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Automatic Fire

Extinguishing Systems

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Scope
• Introduction
• Automatic Sprinkler Systems
• Water Spray System
• Foam System
• Halon Systems
• Carbon Dioxide System
• Dry Chemical System
• Conclusion
•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally
Learning Objectives

• Know the
operation of
various automatic
fire extinguishing
systems

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Automatic Sprinkler
System

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What are the advantages of
Automatic Sprinkler System

• Gives warning / alert


• Fights fire & access seat of fire
• Early response
• Lowers smoke level
• Cools smoke

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Benefits

• Prevents /reduces loss of life &


property
• Reduces interruption to business
• Lesser water damage compared to
hose streams

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AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM
• Main components
• breeching inlets
• water storage tank.
• Sprinkler pumps
• Sprinkler control valves.
• Sprinkler pipe network, sprinklers
• Fire alarm system.

Internal

Breeching
Inlet
External

Water supply
Control
valves Alarm & monitoring
unit

Sprinkler
Pump

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Types of Sprinkler Systems

• Wet pipe system


• Dry pipe system
• Pre-action system
• Deluge system

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Wet Pipe Sprinkler System

• Sprinklers attached to pipes


• Contains water under pressure
• No danger of water freezing

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Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems

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Dry Pipe Sprinkler System

• Sprinklers attached to pipes


• Contains air or nitrogen under
pressure
• Upon activation, pressure reduces
• Pressure on supply side forces open
valve
• Freezing environment
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Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems

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Preaction Sprinkler System
• Pipes contain air
• Upon fire occurence, fire detector
activates
• Water control valve opens & water
flows into pipes
• Water discharges upon activation of
sprinkler
• Designed for accidental damage to
sprinklers & broken pipes
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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Deluge Sprinkler Systems
• Upon fire occurence, fire detector
activates
• Water control valve opens & water
flows into pipes
• Water discharges through all the
open sprinklers simultaneously
• Used for high hazard areas

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Deluge Sprinkler Systems

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Design Considerations

• Type of Sprinkler System


• Type of Hazard Occupancy
• Location of Sprinklers

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Hazard Types
3 CLASSIFICATIONS

• Light hazard - schools, prisons


• Ordinary hazard -
– Group 1- offices, restaurants
– Group 2 – bakeries, laundries
– Group 3 - departmental stores, cinemas
– Group 3 Special – exhibition halls, film/ TV
studios

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• High hazard
– Process Risks - aircraft hangars, plastic
/ rubber factories
– High Piled Storage Risks
• Category 1 – carpets, electrical
appliances
• Category 2 – wooden furniture,
flammable liquids
• Category 3 – rubber goods
• Category 4 – foamed rubber / plastics

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High Hazard Occupancy

• High hazards result in rapid fire spread


• Causes opening of many sprinklers
• Require large quantities of water
supply and high pressure
• Sprinkler system has to be
appropriately designed according to
the severity of the hazard

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Design parameters
• Water discharge density
(mm/min)
• Area of operation (m2)
• Water supply duration (min)

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Standard Spacing
Hazard group Spacing of Distance SxD
sprinklers between pipes (max)
on pipe D (max)
S (max) m
m m2

Light 4.6 4.6 21

Ordinary 4.2 4.2 12

High 3.7 3.7 9

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Design Data
Design density Max area coverage Assume area of
(mm/min) per sprinkler operation
(m2) (m2)

Light 2.25 21 84

OH I 5 12 72
OH II 5 144
OH III 5 216
OH III special 5 360

Process Risk 7.5 - 12.5 9 260

Piled storage•Building
7.5Capacity
- 30 • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally
260 - 300

Design Fire Size design


AO sprinklers
Hazard Class Occupancy density
[m2] operating
[mm/min]

light hazard hotels, hospitals, offices, schools 84 4 2.25


restaurants, brewery, cement
ordinary hazard 1 works 72 6 5
bakeries, retail shops, food
ordinary hazard 2 manufacturers, light metal works,
motor garages 144 12 5
aircraft factories, departmental
ordinary hazard 3 stores, manufacture paper goods &
plastic goods 216 18 5
ordinary hazard 3 distilleries, film studios, match
special factories, flax, hemp mills, oil mills 360 30 5
high hazard
process aircraft hangars, 260 30 7.5-10
high hazard
storage categories 1-4 260-300 30+ 7.5-30

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AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM
• Water supply - pressure/ flow rate
• Depends on • Hazard Group
• Height of sprinkler above control valve.

