Review: Juggling Gender Stereotypes: Justifications and Their Consequences Author(s): Jane F.

Collier Source: Latin American Research Review, Vol. 40, No. 3 (2005), pp. 218-229 Published by: The Latin American Studies Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3662832 . Accessed: 27/01/2011 18:44
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McCaughan.95 paper. $25. offer different resources to their articulators and can lead to different outcomes. LATINAMERICANDICTATORSHIPS AND DEMOCRACIES.219. not because they are singular and monolithic. Mala By Htun (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. $19. Pp.207.) IN MEN AND MASCULINITIES LATIN AMERICA. This is the theme I pursue in this review essay.) AND THEFAMILY UNDER SEXAND THESTATE: ABORTION. Pp. (Berkeley.00 paper.95 cloth. $60. (New York. 2003. however. Jennifer S. and Michelle Rocio Nasser. NY: Palgrave.S.00 cloth. $75. Edited by CHANGING Matthew C. Edited by Robert McKee Irwin. Collier StanfordUniversity AFTER AND LOVEIN MEXICAN A COURTSHIP MARRIAGE: SEXUALITY TRANSNATIONAL FAMILIES. TX 78713-7819 . when "family values" reportedly played a major role in determining the outcome of the 2004 U. DIVORCE. $60. P. 416. 3. Different interpretations of gender stereotypes. Hirsch. the question of whether the dominant gender stereotypes in Latin American ResearchReview. Gutmann (Durham. NC: Duke University Press. THEFAMOUS SEXUALITY 41: AND SOCIAL CONTROL MEXICO. $24. October 2005 ? 2005 by the University of Texas Press. but all address.50 cloth. 397.) At this historic moment. Gregg.95 paper. 2003. $22. Gender stereotypes are powerful. 2003. in one form or another. $24. Jessica L. the books reviewed here reinforce the message that gender stereotypes provide a powerful language for justifying one's own actions and for condemning the actions of others.JUGGLING GENDER STEREOTYPES: Justificationsand TheirConsequences JaneF.) IN AND CERVICAL VIRTUALLY VIRGINS: SEXUAL STRATEGIES CANCER BRAZIL. Pp. Vol. 40. (Stanford. The five books reviewed here are varied. but because they are multiple and riddled with contradictions.00 cloth. By versity Press.O. Pp. 2003. presidential election. Box 7819. No. 2003.) IN 1901. $49. Pp. Edward J. $74. CA: By University of California Press. Pp.95 paper. CA: Stanford UniRECIFE. 308.00 cloth. Austin.95 paper.

Rakowski 2003). both for the authors and for me. suggesting that gender stereotypes are indeed becoming an increasingly contested domain in the region. FEMININITIES Jennifer S. an anthropologist teaching in a school of public health and medical doctor. to my mind. and with what consequences. The title of Hirsch's book. Tiano 2001. rather than the respect their mothers coveted. whereas men agonize over how to manage the conflict between family obligations and peer expectations. and of how their justifications put them at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. in anthropology. Although some of the authors reviewed here refer to the Mediterranean gender stereotypes of "honor and shame" described by Julian PittRivers in the 1960s (1961. for what purposes. A CourtshipAfterMarriage.reflects her principal finding: that younger married women wanted affection from their husbands.REVIEW ESSAYS 219 Latin America are changing from "traditional" to "modern. whom the Bible portrays as made in the image of God. represent some of the best work being done in medical anthropology today. is the question of who uses which gender stereotypes when. however. but equally outstanding. Far more interesting. Femininity may be devalued. with a Ph. books that. Gregg have written quite different. Hirsch and Gregg are. none of them mentions the irony revealed by subsequent studies of gender in Southern Europe (Brandes 1980. the books reviewed here suggest that women in Latin America have little difficulty justifying to themselves and others behaviors that vary radically. while condemning most men to fears of failing to realize God's perfection. womenallegedly made in the image of Eve the Seductress-have a far easier time portraying themselves as better than their nature than do men. also teaching in a public health program. respectively.D. Both of their books provide rich cultural analyses of how women from a rural area of Central Mexico (Hirsch) and a shantytown in Brazil (Gregg) justify their life choices. Hutchinson 2003. du Boulay 1974." Readers of LARRalready know that academic research on gender issues in Latin America has blossomed over the past few years (see Bliss 2001. Hirsch and Jessica L. Pina-Cabral 1986). Kaminsky 2001. 1966). but Christian gender stereotypes allow most women to portray themselves as succeeding in overcoming their base natures. Indeed. Hirsch began her research with the intention of comparing the sexual and fertility practices of Mexican women living in Atlanta with the practices of their close kin living in Central Mexico. The books reviewed here also document a growing conflict between allegedly modern and traditional images of femininity and masculinity. As an anthropologist in search of . This irony lies in the fact that when gender stereotypes are drawn from the Christian Bible.

