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David Willmore AP US - Pd. 5 3 January 2011

Industrial Supremacy

Chapter 17 Chapter Summary: Although some economists place the industrial "take-off" of America in the years before the Civil War, it was in the three decades following that great conflict that the United States became the world's leading industrial power. A fortunate combination of sufficient raw materials, adequate labor, enviable technological accomplishments, effective business leadership, nationwide markets, and supportive state and national governments boosted America past its international rivals. The industrial transformation had a profound impact on the lives of the millions of workers who made the production revolution possible. Some who were distrustful of industrial power turned toward socialism; others tried to organize workers into powerful unions. But, in these early years of industrial conflict, the forces of business usually triumphed. Points for Discussion: 1. How did the half-dozen main factors combine to produce America's impressive rise to industrial supremacy? 2. Which inventions of the late nineteenth century had the greatest impact on industry and urban life? 3. Both the success-oriented novels of Horatio Alger and the utopian works of Edward Bellamy were best-sellers in late-nineteenth-century America. What might explain this paradox of Americans' wanting to read about both how great their country was and how greatly it needed to improve? 4. Describe the evolution of the modern corporation in this era and its role in promoting industrial expansion. 5. The so-called robber barons both praised unfettered free enterprise and tried to eliminate competition. How can these apparently conflicting positions be reconciled? 6. What philosophies of the late nineteenth century allowed industrial tycoons to rationalize their methods and powers? 7. Analyze the criticisms made of "laissez-faire" capitalism by some Americans of the late nineteenth century. Of the alternative visions suggested for America's economic future, which was the "best" and why? 8. In what ways was the experience of industrialization a mixed blessing for the American worker? Describe the changes of the late nineteenth century in the nature of the workforce and conditions of the workplace. 9. Describe the various attempts made during the late nineteenth century to create a national labor organization. Analyze the successes and failures of these individual organizations, as well as the overall weaknesses of the American labor movement at this time. 10. Explain how the railroad became a symbol of progress in America. Main Themes: 1. How various factors (raw materials, labor supply, technology, business organization, growing markets, and friendly governments) combined to thrust the United States into worldwide industrial leadership. 2. How this explosion of industrial capitalism was both extolled for its accomplishments and attacked for its excesses. 3. How American workers, who on the average benefited, reacted to the physical and psychological realities of the new economic order.


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Key Concepts & Terms: 1. Capitalism 2. Bessemer process 3. Corporation 4. Limited liability 5. Trust 6. Consolidation 7. Monopoly 8. Horizontal integration 9. Vertical integration 10. Gospel of Wealth 11. Social Darwinism 12. Taylorism 13. Laissez-faire 14. Pool Arrangements 15. National Labor Union Important People: 1. Cyrus W. Field 2. Alexander Graham Bell 3. Thomas Edison 4. Adam Smith 5. Henry Ford 6. Cornelius Vanderbilt 7. Andrew Carnegie 8. J. P. Morgan 9. John D. Rockefeller 10. Herbert Spencer

16. Knights of Labor 17. American Federation of Labor 18. Women’s Trade Union League 19. Molly Maguires 20. Socialist Labor Party 21. Standard Oil 22. Great Railroad Strike 23. Haymarket Riot 24. Homestead Strike 25. Pullman Strike 26. Chinese Exclusion Act 27. Child labor Laws 28. “Anarchism”

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Horatio Alger Edward Bellamy Eugene V. Debs Terence Powderly Samuel Gompers Lester Frank Ward Henry George Russell Conwell

Internet Resources: For Brinkley, American History - Survey internet quizzes, resources, references to additional books and films, and more, consult the text's Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/ brinkley11. For short videos and primary source documents go to www.icue.com


