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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

FOR SELF SUPPORTING TOWER

In compliance with the technical specification, the document describes
the minimum criteria for specifying and designing of tower.

I. STANDARD / REFERENCE

a. TIA / EIA - 222 - STANDARD : Structural Standards for Steel
Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures.
b. AISC-ASD Code ' 89 - American Institute of Steel Construction
c. ACI 318-89 Code - American Concrete Institute
d. Indonesian Loading Code ( PMI 1970 N.I-I8 )

II. MATERIALS SPECIFICATION

a. Steel Structure
- Structure Type = Self Supporting Tower
- Steel Shapes & Plates = ASTM A 36 / JIS G3101 fy = 245 Mpa

b. Bolt & Nut
- Splice Bolts = ASTM A - 325 / JIS B1051 - Grade 8.8 fy = 560 Mpa

c. Anchor Bolt
- Grade of Anchor = ASTM A - 307 fy = 240 Mpa

d. First Coating
- Hot Dipped Galv. = ASTM A - 123 80 microns thickness

e. Concrete
- fc' = 19 Mpa ( 28 days ) / K-225

f. Rebars
- Grade of rebars = BJTP ( dia. ≤ 12 mm ) fy = 240 Mpa
- Grade of rebars = BJTD ( dia. ≥ 13 mm ) fy = 390 Mpa

g. Welding Electrodes
- Minimum Grade of Welding Electrode = AWS A5.1 E60XX. fy = 345 Mpa

Prepared by : DE-Dept
3/10/2009

222 .75 e .51e2 + .613 Kz V 2 for V in m/s Kz = Exposure Coefficient 2/7 [z/10] for z in meters 1.75 e for square cross section and + 45 0 wind direction (1. for square cross section and + 45 0 wind direction (1.58 V = basic wind speed for the structure location ( m.2 max) DR = Wind direction factor for round structural components = 1 .s -1) z = height above average ground level to midpoint of panel of the structure and appurtenances ( M ) GH = gust response factor CF = structure force coefficient e = (A F+AR)/AG e = solidity ratio AF = projected area of flat structural component in one face of the section ( m 2 ) AG = gross area of one tower face ( m 2 ) AR = Projected area ( m2 ) of round structural component in one face of the section AE = efective projected area of structural component in one face ( m 2 ) 2 = D F AF + D R AR RR (m ) ( Note : For tubular steel pole structure.2 max) CA = linear or discrete appurtance force coefficient Prepared by : DE-Dept 3/10/2009 .0 RR = The reduction factor for round structural component DF = Wind direction factor 1 for square cross section and normal wind direction 1+ 0. AE shall be the actual projected area based on diameter or overall width. ladder and appurtenances. Wind Load Calculated according to TIA / EIA .57 RR<1. Where wind force applied to each section of the structure shall be calculated from the equation : F = horizontal force applied to a section of the structure ( KN ) qz * GH * [ C F * AE + ΣCA*AA)]. but not to exceed 2*qz*G H*AG qz = Velocity pressure ( Pa ) = . for square cross section and normal wind direction = 1+ 0. LOADINGS a. ) RR = .00 < Kz<2. III. b. Dead Load Consist of Weight of Tower structure including antenna.STANDARD : Structural Standard for Steel Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures The basic wind speed is based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of 3 second = 120 kph ( 3 second gust ).