unlike their mothers. in contrast. while apologizing to their daughters for having been so "submissive" in their marriages. she focused on collecting life histories from thirteen women in Atlanta. Older women. In a brief review such as this. Whereas women born after 1955 tended to portray themselves as having chosen their husbands. who dreamed of intimacy and equality in marriage. As the research progressed." Older women also portrayed their courtships as short and perilous. Rather. and married. Young women stressed individual personality traits. Younger women.220 Latin American ResearchReview in-depth understanding rather than survey results. Younger women. but between generations. The . marriage remained a hierarchical relationship. spoke of courtship as a time of pleasure when couples came to know each other. matched with their sisters or cousins living in the sending communities of Degollado. younger women had longer courtships and. courted. it is impossible to summarize Hirsch's complex and nuanced discussion of change. Hirsch does not discuss same-sex relationships. Hirsch points out that the women she interviewed rarely watched U.She also interviewed a smaller sample of mothers (nine) and an even smaller one of husbands (eight). even when living in Atlanta. she found that the principal differences were not between migrants and women who remained in Mexico. older women denied responsibility and spoke of their marriages as "destiny. as Hirsch notes. also boasted of their skills in "managing" their husbands. Jalisco. after all. The first half of Hirsch's book focuses on the generational differences she observed. In terms of behavior. Hirsch argues that the ideal of companionate marriage she found among younger Mexican women was not imported directly from the United States. were in how women of different generations talked about their courtships and marriages. held hands and kissed in public places. whereas those born after 1955 portrayed themselves as "modern" women who wanted to share a relationship of confianza (intimacy). television shows. The most important changes. however. and a nearby rancheria. was where the women she interviewed in Atlanta had grown up.S. hoped to make decisions cooperatively with their husbands although. Older women spoke of wanting husbands who came from respected families and were good providers. based primarily on her research in Mexico. but the broad outlines are clear. primarily because none of her interviewees mentioned them. Hirsch also found that she could not understand women's sexual and fertility practices without placing them in the context of how women talked about their marriages. which. Women born before 1955 spoke of wanting respeto(respect) from their husbands. They and their parents had worried that girls might lose their virginity and with it their chance to marry. it reflects a world-wide trend linked to changes in social conditions.

