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Interview Tips


1. Do some research on the business before the interview. (See "How to Find a Job," "Research the Employer.")
2. Practice interviewing.
3. Go alone. Do not take children or friends.
4. Greet the employer with a handshake.
5. Make frequent eye contact.
6. Smile, be polite, and try to relax.
7. Listen carefully to the questions asked. Ask the interviewer to restate a question if you are confused.
8. Answer questions as directly as possible.
9. Be upbeat and make positive statements.
10. If you've worked before, talk about what you learned from it.
11. Use examples of how your skills and abilities would fit the job.
12. Bring your "Fact Sheet" with telephone numbers and addresses of your references and former employers, just in case you
are asked to complete an application. (See "The Application," "Fact Sheet.")

Questions to Expect (What the Employer May Ask You):

1. Tell me about yourself. (This is often an ice-breaker question. Keep the answer job or skill related.)
2. What do you know about the type of work we do? (This is your chance to tell what you know from the research you
completed ahead of time.)
3. What is your weakness? (Always make this a positive answer. For example, "My spelling is not always perfect, so I always
use a spell checker.")
4. What are your strengths? (Describe your skills in a way that will show you as a desirable employee for the company.)
5. Why did you leave your last job? ( Answer with a positive statement. Try not to say: "I was fired," "terminated," "quit," "had no
babysitter," or "couldn't get along with coworkers or supervisor". However, you can say: "new job," "contract ended,"
"seasonal," "temporary," "career change," "returned to school," to raise a family," or "relocated.")
6. Why have you been unemployed for such a long time? (Tell the truth. Emphasize that you were looking for a good company
where you can settle and make a contribution.)
7. Why should we hire you? (Make a positive statement, such as "I would like the opportunity to work with you and believe that I
can do the work.")
8. Do you have references? (It is most important that you contact your references ahead of time and have their name, current
address, and telephone numbers

Questions To Ask The Employer:

1. Who would supervise me?
2. When are you going to make a hiring decision?
3. What are the opportunities for advancement?
4. What kind of training is provided or available?
5. Is there a dress code?

itfalls (Reasons Why People Don't Get Hired):

• Untidy personal appearance
• Inability to express information clearly
• Lack of genuine interest or enthusiasm
• Unwillingness to start at the bottom
• Negative attitude
• Lack of eye contact
• Incomplete or sloppy application
• Being late for the interview


At the end of the interview:

• Thank the interviewers for their time.
• Request a business card.
• Shake hands in closing.
• Two or three days after the interview send a thank you note addressed to the

It is a good idea to request the interviewer's
business card before leaving the interview.

9. • Improvement work—searching for better materials and improved design changes to facilitate equipment reliability. Tips for thank you notes: 1. and an e-mail address. Keep it short. 2.) 4. 8. regular service and planned shutdowns. These repairs may be reactive or preventive. As shown in Figure 1. six maintenance programs are identified within the maintenance hierarchy. Sign the note with your first and last name. • Repair work—repairing equipment and troubleshooting malfunctions in an effort to return the equipment to its previous condition. Figure 1 Maintenance Hierarchy REACTIVE MAINTENANCE . Third paragraph: Provide your contact information. This includes inspections. Also. telephone number with area code. Neatly hand write or type the note.This will help when writing your thank you note to correctly spell the interviewer's name and job title. Address the note to the interviewer or the lead interviewer. if available. 6. 3. • Preventive maintenance—the prevention of equipment breakdowns before they happen. Ask another person to proofread the note. (No longer than one page. Second paragraph: Briefly state a few of your skills without repeating the information on your resume word for word. First paragraph: Thank the employer for the interview. 7. Proofread the note to check for spelling or grammar errors. adjustments. Repair work is often a part of improvement work. each representing an increased level of sophistication. Include any important information not mentioned at the interview. Mail the note within two to three days after your interview. mention that you are interested in the position. 5.

