Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is

Stolen Egyptian Philosophy
by
George G. M. James, Ph.D.
University oI Arkansas, Pine BluII
This work was originally published in New York by Philosophical Library in 1954. The content
herein has been slightly edited to mark word corrections and in its organization to assist
readability.
The author, George Granville Monah James was born in Georgetown, Guyana, South America.
His parents were Reverend Linch B. and Margaret E. James. George studied at Durham
University in Britain and aIter a period at the University oI London, he earned his doctorate at
Columbia University in New York, NY. He then qualiIied to teach Mathematics, Latin, and
Greek. Later he was proIessor oI Logic and Greek at Livingstone College in Salisbury, North
Carolina Ior two years, beIore teaching at the University oI Arkansas, Pine BluII. The author has
also written the Iollowing pamphlets: 1. Health Week in New Castle; 2. Intermarriage (published
in London, England); 3. Black People Under Germanv (published in New York); 4. The Need of
a New Education for the Subfect Peoples of the World (published in Arkansas, U.S.A.); 5. The
Probable Causes of Religious Apathv in our Institutions of Higher Learning and the Proposal of
a New Naturalism (published in Arkansas, U.S.A). And second, he has also authored the
Iollowing articles, titled: The Church and the New Mentality; Religion is an Inductive and
Progressive Science; The Anti-Classical Wave; The First Step In Negro Reconstruction; Know
ThyselI (a series oI 12 articles published in the New York Age and the Zion Quarterlv); The
InIluence oI Mathematics Upon the Mentality and Character oI Students (published in the
Georgia Herald).
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
The Journal of Pan African Studies 2009 eBook
Contents
Introduction
(A) Characteristics of Greek Philosophv; (B) The Aims of The Book
Part I
Chapter I
Greek Philosophv Is Stolen Egvptian Philosophv
1. The teachings oI the Egyptian Mysteries reached other lands centuries beIore it reached
Athens; 2. The authorship oI the individual doctrines is extremely doubtIul; 3. The chronology
oI Greek philosophers is mere speculation; 4. The compilation oI the history oI Greek
philosophy was the plan oI Aristotle executed by his school.
Chapter II
So-called Greek Philosophv was Alien to the Greeks and their Conditions of Life
The period oI Greek philosophy (640322 B.C.) was a period oI internal and external wars and
was unsuitable Ior producing philosophers.
Chapter III
Greek Philosophv was the Offspring of the Egvptian Mvsterv Svstem
1. The Egyptian theory oI salvation became the purpose oI Greek philosophy; 2. Circumstances
oI identity between the Egyptian and Greek systems are shown; 3. The abolition oI Greek
philosophy with the Egyptian Mysteries identiIies them; 4. How the AIrican continent gave its
culture to the Western World.
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Chapter IV
The Egvptians Educated The Greeks
1. The eIIects oI the Persian Conquest; 2. The eIIects oI the Conquest oI Egypt by Alexander
the Great; 3. The Egyptians were the Iirst to civilize the Greeks; 4. Alexander visits the Oracle
oI Ammon in the Oasis oI Siwah.
Chapter V
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers and the Teachings Ascribed to Them
1. The earlier Ionion philosophers and their doctrines; 2. Pythagoras and his doctrines; 3. The
Eleatic philosophers and their doctrines. 4. The later Ionion philosophers and their doctrines; 5.
Summary oI conclusions concerning the Pre-Socratic philosophers and the history oI the Four
Qualities and Four Elements. (a) The doctrines oI the early Ionic, the Eleatic and the later Ionic
philosophers and Pythagoras are traced to their Egyptian origin; (b) The doctrine oI the Four
Qualities and Four Elements is traced to its Egyptian origin; (c) Plagiarism shown to be a
common practice among the Greek philosophers who borrowed Irom one another but chieIly
Irom Pythagoras who obtained his ideas Irom the Egyptians; (d) The doctrine oI the Atom by
Democritus is traced to its Egyptian origin, as well as his large number oI books. He taught
nothing new.
Chapter VI
The Athenian Philosophers
1. SOCRATES
1. His LiIe: (a) Date and place oI birth; (b) His economic status and personality; (c) His trial
and death; (d) Crito's attempt to smuggle him out oI prison; (e) Phaedo describes the Iinal scene
beIore his death.
2. Doctrines: The doctrines oI (a) The Nous; (b) The Supreme Good; (c) Opposites and
harmony; (d) The immortality oI the soul and (e) SelI knowledge.
3. Summary oI Conclusions: (a) The doctrines oI Socrates are traced to their Egyptian origin, as
he taught nothing new; (b) The importance oI the Iarewell conversation oI Socrates with his
pupils and Iriends is set Iorth.
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2. PLATO
(I) His early liIe; (II) His travels and academy; (III) His disputed writings; (IV) His doctrines.
1. The theory oI ideas and its application to natural phenomena including (a) the real and
unreal; (b) the Nous and (c) creation.
2. The ethical doctrines concerning (a) the highest good; (b) deIinition oI virtue and; (c) the
cardinal virtues.
3. The doctrine oI the Ideal state whose attributes are compared with the attributes oI the soul
and justice.
(V) Summary oI Conclusions:
(a) The doctrines oI Plato are traced to their Egyptian origin, as he taught nothing new;
(b) Magic is shown to be the key to the interpretation oI ancient religion and philosophy;
(c) The authorship oI his books is disputed by modern scholars, and ancient historians deny his
authorship oI the Republic and Timeas;
(d) The allegory oI the charioteer and winged steeds is traced to its Egyptian origin.
3. ARISTOTLE
(I) (a) His early liIe and training; (b) His own list oI books; (c) Other list oI books; (II)
Doctrines; (III) Summary oI Conclusions.
A The doctrines are traced to their Egyptian origin, as he taught nothing new; B (1) The library
oI Alexandria was the true source oI Aristotle's large numbers oI books; (2) The lack oI
uniIormity between the list oI books points to doubtIul authorship; C The discrepancies and
doubts in this liIe.
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Chapter VII
The Curriculum of The Egvptian Mvsterv Svstem
1. The education oI Egyptian Priests according to their Orders;
2. The education oI the Egyptian Priests in: (a) The Seven Liberal Arts; (b) Secret systems oI
languages and mathematical symbolism; (c) Magic.
3. A comparison oI the curriculum oI the Egyptian Mystery System with the list oI books said
to be drawn up by Aristotle himselI.
Chapter VIII:
The Memphite Theologv is the Basis of all Important Doctrines of Greek Philosophv
1.
(a) The history, description and complete text oI the Memphite Theology are given and the
subject matter is divided into three parts;
(b) The text oI the Iirst part is Iollowed by the philosophy which the Iirst part teaches;
(c) The text oI the second part is Iollowed by the philosophy which the second part teaches;
(d) The text oI the third part is Iollowed by the philosophy which the third part teaches.
2. The Memphite Theology is shown to be the source oI modern scientiIic knowledge;
(a) The identity oI the creation oI the Ennead with the Nebular Hypothesis and;
(b) The identity oI the Sun God Atom with the atom oI Science.
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3. The Memphite Theology opens great possibilities Ior modern scientiIic research:
(a) The Greek concept oI the atom is shown to be erroneous; (b) With the new interpretation oI
the atom the Memphite Theology provides a vast Iield oI scientiIic secrets yet to be discovered.
Part II
Chapter IX
Social Reformation through the New Philosophv of African Redemption
1. Social Reformation
The knowledge that the AIrican continent gave civilization the Arts and Sciences, Religion and
Philosophy is des- tined to produce a change in the mentality both oI the White and Black
people. 2. There are three persons in the drama oI Greek philosophy: (a) Alexander the Great;
(b) Aristotle's School and; (c) The Ancient Roman Government who are responsible Ior a Ialse
tradition about AIrica and the social plight oI its peoples; (3) Both the White and Black people
are common victims oI a Ialse tradition about AIrica and this Iact makes both races partners in
the solution oI the problem oI racial reIormation. (4) The methods suggested Ior racial
reIormation: (a) Reeducation oI both groups by worldwide dissemination oI AIrica's
contribution to civilization; (b) The abandonment oI the Ialse worship oI Greek intellect; (c)
Special attention must be given to the re-education oI missionaries and a constant demand made
Ior a change in missionary policy.
2. The New Philosophv of African Redemption
1. A statement and explanation oI the new philosophy oI AIrican Redemption are made; 2.
Black people must cultivate methods oI counteraction against: (a) The Ialse worship oI Greek
intellect; (b) Missionary literature and exhibition and; (c) must demand a change in missionary
policy.
Appendix
Notes
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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Introduction
Characteristics oI Greek Philosophy
The term Greek philosophy, to begin with is a misnomer, Ior there is no such philosophy in
existence. The ancient Egyptians had developed a very complex religious system, called the
Mysteries, which was also the Iirst system oI salvation.
As such, it regarded the human body as a prison house oI the soul, which could be liberated Irom
its bodily impediments, through the disciplines oI the Arts and Sciences, and advanced Irom the
level oI a mortal to that oI a God. This was the notion oI the summum bonum or greatest good, to
which all men must aspire, and it also became the basis oI all ethical concepts. The Egyptian
Mystery System was also a Secret Order, and membership was gained by initiation and a pledge
to secrecy. The teaching was graded and delivered orally to the Neophyte; and under these
circumstances oI secrecy, the Egyptians developed secret systems oI writing and teaching, and
Iorbade their Initiates Irom writing what they had learnt.
AIter nearly Iive thousand years oI prohibition against the Greeks, they were permitted to enter
Egypt Ior the purpose oI their education. First through the Persian invasion and secondly through
the invasion oI Alexander the Great. From the sixth century B.C. thereIore to the death oI
Aristotle (322 B.C.) the Greeks made the best oI their chance to learn all they could about
Egyptian culture; most students received instructions directly Irom the Egyptian Priests, but aIter
the invasion by Alexander the Great, the Royal temples and libraries were plundered and
pillaged, and Aristotle's school converted the library at Alexandria into a research centre. There
is no wonder then, that the production oI the unusually large number oI books ascribed to
Aristotle has proved a physical impossibility, Ior any single man within a liIe time.
The history oI Aristotle's liIe, has done him Iar more harm than good, since it careIully avoids
any statement relating to his visit to Egypt, either on his own account or in company with
Alexander the Great, when he invaded Egypt. This silence oI history at once throws doubt upon
the liIe and achievements oI Aristotle. He is said to have spent twenty years under the tutorship
oI Plato, who is regarded as a Philosopher, yet he graduated as the greatest oI Scientists oI
Antiquity. Two questions might be asked: (a) how could Plato teach Aristotle what he himselI
did not know?; and (b) why should Aristotle spend twenty years under a teacher Irom whom he
could learn nothing? This bit oI history sounds incredible. Again, in order to avoid suspicion
over the extraordinary number oI books ascribed to Aristotle, history tells us that Alexander the
Great, gave him a large sum oI money to get the books. Here again the history sounds incredible,
and three statements must here be made.
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(a) In order to purchase books on science, they must have been in circulation so as to enable
Aristotle to secure them. (b) II the books were in circulation beIore Aristotle purchased them,
and since he is not supposed to have visited Egypt at all, then the books in question must have
been circulated among Greek philosophers. (c) II circulated among Greek philosophers, then we
would expect the subject matter oI such books to have been known beIore Aristotle's time, and
consequently he could not be credited either with producing them or introducing new ideas oI
science.
Another point oI considerable interest to be accounted Ior was the attitude oI the Athenian
government towards this so-called Greek philosophy, which it regarded as Ioreign in origin and
treated it accordingly. Only a brieI study oI history is necessary to show that Greek philosophers
were undesirable citizens, who throughout the period oI their investigations were victims oI
relentless persecution, at the hands oI the Athenian government. Anaxagoras was imprisoned and
exiled; Socrates was executed; Plato was sold into slavery and Aristotle was indicted and exiled;
while the earliest oI them all, Pythagoras, was expelled Irom Croton in Italy. Can we imagine the
Greeks making such an about turn, as to claim the very teachings which they had at Iirst
persecuted and openly rejected? Certainly, they knew they were usurping what they had never
produced, and as we enter step by step into our study the greater do we discover evidence which
leads us to the conclusion that Greek philosophers were not the authors oI Greek philosophy, but
the Egyptian Priests and Hierophants.
Aristotle died in 322 B.C. not many years aIter he had been aided by Alexander the Great to
secure the largest quantity oI scientiIic books Irom the Royal Libraries and Temples oI Egypt. In
spite however oI such great intellectual treasure, the death oI Aristotle marked the death oI
philosophy among the Greeks, who did not seem to possess the natural ability to advance these
sciences. Consequently history inIorms us that the Greeks were Iorced to make a study oI Ethics,
which they also borrowed Irom the Egyptian "summum bonum" or greatest good. The two other
Athenian Philosophers must be mentioned here, I mean Socrates and Plato; who also became
Iamous in history as philosophers and great thinkers. Every school boy believes that when he
hears or reads the command "know thyselI", he is hearing or reading words which were uttered
by Socrates. But the truth is that the Egyptian temples carried inscriptions on the outside
addressed to Neophytes and among them was the injunction "know thyselI". Socrates copied
these words Irom the Egyptian Temples, and was not the author. All mystery temples, inside and
outside oI Egypt carried such inscriptions, just like the weekly bulletins oI our modern Churches.
Similarly, every school boy believes that when he hears or reads the names oI the Iour cardinal
virtues, he is hearing or reading names oI virtues determined by Plato. Nothing has been more
misleading, Ior the Egyptian Mystery System contained ten virtues, and Irom this source Plato
copied what have been called the Iour cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, temperance, and
courage. It is indeed surprising how, Ior centuries, the Greeks have been praised by the Western
World Ior intellectual accomplishments which belong without a doubt to the Egyptians or the
peoples oI North AIrica.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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Another noticeable characteristic oI Greek philosophy is the Iact that most oI the Greek
philosophers used the teachings oI Pythagoras as their model; and consequently they have
introduced nothing new in the Iield oI philosophy. Included in the Pythagorean system we Iind
the doctrines oI (a) opposites (b) Harmony (c) Fire (d) Mind, since it is composed oI Iire atoms,
(e) Immortality, expressed as transmigration oI Souls, (I) The summum bonum or the purpose oI
philosophy. And these oI course are reIlected in the systems oI Heraclitus, Parmenides,
Democritus, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
The next thing that is peculiar about Greek philosophy is its use in literature. The Egyptian
Mystery System was the Iirst secret Order oI History and the publication oI its teachings was
strictly prohibited. This explains why Initiates like Socrates did not commit to writing their
philosophy, and why the Babylonians and Chaldaeans who were very closely associated with
them also reIrained Irom publishing those teachings.
We can at once see how easy it was Ior an ambitious and even envious nation to claim a body oI
unwritten knowledge which would make them great in the eyes oI the primitive world. The
absurdity however, is easily recognized when we remember that the Greek language was used to
translate several systems oI teachings which the Greeks could not succeed in claiming. Such
were the translation oI Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, called the Septuagint; and the translation
oI the Christian Gospels, Acts and the Epistles in Greek, still called the Greek New Testament. It
is only the unwritten philosophy oI the Egyptians translated into Greek that has met with such an
unhappy Iate: a legacy stolen by the Greeks.
On account oI reasons already given, I have been compelled to handle the subject matter oI this
book, in the way it has been handled: namely (a) with a Irequency oI repetition, because it is the
method oI Greek philosophy, to use a common principle to explain several diIIerent doctrines,
and (b) the quotation and analysis oI doctrines, because it is the object oI this book to establish
the Egyptian Origin and this cannot be so satisIactorily done iI the doctrines are not presented.
Greek philosophy is somewhat oI a drama, whose chieI actors were Alexander the Great,
Aristotle and his successors in the peripatetic school, and the Roman Emperor Justinian.
Alexander invaded Egypt and captured the Royal Library at Alexandria and plundered it.
Aristotle made a library oI his own with plundered books, while his school occupied the building
and used it as a research centre. Finally, Justinian the Roman Emperor abolished the Temples
and schools oI philosophy i.e. another name Ior the Egyptian Mysteries which the Greeks
claimed as their product, and on account oI which, they have been Ialsely praised and honoured
Ior centuries by the world, as its greatest philosophers and thinkers.
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This contribution to civilization was really and truly made by the Egyptians and the AIrican
continent, but not by the Greeks or the European continent. We sometimes wonder why the
people oI AIrican descent Iind themselves in such a social plight as they do, but the answer is
plain enough. Had it not been Ior this drama oI Greek philosophy and its actors, the AIrican
continent would have had a diIIerent reputation, and would have enjoyed a status oI respect
among the nations oI the world.