In Atlanta. males. considerate boyfriend over the strong. were legal migrants. however. had nearby kin. and could either drive or master the bus system had an easier time getting and keeping a job than women who lacked these resources.S. Hirsch also points out that Mexican men living in Atlanta. In the first of two chapters on sexuality. Hirsch credits the shift in marital ideals to such social changes as the rising level of education. decline in fertility rates. who are supposedly ruled by their wives." Hirsch does not. however. could take advantage of available jobs. and the shift from an economy based primarily on agriculture to one based on remittances and money earned in the United States. but also as an insult to U. the Woman Gives the Orders. who claimed to be mas abierta(more open) about sex than their mothers." but not henpecked or feminized. observing that older Mexican women spoke of marital intercourse in terms of husbands "using" their wives. including the right to slap (but not beat) their wives." which she translates as "In the North. not just as an exaggerated statement of truth. Only some women. Although other researchers have cited Mexican women's growing participation in the paid labor force as a factor that gives women more power in their marriages. Hirsch devotes one chapter to differences between women in Mexico and those who migrated to Atlanta. Similarly. domineering male. whereas younger women spoke of "making love. enjoyed less social power than men in Mexico." in unspoken contrast to the derogatory stereotype of U. The observation that "En el Norte la Mujer Manda" can be heard. for example. that the Mexican husbands Hirsch interviewed tended to stress that they had the last word." Younger women also saw sexual . In addition. Hirsch notes that the lack of jobs for women in Degollado ruled this out as a possible cause for the shift in marital ideals she observed. increasing numbers of homes with electricity and running water. Those who spoke English. These husbands wanted to appear "modern.REVIEW ESSAYS 221 Mexican telenovelasthey preferred. the young women Hirsch interviewed. as U. rise in life expectancy. even as these men rejected the macho ideal and emphasized the importance of closeness and emotional satisfaction in marriage." This statement has some truth. however. Mexican women could find paying jobs that gave them a measure of economic independence and power relative to their husbands. husbands supposedly are. It seems no accident. women as sex-crazed sluts. who could roam the streets without fear of being picked up by the "migra. were careful to say that they were not women who "asked for it.S.S. particularly if they were illegal immigrants. also privileged the caring. dwell on the derogatory gender stereotypes of North Americans implied by the people she interviewed. She draws the title of this chapter from a statement made by many of the people she interviewed: "En el Norte la Mujer Manda. Hirsch returns to the generational contrast.

despite the fact that.222 Latin American ResearchReview intimacy. while younger women stressed the mutual confianza required for a couple to abstain during a wife's fertile period. younger women felt they had the power both to say "no" and to initiate sexual intimacy with their husbands. in their behavior. The second chapter on sexuality focuses on differences in contraceptive practices between younger women living in Atlanta and Mexico. which is that the women in the Brazilian shantytown she studied portrayed themselves as good women. as well as an anthropologist. As a physician. . Hirsch found a fascinating difference between older women. discourages women from taking precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases. publicly humiliating them during Mass by forcing them to sit while other women stood. such as birth control pills. a dangerous practice at a time when the deadly the HIV virus is spreading. but can endanger a woman's health by preventing her from wanting to learn about her husband's infidelities. however. Virtually Virgins. even though the Mexican government's birth control programs allowed them to obtain pills and other devices more cheaply and easily than their counterparts in Atlanta. and younger women who favored rhythm. Such willed ignorance. Although the younger women Hirsch interviewed clearly felt that their marriages based on intimacy were more satisfying than their mothers' marriages based on respect. Hirsch attributes non-migrant women's preference for "natural" methods to the Catholic Church. they resembled Eve the Seductress far more than the Virgin Mary. which continues to exert a powerful influence in the Bajio region. to control the timing of pregnancies. although few succeeded. as the foundation of marriage. Gregg focused on how women talked about their relations with men and their sexuality in order to understand and assess women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. Because marriages based on love tend to fail if love fails. Women living in Atlanta tended to use technological means of birth control. The title of Jessica Gregg's. Hirsch points out that companionate marriages are not only more fragile. Like their mothers and husbands. who preferred withdrawal. Older women treated withdrawal as a sign of a husband's "respect" for his wife. women have good reason to avoid learning about a husband's outside affairs. younger women feared that postponing childbirth could lead to infertility. whereas women in Mexico preferred "natural" methods such as withdrawal and rhythm. also reflects her principal finding. rather than children. Like Hirsch. Gregg chose to work in Recife. Whereas older women thought they had to cumplir(comply with a husband's demands for sex) in order to keep a husband from straying. Priests denied communion to women who used the pill or other technological forms of contraception. Younger women also hoped to delay the birth of children in order to enjoy a courtship after marriage. Among women living in Mexico.

