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Further Programming - Part IV

• Validating forms

• Submitting form input

• How to set the focus to a certain element

Form input is very important for some Web- pages. The form input is often sent back to the server again. JavaScript has got the functionality
to validate the form input before sending it to the server. First I want to show you how forms can be validated. Then we will have a look at
the possibilties for sending information back with JavaScript or HTML.
First of all we want to create a simple script. The HTML- page shall contain two text- elements. The user has to write his name into the first
and an e-mail address into the second element. You can enter anything into the form elements and then push the button. Also try to enter
nothing and then push the button.

Top of Form
Enter your name:

Enter your e-mail address:

Bottom of Form
Concerning the first input element you will receive an error message when not entering anything. Any input is seen as valid input. Of course,
this does not prevent the user from entering any wrong name. The browser even accepts numbers. So if you enter '17' you will get 'Hi 17!'.
The second form is a little bit more sophisticated. Try to enter a simple string - your name for example. It won't work (unless you have a @ in
your name...). The criteria for accepting the input as a valid e-mail address is the @. A single @ will do it - but this is certainly not very
meaningful. Every Internet e-mail address contains a @ so it seems appropriate to check for a @ here.
What does the script for those two form elements and for the validating look like? Here it goes:

<script language="JavaScript">
<!-- Hide

function test1(form) {
if (form.text1.value == "")
alert("Please enter a string!")
else {
alert("Hi "+form.text1.value+"! Form input ok!");

function test2(form) {
if (form.text2.value == "" ||
form.text2.value.indexOf('@', 0) == -1)
alert("No valid e-mail address!");
else alert("OK!");
// -->

<form name="first">
Enter your name:<br>
<input type="text" name="text1">

'form' is the variable which receives the 'this.command gets true and the following command will be executed. The buttons call the functions test1(.text1.form)"> </body> First have a look at the HTML. This is done via if (form..text1. The problem here is that the user might enter only spaces. The only problem is that you will receive a mail that might seem very cryptic at the first glance. The second operation in the to your <body> tag.. you can of course check for these possibilities and exclude them. which will put the received mail in to a nicer format. There are some parser programms out on the Net. The user will get an error message..<BR> <INPUT NAME="submit" TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Send"> </FORM> You will get the feedback through e-mail by doing this. We just create two text elements and two"> <H3>Do you like this page?</H3> <INPUT NAME="choice" TYPE="RADIO" VALUE="1">Not at all.command does not work for every browser. You would need CGI for example if you wanted to make a search engine like Yahoo. This function again compares the input string with the empty string "" to make sure that something has been entered. But we have added something to the if. .<input type="button" name="button1" value="Test Input" onClick="test1(this. If at least one of them is true the whole if.input was done wrong. Even if you want to create a guestbook you can't make the server to add the information automatically to an existing HTML.command checks if either the first or the second comparison is true.<BR> <INPUT NAME="choice" TYPE="RADIO" VALUE="3">Worst site of the Net. <FORM METHOD=POST ACTION="mailto:your_email@goes. The function test1(form) tests if the string is empty. I think this is quite easy with the information given here. of course. This is seen as a valid input! If you want to. Of course you can create a guestbook with the people answering via e-mail.command. So+this+might+look+like+this..and the name of the single form element . JavaScript does not have the functionality to do things like this.<BR> <INPUT NAME="choice" TYPE="RADIO" VALUE="2" CHECKED>Waste of time. Only CGI can do this at the moment.code in the body. So no JavaScript is needed here! Only.element so the user does not have to click on the form before entering anything.) or test2(. If the input string equals "" then no input was done. This is ok if you don't expect to get 1000 feedback mails a day. Or you could tell the browser to focus on the form where the user. You have learned about it in part 6 of this introduction.operator.form to the functions in order to be able to address the right elements in the functions later on. We pass this. You have to enter the feedback manually though. If you want to put the focus on this element when the page is being loaded you can add an onLoad. Now have a look at the test2(form) function. You have to specify the name of the whole form - which is here called first . This script here is plain HTML. This means that the browser will set the cursor into the specified form. If you want to get feedback without e-mail and want the server to handle the input automatically you have to use CGI at the moment.where the user gets a result quickly after the form text1. If something is entered the user will get an ok.section. I have to add that the mailto.) depending on which button is pressed. return.focus(). } This script would set the focus to the first text.text1. Sometimes all spaces are filled up with '+' and sometimes they are filled up with '%20'. What different possibilities do exist for submitting the contents of a form? The easiest way is to submit the form input via e-mail.. This looks like this for example: <body onLoad="setfocus()"> ///////////////////////////////////////////////////// . This is done automatically by the server.first. In order to look if the string is empty we compare it with "".page with JavaScript.form)"> <P> Enter your e-mail address:<br> <input type="text" name="text2"> <input type="button" name="button2" value="Test Input" onClick="test2(this. There is another nice thing so you can make your form elements a little bit more user-friendly. I believe.but the newer browsers support it.element in the script I have shown above. The if. if you want to check the input before the form is submitted you will need JavaScript. This means that you will get an error message either if your string is empty or if there isn't a @ in your string. This is the method we are going to look at a little closer.command looks if the entered string contains a @. We can get the value of the input element through using 'value' in combination with form. The || is called the OR. You can define which element is in focus at the beginning. He does not have to wait until the people maintaining this server read the input and then look up the information requested. You can do this with the following piece of script: function setfocus() { document.value == "").form' value in the function call..