This unIortunate position oI the AIrican continent and its peoples appears to be the result oI
misrepresentation upon which the structure oI race prejudice has been built, i.e. the historical
world opinion that the AIrican continent is backward, that its people are backward, and that
their civilization is also backward.
Finally, the dishonesty in the movement oI the publication oI a Greek philosophy, becomes very
glaring, when we reIer to the Iact, purposely that by calling the theorem oI the Square on the
Hypotenuse, the Pythagorean theorem, it has concealed the truth Ior centuries Irom the world,
who ought to know that the Egyptians taught Pythagoras and the Greeks, what mathematics they
knew.
I want to mention here that among the many books which I Iound helpIul in my present work are
"The Intellectual Adventure oI Man" and "The Egyptian Religion" by ProIessor Henri FrankIort
and "The Mediterranean World in Ancient Times" by ProIessor Eva SandIord.
George G. M. James
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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The Aim of the Book
The aim oI the book is to establish better race relations in the world, by revealing a Iundamental
truth concerning the contribution oI the AIrican continent to civilization. It must be borne in
mind that the Iirst lesson in the humanities is to make a people aware oI their contribution to
civilization; and the second lesson is to teach them about other civilizations. By this
dissemination oI the truth about the civilization oI individual peoples, a better understanding
among them, and a proper appraisal oI each other should Iollow. This notion is based upon the
notion oI the Great Master Mind: Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you Iree.
Consequently, the book is an attempt to show that the true authors oI Greek philosophy were not
the Greeks; but the people oI North AIrica, commonly called the Egyptians; and the praise and
honor Ialsely given to the Greeks Ior centuries belong to the people oI North AIrica, and
thereIore to the AIrican continent . Consequently this theIt oI the AIrican legacy by the Greeks
led to the erroneous world opinion that the AIrican continent has made no contribution to
civilization, and that its people are naturally backward. This is the misrepresentation that has
become the basis oI race prejudice, which has aIIected all people oI color.
For centuries the world has been misled about the original source oI the Arts and Sciences; Ior
centuries Socrates, Plato and Aristotle have been Ialsely idolized as models oI intellectual
greatness; and Ior centuries the AIrican continent has been called the Dark Continent, because
Europe coveted the honor oI transmitting to the world, the Arts and Sciences.
I am happy to be able to bring this inIormation to the attention oI the world, so that on the one
hand, all races and creeds might know the truth and Iree themselves Irom those prejudices which
have corrupted human relations; and on the other hand, that the people oI AIrican origin might
be emancipated Irom their serIdom oI inIeriority complex, and enter upon a new era oI Ireedom,
in which they would Ieel like Iree men, with Iull human rights and privileges.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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Part I
Chapter I: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy
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According to history, Pythagoras aIter receiving his training in Egypt, returned to his native
island, Samos, where he established his order Ior a short time, aIter which he migrated to Croton
(540 B.C.) in Southern Italy, where his order grew to enormous proportions, until his Iinal
expulsion Irom that country. We are also told that Thales (640 B.C.) who had also received his
education in Egypt, and his associates: Anaximander, and Anaximenes, were natives oI Ionia in
Asia Minor, which was a stronghold oI the Egyptian Mystery schools, which they carried on.
(SandIord's The Mediterranean World, p. 195205). Similarly, we are told that Xenophanes (576
B.C.), Parmenides, Zeno and Melissus were also natives oI Ionia and that they migrated to Elea
in Italy and established themselves and spread the teachings oI the Mysteries.
In like manner we are inIormed that Heraclitus (530 B.C.), Empedocles, Anaxagoras and
Democritus were also natives oI Ionia who were interested in physics. Hence in tracing the
course oI the so-called Greek philosophy, we Iind that Ionian students aIter obtaining their
education Irom the Egyptian priests returned to their native land, while some oI them migrated to
diIIerent parts oI Italy, where they established themselves.
Consequently, history makes it clear that the surrounding neighbors oI Egypt had all become
Iamiliar with the teachings oI Egyptian Mysteries many centuries beIore the Athenians, who in
399 B.C. sentenced Socrates to death (Zeller's Hist. of Phil., p. 112; 127; 170172) and
subsequently caused Plato and Aristotle to Ilee Ior their lives Irom Athens, because philosophy
was something Ioreign and unknown to them. For this same reason, we would expect either the
Ionians or the Italians to exert their prior claim to philosophy, since it made contact with them
long beIore it did with the Athenians, who were always its greatest enemies, until Alexander's
conquest oI Egypt, which provided Ior Aristotle Iree access to the Library oI Alexandria.
The Ionians and Italians made no attempt to claim the authorship oI philosophy, because they
were well aware that the Egyptians were the true authors. On the other hand, aIter the death oI
Aristotle, his Athenian pupils, without the authority oI the state, undertook to compile a history
oI philosophy, recognized at that time as the Sophia or Wisdom oI the Egyptians, which had
become current and traditional in the ancient world, which compilation, because it was produced
by pupils who had belonged to Aristotle's school, later history has erroneously called Greek
philosophy, in spite oI the Iact that the Greeks were its greatest enemies and persecutors, and had
persistently treated it as a Ioreign innovation.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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For this reason, the so-called Greek philosophy is stolen Egyptian philosophy, which Iirst spread
to Ionia, thence to Italy and thence to Athens. And it must be remembered that at this remote
period oI Greek history, i.e., Thales to Aristotle 640 B.C.322 B.C., the Ionians were not Greek
citizens, but at Iirst Egyptian subjects and later Persian subjects.
Zeller's Hist. oI Phil.: p. 37; 46; 58; 6683; 112; 127; 170172.
William Turner's Hist. oI Phil.: p 34; 39; 45; 53.
Roger's Student Hist. oI Phil.: p. 15.
B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Phil.: p. 13; 21.
SandIord's The Mediterranean World p. 157; 195205.
A brieI sketch oI the ancient Egyptian Empire would also make it clear that Asia Minor or Ionia
was the ancient land oI the Hittites, who were not known by any other name in ancient days.
According to Diodorus and Manetho, High Priest in Egypt, two columns were Iound at Nysa
Arabia; one oI the Goddess Isis and the other oI the God Osiris, on the latter oI which the God
declared that he had led an army into India, to the sources oI the Danube, and as Iar as the ocean.
This means oI course, that the Egyptian Empire, at a very early date, included not only the
islands oI the Aegean sea and Ionia, but also extended to the extremities oI the East.
We are also inIormed that Senusert I, during the 12th Dynasty (i.e., about 1900 B.C.) conquered
the whole sea coast oI India, beyond the Ganges to the Eastern ocean. He is also said to have
included the Cyclades and a great part oI Europe in his conquests.
Secondly, the "Amarna Letters" Iound in the government oIIices oI the Egyptian King, Iknaton,
testiIy to the Iact, that the Egyptian Empire had extended to western Asia, Syria and Palestine,
and that Ior centuries Egyptian power had been supreme in the ancient world. This was in the
18th Dynasty i.e., about 1500 B.C.
We are also told that during the reign oI Tuthmosis III, the dominion oI Egypt extended not only
along the coast oI Palestine: but also Irom Nubia to Northern Asia. (Breadsted's Conquest oI
Civilization p. 84; Diodorus 128; Manetho; Strabo; Dicaearchus; John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt
vol. I).
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
The Journal of Pan African Studies 2009 eBook
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As one attempts to read the history oI Greek philosophy, one discovers a complete absence oI
essential inIormation concerning the early liIe and training oI the so-called Greek philosophers,
Irom Thales to Aristotle. No writer or historian proIesses to know anything about their early
education. All they tell us about them consists oI (a) a doubtIul date and place oI birth and (b)
their doctrines; but the world is leIt to wonder who they were and Irom what source they got
their early education, and would naturally expect that men who rose to the position oI a Teacher
among relatives, Iriends and associates, would be well-known, not only by them, but by the
whole community.
On the contrary, men who might well be placed among the earliest Teachers in history, who had
grown up Irom childhood to manhood, and had taught pupils, are represented as unknown, being
without any domestic, social or early educational traces.
This is unbelievable, and yet it is a Iact that the history oI Greek philosophy has presented to the
world a number oI men whose lives it knows little or nothing about; but expects the world to
accept them as the true authors oI the doctrines which are alleged to be theirs.
In the absence oI essential evidence, the world hesitates to recognize them as such, because the
truth oI this whole matter oI Greek philosophy points to a very diIIerent direction.
The Book on nature entitled peri phvseos was the common name under which Greek students
interested in nature-study wrote. The earliest copy is said to date back to the sixth century B.C.
and it is customary to reIer to the remnants oI peri physeos as the Fragments. (William Turner's
History oI Philosophy p. 62). We do not believe that genuine Initiates produced the Book on
nature, since this was contrary to the rules oI the Egyptian Mysteries, in connexion with which
the Philosophical Schools conducted their work. Egypt was the centre oI the body oI ancient
wisdom, and knowledge, religious, philosophical and scientiIic spread to other lands through
student Initiates. Such teachings remained Ior generations and centuries in the Iorm oI tradition,
until the conquest oI Egypt by Alexander the Great, and the movement oI Aristotle and his
school to compile Egyptian teaching and claim it as Greek philosophy. (Ancient Mysteries by C.
H. Vail p. 16.)
Consequently, as a source oI authority oI authorships, peri physeos, is oI little value, iI any, since
history mentions only Iour names as authors oI it, namely, Anaximander, Heraclitus,
Parmenides, Anaxagoras; and asks the world to accept their authorship oI philosophy, because
Theophrastus, Sextus, Proclus and Simplicius, oI the school at Alexandria are said to have
preserved small remnants oI it (the Fragments). II peri physeos is the criterion to the authorship
oI Greek philosophy, then it Ialls short in its purpose by a long way, since only Iour philosophers
are alleged to have written this book, and to have remnants oI their work.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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According to this idea all the other philosophers, who Iailed to write peri physeos and to have
remnants oI it, also Iailed to write Greek philosophy. This is the reductio ad absurdum to which
peri physeos leads us.
The schools oI philosophy, Chaldean, Greek and Persian, were part oI the Ancient Mystery
System oI Egypt. They were conducted in secrecy according to the demands oI the Osiriaca,
whose teachings became common to all the schools. In keeping with the demands Ior secrecy,
the writing and publication oI teachings were strictly Iorbidden and consequently, Initiates who
had developed satisIactorily in their training, and had been advanced to the rank oI Master or
Teacher, reIrained Irom publishing the teachings oI the Mysteries or philosophy.
Consequently any publication oI philosophy could not have come Irom the pen oI the original
philosophers themselves, but either Irom their close Iriends who knew their views, as in the case
oI Pythagoras and Socrates, or Irom interested persons who made a record oI those philosophical
teachings that had become popular opinion and tradition. There is no wonder then, that in the
absence oI original authorship, history has had to resort to the strategy oI accepting Aristotle's
opinion as the sole authority in determining the authorship oI Greek philosophy (Introduction to
AlIred Weber's History oI Philosophy). It is Ior these reasons that great doubt surrounds the so-
called Greek authorship oI philosophy. (William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 35; 39; 47;
53; 62; 79; 210211; 627. Ancient Mysteries by C. H. Vail p. 16. Theophrastus: Fragment 2
apud Diels. Introduction to AlIred Weber's History oI Philosophy).
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History knows nothing about the early liIe and training oI the Greek philosophers and this is true
not only oI the pre-Socratic philosophers: but also oI Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, who appear in
history about the age oI eighteen and begin to teach at Iorty.
As a body oI men they were undesirable to the state, (personae non gratae) and were
consequently persecuted and driven into hiding and secrecy. Under such circumstances they kept
no records oI their activities and this was done in order to conceal their identity. AIter the
conquest oI Egypt by Alexander the Great, and the seizure and looting oI the Royal Library at
Alexandria, Aristotle's plan to usurp Egyptian philosophy, was subsequently carried out by
members oI his school: Theophrastus, Andronicus oI Rhodes and Eudemus, who soon Iound
themselves conIronted with the problem oI a chronology Ior a history oI philosophy.
(Introduction oI Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 13).
Throughout this eIIort there has been much speculation concerning the date oI birth oI
philosophers, whom the public knew very little about. As early as the third century B.C. (274
194 B.C.) Eratosthenes, a Stoic drew up a chronology oI Greek philosophers and in the second
century B.C. (140) Apollodorus also drew up another. The eIIort continued, and in the Iirst
century B.C. (6070 B.C.) Andronicus, the eleventh Head oI the Peripatetic school, also drew up
another.
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This diIIiculty continued throughout the early centuries, and has come down to the present time
Ior it appears that all modern writers on Greek Philosophy are unable to agree on the dates that
should be assigned to the nativity oI the philosophers. The only exception appears to occur with
reIerence to the three Athenian philosophers, i.e., Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the date oI whose
nativity is believed to be certain, and concerning which there is general agreement among
historians.
However, when we come to deal with the pre-Socratic philosophers, we are conIronted with
conIusion and uncertainty, and a Iew examples would serve to illustrate the untrustworthy nature
oI the chronology oI Greek Philosophers.
(1) Diogenes Laertius places the birth oI Thales at 640 B.C., while William Turner's History oI
Philosophy places it as 620 B.C.; that oI Frank Thilly at 624 B.C.; that oI A. K. Rogers at early
in the sixth century B.C.; and that oI W. G. Tennemann at 600 B.C.
(2) Diogenes Laertius places the birth oI Anaximenes at 546 B.C.; while W. Windelbrand places
it at the sixth century B.C.; that oI Frank Thilly at 588 B.C.; that oI B. D. Alexander at 560 B.C.;
while that oI A. K. Rogers at the sixth century B.C.
(3) Parmenides is credited by Diogenes as being born at 500 B.C.; while Fuller, Thilly and
Rogers omit a date oI birth, because they say it is unknown.
(4) Zeller places the birth oI Xenophanes at 576 B.C.; while Diogenes gives 570 B C.; and the
majority oI the other historians declare that the date oI birth is unknown.
(5) With reIerence to Xeno, Diogenes who does not know the date oI his birth, says that he
Ilourished between B.C. 464460; while William Turner places it at 490 B.C.; like Frank Thilly
and B. D. Alexander; while Fuller, A. K. Rogers and W. G. Tennemann declare it is unknown.
(6) With reIerences to Heraclitus, Zeller makes the Iollowing suppositions: iI he died in 475 B.C.
and iI he was sixty years old when he died, then he must have been born in 535 B.C.; similarly
Diogenes supposes that he Ilourished between B.C. 504500; and while William Turner places
his birth at 530 B.C.; Windelbrand places it at 536 B.C.; and Fuller and Tennemann declare that
he Ilourished in 500 B.C.
(7) With reIerence to Pythagoras, Zeller who does not know the date oI his birth supposes that it
occurred between the years 580570 B.C.; and while Diogenes also supposes that it occurred
between the years 582500 B.C.; William Turner, Fuller, Rogers, and Tennemann declare that it
is unknown.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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(8) With reIerence to Empedocles, while Diogenes places his birth at 484 B.C.; Turner,
Windelbrand, Fuller, B. D. Alexander and Tennemann place it at 490 B.C.; while A. K. Rogers
and others declare it is unknown.
(9) With reIerence to Anaxagoras, while Zeller and Diogenes place his birth at 500 B.C.;
William Turner, A. G. Fuller, and Frank Thilly agree with them, while Alexander places it at 450
B.C. and A. K. Rogers and others declare it is unknown.
(10) With reIerence to Leucippus, all historians seem to be oI the opinion that he has never
existed.
(11) Socrates (469399 B.C.), Plato (427347 B.C.), and Aristotle (384322 B.C.) are the only
three philosophers the dates oI whose nativity and death do not seem to have led to speculation
among historians; but the reason Ior this uniIormity is probably clue to the Iact that they were
Athenians and had been indicted by the Athenian Government who would naturally have
investigated them and kept a record oI their cases. (A. K. Roger's Hist. oI Phil. p. 104).
It must be noted Irom the preceding comparative study oI the chronology oI Greek philosophers
that (a) the variation in dates points to speculation (b) the pre-Socratic philosophers were
unknown because they were Ioreigners to the Athenian Government and probably never existed
(c) it Iollows that both the pre-Socratic philosophers together with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
were persecuted by the Athenian Government tor introducing Ioreign doctrines into Athens. (d)
In consequence oI these Iacts, any subsequent claim by the Greeks to the ownership or
authorship oI the same doctrines which they had rejected and persecuted, must be regarded as a
usurpation.
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When Aristotle decided to compile a history oI Greek Philosophy he must have made known his
wishes to his pupils Theophrastus and Eudemus: Ior no sooner did he produce his metaphysics,
than Theophrastus Iollowed him by publishing eighteen books on the doctrines oI the physicists.