Women in the shantytown also celebrated the stereotype of Brazilian women. Gregg.REVIEW ESSAYS 223 in northeastern Brazil. Women who were in a primary sexual relationship with one man from whom they derived some economic support. as sexually "hot" and as therefore requiring male control. they could not realize these ideals. because it has the highest rate of cervical cancer in the world. Although women in the shantytown approved of the virgin bride and faithful wife. and she studied a shantytown because the disease is more prevalent among poor women than among wealthier ones. sexually faithful to their husbands. and who thus appeared to be pursuing a strategy of liberty. But even women who needed a man's support apparently felt free to change sexual partners if the current one failed to meet expectations. and who thus appeared to be pursing a strategy of security. like Hirsch. and confined to their homes. forms part of the widespread North-South contrast beloved of Southerners. and their children's. either because they were young and still without children or because they were widowed and owned a house. who portray themselves as passionate in contrast to sexually frigid Northerners. Gregg explains that a woman's choice of tactic often depended on her circumstances and could change over time. Other women who considered themselves free to select sexual partners or have multiple ones. She observes that women in the shantytown knew about and approved of the sexual stereotypes that other researchers have described for Brazil: People said that men should be strong and dominant (and allowed promiscuity) while women should be virgins at marriage. women consciously used their sexuality as a resource to secure their. well-being. particularly mulattas. even though most of these women worked outside the home and had changed partners several times." while perhaps drawn from Brazil's Indian heritage. Gregg contrasts what she describes as two survival strategies pursued by women-security and liberty-which women justified by drawing on different sexual stereotypes. Women who had less need for a man's economic support. Instead. justified their behavior as reflecting their "hot" mulatta natures. Such women also justified escaping required male authority by referring to men's promiscuity and irresponsibility. . justified their behavior as conforming to the norm of the sexually faithful. women had little difficulty justifying to themselves and others a sexual freedom that apparently violated cultural norms. could afford to pursue a strategy of liberty. In a social world where women characterized the men in their lives as malicious. This vision of Brazilian women as "hot. largely because men could not support wives and families. lived in the community she studied and focused on interviewing a small sample of women intensively-thirty from the shantytown and later thirty from nearby areas who had been diagnosed with cervical cancer. stay-at-home wife. raising children.

"If You Have Sex. analyzes the factors that encouraged or prevented governments in Brazil. the practice of nondisclosure prevented medical personnel from warning women about the painful side effects of drastic therapies whose effectiveness the doctors themselves doubted. She observes that because the . Undergraduates. and therefore succeeded in catching many cancers at the early stage when they could more likely be cured. allowing divorce." was very effective in encouraging women to get tested. It also led women to believe that they needed regular Pap smears only if they were currently sexually active. Gregg argues that a campaign designed to combat the disease both reinforced dominant sexual stereotypes and led women to blame themselves if they got sick. Finally. Instead of encouraging safe sex practices. as well as graduates and professionals. thus reinforcing current gender stereotypes that cast women's sexuality. should find them fascinating. or who want to focus on specific issues or on events in a single country. It led women to believe that Pap smears prevented the cervical cancer. In her final chapter. Both books are also well written with clear arguments. Mala Htun is a political scientist. or letting women know that faithful women whose men had many sexual partners were equally at risk with women who themselves had multiple partners.224 Latin American ResearchReview In her chapters devoted to cervical cancer. whose book. The campaign's slogan. Whereas medical personnel may have thought they were being kind to their patients. Sex and the State. letting them think that their treatments were for a minor inflammation rather than a deadly disease. Argentina. Gregg observes that the medical practice of not telling women with cancer that they have the disease had adverse effects as well. and decriminalizing abortion. and "modern" values espoused by progressives intent on promoting gender equality. Researchers interested in skimming this book to discover its conclusions. Htun characterizes the struggle over women's rights as one between "traditional" values espoused by the Catholic Church. But the slogan had several adverse effects. and Chile from passing laws equalizing marital rights. Both Hirsch's and Gregg's books provide rich cultural analyses of how women in specific Latin American communities talk about their relationships with men and their sexuality. the slogan obscured men's role in transmitting the virus that is currently believed to be the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Get a Pap Smear. will have no difficulty pursuing their aims. Her arguments are clear and easy to follow because she frequently summarizes her findings. implying that women who acquired the disease had only themselves to blame for not getting tested. the campaign suggested that only female promiscuity caused the disease. as dangerous. which focus on preserving the family. but not men's.

