some small differences in the transients 共the Eq. ⫽1. Both Fig. it is interesting to use the Anand model to represent the ture and strain rate dependence of the onset of plastic flow. the hardening/softening constant is less. especially in the regimes where Wallach 关20兴. fore. TÄÀ25°C… data can then be calculated. resulting parameters s 0 and ŝ possess the same flow not developed fully. 关21兴. power law creep form. Based on Eq. the strain rate ranges from 1. 5. The steady-state creep rates of 60Sn40Pb and 96. the evolution equation can be skipped and there is nonsteady-state segments in the stress-strain response兲. Wang et al. i. the model predictions capture the characteristic of the power „Ã: derived from elasto-plasto-creep model.e.5Ag solders from experiments of Darveaux and Banerji 关1兴 and the model predictions are plotted versus shear stresses in Fig. the Anand model represents the deformation behavior quite given a value of zero. and steady-state plastic flow of solders. 123. n⫽0. One can find the flow equation 共Eq. h 0 ⫽0 and its strain rate sensitivity a well. Then. 2 Constant strain rate behavior of 62Sn36Pb2Ag solder Also. i. Neverthe. 1 and Fig. The corresponding data based on the separated model were also calculated and plotted in this figure. Figure 4共b兲 also shows another independent verification of creep data for 60Sn40Pb solder around room tem- perature reported in the literature 共Grivals et al. 共3兲兲 of Anand model follows the same hyper- rate behavior and steady-state plastic flow. for plastic zero. 共13兲兲. Holden and achieved for the above conditions. 共11兲兲 with modi- constant strain rate behavior ranges from ⫺55°C–⫹125°C and fication of internal state variable as denominator in the stress term. There- the steady-state plastic flow apparently occurs. the material model for inelastic response of solders the model predictions and the data from separated model is is often treated as steady-state creep 共to name a few. the Anand model is simplified to the d ␴ /d␧ p . that is the slope of the stress versus inelastic strain hyperbolic sine creep form. the general features of the strain hardening behavior of the stress. Hong and Burrell 关22兴兲. As independent verification is provided by steady-state creep data. The strain rate sensitivity for saturation s * is also set to be Under isothermal and constant strain rate conditions. the strain hardening data values as s * . both models produce the coincident results. the tempera. respectively.0⫻10⫺2 s⫺1 – 1. i. It is seen that although the Anand model underesti- mates the strain hardening at low stresses. because the steady- between the stress-strain data derived from separated model and state creep deformation processes dominated the deformation ki- the prediction results from Anand model for 60Sn40Pb and netics of solder alloys due to their low melting point 共Frost and 62Sn36Pb2Ag solders.

the prediction on thermal fatigue life of solder joint is the Boltzmann’s constant. referred to as Anand approximation model兲. The specimen is composed of two elastic beams. 5 Steady-state creep behavior of 96. 关26兴兲. a chip scale assembly 共Wilde et al.5Ag solder Journal of Electronic Packaging SEPTEMBER 2001.76(105 ) 0. only a simple specimen was selected to perform the simulations. 关25兴兲 Fig.3 16 Fig. with an additional con- sideration to let the condition ␰ /s * ⫽1/100.09(108 ) 5686 1 0. 6. Due to the symmetrical geometry. Tradi- where B * is a material constants. Fig. ⌬H is the activation energy.6(104 ) 0. The creep properties of eutectic SnPb are determined 共Pao et al. and n * ⫽5. 6 Schematic diagram of a simple specimen Table 4 Elastic mechanical properties of materials Young’s modulus Poisson’s Coefficient of thermal Materials 共MPa兲 ratio expansion 共ppm/°C兲 60Sn40Pb 3. The inner lower corner near the solder/FR4 interface demonstrates the strain localization and may be the potential failure site. and n * is the stress component. e.. k is tionally. Moreover. Here.7 FR4 1. Vol. the material parameters were defined in the ANSYS and a viscous element type 共visco106兲 was selected for the solder. The temperature of thermal cycling ranged from ⫺55°C–⫹125°C with ramp rate of 36°C/min and dwell time of 10 min at the two temperature extremes. clamping with solder sandwiched at both ends. the Al2O3 ceramic and FR4 substrate.019 100 0 0 1 100 to be: B * ⫽0.447(104 )⫺151. The viscoplastic Anand model has been previously used to finite element simulate the stress/strain responses of solder joints of some electronic pack- ages. The results show that ␥˙ S ⫽B * exp冋 册⫺⌬H n kT ␶ * (17) the strain distributions based on both models are coincident well.g. The reference tem- perature was treated as 125°C.3 6.49 ev.205 1/MPans. A power law creep model was also utilized in the simulation to clarify the differences of stress/strain responses in the solder joint under thermal cycling. 关27兴兲. 4 Steady-state creep behavior of 60Sn40Pb solder Figure 7 shows the simulation results of inelastic shear stain distributions in solder joints at the start of the ⫺55°C dwell of the third thermal cycle based on both models. ⌬H⫽0. The corresponding material constants for both models were pre- sented in the above Section.316 25 Al2O3 2. Table 4 lists the elastic properties of the involved materials.5Sn3. the unified constitutive framework was also simplified to power law steady-state creep 共hereafter. The obtained material parameters are listed in Table 3. which is similar to the Ford joint specimen 共Pao et al.7T共°C兲 0.25. 123 Õ 251 . Table 3 Material parameters with Anand model of 60Sn40Pb solder for power law steady-state creep approximation A Q/R ␰ m ŝ n h0 a s0 2. as shown in Fig. 3 A Simple Application Example. Because the stresses induced in solder joints for electronic packaging ap- plications are usually less than 100 MPa. The 60Sn40Pb solder was selected to form the solder joints. then the flow equation of the Anand model has the same power law representation. only half of the specimen was meshed with 2D plane strain elements. In the simulation with the Anand approximation model.