Hazard Minimum Running Flow rate of Installation


Group Pressure of Installation Control Valve (l/min)
Control Valve (kPa)

LH 220 + Height equivalent 225


170 + Height equivalent 400

OH I 100 + Height equivalent 375


70 + Height equivalent 540
OH II 140 + Height equivalent 725
100 + Height equivalent 1000
OH III 170 + Height equivalent 1100
140 + Height equivalent 1350
OH III special 200 + Height equivalent 1800
150 + Height equivalent 2100
HH – subjected to individual calculation depending on design density of discharge
and operations area.

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Water Supply- Duration

Hazard Duration (mins)

Light 30

Ordinary 60

High 90

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Ordinary Hazard Class
Occupancy Maximum height of Minimum capacity
Group highest sprinkler above
lowest sprinkler in
building or stage
(m) (L)

I 15 55,000
30 70,000
45 80,000
60 90,000
75 100,000
II 15 105,000
30 125,000
45 140,000
60 160,000
75 175,000

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Location of Sprinklers
• Chapter 6 of Fire Code stipulates buildings
requiring sprinkler protection. Such buildings are
to be fully sprinkler protected throughout.
• Location of sprinklers on a line of pipe & location
of lines determine size of area protected by each
sprinkler. In turn determined by type of hazard.
• Clearance from beams, ducts, walls, ceiling and
other obstructions. Refer to CP 52.
• Other spaces such as concealed areas (ceiling,
raised floor) and shafts eg lift shaft. Refer to Fire
Code.

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Supplementary Protection
• Roof space
ª < 400 mm in depth, no need protection

ª > 400 mm < 800 mm shall be protected by


sprinkler installed on the extended basis (using
light hazard group concept)

ª > 800 mm in depth shall be fully protected

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What is an Automatic Sprinkler ?

Thermosensitive device designed to


react to a predetermined
temperature by automatically
releasing a stream of water &
distributing it in a specified pattern
& quantity over a designated area

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Parts of Automatic Sprinkler
• Frames & releasing devices
• Cap is held tightly against orifice by
releasing devices
• Deflector
• Water discharge is restrained by the
Cap
• Amount of water discharge depends on
– Water pressure
– Size of sprinkler orifice
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Type of Sprinkler Operating Elements

• Fusible type sprinkler


• Frangible type sprinkler

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Fusible type sprinkler
• Combination of levers, struts &
links
• Held together by metal alloy of
predetermined melting point
• Fusible metal alloy of smallest
practical amount for effective
operation

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Frangible type sprinkler


• Small bulb (pyrex glass) containing
liquid with small bubble
• When heated, liquid expands &
absorbs bubble
• Pressure increases & bulb shatters
• Cap is released and water flows
through orifice

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


TEMPERATURE RATING AND C0LOUR CODING
OF SPRINKLERS

Fusible type Colour of yoke arms Frangible type Colour of bulbs


oC oC

68/ 74 Uncoloured 57 Orange

93/100 White 68 Red

141 Blue 79 Yellow

182 Yellow 93 Green

227 Red 141 Blue


182 Mauve
204/260 Black

• Selection: > 30 oC above expected max ambient


air temperature.
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Ultra
High High Intermediate Ordinary

Green: 93 oC
Yellow: 79 oC
Blue: 141 oC Red: 68 oC
Mauve: 182 oC Orange: 57 oC

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Types of Sprinklers
• Standard sprinkler • Sidewall sprinkler