Similarly, aIter Theophrastus had published his doctrines oI the physicists, Eudemus produced
separate histories oI Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy and also theology. This was an amazing
start, because oI the large number oI scientiIic books, and the wide range oI subjects treated.
This situation has rightly aroused the suspicion oI the world, as it questions the source oI these
scientiIic works.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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Since Theophrastus and Eudemus were students under Aristotle at the same time, and since the
conquest oI Egypt by Alexander the Great, made the Egyptian Library at Alexandria available to
the Greeks Ior research, then it must be expected that the three men, Aristotle who was a close
Iriend oI Alexander, Theophrastus and Eudemus not only did research at the Alexandrine Library
at the sane time, but must also have helped themselves to books, which enabled them to Iollow
each other so closely in the production oI scientiIic works (William Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p.
158159), which were either a portion oI the war booty taken Irom the Library or compilations
Irom them. (Note that Aristotle's works reveal the signs oI note taking and that Theophrastus and
Eudemus were pupils attending Aristotle's school at the same time). William Turner's Hist. oI
Phil. p. 127.
Just here it might be as well to mention the names oI Aristotle's pupils who took an active part in
promoting the movement towards the compilation oI a history oI Greek philosophy:
(a) Theophrastus oI Lesbos 371286 B.C., who succeeded Aristotle as head oI the peripatetic
school. As elsewhere mentioned, he is said to have produced eighteen books on the doctrines oI
physicists. Who were these physicists? Greek or Egyptians? Just think oI it.
(b) Eudemus oI Rhodes a contemporary oI Theophrastus with whom he also attended Aristotle's
school. He is said to have produced histories oI Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and theology,
as elsewhere mentioned. What was the source oI the data oI the histories oI these sciences, which
must have taken any nation thousands oI years to develop? Greece or Egypt? Just think oI it.
(c) Andronicus oI Rhodes, an Eclectic oI Aristotle's school and editor oI his works (B.C. 70).
These men's works together with Aristotle's metaphysics, which contained a critical summary oI
the doctrines oI all preceding philosophers, seem to Iorm the nucleus oI a compilation oI what
has been called, the history oI Greek philosophy (Zeller's Hist. oI Greek Phil.: Introduction p. 7
14).
The next movement was the organization oI an association called "The learned study oI
Aristotle's Writings", whose members were Theophrastus and Andronicus, who were both
closely connected with the school oI Aristotle. The Iunction oI this association was to identiIy
the literature and doctrines oI philosophy with their so-called respective authors, and in order to
accomplish this, the alumni oI Aristotle's school and its Iriends were encouraged to enter upon a
research Ior Aristotle's works and to write commentaries on them.
In addition to this, the Learned Association also encouraged research Ior the recovery oI what
has been named Fragments or remnants oI a book, which is supposed to have once existed, and
to have borne the common title "Peri Phvseos", i.e., concerning nature.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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Here again those who went out in search oI "peri physeos" or its remnants were the alumni oI
Aristotle's school and its Iriends: but their eIIorts to establish authorship was a Iailure.
(a) Theophrastus Iound only two lines oI peri physeos, supposed to have been written by
Anaximander.
(b) Sextus and Proclus oI the IiIth century A.D., and Simplicius oI the sixth century A.D. are said
to have Iound a copy oI "peri physeos" supposed to have been produced by Parmenides.
(c) In addition, the name oI Simplicius is also associated with a copy oI "peri physeos", which is
supposed to have been produced by Anaxagoras.
So much Ior "peri physeos and the Fragments," and so much Ior the attempt oI "The Learned
Association" Ior the study oI Aristotle's works; which has Iailed because oI lack oI evidence, as
has elsewhere been pointed out.
The recovery oI two copies and two lines oI "peri physeos" is not prooI that all Greek
Philosophers wrote "peri physeos", or even that the names assigned to them were their bona Iide
authors. It certainly would appear that the object oI the Learned Association was to beat
Aristotle's own drum and dance. It was Aristotle's idea to compile a history oI philosophy, and it
was Aristotle's school and its alumni that carried out the idea, we are told.
Chapter II: So-called Greek Philosophy was Alien to the Greeks and their
Conditions of Life
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History supports the Iact that Irom the time oI Thales. to the time oI Aristotle, the Greeks were
victims oI internal disunion, on the one hand, while on the other, they lived in constant Iear oI
invasion Irom the Persians who were a common enemy to the city states.
Consequently when they were not Iighting with one another they Iound themselves busy Iighting
the Persians, who soon dominated them and became their masters. From the 6th century B.C. the
territory Irom the coast oI Asia Minor to the Indus Valley became united under the single power
oI Persia, whose central territory Iran has survived as a national unit to the present day. Persian
expansion was like a nightmare to the Greeks who dreaded the Persians on account oI their
invulnerable navy, and organized themselves into leagues and conIederacies in order to resist
their enemy. (C. 12 p. 195; SandIord's Mediterranean World). There are three sources which
throw light on the chaotic and troublesome conditions oI this period in Greek history.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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A. The Persian Conquests
AIter the Persians had conquered the Ionians (possibly ancient Hittites), and made them their
subjects, Polycrates (539524 B.C.) seized the Island oI Samos and made it a Iamous city.
(SandIord's Mediterranean World c. 9). Between 499 and 494 B.C. the Ionians revolted against
the Persians, who deIeated them at Lade, while Cyprus and Miletus were also captured.
(SandIord's Mediterranean World c. 12). In the summer oI 490 B.C. Greek and Persian Iorces
met at Marathon, but aIter a hand to hand Iight, both belligerents withdrew, only to prepare
stronger Iorces in order to renew the conIlict. Accordingly, aIter ten years had elapsed a Hellenic
League was organized against the Persians, and the Spartan King Leonides was sent with an
army to hold the pass at Thermopylae, until the Ileet should win a decisive victory. (C. 12, p.
202; SandIord's Mediterranean World). Accordingly, during the month oI August 481 B.C.
Persian ships under the command oI Xerxes anchored in the gulI oI Pagasae, while the Greeks
anchored oII Cape Artemisium. Both sides awaited a Iavorable opportunity to attack. The
Persians began to Iorce the pass while simultaneously one oI their detachments was secretly
aided by a Greek traitor, along a steep mountain pass to the rear oI the Greek position. Having
been taken by surprise, the Greek guards immediately withdrew without resistance. The Spartans
who were guarding Thermopylae were all slain and the pass captured by the Persians.
(SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 12 p. 202). Having been deIeated at Thermopylae, the
Greeks withdrew to Salamis, where again they encountered a naval engagement with the
Persians. It was late in September 481 B.C., and the result was a wanton destruction oI ships on
both sides, without any decision. Both belligerents withdrew: The Persians to Thessaly, and the
Greeks to Attica. (SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 12 p. 203).
With the persistent aim oI Ireedom Irom Persian domination, Athens, together with the island
and coast cities (oI the Aegean and Ionia) renewed their resistance oI Persian rule. This was the
conIederacy oI Delos, which undertook several naval engagements, but with little or no success.
In 467 B.C. the battle oI Eurymedon River was Iought and lost with a great number oI ships.
Eighteen years later (449 B.C.) another naval engagement took place oII the island oI Cyprus,
but again without decision, and consequently Persian sovereignty over the Greeks remained.
(SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 12 p. 205). In the meantime Sparta, under the terms oI the
Treaty oI Miletus (413 B.C.) obtained subsidies Irom Persia, Ior naval construction, on condition
that she recognize Persian sovereignty over the Ionians and their allies. This was done by Sparta
as a threat to Athenian ambitions.
However, it was not long aIter the Treaty oI Miletus, that the Greeks themselves submitted to the
authority and dominance oI the Persians. During the winter 387386 B.C., the individual Ionian
cities, signed the peace terms oI the Persian King, and Iinally accepted Persian rule. This Treaty
was negotiated by a Spartan envoy who was authorized by the Persian King to enIorce its
provisions. (SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 13 and 15, p. 225 and 255).
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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B. The Leagues
Apart Irom the resistance oI a common Ioe, the Persians, a study oI the Iunction oI the Leagues,
reveals the enmity and spirit oI aggression which were characteristic oI the relationship which
existed between the Greek city states themselves.
Accordingly in 505 B.C., the Peloponnesian states signed treaties among themselves, pledging
warIare against Sparta who had absorbed them under her inIluence. Meanwhile, Aristogoras
revived the Ionian League (499494 B.C.) to resist Persian aggression, and Iriendship between
Athens and Aegina was restored by the Hellenic League (481 B.C.) which was aIterward
converted into the ConIederacy oI Delos (478 B.C.) as mentioned elsewhere. In like manner,
Thebes also Iell in line with the general temper oI the age and organized the Boeotian League, a
Iederation oI city states, Ior selI-protection and aggression. (SandIord's Mediterranean World C.
9, P. 150; C. 12, P. 201).
In 377 B.C. a second Athenian ConIederacy was organized, but this was to Irustrate the aims oI
the Lacedaemonians and to compel them to respect the right oI the Athenians and their allies
(SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 15, P. 260). Likewise in 290 B C., the Aetolian League,
made up oI the States oI central Greece, gained control oI Delphi, and Irequently violated
Achaean rights in the Peloponnesus, while in 225 B.C. Antigonus Doson organized another
Hellenic League, with the purpose oI obstructing the ambitions oI Sparta and her Aetolian allies.
(SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 18, p. 317 and 319). (W. H. Couch's Hist. oI Greece, p.
206209, c. 11. BotsIord & Robinson's Hellenic Hist., p. 115121; 127142. T. B. Bury's Hist.
oI Greece, p. 216229; 240241; 259269; 471472. The Tutorial Hist. oI Greece by W. J.
Woodhouse, c. 18, 20 and 21).
C. The Peloponnesian Wars 460445 B.C. and 431421 B.C.
Owing to the ambitions oI Athens to dominate the Ionians and other neighboring peoples,
Pericles launched a campaign oI alliances and conquests extending Irom Thessaly to Argos, and
Irom Euboea to Naupactus, Achaea and the chieI islands oI the Ionian Sea.
The net results were as Iollows: (a) Athens established alliances with Boeotia, Phocis and Locris,
in spite oI Sparta's opposition. (b) In 456 B.C. Aegina was captured and made tributary. (c) In
450 B.C. Athens Iailed in her attempt to invade Corinth. (d) In 451 Iriendship between Athens
and Sparta was restored through the instrumentality oI Cimon, on the condition that Athenian
alliance with Argos was dissolved. (e) In 447 B.C. the exiled Oligarchs oI Thebes deIeated the
Athenians at Coronea, and reestablished the Boeotian League under Theban leadership. (I) In
445 B.C. the 30 years peace was signed and aIter the revolt oI Euboea and Megara, Sparta
invaded Attica and Pericles sued Ior peace. Athens lost all her continent all her continental
holdings. (SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 13, P. 220).
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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The second Peloponnesian war (431421 B.C.) like that oI the Iirst arose through a general spirit
oI rebellion among the Greek city states against Athenian imperialism, Sparta being the chieI
enemy.
The net results were as Iollows:
(a) In 435 B.C. war between Corcyra and Corinth, Corcyra being aided by Athens.
(b) In 432 B.C.
(1) Athens blockaded Potidaea, because she reIused to dismantle her Southern walls, and dismiss
her Corinthian Magistrates.
(2) Megara was excluded Irom Greek Markets, in order to reduce her to subjection.
(3) The Peloponnesian League planned war against Athens and Boeotia. Phocis and Locris were
to Iight against Athens, Corcyra and a Iew Northern states.
(c) In 431 B.C.
(1) Thebes attacked Plataea, and while a Peloponnesian army occupied Attica, the Athenian Ileet
raided Peloponnesus.
(2) Pericles being unable to deIend Attica adequately transIerred the civil population every
Spring to the area between the walls oI Athens and the Peiraeus. In the meantime the Athenian
Ileet operated against Potidaea, the Peloponnesian coast and Corinthian commerce.
(d) In 428 B.C.
(1) Mitylene and all the cities oI Lesbos revolted.
(2) A brutal massacre oI Oligarchs took place at Corcyra.
(e) In 425 B.C.
(1) A Laconian Iorce at Pylos was captured and a Iort was established through Demosthenes and
Cleon.
(2) Cythera and other stations were IortiIied against the Peloponnesians.
(3) Amphipolis was captured by Brasidas a Spartan, who had instigated rebellion among the
Athenian allies, and aIter Brasdias and Cleon had been killed in battle (422 B.C.), Athens
authorized Nicias to sue Ior peace. (SandIord's Mediterranean World C. 13, P. 220221).
It is obvious Irom a study oI the causes and eIIects oI the Peloponnesian wars that:
(a) The Greek states were envious oI each other and
(b) The desire Ior power and expansion led to constant aggression and warIare among
themselves.
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(c) The condition oI constant warIare between the city states was unIavorable Ior the production
oI philosophers.
BeIore passing on to consider my next proposition I would like to say that it is an accepted truth
that the development oI philosophical thought requires an environment which is Iree Irom
disturbance and worries. The period commonly assigned to Greek philosophy (i.e. Thales to
Aristotle) was exactly the opposite to one oI peace and tranquility, and thereIore it could not be
expected to produce philosophy. The obstacles against the origin and development oI Greek
philosophy, were not only the Irequency oI civil wars; and the constant deIense against Persian
aggression; but also the threat oI extermination Irom the Athenian government, its worst enemy.
(d) Philosophy Requires a Suitable Environment
I must now add the Iollowing quotation which depicts this period. "For although the natural ills
that beset mankind are many, we ourselves have added to them by wars and civil striIe against
one another, so that some have been unjustly put to death in their own cities, others driven into
exile with their wives and children, and many have been compelled, Ior the sake oI their daily
bread, to die Iighting against their own people, Ior the sake oI the enemy". (Isocrates) (BotsIord
& Robinson's Hellenic Hist., c. XIII. Couch's Hist. oI Greece, c. XXII. Bury's Hist. oI Greece, c.
X. The Tutorial Hist. oI Greece by W. J. Woodhouse, c. 27, 28 and 29).
Chapter III: Greek Philosophy was the Offspring of the Egyptian Mystery
System
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The earliest theory oI salvation is the Egyptian theory. The Egyptian Mystery System had as its
most important object, the deiIication oI man, and taught that the soul oI man iI liberated Irom its
bodily Ietters, could enable him to become godlike and see the Gods in this liIe and attain the
beatiIic vision and hold communion with the Immortals (Ancient Mysteries, C. H. Vail, P. 25).
Plotinus deIines this experience as the liberation oI the mind Irom its Iinite consciousness, when
it becomes one and is identiIied with the InIinite. This liberation was not only Ireedom oI the
soul Irom bodily impediments, but also Irom the wheel oI reincarnation or rebirth. It involved a
process oI disciplines or puriIication both Ior the body and the soul. Since the Mystery System
oIIered the salvation oI the soul it also placed great emphasis upon its immortality. The Egyptian
Mystery System, like the modern University, was the centre oI organized culture, and candidates
entered it as the leading source oI ancient culture.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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According to Pietschmann, the Egyptian Mysteries had three grades oI students (1) The Mortals
i.e., probationary students who were being instructed, but who had not yet experienced the inner
vision. (2) The Intelligences, i.e., those who had attained the inner vision, and had received mind
or nous and (3) The Creators or Sons oI Light, who had become identiIied with or united with
the Light (i.e., true spiritual consciousness). W. Marsham Adams, in the "Book oI the Master",
has described those grades as the equivalents oI Initiation, Illumination and PerIection. For years
they underwent disciplinary intellectual exercises, and bodily asceticism with intervals oI tests
and ordeals to determine their Iitness to proceed to the more serious, solemn and awIul process
oI actual Initiation.
Their education consisted not only in the cultivation oI the ten virtues, which were made a
condition to eternal happiness, but also oI the seven Liberal Arts which were intended to liberate
the soul. There was also admission to the Greater Mysteries, where an esoteric philosophy was
taught to those who had demonstrated their proIiciency. (Ancient Mysteries C. H. Vail p. 2425).
Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic were disciplines oI moral nature by means oI which the irrational
tendencies oI a human being were purged away, and he was trained to become a living witness oI
the Divine Logos. Geometry and Arithmetic were sciences oI transcendental space and
numeration, the comprehension oI which provided the key not only to the problems oI one's
being; but also to those physical ones, which are so baIIling today, owing to our use oI the
inductive methods. Astronomy dealt with the knowledge and distribution oI latent Iorces in man,
and the destiny oI individuals, laces and nations. Music (or Harmony) meant the living practice
oI philosophy i.e., the adjustment oI human liIe into harmony with God, until the personal soul
became identiIied with God, when it would hear and participate in the music oI the spheres. It
was therapeutic, and was used by the Egyptian Priests in the cure oI diseases. Such was the
Egyptian theory oI salvation, through which the individual was trained to become godlike while
on earth, and at the same time qualiIied Ior everlasting happiness. This was accomplished
through the eIIorts oI the individual, through the cultivation oI the Arts and Sciences on the one
hand, and a liIe oI virtue on the other. There was no mediator between man and his salvation, as
we Iind in the Christian theory. ReIerence will again be made to these subjects, as part oI the
Curriculum oI the Egyptian Mystery System.