appear charming. the book reproduces newspaper articles from the time. MASCULINITIES In contrast to the three single-authored books on femininities. whereas in democracies. governments in all three of the countries she analyzed managed to pass laws abolishing the subordination of wives to their husbands and granting married women rights to manage property. particularly during periods when state leaders benefited from Church support. thus avoiding public discussion. in each country. Robert Buffington. Htun explains the apparently counterintuitive finding that earlier dictatorships had more success in promoting gender equality than later democracies did by noting that dictatorships could appoint small expert commissions to revise legal codes.REVIEW ESSAYS 225 Catholic Church came to endorse legal equality between spouses. and engravings by a popular artist that. Htun's book also presents detailed analyses of how particular reforms came about. thus identifying the specific factors that affected outcomes in each case. only Argentina and Brazil managed to legalize divorce. which they probably were before the police arrived. Although the dancers were arrested. In addition to analytical essays. the two books on masculinities are collections of essays. But because the Catholic Church has consistently disapproved of divorce and abortion. The engraving reproduced on the book's cover depicts mustachioed men dressed as women dancing with similarly mustachioed men in formal suits. and punished without a formal trial because their actions were not mentioned in the penal code. thus provoking for the first time public discussion of alternative sexualities. according to the essay by Victor Macias-Gonzalez. publicly humiliated. sections of a novel based on the event. were vulnerable to such feminization because the Porfirian elite equated conspicuous consumption-including several changes of clothes per day-with progress and . or were thwarted. They seem to be having a wonderful time." argues that the scandal of the Famous 41 solidified an existing working class homophobia expressed in political cartoons used to denigrate the masculinity of bourgeois men who. The Famous 41 resulted from a symposium held at Tulane University on the centenary of a highly publicized 1901 drag queen ball that took place in Mexico City and was interrupted by the police. The book's introductory essay portrays the event as important for exposing the existence of a queer underworld. in an essay called "Homophobia and the Mexican Working Class. 1900-1910. stimulated discussion of subversive sexualities and of sexuality in general. the publicity accorded the event. to today's sensibilities. the Catholic Church could mobilize effective opposition. while all three countries continue to restrict abortion. despite displaying rabid homophobia.

Indeed. that Latin American men reinterpret global discourses of gay culture and companionate marriage to fit their own circumstances. the female villain is not a lesbian. which documents the growth of discourses on alternate sexualities. by arguing that men. this sense of change is reflected in the other books reviewed here. as do most authors. sinks into debauchery and abandons her young son. Two other essays in the volume. The authors in Gutmann's book convey this fear of failure. rather than gender. In his introductory essay. such the collection on the Famous 41. implies that masculine stereotypes are shifting in the region. but. He concludes. even if they dress as women. after her fiance is disgraced. but rather the woman engaged to the main character who.226 Latin American ResearchReview modernization. First he addresses the relationship between local and global changes in discourses and practices of masculinity. and responsibility for his wife and children. and before economic changes undermined men's earning capacity. In his third topic. instead. analyzes gender ambiguities in the poetry of Amado Nervo. But I would challenge the unstated implication that masculinity was less problematic before the proliferation of discourses on homosexuality and companionate marriage. When God made Adam in his own image and granted him authority over. It is also true that . a personification of Eve the Seductress. like their fathers. God condemned Adam to an impossible task. he justifies the decision to focus on men. The men they write about seem to be continually juggling stereotypes to prove their masculinity. and Hirsch's discussion of how younger Mexican husbands expressed the hope of enjoying more egalitarian and cooperative relationships with their wives than had their fathers. The main villain is not-as one would expect-one of the male dancers. Gutmann focuses on three topics. The main character-a man who wore a suit at the ball-repents and is redeemed by marrying an innocent young girl he met during his exile in Yucatan. by Sylvia Molloy. The final essay. Younger men may draw on new stereotypes and endure new challenges. She is. None of the contributors mentions a fact that struck me on reading the sections of the 1906 novel reproduced in the book. Interestingly. explore the discourses of disparaged sexualities in the records of a prison and an insane asylum. The novel thus suggests that the real threat to social order comes less from men who pursue erotic relations with other men. gender stereotypes derived from the Christian Bible confront men with a dilemma not experienced by women. as men. by Pablo Piccato and Cristina Rivera-Garza. than from women who behave like men in seeking sexual pleasure for themselves. The title of Matthew Gutmann's edited collection. ChangingMen and Masculinities in Latin America. wield power in the region. they face the problem of forever trying to convince themselves and their male peers that they are real men. As I noted at the beginning of this essay.