If their manufacturing equipment breaks down. (5) reassembly. they fix it as quickly as possible and then run it until it breaks down again. (3) disassembly. This is much like an oil change on an automobile that takes place every three months or 3. Scheduled maintenance can be considered a part of preventive maintenance known as fixed-time maintenance (FTM). unplanned downtime is minimized. By seeking the correct level of maintenance required. whichever comes first. Basically. (2) localization and isolation. While this is a broadly practiced technique in many manufacturing organizations. In order to do this. The scheduled maintenance may take place too soon. In some cases. sound. the machine may still be running but producing unacceptable parts. or it may come too late if the machine fails before the scheduled maintenance time.). Preventive maintenance is discussed later. Unfortunately. SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE Scheduled maintenance utilizes a previously developed maintenance schedule for each machine tool. it is an attempt to restore the system/product to a specified condition. color. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Preventive maintenance encompasses activities. including adjustments. Preventive activities are primarily . and basic cleanliness. that forestall machine breakdowns. It leaves machine tools in a state of poor repair and can cause the production of out-of-tolerance parts and scrap. this means that one must calculate when a machine is predicted to fail.Reactive maintenance (also known as corrective maintenance) involves all unscheduled actions performed as a result of system or product failure. This data is then analyzed to approximate when a failure will occur and maintenance is then scheduled to take place prior to this time. Of course. The spectrum of activities within this level are (1) failure identification. This is an extremely unreliable process and is not the best way to maximize the useful life span of one's assets. the firm must collect data on variables that can be used to indicate an impending failure (vibration. replacement. it does possess some distinct disadvantages. Because of its unpredictable nature it can easily cause disruptions to the production process. etc. and (6) checkout and condition verification. This approach is mainly a response to machine breakdowns. many manufacturers are still in a reactive mode of operation. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE Predictive maintenance involves performing maintenance on a machine in advance of the time a failure would occur if the maintenance were not performed. (4) item removal and replacement or repair in place.000 miles. temperature. while the machine still operates well (15-20 percent of all components fail after a predictable time). Their main objective is to ship the product.

governs planned/scheduled maintenance. However. Current trends in management philosophy such as just-in-time (JIT) and total quality management (TQM) incorporate preventive maintenance as key factors in their success. critical item replacements. which in turn requires preventive maintenance. A modern and cost-effective approach to preventive maintenance shows that there is no maintenance cost optimum. a constant assessment of the financial and organizational tradeoffs in contracting out versus in-house maintenance. JIT requires high machine availability. and calibrations. Downtime is also reduced when the preventive maintenance process gives maintenance personnel sufficient warning so repairs can be scheduled during normal outages. If the equipment is to be sold or traded in. Preventive maintenance aims at reducing or eliminating unplanned downtime. . Preventive maintenance is also seen as a measure of management excellence. Obviously. One can easily see that this is the beginning of a proactive mode rather than a reactive one. a preventive maintenance program will help keep the machine in the best possible condition. Preventive maintenance increases the margin of safety by keeping equipment in top running condition. TQM requires equipment that is well maintained in order to meet required process capability. maintenance costs will decrease as the costs for production losses decreases. Also. no preventive maintenance action is performed unless it is less costly that the resulting failure. measured when the equipment is operating. In addition. blocks of time are incorporated into the operations schedule. • Improved trade-in/resale value of equipment. constant monitoring of new technology. It requires a long-term commitment. • Extension of equipment life. • Reduction in failures and breakdowns. The purpose of preventive maintenance is to ensure that production quality is maintained and that delivery schedules are met. condition monitoring. and an awareness of the impact of the regulatory and legal environment. thereby increasing machine efficiency. equipment that is cared for will last longer than equipment that is abused and neglected. Some of them are listed below: • Safety. Typical preventive maintenance activities include periodic inspections.condition based. The resulting benefits of preventive maintenance are many. a machine that is well cared for will last longer and cause fewer problems. Obviously. The condition of a component. In order to accomplish this. thereby maximizing its used value. Machinery that is not well-maintained can become a safety hazard. • Lower cost.

TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Total productive maintenance (TPM) is preventive maintenance plus continuing efforts to adapt. • Increased equipment reliability. compared to only 19. In order to achieve this. TPM places a high value on teamwork. and promote continuous flows. a firm begins to build reliability into the equipment by removing routine and avoidable breakdowns. overall maintenance requirements are greatly decreased. Productivity is enhanced by the decrease in unexpected machine breakdown. and refine equipment to increase flexibility. By performing preventive maintenance on equipment. and (3) establishing a maintenance education and training program. • Increased plant productivity. approximately 35 percent of the surveyed plants who widely adopted preventive maintenance achieved on-time delivery rates of 98 percent. Developed in Japan. It is operator-oriented maintenance with the involvement of all qualified employees in all maintenance activities. • Increased service level for the customer and reduction in the number of defective parts. Taninecz found. • Fewer surprises. machine operators must share the preventive maintenance efforts. Preventive maintenance does not guarantee elimination of all unexpected downtime. modify. assist mechanics with . These have a positive direct effect on stock-outs. Also. especially production and maintenance.5 percent for non-adopters. Preventive maintenance enables users to avoid the unexpected. then the time it takes to move the product through the factory will suffer. and a total maintenance delivery system. It is a partnership approach among organizational functions. • Reduced cycle time. TPM means total employee involvement. If process equipment is incapable of running the product. that there is a strong correlation between preventive maintenance and cycle-time reductions as well as near-perfect on-time delivery rates. but empirically it has proven to eliminate most of it caused by mechanical failure. (2) encouraging operators to report indications of incipient distress to the maintenance department. Also. from an Industry Week survey. total equipment effectiveness. and continuous improvement. By not allowing machinery to fall into a state of disrepair. backlog. reduce material handling. forecast shutdown time can allow the firm to utilize alternate routings and scheduling alternatives that will minimize the negative effect of downtime. TPM has been described as preventive maintenance with these three factors added: (1) involving machine operators in preliminary maintenance activities by encouraging them to keep machines clean and well lubricated. and delivery time to the customer. • Reduced overall maintenance. consensus building.