Now that we have outlined the Egyptian theory oI salvation and its purpose, let us examine
Greek philosophy and its purpose in order to discover whether there is an agreement between the
two systems, or not.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
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2. 6&1%7?),$'%#) *+ :3#',&,. @#,F##' ,"# -(./,&$' $'3 A1##B D.),#?)
A. The Indictment and Prosecution of Greek Philosophers
The indictment and prosecution oI Greek philosophers is a circumstance which is Iamiliar to us
all. Several philosophers, one aIter another, were indicted by the Athenian Government, on the
common charge oI introducing strange divinities. Anaxagoras, Socrates, and Aristotle received
similar indictments Ior a similar oIIence. The most Iamous oI these was that against Socrates
which reads as Iollows. "Socrates commits a crime by not believing in the Gods oI the city, and
by introducing other new divinities. He also commits a crime by corrupting the youth". Now, in
order to Iind out what these new divinities were, we must go back to the popular opinion which
Aristophanes (423 B.C.) in the Clouds, aroused against him. It runs as Iollows: "Socrates is an
evildoer, who busies himselI with investigating things beneath the earth and in the sky, and who
makes the worse appear the better reason, and who teaches others these same things (Plato's
Apology C. 110; Aristophanes' Frogs, 1071; Apology 18 B.C., 19 C. Apology 24 B).
It is clear then that Socrates oIIended the Athenian government simply because he pursued the
study oI astronomy and probably that oI geology; and that the other philosophers were
persecuted Ior the same reason. But the study oI science was a required condition to membership
in the Egyptian Mystery System, and its purpose was the liberation oI the Soul Irom the ten
bodily Ietters, and iI the Greek philosophers studied the sciences, then they were IulIilling a
required condition to membership in the Egyptian Mystery System and its purpose; either
through direct contact with Egypt or its schools or lodges outside its territory.
B. A Life of Jirtue was a Condition required bv the Egvptian Mvsteries as Elsewhere Mentioned
The virtues were not mere abstractions or ethical sentiments, but were positive valours and
virility oI the soul. Temperance meant complete control oI the passional nature. Fortitude meant
such courage as would not allow adversity to turn us away Irom our goal. Prudence meant the
deep insight that beIits the Iaculty oI Seership. Justice meant the unswerving righteousness oI
thought and action.
Furthermore, when we compare the two ethical systems, we discover that the greater includes the
less, and that it also suggests the origin oI the latter. In the Egyptian Mysteries the Neophyte was
required to maniIest the Iollowing soul attributes:
(1) Control oI thought and (2) Control oI action, the combination oI which, Plato called Justice
(i.e., the unswerving righteousness oI thought and action). (3) SteadIastness oI purpose, which
was equivalent to Fortitude. (4) Identity with spiritual liIe or the higher ideals, which was
equivalent to Temperance an attribute attained when the individual had gained conquest over the
passional nature.
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(5) Evidence oI having a mission in liIe and (6) Evidence oI a call to spiritual Orders or the
Priesthood in the Mysteries: the combination oI which was equivalent to Prudence or a deep
insight and graveness that beIitted the Iaculty oI Seership.
Other requirements in the ethical system oI the Egyptian Mysteries were:
(7) Freedom Irom resentment, when under the experience oI persecution and wrong. This was
known as courage. (8) ConIidence in the power oI the master (as Teacher), and (9) ConIidence in
one's own ability to learn; both attributes being known as Fidelity. (10) Readiness or
preparedness Ior initiation. There has always been this principle oI the ancient mysteries oI
Egypt: "When the pupil is ready, then the master will appear". This was equivalent to a condition
oI eIIiciency at all times Ior less than this pointed to a weakness. It is now quite clear that Plato
drew the Iour Cardinal virtues Irom the Egyptian ten; also that Greek philosophy is the oIIspring
oI the Egyptian Mystery System.
C. (i) There was a Grand Lodge in Egvpt which had associated Schools and Lodges in the
Ancient world
There were mystery schools, or what we would commonly call lodges in Greece and other lands,
outside oI Egypt, whose work was carried on according to the Osiriaca, the Grand Lodge oI
Egypt. Such schools have Irequently been reIerred to as private or philosophic mysteries, and
their Iounders were Initiates oI the Egyptian Mysteries; the Ionian temple at Didyma; the lodge
oI Euclid at Megara; the lodge oI Pythagoras at Crotona; and the Orphic temple at Delphi, with
the schools oI Plato and Aristotle. Consequently we make a mistake when we suppose that the
so-called Greek philosophers Iormulated new doctrines oI their own; Ior their philosophy had
been handed down by the great Egyptian Hierophants through the Mysteries. (Ancient Mysteries
C. H. Vail p. 59). In addition to the control oI the mysteries, the Grand Lodge permitted an
exchange oI visits between the various lodges, in order to ensure the progress oI the brethren in
the secret science.
We are told in the Timaeus oI Plato, that aspirants Ior mystical wisdom visited Egypt Ior
initiation and were told by the priests oI Sais, "that you Greeks are but children" in the Secret
Doctrine, but were admitted to inIormation enabling them to promote their spiritual
advancement. Likewise, we are told by Jamblichus oI a correspondence between Anebo and
Porphyry, dealing with the Iraternal relations, existing between the various schools or lodges oI
instructions in diIIerent lands, how their members visited, greeted and assisted one another in the
secret science, the more advanced being obliged to aIIord assistance and instruction to their
brethren in the inIerior Orders. (Jamblichus: correspondence between Anebo and Porphyry)
(Plato's Timaeus) (W. L. Wilmshurst on meaning oI Masonry).
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Having stated that the Grand Lodge oI ancient mysteries was situated in Egypt, with jurisdiction
over all lodges and schools oI the ancient world, it now remains to show that such a Grand
Lodge, did actually and physically exist. In doing so, two things are necessary: Iirst, a
description oI the Egyptian temple, oI which our modern mystery lodges (called by diIIerent
names) are copies, and second, a description oI the actual remains oI the Grand and Sublime
Lodge oI Ancient Egypt.
C. (ii) A Description of the Egvptian Temple
Here I quote two authorities on the Egyptian temple, the Iirst, C. H. Vail, on ancient mysteries p.
159 who says "that the Egyptian temples were surrounded with pillars recording the number oI
the constellations and the signs oI the Zodiac or the cycles oI the planets. And each temple was
supposed to be a microcosm or a symbol oI the temple oI the Universe or oI the starry vault
called temple". The next authority is Max Muller, who in his Egyptian Mythology P. 187193,
has described Egyptian temples as Iollows:
"Egvptian temples were made of stone, the outer courts of mud bricks. Wide roads led to the
temples for the convenience of processions, while the immediate entrance was lined with statues,
consisting of sphinxes and other animals. The front wall formed two high tower like buildings,
called pvlons, before which stood two granite obelisks. Immediatelv behind the pvlons came a
large court where the congregation assembled and watched the sacrifices. Immediatelv next to
the hall of the congregation, came the hall of priests, and immediatelv following the hall of the
priests came the final chamber, called the Advtum, i.e., the Holv of Holies, which was entered
onlv bv the high Priest. This was the place of the shrine and the abode of the God. Each temple
was a reproduction of the world. The ceilings were painted to represent the skv and the stars,
while the floor was green and blue like the meadows. Ceremonial cleanliness was at all times
imperative, and the people before entering the temple must carefullv purifv themselves in a
nearbv stream. In later times, this became a ceremonv of sprinkling with holv water before
entrance into the temple".
It is clear Irom the Ioregoing description that not only the modern masonic lodges, are copies oI
the Egyptian temple, but also the ancient ones, Ior there is complete identity in their internal
decoration. But the minor or lower lodges including those outside oI Egypt, must have had a
governing body, and so now, I proceed to quote C. H. Vail, who in his Ancient Mysteries, pages
182 and 183, describes Iully the location and remains oI the Iamous Grand Lodge oI Luxor, as
Iollows:
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C. (iii) The location of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Antiquitv
"At a short distance from Danderah, now called Upper Egvpt, is the most extraordinarv group of
architectural ruins presented in anv part of the world, known as the Temples of the ancient citv
of Thebes. Thebes in its prime occupied a large area on both sides of the Nile. This citv was the
centre of a great commercial nation of Upper Egvpt ages before Memphis was the capital of the
second nation in Lower Egvpt, and however grand the architectural monuments of the latter mav
have been those of the former surpassed them. The portraval bv pencil or brush can convev but a
faint idea of the perfected citv. As the citv stands todav, it is like a citv of giants, who after a long
conflict have been destroved, leaving the ruins of their various temples, as the onlv proof of their
existence "The Temple of Luxor (it was in this temple that the Grand Lodge of Initiates alwavs
met), stands on a raised platform of brickwork covering more than two thousand feet in length
and one thousand feet in breadth (note the oblong shape, which became the pattern for all lodges
and churches in the ancient world). It is the one that interests the members of all Ancient Orders,
especiallv so, all the members of those Orders that worshipped at the Shrine of the Secret Fire,
more than perhaps anv other, and stands on the eastern bank of the Nile. It is in a verv ruined
state, but records sav the stupendous scale of its proportions almost takes awav the sense of its
incompleteness. Up to about a quarter of a centurv ago, the greater part of its columns in the
interior and outer walls had been removed, after falling, for use elsewhere. This temple was
founded bv the Pharaoh Amenothis III, who constructed the southern part, including the heavv
colonnade overlooking the river, but destruction unfortunatelv conceals this fact. The chief
entrance to the Temple looked to the east, while the Holv Chambers at the upper end of the plain
approached the Nile. As mightv as the Temple of Luxor was, it was exceeded in magnitude and
grandeur bv that of Carnak. The distance between these two great structures was a mile and a
half. Along this avenue was a double row of Sphinxes, placed twelve feet apart, and the width of
the avenue was sixtv feet. When in perfect state this avenue presented the most extraordinarv
entrance that the world has ever seen. If we had the power to picture from the field of
imagination the grand processions of Neophvtes constantlv passing through and taking part in
the ceremonies of Initiation, we would be powerless to produce the grandeur of the
surroundings, and the imposing sight of colour and magnificent trappings of those who took
part. Neither can we produce the music that kept the vast number of people in steadv marching
order. Crude it might have been to the cultivated ear of the 20th centurv. But could not the
palpitating strain sung bv massed voices on the lapse of time, whose historv launches the
profoundest aspirations of the human heart, like the trend of a mightv river, because the grand
currents of Universal Law, imparting the desire to that Shadowv Past, as it steps forth from the
pages of historv, dim with age? Egvpt must have been, when these Temples were built, a martial
nation for records of her warlike deeds are perpetuated in deeplv engraved tablets which even
now, excite the admiration of the best Judges of archaeological remains. She was also a highlv
civili:ed nation, and of a nature that could bear the expenditure which alwavs attends the culture
of the Arts. She surpassed in her astonishing architecture, all other nations that have existed
upon the earth."
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I am Iully convinced by these reIerences and quotations that an Egyptian Grand Lodge oI ancient
mysteries actually existed some Iive thousand years ago or more, on the banks oI the Nile in the
city oI Thebes, and that it was the only Grand Lodge oI the Ancient World whose ruins have
been Iound in Egypt, and that it was the governing body which necessarily controlled the ancient
mysteries together with the philosophical Schools and minor Lodges wherever they happened to
have been organized.
C. (iv) The Rebuilding of the Temple of Delphi
The temple oI Delphi was burnt down in 548 B.C. and it was King Amasis oI Egypt, who rebuilt
it Ior the brethren, by donating three times as much as was needed, in the sum oI one thousand
talents, and 50,000 lbs. oI alum. According to inIormation at hand, the temple had organized its
members into an amphictyonic league Ior protection against political and other Iorms oI
violence; but they were too poor to raise suIIicient Iunds Irom the membership, and they decided
upon a public contribution Irom the citizens oI Greece.
Accordingly they wandered throughout the land soliciting aid, but Iailed in their eIIorts. Having
decided to visit the brethren in Egypt, they approached King Amasis, who as Grand Master,
unhesitatingly oIIered to rebuild the Temple, and donated more than three times as much as was
needed Ior the purpose.
Here it would be well to note that: (1) the Greeks regarded the Temple oI Delphi as a Ioreign
institution, hence (2) they were unsympathetic towards it and Ior the same reason destroyed it by
Iire. (3) Clearly, the Temple oI Delphi was a branch oI the Egyptian Mystery System, projected
in Greece. SandIord's Mediterranean World p. 135; 139. John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt Bk. II.
P. 363.
3. !"# 9@*<&,&*' *+ A1##B C"&<*)*/". ,*(#,"#1 F&," ,"# -(./,&$' 0.),#1&#)
From the conquest oI Egypt by Alexander the Great, the Greeks, who were always attracted by
the mysterious worship oI the Nile-land, began to imitate the Egyptian religion in its entirety;
and during the Roman occupation, the Egyptian religion spread not only to Italy: but throughout
the Roman Empire, including Brittany.
This assimilation oI the Egyptian religion was conIined to the Gods oI the Osirian cycle and the
Graeco-Egyptian Serapis, and aimed at a close imitation oI the ancient traditions oI the Nile-
land. Owing to the splendor oI architecture, the hieroglyphs oI the temples, the obelisks and
sphinxes beIore the shrines, the linen vestments and the shaven heads and Iaces oI the priests, the
endless and obscure ritual, Iilled the Greeks with awe, and wonderIul mysteries were
consequently believed to have underlain these incomprehensible, and the Egyptian religion stood
in the way oI the rising Christianity.
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The success oI the Egyptian religion was due no doubt, on the one hand to its conservatism;
while on the other to the shadowy philosophical abstractions which constituted Graeco-Roman
religion, so that the staunch Iaith oI the Egyptians, together with their mysterious Iorms oI
worship, led to the universal conviction among the Ancients, that Egypt was not only the Holy
Land but the Holiest oI lands or countries, and that indeed, the Gods dwelt there.
The Nile became a centre Ior pilgrimages in the ancient world, and the pilgrims who went there
and experienced the marvelous revelations and spiritual blessings which it aIIorded them,
returned home with the conviction that the Nile was the home oI the most proIound religious
knowledge.
The Greeks Iailed to imitate Egyptian conservatism and not only in Egyptian cities, with large
Greek population, but in Europe, Egyptian divinities were corrupted with Greek and Asiatic
names and mythologies and reduced to vague pantheistic personalities, so that Isis and Osiris had
retained very little oI their Egyptian origin. (Max Muller p. 24143; Egyptian Mythology).
Consequently, as they Iailed to advance Egyptian Philosophy, so they also Iailed to advance
Egyptian religion.
During the Iirst Iour centuries oI the Christian era, the religion oI Egypt continued unabated and
uninterrupted, but aIter the Edict oI Theodosius at the end oI the Iourth century A.D., ordering
the close oI Egyptian temples, Christianity began to spread more rapidly and both the religion oI
Egypt and that oI Greece began to die. In the island oI Philae, in the Iirst cataract oI the Nile,
however, the Egyptian religion was continued by its inhabitants, the Blemmyans and Nobadians,
who reIused to accept Christianity and the Roman government Iearing a rebellion, paid tribute to
them as an appeasement.
During the sixth century A.D., however, Justinian issued a second edict which suppressed this
remnant oI Egyptian worshippers and propagated Christianity among the Nubians. With the
death oI the last priest, who could read and interpret "the writings oI the words oI the Gods" (the
hieroglyphics) the Egyptian Iaith sank into oblivion. It was only in popular magic that some
practices lingered on as traces oI a Iaith that became a universal religion, or the survival oI a
statue oI Isis and Horus, which were regarded as the Madonna and Child.
A sentiment oI admiration and awe Ior this strangest oI all religions still survived, but the
inIormation Irom classical writers concerning this Iaith has been incomplete. Napoleon's
invasion oI Egypt brought a revival oI interest Irom the West to decipher her inscriptions and
papyri with a view to an understanding and appreciation oI this most ancient oI civilizations.
(Mythology oI Egypt by Max Muller C. XIII p. 241245; The Mediterranean World by
SandIord, p. 508, 548, 552558, 568).
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We learn the Iollowing Iacts Irom the above quotations:
(i) The Egyptian Mysteries had become the Ancient World Religion, spreading throughout the
Roman Empire and including Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, and various parts oI Europe including
Brittany. This continued under diIIerent names, long aIter Justinian's Edict oI toleration granted
to the Christians.