grid. TIA page 62-67 Ha = resultant of F A and FS ( lb ) Mt = Total twisting moment ( ft-lb ) X = The offset of the mounting pipe ( ft ) Y = The distance on the reflector axis from the reflector vertex to the center of the mounting pipe ( ft ) Wind Load Calculation methode on the parabolic antenna is as follow: Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V 2 where: 2 Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V Fa = axial force ( kg ) 2 M = Cm x D x A x Kz x GH x V Fs = side force ( kg ) 2 2 1/2 Ha = (Fa +Fs ) M = Twisting moment ( kg-m ) Mt = Fa x X + Fs x Y + M Ca = Wind load coeficient Cs = Wind load coeficient Cm = Wind load coeficient V = Wind velocity ( m.3.h ) Prepared by : DE-Dept 3/10/2009 .6/(h/10) for h in meters A = Outside aperture area of parabolic reflector. grid..3 with z equal to the hight of the origin of the axis system Kz = Exposure Coefficient = [z/10] 2/7 for z in meters FA = axial force ( lb ) Fs = side force ( lb ) M = Twisting moment ( ft-lb ) Ca. or horn antenna ( ft ) 2 = Width or length of passive reflector ( ft ) V = basic wind speed ( m.65+0..h ) from 2. Cm are load coeficients contained in tables B1 trough B6 as function of wind angle.3. AA = projected area of a linear appurtance CA is depended on Aspect ratio Aspect Ratio = Overall length/width ratio in plane normal to wind direction Wind Load Calculation method on the antennas is as follow: 2 Fa = Ca x A x Kz x G H x V Fs = Cs x A x Kz x G H x V2 M = Cm x D x A x Kz x G H x V2 Ha = (Fa2+Fs2 )1/2 Mt = Fa x X + Fs x Y + M L = the distance the antenna's axis to the frame's joints GH = Gust response factor from 2. Cs. or horn antenna 2 = Plate area of passive reflector ( ft ) D = Outside diameter of parabolic reflector.4 1/7 = 0.3 KZ = Exposure coefficient from 2.3.….p.p.

Ø 2. DL : Dead Load LL : Live Load WL : Wind Load V. Allowable Stress Ratio = 1 b.15 m ) . n pcs - 3 TMA Antenna (0. Tower Structure considered to be able to support the antennas load as table bellow : elevation Weight + Support No.5 degree d.ASD'89 Standard . Verticality = H/2000 ( H= Tower Height ) Prepared by : DE-Dept 3/10/2009 . n pcs - IV. c.245 x 0.3 x 0. Allowable Twist = 0. Allowable Sway = 0. only the following load combination shall be investigated when calculating the maximum member stresses and structure reaction : COMB 1 = DL COMB 2 = DL + LL COMB 3 = DL + LL ± WL Where . 1 MW Ant. Slenderness Ratio : Leg ≤ 150 Bracing ≤ 200 Redudant ≤ 250 c. DESIGN TOLERANCES The design / analysis tolerances are : a. m Kg. LOAD COMBINATION According to AISC . Allowable Horizontal Displacement = H/200 ( H= Tower Height ) f.219 x 0. Description Qty. Antennas Load and Top body part dimension.5 x 0.5 degree e.1 m) . n pcs - 2 GSM Antenna ( 1.0 m Radome .

20 Fv ( kg/cm2) Prepared by : DE-Dept 3/10/2009 .40 Fy ( Kg/cm2 ) 3. ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS The unit stresses in the stucture membersdo not aceed the allowable unit stresses for the materials as specified in the EIA standard EIA .60 Fy ( Kg/cm2 ) 2.66 Fy (Kg/cm2) 5) Tension on Bolts Fv = 0. Compression i ) On the gross section of axial loaded compression members when kl/r is less than Cc : ⎡ kl r ⎤ ⎢ 1 − 2 Cc 2 ⎥ Fy Fa = ⎣ ⎦ ( Kg / cm 2 ) 3 3 5 3 ( kl r ) ( kl / r ) + − 3 8 Cc 8 Cc 3 2π 2 E where .222 1. Cc = Fy ii ) On the gross section of axial loaded compression member.60 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 6) Shear on Bolts Fv = 0. when kl/r exceeds 12 π 2 E Fa = ( Kg / cm 2 ) Fy 4) Bending Tension and compression on extreme fibers : Fb = 0. VI. Tension Ft = 0. Shear Fv = 0.30 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 7) Bearing on Bolts Fp = 1.