Sectional Outline - Industrial Supremacy I. Industrial Workers in the New Economy A. The Struggle to Unionize 1. Labor a) Fight back against poor conditions b) Same tactics as employers (1) Large combinations (a) Unions (2) Little success 2. Craft unions a) Small groups - skilled workers b) Before Civil War c) Little influence (1) Leaders (a) Combine organizations d) National Labor Union (1) 1866 (2) William H Sylvis (3) Polyglot association; 640,000 members (4) Disintegrated - Panic of 1873 3. Women’s rights a) Excluded form unions b) Male argument: (1) Women used to drive down wages (2) Invoked ideal of domesticity c) Female argument: (1) Conditions impossible for men to support families 4. Molly Maguires a) Recession years of 1870 = difficulties (1) Widespread unemployment (2) Middle-class hostility toward unions (a) Disputes w/ employers - bitter, violent (b) Public blamed workers b) Militant labor organization (1) Anthracite coal region - Pennsylvania (2) Ancient Order of Hibernians - Irish fraternal society c) Terrorist tactics, intimidation (1) Violence, murder (2) + perception – labor activism = dangerous radicals (3) Much performed by informers, agents (a) Employed by mine owners (b) Pretext of ruthless measures i) Suppress unionization B. The Great Railroad Strike 1. Railroad strike - 1877 a) Near hysteria b) Eastern railroad (1) 10% wage cut c) Class war d) Disrupted rail service (1) Baltimore – St. Louis e) Destroyed equipment f) Rioted (Pittsburgh, et. al.) 2. State militias called

3. Federal troops - July a) President Hayes b) Suppress disorders - West VA c) Baltimore (1) 11 dead; 40 wounded d) Philadelphia (1) Militia opened fire (a) Workers, families (b) 20 killed e) 100+ people dead 4. First major labor conflict a) Disputes - no longer localized b) Illustrated resentment against employers 5. Failure a) Weakened railroad unions b) Damaged reputation of labor organizations C. The Knights of Labor 1. “Noble Order of the Knights of Labor” a) 1st major effort (1) Genuinely nat’l labor union 2. Leadership: Uriah S. Stephens 3. Membership a) “All who toiled” b) Workers, professional people c) Not: lawyers, bankers, gamblers d) Welcomed women (1) Factory workers, domestic servants, etc. (2) Woman’s Bureau of the Knights (a) Leonora Barry (3) 50,000 women members (black + white) (4) 100+ locals 4. Loosely organized a) Local “assemblies” b) National “general assembly 5. Support a) 8 hour work day b) Abolition of child labor c) Long term reform d) Wages system -> “cooperative system” 6. Expansion a) Secret fraternity -> open organization b) 1886 - 700,000 person membership (1) Militant elements - could not control 7. Dissolution a) 1880s - series of strikes (1) Defiance of leadership b) 1885 - railroad workers (Missouri Pacific) (1) Restore wage cuts (2) Recognize union c) 1886 - Texas and Pacific (1) Strike crushed (2) Discredited organization d) 1890 - membership shrunk D. The AFL

1. Rival organization a) Different organization concept b) Federation of Organized Trade and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada (1) Later: American Federation of Labor (AFL) c) Most important, enduring labor group d) Autonomous craft unions (1) Mainly skilled workers 2. Opposition to female employment a) Contradictory policy (1) Male leaders (a) Hostile to women workers (b) “women drove down wages” (2) Sought equal pay for women (a) Less attractive to employers (b) Drove women out of work force 3. Agenda a) Accepted basic premise of capitalism b) Rejected fundamental economic reform c) Hostile to gov’t efforts (1) Protect labor; improve conditions d) Supported objective of workers (1) Better wages, hours, conditions 4. Haymarket Square a) Goal = 8 hour day b) Not achieved -> general strike (1) May 1, 1886 c) Chicago (1) McCormick Harvester Co. (2) Police harassing strikers, leaders (a) Bomb - killed 6, injured 67 (b) Police - killed 4 (c) Blamed on “anarchists” d) Symbol of social chaos, radicalism (1) Obstacle of goals of AFL (2) Unions vulnerable to accusations of anarchism


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