(ii) Egypt was the Holy Land oI the ancient world, that pilgrimages were made to that land
because oI the marvellous revelations and spiritual blessings which it aIIorded the ancient
peoples, and because oI the universal conviction among the Ancients that Egypt was the land oI
the Gods.
(iii) The Edicts oI Theodosius in the Iourth century A. D, and that oI Justinian in the sixth
century A.D. abolished alike not only the Mystery system oI Egypt, but also its philosophical
schools, located in Greece and elsewhere, outside Egypt.
(iv) The abolition oI the Egyptian Mysteries was to create an opportunity Ior the adoption oI
Christianity. This was the problem: the Roman government Ielt that Egypt was now conquered in
arms and reduced to her knees, but in order to make the conquest complete, it would be
necessary to abolish the Mysteries which still controlled the religious mind oI the ancient world.
(v) There must be a New World Religion to take the place oI the Egyptian religion. This New
Religion, which should take the place oI the Mysteries, must be equally powerIul and universal,
and consequently everything possible must be done in order to promote its interests.
This explains the rapid growth oI Christianity Iollowing Justinian's Edict oI toleration. Since the
Edicts oI Theodosius and Justinian abolished both the Mysteries oI Egypt and the schools oI
Greek philosophy alike, it shows that the nature oI the Egyptian Mysteries and Greek philosophy
was identical and that Greek philosophy grew out oI the Egyptian Mysteries.
4. E*F ,"# 9+1&%$' 6*',&'#', ($;# &,) %7<,71# ,* ,"# P#),#1' P*1<3
As mentioned elsewhere, the Egyptian Mysteries and the philosophical schools oI Greece were
closed by the edicts oI Theodosius in the 4th century A.D. and that oI Justinian in the 6th century
A.D. (i.e., 529); and as a consequence, intellectual darkness spread over Christian Europe and the
Graeco-Roman world Ior ten centuries; during which time, knowledge had disappeared. As
stated elsewhere, the Greeks showed no creative powers, and were unable to improve upon the
knowledge which they had received Irom the Egyptians (Hist. oI Science by Sedgwick and Tyler
p. 141; 153; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. Introduction p. 31).
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During the Persian, Greek and Roman invasions, large numbers oI Egyptians Iled not only to the
desert and mountain regions, but also to adjacent lands in AIrica, Arabia and Asia Minor, where
they lived, and secretly developed the teachings which belonged to their mystery system. In the
8th century A.D. the Moors, i.e., natives oI Mauritania in North AIrica, invaded Spain and took
with them, the Egyptian culture which they had preserved. Knowledge in the ancient days was
centralized i.e., it belonged to a common parent and system, i.e., the Wisdom Teaching or
Mysteries oI Egypt, which the Greeks used to call Sophia.
As such, the people oI North AIrica were the neighbors oI the Egyptians, and became the
custodians oI Egyptian culture, which they spread through considerable portions oI AIrica, Asia
Minor and Europe. During their occupation oI Spain, the Moors displayed with considerable
credit, the grandeur oI AIrican culture and civilization. The schools and libraries which they
established became Iamous throughout the Mediaeval world; Science and learning were
cultivated and taught; the schools oI Cordova, Toledo, Seville and Saragossa attained such
celebrity, that they, like their parent Egypt, attracted students Irom all parts oI the Western
world; and Irom them arose the most Iamous AIrican proIessors that the world has ever known,
in medicine, surgery, astronomy and mathematics. But these people Irom North AIrica did more
than merely distinguish themselves in Spain. They were really the recognized custodians oI
AIrican culture, to whom the world looked Ior enlightenment. Consequently, through the
medium oI the ancient Arabic language, philosophy and the various branches oI science were
disseminated: (a) all the so-called works oI Aristotle in metaphysics, moral philosophy and
natural science (b) translations by Leonardo Pisano in Arabic mathematical science (c)
translation by Gideo a Monk oI Arezzo in musical notation. (Sedgwick and Tyler's Hist. oI
Science C. IX.)
In addition, the Moors kept up constant contact with mother Egypt: Ior they had established
Caliphates not only at Baghdad and Cordova, but also at Cairo in Egypt. (Europe in the Middle
Ages by Ault p. 216219). Just here it would be well to mention that all the great leaders oI the
great religions oI antiquity were Initiates oI the Egyptian Mystery System: Irom Moses, who was
an Egyptian Hierogrammat, down to Christ.
It should also be oI interest to know that European scientists like Roger Bacon, Johann Kepler,
Copernicus and others obtained their science through Arab or Berber sources. It is also
noteworthy that throughout the Middle Ages, European knowledge oI medicine came Irom these
same sources. (History oI The Arabs, by Hitti pages 370, 629, 665 and 572). (Philo; Esoteric
Christianity by Annie Besant p. 107; 128129; Ancient Mysteries by C. H. Vail p. 59; 61; 7475;
109).
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CHAPTER IV
The Egyptians Educated the Greeks
1. The EIIects oI the Persian Conquest
A. Immigration restrictions against the Greeks are removed and Egvpt is thrown open to Greek
research.
Owing to the practice oI piracy, in which the Ionians and Carians were active, the Egyptians
were Iorced to make immigration laws restricting the immigration oI the Greeks and punishing
their inIringement by capital punishment, i.e., the sacriIice oI the victim. BeIore the time oI
Psammitichus, the Greeks were not allowed to go beyond the coast oI Lower Egypt, but during
his reign and that oI Amasis, those conditions were modiIied. For the Iirst time in Egyptian
history Ionians and Carians were employed as Mercenaries in the Egyptian Army (670 B.C.),
interpretation was organized through a body oI interpreters, and the Greeks began to gain useIul
inIormation concerning the culture oI the Egyptians.
In addition to these changes, King Amasis removed the restrictions against the Greeks and
permitted them to enter Egypt and settle in Naucratis. About this same time, i.e., the reign oI
Amasis, the Persians, through Cambyses invaded Egypt, and the whole country was thrown open
to the researches oI the Greeks.
B. The Genesis of Greek Enlightenment.
The Persian invasion, did not only provide the Greeks with ample research, but stimulated the
creation oI prose history in Ionia. HeretoIore, the Greeks had little or no accurate knowledge oI
Egyptian culture: but their contact with Egypt resulted in the genesis oI their enlightenment.
(Ovid Fasti III 338; Herodotus Bk. II p. 113; Plutarch p. 380; Eratosthenes ap Strabo 801802;
Diogenes Bk. IX 49).
C. Students from Ionia and the Islands of the Aegean visit Egvpt for their Education.
Just as in our modern times, countries like the United States, England, and France are attracting
students Irom all parts oI the world, on account oI their leadership in culture; so was it in ancient
times, Egypt was supreme in the leadership oI civilization, and students Irom all parts, Ilocked to
that land, seeking admission into her mysteries or wisdom system.
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The immigration oI Greeks to Egypt Ior the purpose oI their education, began as a result oI the
Persian invasion (525 B.C.), and continued until the Greeks gained possession oI that land and
access to the Royal Library, through the conquest oI Alexander the Great. Alexandria was
converted into a Greek city, a centre oI research and the capital oI the newly created Greek
empire, under the rule oI Ptolemies. Egyptian culture survived and Ilourished, under the name
and control oI the Greeks, until the edicts oI Theodosius in the 4th century A.D., and that oI
Justinian in the 6th century A.D., which closed the Mystery Temples and Schools, as elsewhere
mentioned. (Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick Bk. II p. 55; SandIord's Mediterranean World p.
562; 570).
Concerning the Iact that Egypt was the greatest education centre oI the ancient world which was
also visited by the Greeks, reIerence must again be made to Plato in the Timaeus who tells us
that Greek aspirants to wisdom visited Egypt Ior initiation, and that the priests oI Sais used to
reIer to them as children in the Mysteries.
As regards the visit oI Greek students to Egypt Ior the purpose oI their education, the Iollowing
are mentioned simply to establish the Iact that Egypt was regarded as the educational centre oI
the ancient world and that like the Jews, the Greeks also visited Egypt and received their
education. (1) It is said that during the reign oI Amasis, Thales who is said to have been born
about 585 B.C., visited Egypt and was initiated by the Egyptian Priests into the Mystery System
and science oI the Egyptians. We are also told that during his residence in Egypt, he learnt
astronomy, land surveying, mensuration, engineering and Egyptian Theology. (See Thales in
Blackwell's source book oI Philosophy; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil.; Diogenes Laertius and Kendrick's
Ancient Egypt).
(2) It is said that Pythagoras, a native oI Samos, travelled Irequently to Egypt Ior the purpose oI
his education. Like every aspirant, he had to secure the consent and Iavour oI the Priests, and we
are inIormed by Diogenes that a Iriendship existed between Polycrates oI Samos and Amasis
King oI Egypt, that Polycrates gave Pythagoras letters oI introduction to the King, who secured
Ior him an introduction to the Priests; Iirst to the Priest oI Heliopolis, then to the Priest oI
Memphis, and lastly to the Priests oI Thebes, to each oI whom Pythagoras gave a silver goblet.
(Herodotus Bk. III 124; Diogenes VIII 3; Pliny N. H., 36, 9; Antipho recorded by Porphyry).
We are also Iurther inIormed through Herodotus, Jablonsk and Pliny, that aIter severe trials,
including circumcision, had been imposed upon him by the Egyptian Priests, he was Iinally
initiated into all their secrets. That he learnt the doctrine oI metempsychosis; oI which there was
no trace beIore in the Greek religion; that his knowledge oI medicine and strict system oI dietetic
rules, distinguished him as a product oI Egypt, where medicine had attained its highest
perIection; and that his attainments in geometry corresponded with the ascertained Iact that
Egypt was the birth place oI that Science.
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In addition we have the statements oI Plutarch, Demetrius and Antisthenes that Pythagoras
Iounded the Science oI Mathematics among the Greeks, and that he sacriIiced to the Muses,
when the Priests explained to him the properties oI the right angled triangle. (Philarch de
Repugn. Stoic 2 p. 1089; Demetrius; Antisthenes; Cicero de Natura Deorum III, 36). Pythagoras
was also trained in music by the Egyptian priests. (Kendrick's Hist. oI Ancient Egypt vol. I. p.
234).
(3) According to Diogenes Laertius and Herodotus, Democritus is said to have been born about
400 B.C. and to have been a native oI Abdera in Miletus. We are also told by Demetrius in his
treatise on "People oI the Same Name", and by Antisthenes in his treatise on "Succession", that
Democritus travelled to Egypt Ior the purpose oI his education and received the instruction oI the
Priests. We also learn Irom Diogenes and Herodotus that he spent Iive years under the instruction
oI the Egyptian Priests and that aIter the completion oI his education, he wrote a treatise on the
sacred characters oI Meroe.
In this respect we Iurther learn Irom Origen, that circumcision was compulsory, and one oI the
necessary conditions oI initiation to a knowledge oI the hieroglyphics and sciences oI the
Egyptians, and it is obvious that Democritus, in order to obtain such knowledge, must have
submitted also to that rite. Origen, who was a native oI Egypt wrote as Iollows: "Apud Aegyptios
nullus aut geometrica studebat, aut astronomiae secreta remabatur, nisi circumcisione suscepta."
(No one among the Egyptians, either studied geometry, or investigated the secrets oI Astronomy,
unless circumcision had been undertaken).
(4) Concerning Plato's travels we are told by Hermodorus that at the age oI 28 Plato visited
Euclid at Megara in company with other pupils oI Socrates; and that Ior the next ten years he
visited Cyrene, Italy and Iinally Egypt, where he received instruction Irom the Egyptian Priests.
(5) With regards to Socrates and Aristotle and the majority oI pre-Socratic philosophers, history
seems to be silent on the question oI their travelling to Egypt like the Iew other students here
mentioned, Ior the purpose oI their education. It is enough to say, that in this case the exceptions
have proved the rule, that ail students, who had the means, went to Egypt to complete their
education. The Iact that history Iails to supply a Iuller account oI this type oI immigration, might
be due to some or all oI the Iollowing reasons:
(a) The immigration laws against the Greeks up to the time oI King Amasis and the Persian
Invasion, (b) Prose history was undeveloped among the Greeks during the period oI their
educational immigration to Egypt. (c) The Greek authorities persecuted and drove students oI
philosophy into hiding and consequently, (d) Students oI the Mystery System concealed their
movements.
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Let us remember that Anaxagoras was indicted and imprisoned; that he escaped and Iled to his
home in Ionia, that Socrates was indicted, imprisoned and condemned to death; and that both
Plato and Aristotle Iled Irom Athens under great suspicion (William Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 62;
Plato's Phaedo; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 84; 127; Roger's Hist. oI Phil. p. 76; William Turner's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 126).
2. The EIIects oI the Conquest oI Egypt by Alexander the Great
A. The Roval Librarv and Museum together with Temples and other Libraries are Looted.
As elsewhere mentioned, it was an ancient custom oI invading armies to loot libraries and
temples in order to capture books and manuscripts, which were regarded as great treasures. A
Iew instances would be enough to veriIy this custom: (a) we are inIormed that during the Persian
Invasion beginning with Cambyses, the temples oI Egypt were not only stripped oI their gold and
silver, but riIled Ior their ancient records. Every Egyptian Temple carried a secret library with
secret manuscripts and books. (b) We are also inIormed that when Athens was captured by the
Romans in 84 B.C. the library oI books said to have belonged to Aristotle was also captured and
taken to Rome. (William Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 128; John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt vol. II p.
432).
Just as in the invasion oI Egypt by the Persians, the invading armies stripped the temples oI their
gold, silver and sacred books; and just as in the capture oI Athens by the Romans Sulla carried
oII the only library oI books which he Iound; so it is to be expected oI Alexander the Great, in
his invasion oI Egypt. One oI the Iirst things that he and his companions and armies would do,
would be to search Ior the treasures oI the land and capture them. These were kept in temples
and libraries and consisted oI gold and silver out oI which the gods and ceremonial vessels were
made, and sacred books and, manuscripts kept both in libraries and in the "Holy oI Holies" oI
Temples.
It is my Iirm belieI that this indeed was the great opportunity which Alexander gave Aristotle
and enabled him and his pupils to carry oII as many books as they wanted Irom the Royal
Library and to convert it into a research centre. Apart Irom the Royal Library at Alexandria,
there was also another Iamous library nearby: The "Royal Library oI Thebes"; "The
Menephtheion", which was Iounded by Pharaoh, Setei. The Menephtheion was completed by
Rameses II; but little occurs in history about this greatest oI Egyptian Royal Libraries.
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However, any invading army would Iirst loot the Royal Library oI Alexandria and then would
turn their attention to the Menephtheion at Thebes. They would also visit the cities oI Memphis
and Heliopolis and likewise loot their libraries and temples. This was the ancient custom and
certainly one oI the ways in which the Greeks received their education Irom Egyptians.
(Egyptian Mythology by Max Muller p. 187189; 205; Diodorus 16, 51; Bunsen I p. 27; Ancient
Egypt by John Kendrick vol. II 56; 432433).
It is thereIore an erroneous belieI that the Greeks, on Egyptian soil, and through their own native
ability, set up a great university at Alexandria and turned out great scholars. On the other hand,
since it is a well known Iact that Egypt was the land oI temples and libraries, we can see how
comparatively easy it was Ior the Greeks to strip other Egyptian libraries oI their books in order
to maintain the new Library at Alexandria, aIter it had been already looted by Aristotle and his
pupils. The Greeks (i.e., Alexander the Great, Aristotle's school and the succeeding Ptolemies)
converted the Royal Library oI Alexandria into a research centre, by transIerring Aristotle's
school and pupils Irom Athens to this great Egyptian Library, and thereIore the students who
studied there received instructions Irom Egyptian priests and teachers, until they died out. The
diIIiculty oI language and interpretation made it imperative Ior the Greeks to use Egyptian
teachers.
The Greeks did not carry culture and learning to Egypt, but Iound it already there, and wisely
settled in that country, in order to absorb as much as possible oI its culture.
B. The Roval Librarv of Thebes. The Menephtheion is described. It was also looted bv invading
armies.
But when we read a brieI sketch oI the magniIicence oI the Theban Royal Library; The
Menephtheion, we even see a better picture and are bound to admit that Egypt was the store
house oI ancient culture and that that culture was preserved in the Iorm oI literature stored away
in her great libraries and temples. Great as the Royal Library oI Alexandria might have been, we
see in the Theban Royal Library something Iar more magniIicent and Iar more representative oI
the true greatness oI our Ancient Egypt.