It is recommended to use a time step size such that the creep ratio is less than 0. a stability is placed on the time step size according to the creep ratio. which is only efficient for problems having small amounts of contained creep strains 共0. The cyclic strain range can be obtained from the stress-strain hysteresis loops. The creep equations are integrated with an explicit Euler forward algorithm in ANSYS software. Discussions Due to the above results. Currently. 7 Distributions of inelastic shear strains in solder joints at start À55°C dwell of the third thermal cycle based on the estimation of failure indicator such as the cyclic inelastic strain range through Coffin-Manson empirical equation and its modified forms. however. a measure of the in- crement of creep strain.25%兲. 123. the in solder joints under thermal cycling constitutive models of solder alloys. The integration of the flow equation for the Anand model is. It is found that the CPU time 共3892 s兲 of finite element simu- lations for 4 thermal cycles with Anand model is greatly less than that 共20169 s兲 with creep model for the same precision in the simple application. The reasons are as follows: Fig. 252 Õ Vol. the unified Anand model can be ap- plied for representing the inelastic deformation of solders. The hysteresis loops of a element 330 close to the inner lower corner with strain localiza- tion based on the two models are shown in Fig. 8. used in electronic packaging. Hence. is very time-consumption. 8 Stress-strain hysteresis loops of the selected element 共a兲 A unified framework for solder behavior. This model can also be conveniently used and should be recommended in finite element simulation of stress/strain responses of solder joints in service. and the ther- mal cycle lifetimes can then be assumed approximately the same due to almost the same inelastic strain ranges. Therefore. the simulation for problems dominated by creep. Finite element analysis of highly nonlinear problems is generally very CPU time-consumption as the structure stiffness matrix must be updated during each time step. A consistent stress update procedure which is equivalent to the backward Euler scheme is used to enforce the consistency condition and the evolution equa- tion at the end of the time step. SEPTEMBER 2001 Transactions of the ASME . the CPU time of simula- tion can be reduced considerably with no strict stability limit. run with an Euler backward algorithm. Fig. Since an ex- plicit integration procedure is used.1. It is seen that the hysteresis loops follow the same cyclic pattern.