he ignores the unifying influence of the Catholic Church. The first. Latin American men may avoid going to Mass and may indulge in activities. which portray women as too weak and silly to support themselves (Pateman 1988)." includes five essays by sociologists and anthropologists who studied working. a far more difficult-if not impossibletask than merely feeding and protecting them. which analyzes previous research on masculinity in Latin American countries. a man must be a father. Gutmann. In contrast to social contract (and social Darwinist) justifications for male dominance. the remaining essays focus on the economic and social forces that men confront in asserting their masculinity. Norma Fuller. argues for the presence of many masculinities in the region. provides an excellent overview of men's problems. He criticizes earlier scholarship for over-emphasizing dichotomies. He also discusses young men's . Catholic gender stereotypes thus require men to actually control their wives and daughters. in an essay analyzing life histories collected from working class men in three Mexican cities. Gutmann's volume includes essays by several scholars from Latin America. that the Church condemns. Except for the essay by Francisco Ferrandiz. such as drunkenness and promiscuity. After an informative introductory essay by Mara Viveros Vigoya. entitled "Urban Men and Masculinities. but they nevertheless live in social worlds pervaded by Christian gender stereotypes. who analyzed interviews with 120 men in three Peruvian cities. Indeed. which-as documented by Htun's book-continues to play a major role in shaping laws affecting the family. Catholic justifications for patriarchy imagine a world in which women loosed from male authority would consort with the Devil. To the degree that a man demonstrates his freedom from wifely control by hanging out with his buddies. again like most authors. which documents the stigmatized masculinity experienced by jobless and futureless men in a Venezuelan shantytown. The second and central topic of Gutmann's essay focuses on the question of whether there is anything typical about Latin American men.and lower-class communities. documents men's fear of losing power and identity as declining male employment forces women to take up paid labor outside the home.REVIEW ESSAYS 227 the men described in the book seem to defend their masculinity primarily in all-male settings. he appears to waste scarce family resources and is unable to oversee his wife's activities. realizing one of his aims in putting the collection together." But. To be recognized as a full adult. the book is divided into three sections. such as the active/passive one used to portray Latin American men as concerned with dominating others. Agustin Escobar Latapi. Gutmann subtitles his essay "Discarding Manly Dichotomies in Latin America. like most authors in the volume. but fatherhood requires him to balance the inherently contradictory demands of the domestic and public spheres.