overhaul. such as an equipment operator. This places them in a "consultant" role with the operators allowing them to: • help the operator diagnose problems and restore equipment to like-new condition. the firm must have an organizational culture which supports a high level of employee involvement. manpower efficiency. Businesses must be willing to provide the necessary training in order to allow production personnel to perform the required tasks. Of course. This frees maintenance personnel to be responsible for the tasks that require their critical skills. corrective maintenance and root cause analysis. • work with purchasing. Tennessee Eastman found that another employee. engineering. for all of this to work. overhaul. or replacement. operations. TPM's focus is on elimination of the major losses or inefficiencies incurred in production activities.repairs when equipment is down. • It takes the guesswork out of determining which machine needs major repairs or rebuilding. Beneficial results of TPM include: • Overall equipment effectiveness and overall efficiency are maximized. Just as in activity-based cost accounting where cost drivers are identified. Only 20 percent of the maintenance tasks actually required a certified mechanic's skills. but still below the certified level. . the objective of TPM is to identify variables that can demonstrate improved performance. and material and energy efficiency. operation. They also reported that as much as 75 percent of maintenance problems can be prevented by operators at an early stage. Another 40 percent could be performed with additional training. • use this knowledge to assess the root cause of the problem so that changes may be made to the design. These losses include those due to obstruction of equipment efficiency. All major equipment losses are functionally related to availability. with minimal training. or maintenance practices in the future. Based on their link to corporate goals. performance. targets for eliminating or reducing these losses are developed. • It provides objectivity by converting the operator's intuition into quantifiable values. • use appropriate technologies and standards to verify that the equipment is in like- new condition after repair. and work on equipment and process improvements within team activities. such as breakdown analysis. and maintenance to modify procurement standards to assure maximum reliability in future equipment. could do 40 percent of the traditional maintenance mechanic's work. efficiency and/or quality rate so the improvement resulting from the maintenance system can be measured by its impact on overall equipment effectiveness (see below).

beyond routine maintenance. which later became known as reliability-centered maintenance (RCM). These tests revealed the need for a new concept of preventive maintenance. • A preventive maintenance program for the lifecycle of the equipment is developed. • The manufacturing process is continually improved. A refined version appeared in 1970. • Improved safety. • Costs are minimized. As a final note on TPM. Trend lines approaching or veering into the domain that identifies poor operating conditions will trigger maintenance action. a better understanding of why certain decisions and trade-offs are necessary results. The RCM methodology was further developed and found application not . • Operators are motivated by involvement in maintaining their own machines and by involvement in team-based concepts. • Product quality is improved. The concept of RCM is rooted in a 1968 working paper prepared by the Boeing 747 Maintenance Steering Group. another school of thought holds that TPM can be adopted by continuous diagnostic monitoring of a machine's conditions and establishing a trend line for it. The operator carries out only the needed corrective actions so no unnecessary work. • It rapidly verifies the effectiveness of major corrective work. RELIABILITY-CENTERED MAINTENANCE It has been assumed that preventive maintenance programs help to ensure reliability and safety of equipment and machinery. is done. Weapons Systems and Support Equipment. tests performed by airlines in the mid-1960s showed that scheduled overhaul of complex equipment had little or no positive effect on the reliability of the equipment in service." a set of maintenance standards and procedures that certain military maintenance personnel were expected to follow. However. • Operator involvement in the process gives them ownership of making the project a success. • Operators improve their job skills. • It pinpoints exact maintenance requirement. • Capacity is maximized. • By getting everyone involved in equipment design and selection. Continued studies at the Department of Defense led to the 1986 publication of the "Reliability Centered Maintenance Requirements for Naval Aircraft. • Equipment and maintenance management (inherent in a reliability strategy) result.

