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PAPER ON

IMPLEMENTATION OF
HAMMING-CUT-MATCHING ALGORITHM
IN
IRIS RECOGNITION

time for matching the iris code with Retinal.. In the past. In this paper we discuss the details regarding the information about how the iris is located. etc. where the quality/reliability that has enabled their security plays one of the major role. geometry enjoyed the advantage of very the comparison time is very high. hand the case of fields where the database is huge. But in widespread application. We compare The determination.banks . paper contains the applications of the its properties and how it adds some combined features of the recognition of iris advantageous features to recognize the and verification of hand geometry in airport. it adds the ABSTRACT security to the whole system.. most reliable performance. but not until recently have preferable in many systems such as some reached maturity and a airports . Various forms As the iris recognition technology of computer-based biometrics for personal produces very low false rate when compared authentication have been around for the past to the other biometrics results it is very twenty years. and fingerprint database so that we can use iris recognition recognition are mature technologies with the in case of huge databases like voting system. verifying the identified person. to distinguish it from other parts of the eye. small templates (codes containing the This paper includes the implementation biometric data). measuring. correct person. Finally this This paper deals with the basics of iris. Of the three As we have used hand geometry for .defence . iris. but with modern computers of HAMMING-CUT-MATCHING this is no longer the main issue and iris algorithm which reduces the comparison based solutions are steadily gaining ground. as the science of biometrics. how the scanner scans the whole pattern of the iris while enrolling and matching and how the scanned patterns BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS are converted into 256 bytes of data so that it can be stored in the database. and the iris codes of the current person who codification of the unique characteristic wants to access the database and gives the traits that each of us is born with is known matched results to the user accordingly.

biometrics system which cannot be lost or stolen. amount of light that enters into the eye.1 Showing the process of the physical characteristics. has been Iris recognition is one of the authenticated. blue and green. not just a IDENTIFICATION USING IRIS holder of a token or RECOGNITION somebody who knows a PIN/password. Varying in shades of brown. rings which controls the resources saved. In addition to reliable performance some of the other advantages of using biometrics are:  High security: It is based on Figure. crypts. is approximately 11mm (. no two irises are alike.methods.433 inches) in and lost/stolen keys or access diameter and consists of several layers and cards are eliminated.  Certainty/accountability: A specific person. . benefit is a lot of time and coronas. iris recognition is the least intrusive with greater accuracy. Users need not biometric systems which utilize iris patterns worry about someone using as a method of gathering unique information their token or PIN code about an individual. ridges. It is considered to be without their knowledge.  Ease of administration: The IRIS : problems of handling The iris. the colored portion of the forgotten PINs/passwords eye. one of the most reliable biometrics with some of the lowest false rejection and false acceptance rates and so it is less intrusive. the distinct features such as furrows. not even within the same individual or identical twins.

do not interfere with the process. Figure. The camera such as CCD having a high resolution can be set at a distance of four inches (10 centimeters) to 40 inches (one meter). And even a blind person can participate. does not require such parts of the eye nearness. An automatic cash machine. even colored ones. In fact. recent medical advances such as refractive surgery. Figure. An iris has a mesh-like texture to it.2 Differentiating iris from the other on the other hand. PROPERTIES: Glasses and contact lenses. depending on the scanning environment.3 Showing an iris pattern imaged at FINDING IRIS IN AN IMAGE: a distance of 35cm . As long as a sightless eye has an iris. In addition. cataract surgery and cornea transplants do not change the iris' characteristics. people need to be somewhat closer to the camera. that eye can be identified by iris recognition. When iris recognition is used for logging on to a personal computer or checking in at an airport. it is impossible to modify the iris without risking blindness. with numerous overlays and patterns that can measured by the computer.