in the button's INPUT tag you can use an onClick event handler like this: <INPUT type="radio" name="myButton" value="theValue" onClick="this. When the user submits the Answer: To validate the form input.) Top of Form Submit Your email: Bottom of Form This example used the following code: <script language="JavaScript"> <!-- function isValid() { var email=document.indexOf(' ')==-1 && 0<'ll get an alert box with the text Sorry.Disabling a Radio Button Question: How do I disable a radio button in a form (making it not selectable)? Answer: To make a radio button not selectable. } //--> </script> <form name=form1 action="javascript:alert('The form is submitted. the browser will first invoke the returns true. call your validation function from the form's onSubmit event handler. (For simplicity. this option is not available!')"> In the example below.value.t1. this option is not available! Top of Form Delivery method (choose one): download regular mail courier delivery //////////////////////////// Validating a Form Question: How do I validate the form input before sending it to the server? onSubmit event handler.indexOf('@') && email. if (email. Try it now .checked=false. contains the @ character and if @ is neither the first nor the last character.indexOf('@')+1 < email.')" onSubmit="return isValid()"> Your email: <input type=text name=t1 size=20 > <input type=submit value=Submit> </form> . In the following example.length ) return true. alert('Sorry. else alert ('Invalid email address!') return false.form1. The form will actually be submitted to the server only if the handler form. the onSubmit event handler validates the user's email address. the address is considered to be valid if it does not contain spaces. the "Courier delivery" option is disabled.

Using the select box.value. theValue=theForm. theIndex=0. eval('theForm. if (theValue!='') isFilled[oldIndex]=1. the user will be able to choose which kind of value to input in the text field.selectedIndex.selectedIndex. theIndex=theForm. Bottom of Form Combining Input Fields Question: Can I save space in my form by getting more than one input value from just one text field? Answer: Yes. .options[theIndex]. theActiveField="name". function refill() { oldIndex=theIndex.s1.t1.'+theActiveField+'. eval('theForm.0.form1.options[oldIndex]. if (theValue=='') isFilled[theIndex]=0.value.'+oldActiveField+'. if (theValue!='') isFilled[theIndex]=1. oldIndex=0. For example. theActiveField=theForm.s1.value').t1. eval('theForm. theValue=theForm. if (theValue=='') isFilled[oldIndex]=0. theForm=document. oldActiveField=theActiveField. Try this example: Top of Form Your name: Enter! Bottom of Form This form was created using the following JavaScript code: <form name=form1 action="" onSubmit="return validate()"> <input name="name" type=hidden value=""> <input name="email" type=hidden value=""> <input name="country" type=hidden value=""> <select name=s1 onChange="refill()"> <option value="name" selected >Your name: <option value="email" >Your email address: <option value="country" >Your country: </select> <input name=t1 type=text value="" size=20> <input name=b1 type=submit value="Enter!"> </form> <script language="JavaScript"> <!-- isFilled=new Array(0.value. } function read() { oldIndex=theForm. All input data can actually be submitted to the server in additional hidden form elements. you can display a text input field and a select box.'+oldActiveField+'.value=theForm.value=theValue'). theValue=''.s1.t1. oldActiveField=theForm.0).value=theValue'). oldActiveField="name".value.s1.

value ) return false. theActiveField=theForm. if (oldIndex==k) alert ('Please fill in your '+theActiveField) return false.value +'\nEmail: '+theForm.s1.length.value +'\nCountry: '+theForm. } } alert ('You are submitting the following data:' +'\nName: '} function validate() { read().selectedIndex=k.value=''. k++) { if (!isFilled[k]) { theIndex=k.options[k]. k<isFilled. // Instead of returning false in all cases.s1. for (var k=0.t1. // a real-life code here would validate the data // and return true if the user submitted valid data } //--> </script> .