then it is considered to be a world-class company. OEE offers a measurement tool that helps identify the real areas of opportunity within an operation. manufacturing. TRENDS IN MAINTENANCE . This procedure calls for the consideration of external and internal corporate environments. Essentially. referred to as overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). Setup and adjustments from product changes and minor adjustments necessary to get the equipment operating properly after the line change 3. and provide a starting point for developing quantitative variables for relating maintenance measurement and control to corporate strategy. According to Bulmer. but not long enough to track as downtime 4.only in the military and aviation. from start-up to end of production run If a company has an OEE of 85 percent or more. and task analysis. These analyses consider the specific characteristics and consequences of a failure and attempt to arrive at the optimal solution based on this information. quality rate. These areas have been termed the "six big losses. and equipment performance efficiency. are a function of equipment availability. the discrepancy between design and actual speed the equipment operates 5. The six losses are: 1. These values. Breakdowns from equipment failure (unplanned downtime) 2. Reduced yield and lost materials during the manufacturing process. Next key points for maintenance improvement are identified. Reduced speeds. consequence analysis. which result in the definition of target values for maintenance performance. foundry. and then the development of a basic maintenance policy congruent with the environments. Idling and minor stoppages due to abnormal operation of the equipment causing momentary lapses in production. the RCM process can be considered as three separate but associated analyses: failure mode and effects analysis. and transport industries. OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Total productive maintenance provides a systematic procedure for linking corporate goals to maintenance goals. but also in the energy. Process defects due to scrapped production and defects needing rework 6." OEE allows the firm to break these losses into smaller components to better evaluate the impact the maintenance program is making on the operation.

It is vital that maintenance management becomes integrated with corporate strategy to ensure equipment availability. and maintenance methods. social trends such as lack of capital. and competitive pricing. A number of these systems and their applications are listed below: • CATS—an expert maintenance system for detecting sudden failures in diesel-electric locomotive systems • INNATE—an expert system used for electronic circuit diagnosis • FSM—an expert system used by Boeing for continuous condition monitoring of aircraft alarms • RLA—an expert system developed by Lockheed for repair-level analysis for major parts in an aerospace system • GEMS-TTS—an expert system used by AT&T maintenance specialists to isolate faults in communication links • TOPAS—an expert system that diagnoses transmission and signaling problems in real time that may arise on switched circuits. A study of some seventy manufacturing plants found that over 50 percent of the . Maintenance will continue to be a major area of concern for manufacturers and other forms of business. Managerial attitudes have changed toward maintenance because of the emergence of new management philosophies. • CHARLEY—an expert system used by General Motors to diagnose problems with broken machine tools and to instruct less experienced individuals by providing explanations • XCON—an expert system developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (now part of Compaq) for product configuration The second major trend is typified by the emergence of total productive maintenance. competition. on the formation of maintenance knowledge in industrial organizations. quality products. The first major trend has to do with the impact of artificial intelligence techniques.Two major trends in the development of maintenance management research have been identified: (1) emerging developments and advances in maintenance technology. and environmental consciousness. In the quest for world-class manufacturing. on-time deliveries. have also encouraged a new focus on maintenance. In addition. and (2) the linking of maintenance to quality improvement strategies and the use of maintenance as a competitive strategy. information and decision technology. many industries are appreciating the need for efficient maintenance systems that have been effectively integrated with corporate strategy. which must be incorporated into the firm's strategy. fluctuations in currencies. There is a diverse application of expert systems within the maintenance area. quality. such as expert systems and neural networks.

the maintenance department should be led by a strong-minded individual who is a good motivator. hierarchy.maintenance work performed by these firms was reactive (run to failure. The balance of maintenance work was preventive or period based (25 percent). emergency breakdown). system. Read more: Maintenance .strategy. disadvantages http://www. technically competent. definition. experienced and familiar with advanced industry practices. Finally Laskiewicz notes that maintenance planning must be a top priority. Mike Laskiewicz recommends that organizations recognize maintenance as a key department that needs to be well managed. predictive or condition based (15 percent). model.html#ixzz1GyQTxstZ . Over a five-year period a study group of companies found that productivity improvements correlated strongly with a number of variables. In addition. one of which was preventive/predictive maintenance. and proactive or root-caused based (10 percent). Mar/Maintenance. A strong correlation has been found to exist between manufacturing cost reduction and preventive/predictive maintenance. school.referenceforbusiness.