The iris is found by using an making some errors arbitrarily more costly integrodifferential operator (1). boundary artifacts of hard contact lenses.048 such phase bits determines the inner and outer boundaries of (256 bytes) are computed for each iris. Such a phase quadrant coding stored in the database. binary code in which two bits may change. specular reflections. The comparison also sequences. which than others. A desirable feature of the phase doesn’t actually compare the image of the code is that it is a cyclic. to search the data for a match. Thus an iris pattern is converted into a sequence of phasor bits which can be stored in the iris ENCODING BY 2D WAVELET recognition software and then can compared DEMODULTION : for its identification. or grey code: in iris but rather compares the hexadecimal . It amounts to a patch-wise phase quantization This record is then stored in a of the iris pattern. or poor signal-to-noise ratio and thus should be ignored in the demodulation code as artifact. 2. The iris-recognition software uses rotating between any adjacent phase about 256 "degrees of freedom." or points quadrants. When a quadrant of the complex plane each resultant comparison is required the same process is phasor lies when a given area of the iris is followed but instead of storing the record it projected onto complex-valued 2D Gabor is compared to all the IrisCode records wavelets. only a single bit changes. unlike a of reference. but the iris's colored pigmentation. Not all of the in a major improvement over the earlier iris is used: a portion of the top. Altogether 2. as well as algorithms. now an equal number of 45˚ of the bottom. Each isolated iris pattern is then STORING AND COMPARING THE demodulated to extract its phase information IMAGE : using quadrature 2D Gabor wavelets. contains any eyelash occlusions. by identifying in which database for future comparison. are unused using the masking bits are also computed to signify masking bits to account for eyelids and whether any iris region is obscured by camera-light reflections as shown in figure eyelids.

the more reliable and accurate the system. a calculation of the Hamming Distance is required.value produced after the algorithms have been compared. this comparison has to occur between the IrisCode record from the live subject and every IrisCode stored in the database before the live subject is rejected. bits is divided by the total number of bits to produce a two-digit figure of how the two Hamming Distance : IrisCode records differ. record with an image just scanned. i. the number of non-matching been applied. During recognition mode. For example a Hamming Distance of 0. The point at which the FRR and the FAR are equal is known as the Crossover Error Rate (CER). the biometric measurement taken from the Each of the 2048 bits is compared against live subject fails to match the template each other. Figure. bit 1 from the current stored in the biometric system IrisCode and bit 1 from the stored IrisCode False Accept Rate (FAR) occurs when record are compared.20 means that the In order to compare the stored IrisCode two IrisCode differ by 20%.4 Showing the distribution of hamming distance The following table shows the probabilities of false accept and false reject Any bits that don’t match are with iris recognition technology: assigned a value of one and bits that do match a value of zero. then bit 2 and so on. The Hamming Distance is a measure of the variation between the IrisCode record for the current iris and the False Reject Rate (FRR) occurs when IrisCode records stored in the database. the measurement taken from the live subject is so close to another subject’s template that a correct match will be declared by mistake. The lower the CER.e. Once all the bits have .

Enrolment in an iris recognition database itself.35 1 in 295. After the initial enrolment most .300 1 in 11. The actual capturing and testing of the image.000 1 in 2.7 million 1 in 950. This the initial enrolment in a recognition system comparison speed is obviously affected by to ensure that the best image is captured the speed of the system processor the without any reflection from the lenses in the database is running on and the size of the glasses.000 users are able to go through subsequent . system is normally quite fast.33 1 in 11 million 1 in 433.000 removed as they sit flush with the eye and . on the other hand.2 million scanning without any additional instruction . .000 lenses.30 1 in 6.32 1 in 81 million 1 in 201. The actual capturing and testing of the image.700 recognition system to ensure that the best .3 million contact lenses pose no problems. The comparison of a live subject administrative requirements and training of IrisCode record with all the IrisCode records the subject can usually be accomplished in a in the database may seem like a large couple of minutes. Distance Subjects who wear glasses should remove .000 1 in 4. in reality it glasses should remove their glasses during normally only takes a few seconds.34 1 in 1.000 hence have no reflections to impede the initial scan. do not need to be .31 1 in 665 million 1 in 95.84 million longer have to remove them after initial enrolment and wearing clear or coloured .37 1 in 12.400 their glasses during the initial enrolment in a .12 million or assistance. Note that the same eye used during enrolment must be Enrolment in an iris recognition used during subsequent comparisons. system is normally quite fast. Subjects who wear amount of data to process.2 billion 1 in 46. Those who wear glasses no .28 1 in 1012 1 in 11.29 1 in 1011 1 in 22.2 million 1 in 1.000 image is captured without any reflection from the lenses in the glasses.342 1 in 1.36 1 in 57. administrative requirements and Hammin False Accept False Reject training of the subject can usually be g Probability Probability accomplished in a couple of minutes. Contact .