On the leIt oI the steps leading to the second court, there is still seen the pedestal oI the
enormous granite statue oI Rameses; the largest, that ever existed in Egypt, according to
Diodorus. Its height has been calculated at IiIty-Iour Ieet, and its weight, at 887/ tons; a marvel
to the modern mind. The interior Iace oI the wall oI the pylon represents the wars oI Rameses III.
The Osiride pillars oI the second court are the monolithal Iigures, sixteen cubits in height,
supplying the place oI columns, and at the Ioot oI the steps leading Irom the court to the next hall
beyond, there were two sitting statues oI the King. The head oI one oI these was oI red granite,
known by the name oI "Young Memon", was taken away by Belzoni, and is now a principal
ornament oI the British Museum.
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Beyond this are the remains oI a hall 133 Ieet broad by 100 Ieet long, supported by 48 columns,
twelve oI which are thirty-two Ieet in height and 21 Ieet in circumIerence. On diIIerent parts oI
the columns, and the walls are represented acts oI homage by the king to the principal Deities oI
the Theban Pantheon, and the gracious promises which they make him in return.
In another sculpture the two chieI Divinities oI Egypt invest him with the emblems oI military
and civil dominion, i.e., the Scimitar, the Scourge and the Pedum. Beneath, the twenty-three sons
oI Rameses appear in procession, bearing the emblems oI their respective high oIIices in the
state, their names being inscribed above them. Nine smaller apartments, two oI them still
preserved, and supported by columns, lay behind the hall. On the jambs oI the Iirst oI these
apartments are sculptured Thoth: the Inventor oI Letters, and the Goddess SaI, with the title oI
'Lady oI Letters'; and 'President oI the Hall oI Books', accompanied the Iormer with an emblem
oI the sense oI sight, and the latter oI hearing.
There is no doubt that this is the "Sacred Library" which Diodorus describes as the inscribed
"Dispensary oI the Mind". It had an astronomical ceiling, in which the twelve Egyptian months
are represented, with an inscription Irom which important inIerences have been drawn respecting
the chronology oI the reign oI Rameses III.
On the walls is a procession oI priests, carrying the Sacred Arts, and in the next apartment, the
last that now remains, the king is presenting oIIerings to the various Divinities. (Ancient Egypt
by J. Kendrick Bk. I p. 128131. Report oI French Commission).
C. Museum and the Librarv of Alexander were used as a Universitv.
The Museum and Library oI Alexandria were so Iamous in ancient times, that we wonder why
more inIormation concerning this centre oI learning, has not come down to us. A Iew reIerences
to authoritative sources might no doubt help to enlighten us on this matter. From Sedgwick's and
Tyler's History oI Science, chapter 5 pages 87119, we learn that the subjugation oI Egypt by
Alexander the Great in 330 B.C. had checked the Iurther development oI Greek civilization on
its native soil.
That aIter the death oI Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., his vast empire was divided among his
generals, and that Alexandria, the new Egyptian capital Iell to Ptolemy. That the city, barely ten
years old, soon became the centre oI the learned world, and that by 300 B.C., the Museum (i.e.,
the seat oI the Muses), was Iounded, and became a veritable university oI Greek learning. That to
the Museum was attached a great library, with a dining hall and lecture rooms Ior proIessors, and
this became a school oI philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers. Here Ior the next 700
years, science had its chieI abiding place.
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Here however, it should be remembered that the above statement oI Sedgwick and Tyler is
misleading, since the Greeks did not carry a civilization oI their own to Egypt, but on the
contrary Iound a very highly developed Egyptian culture, the survival oI which was maintained
by the use oI Egyptian Priests and Scholars as teachers.
D. A Militarv Policv of the Greeks to Commandeer Information from the Egvptians was put in
operation.
One oI the military policies adopted by the Greek military authorities at Alexandria was the issue
oI commands to the leading Egyptian Priests Ior inIormation concerning the Egyptian history,
philosophy and religion. As a custom this is no less ancient than modern, since it is also a custom
in modern times Ior victorious armies to conIer with the men oI science oI an invaded country, in
order to discover whether or not, there is anything new in the Iield oI science, which they might
possess. We would recall how at the end oI World War II, the American scientists conIerred with
the Japanese scientists at Tokio. Accordingly, we are told that Ptolemy I Soter, in order to elicit
the secrets oI Egyptian wisdom or mystery system, ordered Manetho, the High Priest oI the
temple oI Isis at Sebennytus in Lower Egypt, to write the philosophy, and the history oI the
religion oI the Egyptians.
Accordingly, Manetho published several volumes concerning these respective Iields, and
Ptolemy issued an order prohibiting the translation oI these books which had to be kept on
reserve in the Library, Ior instruction oI the Greeks by the Egyptian Priests. Here it becomes
quite clear that the Iirst proIessors oI the Alexandrine School were the Egyptian Priests, and that
the Scholarchs and pupils oI Aristotle's transIerred school, received their training directly Irom
the Egyptian Priests. It is also well to note that the chieI text books oI the Alexandrine School
were Manetho's books.
We are told by Apollodorus Irom whom Syncellus drew his inIormation, that Ptolemy II ordered
Eratosthenes, the Cyrenean (i.e., a black man and native oI Cyrene) and librarian oI the
Alexandrine Library, to write a chronology oI the Theban Kings, and that Eratosthenes did so
with the aid oI the Egyptian Hierophants at Thebes (Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick vol. II p.
81; Apollodorus; Syncellus; Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, sub anno).
Furthermore, it became the custom during the Greek and Roman occupation to use the services
oI Egyptian Priests and Scholars, as proIessors at the Alexandrine School. We are told that
during the reign oI Theodosius (378395 A.D.), the Egyptian ProIessor Horapollo wrote a
system oI the Egyptian hieroglyphics: The Hieroglyphica oI Horapollo, which has been regarded
as the best that has come down to modern times. We are also told that this proIessor taught not
only at the Alexandrine School, but also at that oI Constantinople. (John Kendrick's Ancient
Egypt Bk. I p. 242; Leeman's Amstelod, 1935 translated by Cory).
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3. The Egyptians Were the First to Civilize the Greeks
Greece was Iirst civilized by colonies Irom Egypt, then Irom Phoenicia and Thrace. These were
under the government oI wise men, who not only subdued the Ierocity oI an ignorant populace
by civil institutions, but also cast about them the strong chain oI religion and the Iear oI the gods.
Whatever dogmas they had been taught in their respective countries, concerning things divine
and human, they delivered to these newly Iormed societies, with the object oI bringing them
under the restraint oI virtuous discipline. Phoroneus and Cecrops were Egyptians, Cadmus a
Phoenician and Orpheus a Thracian, and each oI them, through their colonies carried into Greece
the religious and philosophical tenets oI his respective country.
The practice oI teaching the doctrines oI religion to people under the guise oI myths originated
Irom the Egyptians and was adopted by the Phoenicians and Thracians, and subsequently
introduced to the Greeks.
According to Strabo, it was not possible in ancient times to lead a promiscuous multitude to
religion and virtue by philosophical harangues. This could be eIIected only by the aid oI
superstition, by prodigies and Iables. The thunder bolt, the aegis, the trident, the spear, torches
and snakes were the instruments made use oI by the Iounders oI States, to terriIy the ignorant and
vulgar into subjection. These reIerences must speak Ior themselves.
Cheops and Cecrops were the names which the Greeks used Ior the Egyptian KhuIu, who
belonged to the 4th Dynasty oI the Egyptians or the pyramid age, i.e., 2800 B.C. (Strabo Bk. I;
Brucker's Historia Critica Philosophiae with translation by Wm. EnIield: Bk. II p. 62).
4. Alexander Visits the Oracle oI Ammon in the Oasis oI Siwah
No discussion on Alexander's invasion oI Egypt would be complete without reIerence to his
Iamous visit to the Oracle oI Ammon, situated in the Oasis oI Siwah. Alexander had placed a
garrison in Pelusium, whence he marched through the desert along the eastern bank oI the Nile to
Heliopolis where he crossed the river to Memphis, where his Ileet had been awaiting him, and
where he was welcomed by the Egyptians and crowned as Pharaoh. Having sacriIiced to Apis
and other Gods, Alexander descended the Nile by the Canopic branch and set out on his journey
to the Oracle oI Ammon in the Oasis oI Siwah. His route was along the coast oI Libya, as Iar as
Paraetonium, whence he marched through the desert to the Oasis oI Siwah. What do we suppose
was Alexander's motive Ior visiting the Temple oI Ammon? Perhaps a brieI description oI the
religious and economic importance oI Heliopolis, Memphis, Thebes and Ammonium might help
us to determine what it was.
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In the Iirst place these cities were strongholds oI the Egyptian religion, where there were many
rich temples, schools and Priests, and thereIore were representative oI the Egyptian religious liIe.
In the second place these cities were centers oI education, and aIter the Persian invasion, Greek
students who travelled to Egypt Ior the purpose oI their education received their training Irom
the Priests oI one or all oI these cities, as elsewhere mentioned.
When Pythagoras went to Egypt, he carried a letter oI introduction Irom Polycrates oI Samos to
King Amasis, who in turn gave him letters oI introduction to the Priests oI Heliopolis, Memphis,
and Thebes. As centres oI education, the temples and libraries oI these cities contained very
valuable books; and in the third place, these regions had previously been captured by the
Persians Ior the very Iact oI their wealth. This should explain why they included these districts in
their Satrapy which paid them an enormous annual tribute amounting to 700 talents oI gold,
together with the produce oI the Iisheries oI Lake Moeris which amounted to a talent a day,
during the six months that the water Ilowed in Irom the Nile; and a third part oI that sum, during
the aIIlux. In addition Egypt Iurnished 120 thousand medicini oI corn as rations Ior the Persian
troops who were stationed in the White Fort oI Memphis. The equivalent oI this tribute was 170
thousand pounds sterling, and shows the underlying motive not only oI the Persian invading
armies, but also oI all invading armies oI antiquity. In the case oI Alexander there is no
exception.
According to history, the Persians were in occupation oI Egypt, and Alexander having mustered
superior Iorces, went there and drove them out and took possession himselI. May I ask this
question: was this a joke, or was there a motive? And iI there was a motive, what else could it
have been but that Alexander wanted the wealth in books, gold, silver, ivory, slaves, and tribute
which the Persians were extorting Irom the unIortunate Egyptians?
In ancient times, the Oracle oI Ammon at Siwah was the most celebrated, and Heliopolis,
Memphis and Thebes were representatives oI the best oI Egyptian culture. (John Kendrick's
Ancient Egypt Book II P. 433435; Diodorus 15, 16. Herodotus Book III P. 124; Diogenes
Laertius Book VIII; Timaeus oI Plato; Pliny N. H. XXXVI 9; Antiphon recorded by Porphyry).
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CHAPTER V
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers and the Teachings Ascribed to Them
It is absolutely necessary here in chapters V and VI to mention the doctrines oI the so called
Greek philosophers in order to convince my readers oI their Egyptian origin which is shown in
the summaries oI conclusions which Iollow these teachings. It is also necessary to mention them
so as to serve the purpose oI reIerence and to meet the convenience oI readers.
I. The Earlier Ionian School
This Group consisted oI (i) Thales (ii) Anaximander and (iii) Anaximenes. (i) Thales, supposed
to have lived 620546 B.C. and a native oI Miletus, is credited by Aristotle, with teaching that
(a) water is the source oI all living things, and (b) all things are Iull oI God.
Both history and tradition are silent as to how Thales arrived at his conclusions, except that
Aristotle attempts to oIIer his opinion as a reason: that is that Thales must have been inIluenced
by the consideration oI the moisture oI nutriment, and based his conclusion on a rationalistic
interpretation oI the myth oI Oceanus. This however is regarded as mere conjecture on the part
oI Aristotle. (Turner's History oI Philosophy, p. 34).
(ii) Anaximander, supposed to have been born 610 B.C. at Miletus, is credited with the teaching
that, the origin oI all things is "the InIinite", or the Unlimited (i.e., apeiron), or the Boundless.
The Apeiron is regarded as equivalent to the modern notion oI space, and the mythological
notion oI chaos.
Both history and tradition are silent as to how Anaximander arrived at his conclusion: but here
again we Iind Aristotle oIIering his opinion as a reason, i.e., that Anaximander must have
supposed that change destroys matter, and that unless the substratum oI change is limitless,
change must at sometime cease. This opinion is oI course, mere conjecture, on the part oI
Aristotle. (Turners History oI Philosophy, p. 3536).
(iii) Anaximenes, also a native oI Miletus, and supposed to have died in 528 B.C., is credited
with the teaching that all things originated Irom air.
Both history and tradition are silent as to how Anaximenes arrived at his conclusion; and all
attempts to Iurnish a reason are regarded as mere conjecture. (Turner's History oI Philosophy, p.
3738).
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2. Pythagoras
Born in the Aegean Island oI Samos, supposedly in 530 B.C.; the Iollowing doctrines have been
attributed to Pythagoras:
(i) Transmigration, the immortality oI the soul and salvation.
This salvation is based upon certain belieIs concerning the soul. True liIe is not to be Iound here
on earth, and what men call liIe is really death, and the body is the tomb oI the soul. Owing to
the contamination caused by the soul's imprisonment in the body, it is Iorced to pass through an
indeIinite series oI re-incarnations: Irom the body oI one animal, to that oI another, until it is
purged Irom such contamination. Salvation, in this sense, consists oI the Ireedom oI the soul
Irom the "cycle oI birth, death and rebirth", which is common to every soul, and which condition
must remain until puriIication or purgation is completed.
Being liberated Irom the ten chains oI the Ilesh, and also Irom successive re-incarnations, the
soul now acquires her pristine perIection, and the eligibility to join the company oI the Gods,
with whom she dwells Iorever. This was the reward which the Pythagorean System oIIered its
initiates.
(ii) The doctrines of (a) Opposites, (b) the Summum Bonum, or Supreme Good, and (c) the
process of purification.
(a) The Union oI opposites creates harmony in the universe. This is true in the case oI musical
sounds, such as we Iind in the lyre: where the harmony produced is the result oI the mean
proportional relation between the lengths oI the two middle strings to that oI the two extremes.
This is also true in natural phenomena, which are identiIied with number, whose elements consist
oI the odd and the even. Thus, the even is unlimited, because oI its quality oI unlimited
divisibility, and the odd indicates limitation; while the product oI both is the unit or harmony.
Similarly, do we obtain harmony in the union oI positive and negative; male and Iemale; material
and immaterial; body and soul?
(b) The Summum Bonum or Supreme Good in man is to become godlike. This is an attainment,
or transIormation which is the harmony resulting Irom a liIe oI virtue. It consists in a harmonious
relationship between the Iaculties oI man, by means oI which his lower nature becomes
subordinated to his higher nature.
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(c) The Process oI PuriIication: the harmony and puriIication oI the soul is attained, not only by
virtue, but also by other means, the most important among them being the cultivation oI the
intellect through the pursuit oI scientiIic knowledge and strict bodily discipline. In this process,
music also held an important place. The Pythagoreans believed and taught that just as medicine
is used to cure the body, so music must be used to cure the soul.
Here it might be appropriate to insert the doctrine oI the "Three Lives", since it is also a method
and means oI puriIication: "Mankind is divided into three classes: Lovers oI wealth; lovers oI
honour, and lovers oI wisdom (i.e. philosophers); this last, being highest." According to
Pythagoras, philosophy determined the puriIication, which led to the Iinal salvation oI the soul.
(iii) The Cosmological Doctrine
All things are numbers, that is to say not only every object, but the entire universe is an
arrangement oI numbers. This means that the characteristic oI any object is the number by which
it is represented.
(a) Since the universe consists oI ten bodies, namely, the Iive stars, the earth and the counter
earth, then the universe must be represented by the perIect number ten.
(b) Applied to the space around us, but called by Pythagoreans the Boundless or Unlimited, it
must be taken to mean, the measuring out oI this Boundless, into a balanced and harmonious
universe, so that everything might receive its proper proportion oI it. No more, no less.
(c) This arrangement seems to suggest the notion oI Iorms capable oI receiving a mathematical
expression, i.e., a doctrine which later appeared in Plato, as the theory oI Ideas.
(d) In the centre oI the universe there is a central Iire around which the heavenly bodies Iixed in
their spheres, revolve Irom West to East, while around all there is the peripheral Iire. This
motion oI the heavenly bodies is regulated in the velocity, and produces the harmony oI the
spheres. (Roger's Students' History oI Philosophy p. 1422). (Bakewell's Source Book oI
Philosophy) (LiIe and Tenets oI Pythagoras). (Ruddick's History oI Philosophy) (LiIe and Tenets
oI Pythagoras). (Fuller's History oI Philosophy) (LiIe and Tenets oI Pythagoras). (Turner's
History oI Philosophy: p. 4043). (History oI Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick vol. I p. 401-402)
(Plato's Phaedo, 85E). (Aristotle's Metaphysics I 5; 985b, 24; and I 5; 986a, 23).