• Recessed sprinkler • Extended coverage


sidewall coverage
• Flushed sprinkler
• Open sprinkler
• Concealed sprinkler
• Intermediate level
• Ornamental sprinkler sprinkler
• Dry sprinkler • Quick response
sprinkler
• Large drop sprinkler

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Standard Sprinkler
• Deflector
• umbrella shaped spray (half sphere)
• uniform distribution
• upright & pendent

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WATER DISCHARGE PATTERN
STANDARD PENDENT HEAD

FLAT CEILING

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Recessed Sprinkler

• Part or most of
body mounted
within a recessed
housing
• Operation same
as standard
sprinkler

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Flushed Sprinkler

• Same water discharge


pattern as pendent
• Min projection of parts
for appearance
• Upon a fire,
thermosensitive device
operates & deflector
drops & water
discharges

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Concealed Sprinkler

• Entire body above


cover plate
• Upon fire occurence,
plate drops &
exposes
thermosensitive
assembly

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Dry Sprinkler
• Freezing areas
• Attached to a drop
or riser pipe to a dry
pipe system
• Seal is provided to
prevent water from
entering

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Sidewall Sprinkler

• Discharges water to one side


• One quarter of sphere
• Desired direction

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WATER DISCHARGE PATTERN
SIDEWALL SPRINKLER

SIDEWALL Horizontal range greater


than standard pendent

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Open Sprinkler

• Standard or sidewall
• without valve cap & heat responsive
element
• deluge systems

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Intermediate Level
Sprinkler
• Rack storage
• Large protective disc to prevent cooling
of thermosensitive element
• Suspended at higher level

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Quick Response Sprinkler


• More sensitive
element
• Operation same as
standard
• Responds more quickly

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Duties of FSM
• Check that sprinkler system is regularly
maintained – check maintenance records.
• Ensure that sprinkler system is in good
operating condition for Fire Certificate
(FC) renewal.
• Check renovation works by tenants
affecting sprinklers. Check for plan
submission to FSSD.
• Ensure sprinklers are not blocked by
goods, painted over, used for hanging
decorations, etc.
•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Water Spray System

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


What is a Water Spray System
A designed fixed water pipe system
connected to a steady water supply
& equipped with water spray
nozzles for specific water discharge
& distribution over a surface or area
to be protected

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Water Spray System


• Connected to water supply thru’
automatic or manual actuated valve
• Water fog
• Differs from normal sprinkler only in
the form of spray
• Can serve both purposes

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Water Spray Nozzle

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Purpose of Water Spray


System

• Extinguishment
• Controlled burning
• Exposure protection
• Prevention of fire

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Extinguishment

• Cooling
• smothering from steam produced
• dilution
• combination

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Controlled Burning
• Burning materials not easily
extinguished by water spray
• Extinguishment not desirable –
product on fire to be totally burned
off

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Exposure Protection

• Application of water spray on


exposed structures or equipment
• Can be used as water spray curtain
– but less effective

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Water curtain
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Prevention of Fire
• Dissolve
• Dilute
• Disperse
• Cooling
Flammable & Combustible material

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Water Spray System


Suitable Areas Of Protection
• Ordinary combustible materials
• Electrical Equipment Installation
• Flammable gas and liquids
• Flammable liquids and gas tanks
• Open cable trays and runs
containing electrical cables or
tubing
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Foam System

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

What is Fire Fighting


Foam ?
An aqueous solution containing
specially formulated concentrated
foam agents for fighting flammable
liquid fires

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Types of Fire Fighting
Foam Agents
• Aqueous film-forming foaming agents
(AFFF)
• Fluoroprotein foaming agents (FP)
• Film-forming fluoroprotein agents (FFFP)
• Protein foaming agents (P)
• Alcohol type foaming agents (AR)

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How Foam is produced?


• Foam Concentrate
• Water
• Air
• Foam bubble structure

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Foam generation
thru’ pump
Water
+pump
Proportioning
Process (liquid) Foam
Generation (air)

Foam
Foam distribution

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How Foam Extinguishes a


Flammable Liquid Fire
EN

HE
YG

A
OX

FUEL

Cuts off
Oxygen

Suppresses Cools the Fuel


Vapors and Surrounding
Objects (tanks)

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


What happens when foam is
applied on flammable liquid fire ?