And Peter Beattie argues that Brazilians during the late nineteenth century experienced army service as dishonorable because impressment too closely resembled the slavery that had recently been abolished. 1965-1974. as no other action can. Florencia Mallon analyzes images of the heroic and doomed warrior idealized by fighters for agrarian reform in Chile. handle the problem by doing some housework on weekends while avoiding further pressure by spending long hours away from ." contains four articles. and explains how funding for AIDS prevention programs enabled an advertising campaign that portrayed homosexuals as gorgeous. hyper-masculine men. Daniel Balderston argues that Puig's footnotes to his famous 1976 novel. Jose Olavarria observes that Chilean working-class men. The second section. Claudia Fonseca. Andrade analyzes the writings and associated cartoons of a political journalist in Guayaquil. The other three essays analyze written texts. The third section. Brandes describes how men who joined a branch of Alcoholics Anonymous in Mexico City use their AA meetings to assert the aggressive and sexist masculinity they can no longer demonstrate through drinking with buddies. to a male virtue reflecting a sense of personal dignity and trustworthiness that both attracts and justifies community respect. Finally. Richard Parker analyzes the emergence of a self-identified gay subculture in Brazilian cities since the 1970s. The Kiss of the Spider Woman. documents the deep animosity between men and women that Gregg also found." contains five essays. it seems to me that female adultery reveals. and describes how women taunt men with being cuckolded. The two remaining essays explore paternity. a man's failure to exercise the control over his wife as required by Catholic gender stereotypes. Ecuador. echoing Hirsch's findings. Finally. titled "Sexuality and Paternity. telenovelasnevertheless avoid portraying either a gay community or gay sexual practices. called "Representations and Practices. Although Fonseca suggests that men's difficulty supporting women and children fuels men's fears of wifely betrayal. X. who used implications of sexual misconduct to criticize the corruption of local officials.reflect mock-philosophy rather than scientific findings. And Hector Carillo analyzes Mexican telenovelasto observe that even when conveying positive images of men who are attracted to other men. Miguel Diaz Barriga analyzes Chicano writings to explore how authors recast verguenza(shame) from a female virtue commonly associated with modesty and fear of being caught. who experience pressure to assume household duties due to male job insecurity and the family's need for a working wife's income. two of which focus on historical representations. two of which focus on homosexuality.228 LatinAmerican Research Review desire for a closer relationship with their wives than their fathers experienced. who studied gender relations in a Brazilian working class neighborhood of Porto Alegre.

Pateman. in favor of family ties based on affection and communication. Susan 2001 "From Victims to Agents: A New Generation of Literature on Women in Latin America. men find it more difficult to portray themselves as "good" than do women. Peristiany. and "modem" images of companionate marriage are leading younger people to portray themselves as discarding "traditional" patriarchal family relationships." Latin AmericanResearchReview 36 (3): 183-202. but also because the Catholic Church's continuing influence in the region insures that gender stereotypes based on Adam and Eve remain salient." Latin AmericanResearchReview 38 (1): 267-87. Rakowski. urbanization. Julian 1961 The People of the Sierra. including positive gay ones. 1966 "Honour and Social Status. not only because recent economic and social changes are undermining men's economic power. women's increasing participation in the paid labor force.REVIEW ESSAYS 229 home. IL: University of Chicago Press. IL: University of Chicago Press. The books and essays reviewed here suggest three conclusions." Latin American Research Review 36 (2): 209-19." In Honour and Shame. supposedly as based on obligation and respect. Joao De 1986 Sons of Adam. UK: Clarendon Press.Philadelphia. Chicago. Pina-Cabral. 1977. Brandes.edited by J. Elizabeth Quay 2003 "Add Gender and Stir?: Cooking up Gendered Histories of Modern Latin America. Tiano. IL: University of Chicago Press. REFERENCES Bliss. Chicago. Daughters of Eve. Pitt-Rivers.Chicago. Stanley 1980 Metaphorsof Masculinity: Sex and Status in Andalusian Folklore. Hutchinson. . the insecurity of male employment. people in Latin America have access to multiple sexual stereotypes. Finally." Latin American ResearchReview 35 (1): 247-68. Sexuality.Stanford. Amy 2001 "The Queering of Latin American Literary Studies. and Culture in Modem Mexico.Oxford. First. Kaminsky. Carole 1988 The Sexual Contract. G. Finally. PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Du Boulay. that they can draw upon when affirming gender identities. Cathy A. CA: Stanford University Press. 2003 "Women as Political Actors: The Move from Maternalism to Citizenship Rights and Power. Juliet 1974 Portraitof a GreekMountain Village. Donna Guy argues that laws decriminalizing honor crimes in Buenos Aires at the turn of the twentieth century protected the privacy and patriarchal power of men by discouraging everyone from reporting rapes. Second." Latin AmericanResearchReview 38 (2): 180-94. Katherine Elaine 2001 "The Sexual Revolution in Mexican Studies: New Perspectives on Gender.

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