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3. The Eleatic Philosophers
The Eleatic Philosophers include (a) Xenophanes, (b) Parmenides, (c) Zeno and (d) Melissus.
They deal with the problem oI change, and are credited with introducing the notions oI Being
and Becoming. The term Eleatic is derived Irom Elea, a city in Southern Italy, where these men
are said only to have visited.
(a) Xenophanes
Born at Colophon, in Asia Minor, about 370 B.C., Xenophanes is credited with the Iollowing
doctrines:
(i) The Unity oI God
Men err when they ascribe their own characteristics to the gods: Ior God is all eye, all ear, and all
intellect. Again, since there is no Becoming, and since Plurality depends upon Becoming,
thereIore there is no Plurality. Consequently all is one and one is all.
(ii) Temperance
Against the artiIicial culture oI Greece, its luxuries, excess and Iops; Xenophanes is credited with
advocating Temperance i.e., plain living, simplicity, moderation, and pure thinking. Roger's
Students' History oI Philosophy: p. 2728. Wm. Turner's History oI Philosophy: p. 4546.
Zeller's History oI Philosophy: p. 5860.
(b) Parmenides
Is said to have been born at Elea 540 B.C. and to have composed a poem concerning nature: peri
phvseos, which contains his doctrines.
A. The Poem consists oI three parts:
(i) In part one, the Goddess oI truth points out that there are two paths oI knowledge: one leading
to a knowledge oI truth, and the other to a knowledge oI the opinions oI men.
(ii) In part two, the journey to truth is described and contains a metaphysical doctrine, and in part
three, a cosmology oI the apparent.
B. The Doctrines are as Iollows:
(i) The Physical Doctrine
Though right reason (logos) holds that Being is one and immutable, the senses and common
opinion are convinced that plurality and change exist around us.
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(ii) The Doctrine oI Truth
Truth consists oI the knowledge that Being is, and that not-Being is not: and since not-Being is
not, then Being is one and alone. Consequently, Being is unproduced and unchangeable. It is
impossible Ior Being to produce Being; Ior under such circumstances Being must exist beIore it
begins to exist.
(iii) The doctrine of the Cosmologv of the Apparent.
1
Here Parmenides simply repeats the Pythagorean doctrine oI opposites:
All things are composed oI light or warmth, and oI darkness or cold, and according to Aristotle,
the Iormer oI these opposites corresponds to Being, while the latter to not-Being.
These opposites are equivalent to the male and Iemale principles in the cosmos.
(iv) The Doctrine of the Anthropologv of the Apparent
The liIe oI the soul, i.e., perception and reIlexion, depends upon the blending oI opposites, i.e.,
oI the light-warm and the dark-cold principles, each oI which stands in a physical relation to a
corresponding principle in the cosmos. (Zeller's History oI Philosophy p. 6062). (Roger's
Students' History oI Philosophy p. 2930). (William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 4748).
(B. D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy p. 2224).
(c) Zeno
Supposed to be born 490 B.C. at Elea was a pupil oI Parmenides, according to Plato.
(Parmenides 127B).
His doctrines were intended to be a contradiction oI (i) Motion and (ii) Plurality and space.
(i) Arguments against motion:
(a) A body, in order to move Irom one point to another, must move through an inIinite number oI
spaces since magnitude is divisible ad inIinitum.
(b) A body which is in one place is at rest. An arrow in its Ilight is at each successive moment in
one place thereIore it is at rest.
(c) The race between Achilles and the tortoise is intended to contradict the concept oI motion. In
such a race Achilles can never overtake the tortoise, because he must Iirst reach the point at
which the tortoise started; but in the meantime the tortoise will have gained more ground. Since
Achilles must always reach Iirst the position previously occupied by the tortoise, the tortoise
must always keep ahead, at every point.
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(ii) Arguments against Plurality and Space:
(a) II a measure oI corn produces a sound, then each grain ought to produce a sound. (This
argument is taken Irom Simplicus: but ascribed to Zeno.)
(b) II Being exists in space, then space itselI must exist in space, and the process will have to go
on ad inIinitum. (This argument is also taken Irom Simplicus.)
(c) II magnitude exists, it must be inIinitely great and inIinitely small, at one and the same time,
since it has an inIinitude oI parts which are indivisible. ThereIore the idea oI the maniIold is
contradictory. (William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 4950). (Roger's Students' History oI
Philosophy p. 3132). (Zeller's History oI Philosophy p. 6364).
4. The Later Ionian School: (a) Heraclitus, (b) Anaxagoras, (c) Democritus
(a) Heraclitus
Believed to have been born B.C. 530, and to have died in 470 B.C. Heraclitus, a native oI
Ephesus, in Asia Minor, has been credited with the Iollowing doctrines:
(i) The Doctrine oI Universal Flux
There is no static Being, and no Unchanging element. Change is Lord oI the Universe. The
underlying element oI the universe is Fire, and all things are changed Ior Fire, and Fire Ior all
things.
(a) The change is not at random; but uniIorm, orderly and cyclic. Thus the heavenly Fires are
transmuted successively, into vapour, water and earth; only to go through a similar process as
they ascend again into Fire.
(b) It contains the elements both oI the old and new, at any given moment in the process.
Consequently, where night ends, there day begins; where summer begins, there spring ends; and
where mortal liIe ends, there spiritual liIe begins.
(c) It also consists in the generation which results Irom the union oI opposites (a doctrine, later to
be Iound in Plato and Socrates).
Hence we observe that the union oI male and Iemale produces organic liIe; and that sharp and
Ilat notes produce harmony.
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(ii) The Theory oI Knowledge
Since sense-knowledge, or knowledge derived Irom the senses is illusion, it must be avoided,
and true knowledge sought Ior in the perception oI the underlying unity oI the various opposites.
This is possible Ior man, who is part oI the all comprehending Fire, which underlies the
Universe.
But in the doctrine oI the upward and downward paths, true knowledge comes Irom the upward
path which leads to the eternal Fire; whereas Iolly and death are the result oI Iollowing the
downward path.
(iii) The Doctrine oI the Logos
That the hidden harmony oI nature ever reproduces concord Irom oppositions, that the divine law
(dikƝ) or universal reason (logos) rules all things; and that the primitive essence recomposes
itselI anew in all things according to Iixed laws, and is again restored by them. (Zeller's History
oI Philosophy p. 68). (A. B. Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 6677). (Zeller's History oI
Philosophy p. 6671). (William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 5358).
(b) The LiIe and Teachings oI Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras, a native oI Clazomenae, in Ionia, is supposed to have been born in 500 B.C. Like all
the other philosophers, nothing is known about his early liIe and education. He comes into
history through a visit to Athens, where he met and made the Iriendship oI Pericles, and where
he was charged with impiety. He however escaped Irom prison and Iled back to his home in
Ionia where he died in 430 B.C.
His doctrines included the Iollowing:
(i) Nous i.e., mind alone is selI-moved, and is the cause oI motion in everything in the universe,
and has supreme power over all things. (William Turner's History oI Philosophy, p. 63); (Zeller's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 85; 86).
(ii) Sensation is produced by the stimulation oI opposites. We experience the sensation oI cold,
because oI the heat in us, and we experience a sweet taste because oI the sour in us. (Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 64; Theophrastus: de Sensu, Fragment 27: Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 86).
N.B.
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These doctrines will be treated elsewhere, as regards their source and authorship.
(C) The LiIe and Teachings oI Democritus
(1) His LiIe
Democritus (420316 B.C.) is said to have been the son oI Hegesistratus, and also a native oI
Abdera, a city at Miletus, an island in the Aegean. Both Aristotle and Theophrastus have
regarded Leucippus as the Iounder oI atomism, in spite oI the Iact that his existence is doubted.
Like all the other Greek philosophers, nothing seems to be known about his early liIe and
training. However he enters history as a magician and sorcerer. (Burnet, op. cit. p. 350; Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 65).
(2) His Doctrines
The name oI Democritus has been associated with the Iollowing doctrines, summarized as
atomism in his explanation oI (i) the nature oI the atoms, and their behavior in relation to the
phenomena oI (ii) creation (iii) liIe and death and; (iv) sensation and knowledge.
(i) The Description of the Atom
(a) The world-stuff. The atom is explained as a colorless, transparent and homogeneous powder,
consisting oI an inIinite number oI particles.
(b) Their Qualities: The atom is described as Iull or solid, invisible, indestructible, un-created
and capable selI-motion. The atoms diIIer in shape, order, position, quantity and weight.
(c) The Identitv of the Atom with Realitv. Every atom is equivalent to "that which is (i.e. To on);
and the void is equivalent to "that which is not" (i.e., To mƝ on). Reality is the movement oI "that
which is," within that-which is not.
(ii) The Atom in Creation.
Owing to the diIIerence in size, weight and mobility, and in particular to necessity, there is a
resultant motion, by means oI which the atoms combine themselves Ior the Iormation oI the
organic and inorganic worlds.
(iii) The Atoms in the Phenomena oI LiIe and Death.
What we commonly call liIe and death, are due to a change in the arrangement oI the atoms.
When they are arranged in a certain way, liIe emerges; but when that arrangement is changed to
another way, then death is the result.
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In death, the personality disappears, the senses also disappear; but the atoms live on Ior ever. The
heavier atoms descend to the earth: but the soul atoms, which are composed oI Iire, ascend to the
celestial regions, whence they came.
(iv) The Atom in Sensation and Knowledge
(a) The Mind or Soul is composed oI Iire atoms, which are the Iinest, the smoothest, and the
most mobile. These Iire atoms are distributed throughout the whole universe; and in all animate
things, and especially in the human body, where they are Iound in the largest numbers.
(b) External objects constantly give oII emanations or minute images oI themselves. These in
turn impress themselves upon our senses, which set in motion our Soul atoms, and thereby create
Sensation and Knowledge. (Diogenes Laertius Book IX p. 443455). (Wm. Turner's History oI
Philosophy p. 6570). (Roger's Students History oI Philosophy p. 4042). (Zeller's History oI
Philosophy p. 7683). (B. D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy p. 3741).
5. Summary oI Conclusions Concerning the Pre-Socratic Philosophers and the History oI the
Four Qualities and Four Elements.
I. The early Ionic philosophers have been given the credit oI teaching the Iollowing doctrines (a)
Thales, that all things originated Irom water, (b) Anaximander, that all things originated Irom
Primitive matter, i.e., the boundless (to apeiron), and (c) Anaximenes, that all things get their liIe
Irom air. But these ideas were not new at the time when these men are supposed to have lived,
i.e., between the sixth and IiIth centuries B.C. The creation story, Iound in the book oI Genesis,
speaks oI the elements oI water, air and earth as the cosmic ingredients oI the chaos out oI which
creation gradually developed. The date oI the Pentateuch is placed at the eighth century B.C.; but
the view oI the Mosaic authorship oI Genesis takes us still Iurther back into antiquity, and many
centuries beIore the time oI the Ionian philosophers. We are told not only by the bible, but also
by the historian Philo, that Moses was an Initiate oI the Egyptian Mysteries and became a
Hierogrammat; learned in all the wisdom oI the Egyptian people. This was only possible by
proper initiation and gradual advancement, when evidence oI Iitness was demonstrated by the
Neophyte. The Egyptian name oI Moses was given to all candidates at their baptism, and meant
"saved by water".
The Exodus oI the Israelites appears to have occurred in the 21st Egyptian Dynasty, i.e., 1100
B.C. in the reign oI Bocchoris under the leadership oI Moses, whose creation story oI Genesis is
clearly oI Egyptian origin. It is clear that the early Ionic Philosophers drew their teachings Irom
Egyptian sources. (Chaeremon: Jos. C. Apion I, 32; Philo; Ancient Mysteries C. H. Vail p. 61;
John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt vol. 2 p. 268270; 303; See also Dr. Hasting's Bible Dictionary,
on authorship and date oI Pentateuch).
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II. In the case oI the Eleatic philosophers, history regards Zenophanes as a Satirist, not a
philosopher, and Zeno as paradoxical concerning his treatment oI the problems oI plurality,
space and motion, which ultimately leads to a reduction ad absurdum. Parmenides introduced no
new teaching when he spoke oI Being (To on) as that which exists; and Non-Being (To mƝ on) as
that which does not exist. He only reemphasized the doctrine oI opposites as a principle oI
nature: a doctrine taught not only by the Pythagoreans, but also the Athenian philosophers,
chieIly Socrates. But the doctrine oI opposites owes its origin to the Egyptian Mysteries which
take us back to 4000 B.C. when it was demonstrated not only by double pillars in Iront oI
temples, but also by the pairs oI Gods in the Mystery System, representing male and Iemale,
positive and negative principles oI nature. It is also clear that the electric Philosophers drew their
teachings Irom Egyptian sources. (Plato Phaedo; Memphite Theology: Intellectual Adventure oI
Primitive Man by FrankIort p. 55; 6667; 5160. Plutarch: Isis et Osiris, p. 364C; 355A; 371B;
868, Ancient Egypt: John Kendrick vol. I p. 339).
III. The later Ionic philosophers have been given credit Ior the Iollowing doctrines:
(1) Heraclitus, (a) that the world was produced by Iire through a process oI transmutation, and
(b) since all things originate Irom Iire, then Fire is the Logos. The Creator.
(2) Anaxagoras (a) the Nous or mind is the source oI motion or liIe in the universe and that
sensation is produced by the stimulation oI opposites.
(3) Democritus (a) that atoms under-lie all material things, and (b) that the phenomena oI liIe and
death are merely changes in the mixture oI the atoms, so that the atoms never die, because they
are immortal.
These doctrines were by no means produced by the late Ionic philosophers, but could be shown
to have originated Irom the Egyptian Mystery System. The Egyptians were Iire worshippers,
because they believed that Iire was the creator oI the universe, and built their great pyramids (pvr
÷ Iire) in order to worship the God oI Fire, and the pyramid age goes back to something like
3300 B.C., several thousands oI years beIore the Greeks were said to have come into the
Mediterranean area.
According to Jamblichus the Egyptian God Ptah was the God oI order and Iorm in creation, an
Intellectual Principle. This God was also recognized as the Divine ArtiIicer who Iashioned the
universe out oI Iire. (Rosellini: mon del sults; John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt vol. I p. 318.).
Furthermore, Swinburne Clymer in his Philosophy oI Fire p. 18 has made the Iollowing
statement "The study oI the Mysteries oI Isis and Osiris (Egyptian Goddess and God) quickly
proves to the student that it was a pure Fire Philosophy. Zoroaster carried those mysteries into
Greece, while Orpheus carried them into Thrace.
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In each oI these places, these Egyptian mysteries assumed the names oI diIIerent Gods in order
to be adapted to local conditions. Hence in Asia they took the Iorm oI Mithra: in Samothrace, the
Iorm oI the Mother oI the Gods; in Boeotia, the Iorm oI Bacchus; in Crete, the Iorm oI Jupiter; in
Athens, the Iorms oI Ceres and Proserpine.
The most noted oI these Egyptian imitations were the Orphic, Bacchic, Eleusinian,
Samothracian, and Mithraic. All oI these Fire Worshippers, believed that the universe originated
Irom Fire, and they lived at a time which antedated the time oI the late Ionic philosophers by
thousands oI years.
The other doctrines oI the later Ionic philosophers together with those oI Socrates, Plato and
Aristotle will be treated under Summaries oI Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and in Chapter VIII,
and will include (1) Opposites (2) The nous or mind (3) The Logos, (4) The Atom, (5) The
Theory oI Ideas, (6) The Unmoved Mover, (7) Immortality.
IV. The Greek Philosophers practised plagiarism.
The teachings oI Pythagoras seem to have been so comprehensive that nearly all his successors
embraced and taught a portion oI his doctrine, which we are told he obtained by Irequent visits
which he made to Egypt Ior the purpose oI his education. Two things are at once obvious, (1)
that the Greek philosophers practiced plagiarism and did not teach anything new and (2) the
source oI their teachings was the Egyptian Mystery System, either directly through contact with
Egypt, or indirectly through Pythagoras or tradition. These Iacts can now be Iurther
demonstrated by an outline oI the doctrines oI Pythagoras, with the names oI philosophers who
repeated his doctrines:
1. The Doctrine of Opposites. the unit oI number is composed both oI odd and even elements; oI
the Iinite and inIinite; and oI the positive and negative. In this connection, we Iind (a) Heraclitus
suggesting Iire to be the source oI creation, by means oI the principle oI striIe which separates
phenomena; and harmony which restores them to their original source. (William Turner's History
oI Philosophy p. 55; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 6768). (b) Parmenides, suggesting Being as
existent and Non-Being as non-existent (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 61; Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 48).