• Foam solution floats on & blankets


flammable liquid on fire – cuts off oxygen
• Foam solution breaks down
• Water in foam solution is vaporized by
heat & flame – cooling effect
• To be applied in sufficient volume & rate

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Range of Foam
• Low expansion foam
- expansion up to 20:1
• Medium expansion foam
- expansion 20:1 to 200:1
• High expansion foam
- expansion 200:1 to 1000:1

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Production of Mechanical Foam

Foam
Concentrate

Water Finished
Foam

Proportioning Foam Air


Equipment Solution

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Foam generation
thru’ portable means

Pick-up tube

foam

Foam Branch
Inline
inductor

Foam con
water

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Foam Installations
Fixed Foam System

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Foam Installations
Semi-fixed Foam System

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Total Flooding

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Total Flooding System

• Protect enclosed hazard area


• Discharge of extinguishing
medium to provide uniform
concentration over the enclosed
area

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TOTAL FLOODING

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Local Application System

• Need only protect a specific object or


installation and not the entire area
• Object surrounded locally by fire
extinguishing system of suitable
agent
• Enclosure not suitable for total
flooding

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Local Application

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Halon Systems

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What is Halogenated
Extinguishing Agents ?

Hydrocarbons in which one or


more hydrogen atoms have been
replaced by atoms from halogen
series : fluorine, chlorine,
bromine or iodine

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Halogenated Extinguishing
Agents
• Gases or liquids
• Vaporize
• Non-corrosive
• Non-conductor of electricity
• Protection of electrical & electronic equip
• Petroleum production facilities
• Engine compartments
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Total Flooding
System
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Halon Systems

• New installations of Halon


systems not allowed since
1990

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Carbon Dioxide System

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Properties of CO2
• Cooling effect
• Non combustible
• Noisy
• Reduce visibility
• Does not react with most substances
• Provide its own pressure
• Penetrate & spread to all parts
• Will not conduct electricity
• No residue
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Extinguishing
Capabilities of CO2
• Reduce oxygen content
• Dilution to a point where
atmosphere no longer support
combustion
• Smothering
• Cooling
•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Components and Application Systems


• Main components
– CO2 supply
– Discharge nozzle
– Piping system
– Control valves
– Detecting devices

• Total Flooding System


• Local Application
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CO2 System
Total Flooding
System

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally


Exposure of Human Being
to CO2

Up to 9% Most people can


withstand without
losing consciousness
within a few minutes
> 9% Can render a person
helpless almost
immediately

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Other Fire Extinguishing


Gaseous systems
• FM 200
– new generation of clean, safe
suppression system
– does not damage ozone layer
– low toxicity

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Other Fire Extinguishing
Gaseous systems
• Inergen
– 40% argon + 52% nitrogen + 8% CO2
– non-corrosive gas
– does not support combustion
– does not react with most substances
– does not damage ozone layer
– Reduce oxygen level to 12.5%

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Dry Chemical
System

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Principles of Dry Chemical Systems

• Contains a dry chemical powder which


is effective as a fire extinguishing agent
• When discharged it extinguishes fires
by smothering, cooling & radiation
shielding

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Dry Chemical
Extinguishing Agents

• Sodium bicarbonate
• Monoammonium phosphate
• Potassium chloride
• Potassium bicarbonate
• Urea-potassium bicarbonate

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Components of Dry Chemical
Systems
• Dry chemical supply
• Expellant gas
• Activating devices
• Piping system
• Discharge nozzles
• Total Flooding
• Local application
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Uses of Dry Chemical Systems

• Flammable liquid
• Kitchen hood
• Ducts
• Electrical equipment
• Transformers

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•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally

Conclusion
• Types of Sprinkler Systems
• Hazard classification
• Main components of sprinkler system
• Other types of auto fire extinguishing
systems

•Building Capacity • Enhancing Capabilities • Globally