and Qian. would require further state variables. 关22兴 Hong. and Meusel. pp. 179–185. Materials on the Solder Joints Reliability of Chip Scale Assemblies... Qian. Second Quarter. W.. Zou. 1991. Mater. This model is useful in finite state creep. 3. Int. 81–88. G. 1997.. ‘‘Creep. pp.. pp.. 6–15.’’ Int. Technol. ANSYS code. Warrendale.. Zavaliangos. ASME J. J. 1987. ‘‘Modeling the Effects of Microstruc- mologous temperatures and relatively low strain rate regimes ture in BGA Joints. M. The Anand model was originally formulated 关15兴 Brown. service. i.. 关20兴 Holden. 2. aging. existed some unified models for solders in electronic packaging. ‘‘Thermal Stress/Strain Analyses of Ceramic Quad Flat Pack Packages and Interconnections. ‘‘Bodner-Partom model. Electron. The static recovery of solder alloys is 22.. 1994. Two features for modeling thermal cyclic loading Minimum Creep Rate in Metals. A. ‘‘Hot Deformation of and 共2兲 a thermal 共static兲 recovery term in the evolution equation. ‘‘An Ob- mentioned above.. 15. N.. which uses a single scalar internal variable to de. pp. 1999. ‘‘Creep plastic strain from creep strain to calibrate the parameters of a Fatigue Interaction in Eutectic Lead-Tin Solder Alloys. pp. 5.. Classical plastic flow theories and power law creep element simulation of stress/strain responses of solder joints in are still widely used. pp. ‘‘Constitutive Relation and Creep-Fatigue of predictive power to correctly describe the stress/strain hyster. J. on Advan. and Anand. S. Eng. T. Fang. and Browning.. Journal of Electronic Packaging SEPTEMBER 2001. pp. 1996. 331–337.’’ Solder Mechanics: A State of the Art Assessment... K. No... J.’’ ASME J. S. The 关3兴 Kashyap. F. TMS.’’ Proc. pp. Electron. Z. S. S. ‘‘Measurements of Mechanical Behavior of High Lead Lead-Tin responses of solder joints under thermal cycling was presented.5Ag. Z. Murty. Moreover. 6. 1986.’’ Chinese J. The major deficiency of power law creep models is the lack 关7兴 Knecht.. X. 1990. esis loop during thermal cycle loading. 1.’’ ASME J.. J. H. Two-Phase Mixtures. G. CHMT.. to be used more for hot working process rather than for thermal 关16兴 Garofalo.. 1599–1604. 1.. 1989. It is shown in Technology 40th Conf. pp.. of 60/40 Solder. and Kitano.. 141– model can excellently reproduce the base and experimental data. L.. Soc. H. R. P. 96. E. 731– mechanisms. R. specified subroutines. Jones. ‘‘Constitutive Relations for Tin-Based tance.. Conclusions 关23兴 Wiese. However. ‘‘A Unified Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for be implemented in the commercial finite element code as user. bolic form captures the characteristic of the regime of power law Packag. 19-2. 1963. Mukherjee. G. Life Model for Tin-lead Solder. H. 11. R. and Kinsman. Georgia兲..... pp.. ‘‘Thermal Cyclic Behavior of 97Sn-3Cu Solder Joints. 关6兴 Pao.. ‘‘Creep Behavior of a Flip-Chip still not presently sufficiently studied. R. tic strains into a viscoplastic strain term. J.. 2. The Anand model unifies both rate. i. gross simplification. H. ‘‘Modeling Complex hysteresis loop calculation substantially magnifies the error of fa.’’ Acta Metall. 515. Baumgartner. The creep approximation with hyper. J.. R. 关27兴 Pao. K.. 824–834. and Wang. Microcircuits Electron. and Fox. and Browning. 16–21. 1979.. pp. Vol.’’ of solder joints under thermal shock and accelerated test condi.’’ Int.. 关19兴 Solomon.. 1981. G. V. 68–75. No.. In addition. Res. D. 6.5Sn3. a simple application example of simulation on stress/strain R. Applied Me- 共d兲 Iteration stability and lower CPU time-consumption. separated model based on the mechanical experimental tests. modeling the internal Eutectic Alloys at Relatively High Strain Rates. L. The model verifications show that this rate dependent 1999 Inter. and Anand. L. Plast.. 13. 233–238. S. S. Lett. Frear. J. CPMT-Part A. Packag. Cheng. tions. J. No. ‘‘Temperature Dependent Viscoplastic Simulation of Con- secondary creep of solders. I. No. Z. pp. Proc. 80–85. 关25兴 Pao. R.. 205–213. S. P. pp. tigue life prediction of solder joints. 1998. and time-consuming.. K. Rzapka. Govila... P.’’ J.. S. Nevada. is concluded that the Anand model can be applied for representing 114.’’ Advances in Electronic Packaging. 27. 95–130. Second the inelastic deformation behavior for solders in electronic pack. R.. Feustel. E. and Darveaux. 20. ‘‘A Visco-Plastic Constitutive Model for 60/40 Tin-Lead Solder Used in IC Package Joints. M. R.. A. and Rice. 50.. Such a work is often complex.’’ ASME 92-WA/EEP-21. and Kang... Mater. Electron. 2. and Morris. B.. ‘‘On the Constitutive Response of 63/37 Sn/Pb pendent.’’ ASME J. Mater. ‘‘An Internal Variable Con- stitutive Model for Hot Working of Metals.are mostly separated as rate independent plasticity and steady. ASME EEP-Vol.... 701– 744.. 1992. pp. this paper that the Anand model can be simplified to represent the 关5兴 Sarihan. AIME. CHMT. The material parameters of Anand model for 60Sn40Pb. and Murty. and Liu. E. Dependent Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equations.. pp. scopic plastic flow. 123 Õ 253 . Strain-Rate Sensitivity and Low Cycle Fatigue fect. 227. Badgley.’’ Proc. 149. D. S. 3. Mater. pp. J. provides a useful unified 关12兴 Ma. lations. are not considered in the Anand model: 共1兲 kinematic hardening 关17兴 Arrowood. 1993. No. S..’’ IEEE Trans. 135–145.. 1997. pp. Vol.. was applied to represent Current Power Modules. Packag.. ‘‘Experimental Constitutive Relations parameters in a unified model can be determined in a direct for the High Temperature Deformation of a Pb-Sn Eutectic Alloy. Y. L. No. C. K. Tien. 1998. 1997. 关4兴 Lau.’’ Brazing and Soldering. B. 1992. Mat. the acterization of Material Properties of 63Sn36Pb Flip Chip Solder Joints. 1992... but most of them should provide the time integration scheme and 关10兴 Qian. ‘‘Model Thermally Induced Viscoplastic Deformation and Low Cycle Fatigue of CBGA Solder Joints in a Surface Mount Package. pp. R. ‘‘An Empirical Relation Defining the Stress Dependence of cyclic loading. Packag. G.. There already 关9兴 Busso.. Eng. L. L. 118. A. 737. W.... 424– 433. The inaccuracy of the 关8兴 Busso. which give rise to the macroscopic Bauschinger ef. J. 114.’’ kinematic hardening and the static recovery of solder alloys are ASME J. M. Elect. R. Kim. Also. K.. ‘‘Reliability of Copper Base-plate High scribe the deformation resistance state. Packag..’’ ASME J. 关1兴 Darveaux. 87–90 共in Chinese兲. et al. S... 关21兴 Wang. R. 关11兴 Skipor. tance of the Bauschinger effect is somewhat reduced at high ho. L. method combining both rate dependent and rate independent plas. D... 3091–3096. Pollak. D. Symp. the deformation resis.. 1993. A. H. and Banerji. Jih. eds. Lush. and Jones. ‘‘⬘Experimental Char- In this paper.. J. ‘‘Consti- breakdown. Solder Joints. it is usually difficult to separate the 关2兴 Weinbel. As chanics. Packag.’’ Trans. and Liu. M. J. can represent an averaged isotropic resistance to macro. and Burrell. Jih. the internal structural characteristics of a material is of course a Plasticity. Badgley. 147–152. 共Braselton. Anand model. pp. B. needed in the future.. Y. Sci. E.’’ IEEE Trans. It Solder Joints Subjected to Thermal Cycling. important to solder alloys. the Anand model. Symp. ‘‘Constitutive Equations for Hot Working of Metals. 15.. 1–6.’’ ASME J. 1013–1024. The internal state variable. Quarter. No. 116. 6. E. K. pp. 280–285. Tin-Lead Solder Joints. P.. B. and Wallace. ‘‘Influences of Packaging termined from experimental results and separated constitutive re. 1985. J.. expertly de. Wang. A. IEEE Trans. the impor. pp. S. 关13兴 Weber.. 6. 关26兴 Wilde. The rate dependent plasticity in Eutectic Solder. Electron.. 120. pp.. 1990. R. 20. and Kumazawa. Govila. the inelastic deformation of solders. the finite element simulation with the Anand jective Time-Integration Procedure for Isotropic Rate-Independent and Rate- model is more efficient than the creep model. 2. 62Sn36Pb2Ag. Eng. which may be reached for the corners and interfaces tutive Behavior and Low Cycle Thermal Fatigue of 97Sn3Cu Solder Joints. No.. 关24兴 Fusaro. Sci. Y. Las Vegas.. and Cooper. dependent creep 共transient creep and steady-state creep兲 and rate- independent plastic occurring concurrently at the same time in the References material. Z. Constitutive Relations for Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder. Kitano. Packag. pp. 共c兲 Available in commercial finite element code. Technol..e.. 213–231.. and 97. a unified viscoplastic constitutive model. Some further studies on the Package by Both FEM Modeling and Real Time Moire Interferometry. Some experiments of the hysteresis loops under isothermal strain 107–153. F.’’. pp.... Plast.’’ Mater.’’ Int. 351–362. J. pp. Electron.. Z.. Packag.5Pb2.. Inelastic Deformation Processes in IC Packages’ Solder Joints. B.. Badgley. 1998. fatigue condition 共Busso and Kitano 关9兴兲 revealed that the solder 关18兴 Grivas. Y. It should be noted that only a single scalar used to characterize 关14兴 Anand.e. ‘‘Deformation of Pb/Sn exhibits the Bauschinger effect. F. Y. H.. E. 1–11.5Sn solders were de. trolled Collapse Solder Joint Under Thermal Cycling. W.. 115. Microcircuits Electron.. Vol. Components and 共b兲 A creep approximation with hyperbolic form. Allor. 1992.’’ J. pp. Y. 115. 1991. 1999.