that include a large number of access points  Scalability and speed is high when and users can be centrally administered. VERIFICATION USING HAND GEOMETRY : . For an individual’s identity. specific features must PC level can operate with the subject be combined to assure dynamic verification. The attainment of the hand-scan is a children and so it is very difficult to fast and simple process. compared to other systems. seventeen to nineteen inches from the unit. the distance between the joints and overall bone structure. eliminating the need for individuals to register on each device. Because human example. The proximity a user needs to be to the This biometric approach uses the scanning system is usually dependant on the geometric form of the hand for confirming lens in use and the illumination. The hand-scan forge. device can process the 3-D images in 5  There will be no effect on our eyes seconds or less and the hand verification since there is no direct usually takes less than 1 second. ADVANTAGES OF IRIS RECOGITION thickness and length. capturing and verification software and  The accurateness of the scanning hardware can easily be integrated within technology is great with standalone units. of seven remain stable throughout This placement is positioned by five guides life it never changes with or pins that correctly situate the hand for the the time. The process of hand geometry includes scanning the features such as finger curves. The image contact. height and width of the : back of the hand. cameras. systems scanning at the desktop hands are not unique. Hand-scan applications error rates being very low.  As the morphogenesis of the iris To register in a hand-scan system a hand that occured during the month is placed on a reader’s covered flat surface. A succession of cameras captures  Uniqueness will be maintained 3-D pictures of the sides and back of the between even the multi-birth hand.

The hamming-cut-matching- If the iris recognition technology is used in algorithm is as follows. the identity. most of the time is spent for hand scanner scans the geometrical structure comparing the records in the database itself. So we have implemented hamming-cut-matching algorithm to reduce the comparison time. OUR IMPLEMENTATION TO then comparison with the particular record is REDUCE THE stopped and next record is taken for comparison and so on. database. for comparing his iris code with the database will be very high. If the Figure.If both the iris code is COMPARISON TIME: going to be similar then it will proceed with The comparison speed of a person’s same record by comparing the next bits. large database system like identifying the ADVANTAGES: citizenship of a person.7 Showing the hand scanner hamming distance is within some specified limit the person is given permission for After the iris recognition for the access otherwise it rejects the person’s identification of the authorized person. then the time taken . In normal process the iris code is compared with iris code in the database and the hamming distance is calculated by comparing the whole 2048 bits. whether the hamming distance exceeds the given limit or not. of the hand and gets the data to compare with the template of the enrolled persons But we are comparing the iris codes and verifies the identified person which bit by bit and simultaneously checking increases the security in our implementation. So. iris code with iris database is obviously which reduces the comparison time because affected by the speed of the system we are not comparing all the bits present in processor and the size of the database itself. If it exceeds the limit.

The comparison time for iris To avoid this problem we can have two code matching is greatly reduced doorways. but to protect people's privacy no further data -. leaving them in a 2. allowing for massive storage on a computer's hard drive." CONCLUSION : . Both the identification and FORMAT IN C.a Social Security number is collected. The databases will not be shared with other organizations. But there is a chance that an unauthorized person had time to dash in behind an authorized person once the iris. 1. for example.The first door opens upon iris by our hamming-cut-matching recognition and hand geometry and then algorithm. It is designed to allow only authorized people around the airport terminal in certain areas. We have IMPLEMENTED THIS small portal. a person's name and airline information accompanies the iris code. closes behind the person. The next door will only open HAMMING-CUT-MATCHING upon confirming there is just one person in ALGORITHM IN A SIMPLE the portal. The figure given below shows the IMPLEMENTATION IN AIRPORT order of processes that are performed in the SECURITY : recognition of iris: At an airport.a practice it airport termed "piggybacking" or "tail-gating. verification can be implemented along with our added security in airport. The stored file is only 512 bytes with a resolution of 640 x 480.6 Showing the iris recognition in recognition allowed access -. Figure.

strength of authentication  The uniqueness of the iris and increases and provides another low probability of a false part to "defence in depth" for the acceptance or false rejection all airport. contribute to the benefits of using iris recognition technology.  Users no longer have to worry about remembering passwords and system administrators no longer need to worry about the never-ending problem of users disclosing passwords or having weak passwords that are easily cracked.  It provides an accurate and secure method of authenticating users onto company systems. to write these down along with  If a two-factor authentication losing token cards or forgetting system is implemented. . Passwords. Our inability to remember database is very much less from complex passwords and tendency the current system. then the for an organisation. token cards and PINs  As according to our are all risks to the security of an implementation the comparison organisation due to human time of the iris code with the iris nature. iris PINs all contribute to the recognition with a hand scanner possible breakdown in security for the verification . is a non-intrusive method and has the speed required to minimise user frustration when accessing company systems.