(c) Socrates, attempting to prove the immortality oI the Soul by the doctrine oI opposites (Plato
Phaedo). (d) Plato, attempting to explain nature, used the Theory oI Ideas which he based upon
the principle oI opposites. Consequently the Idea is true reality, i.e., Being (To on); hence the
concept is real; but the thing which is known by the concept is unreal. The noumen is real and
perIect; but the phenomenon is unreal and imperIect (Parmenides 132D; Aristotle Meta 16,
987b9). (e) Aristotle in attempting to establish the existence oI God, describes the divine
attributes in terms oI opposites. God is the First Mover that is unmoved (proton kinoun
akineton). Hence, we have a combination oI motion and rest, as the attributes oI Deity and
Nature. (Aristotle's physics VIII 5, 256a; II 1; 192b 14; II 8, 199; de caelo I 4, 271a; Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 141).
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2. The Doctrine of Harmonv, as a union oI opposites, aIter being expounded by Pythagoras,
appears also in the systems oI (a) Heraclitus, who explains the phenomena oI nature as passing
successively through their opposites; (b) Socrates, who also deIines harmony as the union oI
opposites; (c) Plato, who deIines the harmony oI the soul as the proper subordination oI its parts,
i.e., the higher and lower natures. (Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41; 56; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 51;
69; Plato Phaedo C 15; Plato Republic); also (d) Aristotle, who deIines the soul as a harmony in
his de animo I. 2.
3. The Central and Peripheral Fires. Here Pythagoras attempts to show that Iire under-lies
creation, and this same notion is expressed by (a) Heraclitus, who speaks oI the origin oI the
universe through the transIormation oI Iire. Then we have (b) Anaxagoras (c) Democritus (d)
Socrates and (e) Plato, each using the term mind (nous) as responsible Ior creation. Anaxagoras
and Socrates who speak directly oI mind (nous) as an Intelligence and purpose behind nature;
while Democritus and Plato speak oI mind (nous) indirectly as the World Soul, but Iurther
describe it as being composed oI Iire atoms Iloating throughout space. Clearly then, Mind (nous),
no matter what other name or Iunction we give it, is Iire, since it is composed oI Iire atoms; and
Iire according to Pythagoras underlies creation. (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 42, 55, 63, 82;
Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 53, 67, 7683; Aristotle: Metaphysics I, 3, 984b, 17; Diogenes Laertius:
Bk. X. p. 443453; Xenophon Memorabilia I, 4, 2; Plato Timaeus: 30, 35; Roger's Student Hist.
oI Phil. p. 4042; B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Phil. p. 43).
4. Immortalitv of the Soul. According to Pythagoras, the doctrine oI the immortality oI the Soul
is implied in the doctrine oI the Transmigration oI the Soul:
A. Socrates: The purpose oI philosophy is the salvation oI the Soul, whereby it Ieeds upon the
truth congenial to its divine nature and thus escapes Irom the wheel oI rebirth, and Iinally attains
the consummation oI unity with God. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 5056; Roger's Hist. oI Phil. p. 29
and 60; William Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41 and 48).
B. Plato's doctrines (1) Transmigration and (2) Recollection: (1) Transmigration: the souls oI
men go to the place oI reward or punishment, and aIter one thousand years they are permitted to
choose a new lot oI liIe. He who has thrice chosen the higher liIe, gains aIter three thousand
years, the home oI the Gods in the kingdom oI thought. Others wander about Ior thousands oI
years in various bodies; and many are destined to pursue their earthly liIe in lower animal Iorms.
It is necessary to point out that in this doctrine oI Transmigration; Plato describes the judgment
scene in the Egyptian Book oI the Dead. (2) Recollection: although the sense perceived world
cannot lead us to a knowledge oI Ideas, yet it reminds us oI the Ideas which we saw in a previous
existence. (The allegory oI the Subterranean Cavern; Plato's Republic C. X; The Allegory oI the
slave boy; Plato's Meno; Timaeus oI Plato: 31B, 33B; 38E; The Phaedo oI Plato: C 15; 29; 57;
Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. P. 105112; B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Phil. p. 55; 152153).
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5. Summum Bonum
According to Pythagoras, the supreme good in man is to become godlike. This transIormation is
to be accomplished by virtue which is a union oI opposites in man's Iaculties, i.e., the
subordination oI man's lower nature to his higher nature. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 43). But the
precise purpose oI the Egyptian Mysteries was to make a man godlike by the puriIicatory
agencies oI education and virtue. Consequently it is clear that Pythagoras obtained this doctrine
directly Irom the Egyptian Mysteries. Hence it also Iollows that philosophers who have taught
this doctrine, must have obtained it, either directly Irom the Egyptian Mysteries, or indirectly,
through the teachings oI Pythagoras. (According to Sallust, DeiIication or becoming godlike was
the purpose oI the Egyptian Mysteries, and according to C. H. Vail in his Ancient Mysteries, the
Egyptian Summum Bonum consisted oI Iive stages, during which the Neophyte developed Irom
a good man into a triumphant Master, attaining the highest spiritual consciousness by means oI
casting oII the ten bodily Ietters and becoming an adept like Horus or Buddha or Christ).
The philosophers, besides Pythagoras, who are given credit with having taught the doctrine oI
the Supreme Good, are (a) Socrates, who deIined it as an attainment in which man becomes
godlike, through selI-denial and the cultivation oI the mind. (Xenophon Memorabilia I, 5, 4,) (b)
Plato who deIined it as happiness which is the attainment oI the Idea oI the Good, which is God.
(Plato: Symposium 204E; Plato: Republic IV, 441, 443; Plato: Phaedo 64 sqq; Plato: Theaetetus
176 A). (c) Aristotle; who deIined it as happiness which is based upon reason and which includes
all the giIts oI Iortune. It should be noted however that Aristotle's deIinition oI the Supreme
Good marks the Iirst departure Irom the concept oI the Summum Bonum oI the Egyptian
Mysteries; and the same thing is true oI the Hedonists, who deIined it as pleasure. (Wm. Turner's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 153. Aristotle Ethics, Nic I, 6, 1097; Aristotle Ethics, Nic I, 9, 1099a, 31) The
conception oI a Supreme Good is Egyptian, Irom which source Pythagoras and other
philosophers obtained the doctrine.
V. Summarv of Conclusions Concerning Democritus
Because oI the importance oI the doctrine oI the atom, and the great suspicion oI his great
number oI books like that oI Aristotle, Democritus is treated separately, like each oI the
Athenian philosophers.
1. His LiIe:
The same thing might be said oI Democritus as might be said oI any oI the men who were called
Greek philosophers: nothing appears to be known about his early liIe and training. However he
comes into history attracting public attention, as a sorcerer and magician. (Turner's Hist. oI Phil.
p. 65).
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2. His Doctrines and Authorship:
(i) Authorship. The authorship oI the doctrine oI the atom is doubtIul, Irom the standpoint or
view oI certain modern writers. The names oI the Ionians Leucippus and Democritus have been
associated with this doctrine, which according to the opinion oI Aristotle and Theophrastus,
originated through Leucippus, but was developed by Democritus. As a matter oI Iact, the Ionians
doubted the existence oI Leucippus because he was unknown to them; and it seems proper that
the opinion oI the Ionians should receive credence rather than that oI Aristotle and Theophrastus,
who were Athenians, and who were compiling philosophy in the interest oI their movement.
(Burnet op. cit. p. 350; Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 65).
(ii) The doctrine concerning the Atom is eclectic.
The doctrine oI the atom as explained by Democritus, is eclectic, and represents one oI the many
Iorms in which the ancient doctrine oI opposites has been expressed. The Pythagoreans
expressed it by the elements oI number: odd and even.
Parmenides being unIamiliar with the law oI generation, denied the existence oI one opposite
(not-Being), in order to aIIirm the existence oI the other (being). Socrates, being more
acquainted with the law oI generation than Parmenides, expressed it in several pairs oI opposites,
in an eIIort to prove the immortality oI the soul: hence he spoke oI unity and duality; oI division
and composition; oI liIe and death.
In like manner Democritus expressed the doctrine oI opposites, when he described Reality by the
liIe oI the atom, i.e., a movement oI "that which is" (To on) within "that which is not" (To mƝ
on). The original source oI this doctrine however, is the philosophy oI the Mystery System oI
Egypt where we Iind the male and Iemale principles oI nature symbolized by (a) Osiris and Isis:
the Egyptian God and Goddess, and (b) the Gods Homs and Seth, symbolizing a world in static
equilibrium oI conIlicting Iorces, as they contend Ior dominion over Egypt. (Memphite
Theology; Kingship and the Gods by FrankIort C. 3, p. 2526; 35; Herodotus I, 626; Ancient
Egypt by John Kendrick Bk. I p. 339; Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 64, 73 and 88; Zeller's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 61; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41; Plato Phaedo C. 15, 16, 49).
The doctrine and philosophy oI opposites is Iurther demonstrated by the Egyptian Creation story,
in which Order came out oI Chaos and which was represented by Iour pairs oI opposites i.e.,
male and Iemale gods.
(a) Nun and Naunet i.e., primeval Matter and Space.
(b) Huk and Hauket i.e., Illimitable and the Boundless.
(c) Huh and Hauhet, i.e., Darkness and Obscurity.
(d) Amon and Amaunet, i.e., the hidden and concealed ones (the Air, Wind).
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Clearly the doctrine oI opposites was a basic philosophy oI the Egyptians, being connected with
not only the Gods oI their Mystery dramas, but with their Cosmology, and since this connection
makes the doctrine one oI the earliest in the development oI Egyptian thought, it antedates the
reign oI Menes, and means that the Egyptians were Iamiliar with it beIore 3000 B.C.
Under these circumstances and in consequence oI these Iacts, the Egyptian Mystery System was
the source oI the doctrines (a) oI the atom and (b) oI opposites. Leucippus and Democritus taught
nothing new and must have obtained their knowledge oI the doctrines Irom the Egyptians,
directly or indirectly.
(iii) The Doctrines of the universal distribution of fire atoms, and their emanation from external
obfects are derived from Magic
These doctrines are magical and express the magical principle "that the qualities oI animals or
things are distributed throughout all their parts." (Dr. Frazer's Golden Bough). Consequently
within the universe contact is established between objects through emanations, and in the case oI
human beings, the result might be sensation or cognition; healing or contagion.
This principle is demonstrated not only by the cures such as were aIIected by the garment oI
Christ, and the handkerchieIs oI St. Paul: but also by the modern scientiIic and medical practice
oI the preventive measure oI quarantine. It must be remembered that magic was part oI the
education oI the Egyptian priests: Ior the religious rites and ceremonies oI the Egyptians were
magical; and the priests were the custodians oI the knowledge.
(iv) A Iourth point is the Iact that in the history and compilation oI Greek philosophy by
Aristotle and his Iollowers, there are only two men whose names are associated with the
authorship oI an extraordinary number oI scientiIic books; and the names oI these men are
Democritus himselI and Aristotle. (Diogenes Laertius Bk. 9 p. 445461; Bk. 5 p. 465467).
(v) A IiIth point which deserves important mention is the Iact that in the history and compilation
oI Greek philosophy by Aristotle and his Iollowers, it has been discovered that wherever there
has been the possession oI a large collection oI scientiIic books, there has also been direct or
indirect association with Alexander the Great.
(vi) The association between Democritus and Alexander the Great is seen through the
Democritean Circle; a succession oI Teachers and students, Irom a common original Teacher:
Democritus (420316 B.C.) is said to have taught Metrodorus oI Chios, who in turn is said to
have taught Anaxarchus, who is said to have Ilourished at the time oI the 110th Olympiad (340
337 B.C.), and to have accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign against Egypt 333
B.C.
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Here, it is easy to see the tie between Democritus and Anaxarchus Ior these men were all
Ionians, and members oI the same school and were alive at the time oI Alexander's Conquest oI
Egypt. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 83; Diogenes Laertius Bk. 2, p. 471).
On the other hand, Aristotle's contact with Alexander the Great is well known, since he was a
tutor oI the young prince, at the Macedonian palace. Roger's Student Hist. oI Phil. p. 104).
(vii) Circumstantial evidence points to the fact that the books of Democritus were not written bv
him, nor did thev contain his teachings. This is so, for the following reasons.
(a) Leucippus, whom the Ionians did not know, and whose existence has been questioned, has
been given credit by Aristotle Ior the origin oI the doctrine oI the atom. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p.
77; Burnet, op. cit. p. 350) (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. P. 65; Diogenes Bk. X, 13).
(b) Apart Irom what was written on the Atom, the name oI Democritus is, associated with a
large list oI books, dealing with over sixty diIIerent subjects, and covering all the branches oI
science known to the ancient world. In addition to this vast Iield oI knowledge, the list also
contains books on Military Science, Law and Magic. Clearly, the accumulation oI such a vast
range oI knowledge, by a single individual, written in a single liIetime is impossible both
physically and mentally. The method among the ancients oI imparting knowledge was by gradual
stages, Iollowed by evidence oI proIiciency, which in turn was also Iollowed by initiations,
which marked every step in the progress oI the Neophyte.
The progress oI training was slow and no Neophyte could accomplish such knowledge in his liIe
time as took the Egyptians over Iive thousand years to accumulate. These human limitations are
as true today as they were among the ancients; Ior our great scientists oI the Modern World are
specialists only in single subjects.
(c) The question now remains: how did Democritus accumulate those books iI he did not write
them? We believe we have the answer because it has been noticed in the history oI Greek
philosophy that (a) wherever a Greek philosopher has had association, direct or indirect, with
Alexander the Great, there was also the possession oI a large collection oI scientiIic books, and
(b) this is true in the cases oI Democritus and Aristotle. (c) Anaxarchus and Democritus were
Ionians, who belonged to the same school and (d) Anaxarchus accompanied Alexander the Great
on his campaign against Egypt. (the indirect association between Democritus and Alexander the
Great now becomes obvious.) (e) It Iollows that since Alexander's conquest oI Egypt had
brought the Greeks their long hoped Ior opportunity, i.e., access to the Egyptian Library and
Museum, we would naturally expect Alexander and his Iriends, and the invading armies to have
helped themselves with the Egyptian books.
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We would also expect Anaxarchus upon his return to Ionia, to have sold, at least a portion oI his
loot, to Democritus, (nor do we expect Aristotle and Theophrastus to relate these Iacts to us),
since under the rules oI the Mysteries, knowledge (spoken or written,) could be diIIused only by
brethren among brethren. This we believe is the way Democritus came to possess such a large
number oI scientiIic books.
Again it must be stated that Democritus taught nothing new, but simply what he had learnt Irom
the Egyptians, directly or indirectly. His doctrine on the universal distribution oI Iire atoms is
based upon a magical principle: iI the atom is an ingredient oI the world, then it would be
universally distributed. Furthermore, Democritus enters history as a magician, and since there is
historical evidence that he visited the Egyptian priests, it is evident that magic was part oI the
training which he must have received Irom them. (Antisthenes: Treatise on Succession;
Herodotus; Origen; Diogenes Laertius: Bk. 9 p. 443; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 77).
3. His Books are doubtful in authorship
Several important Iacts must be noted in connection with the books which are said to have been
written by Democritus:
(a) A large number oI books which appears in a list in the 9th Book oI Diogenes, Laertius, does
not appear elsewhere in the usual textbooks on the history oI Greek Philosophy; while Zeller
asserts that the genuineness oI these books cannot be determined upon the evidence oI the
Iragments. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 77). It seems that his list oI publications remains doubtIul in
authorship.
(b) More than 60 diIIerent subjects are treated and they include Ethics, Physics, Astronomy,
Botany, Zoology, Poetry, Medicine, Dialectics, Military Science, and Law; also books on Magic,
including divination.
(c) We are inIormed by Diogenes Laertius that this large list oI books was compiled by
Thrasyllus (about 20 A.D.) who was a student oI the school oI Plato, and also a member oI
Aristotle's movement, which had Ior its purpose, the compilation oI Greek philosophy. (Zeller's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 1314) (Diogenes Laertius Bk. 9 p. 455461).
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VI. The Four Qualities and Four Elements
The history oI the Iollowing ancient theory oI "The Four Qualities and Four Elements", provides
the world with the evidence oI the Egyptian origin oI the doctrines oI (a) Opposites or
Contraries, (b) Change or Transmutation and (c) the liIe and Iunction oI the universe is due to
either oI Iour elements: Iire, or water, or earth or air.
1. This ancient theory was expressed by a diagram Iormed by outer and inner squares.
2. The corners oI the outer square carried the names oI the elements: Iire, water, earth and air.
3. The corners oI the inner square, being at the mid points oI the sides oI the outer square, carried
the Iour Iundamental qualities, the hot, the dry, the cold and the wet.
4. The diagram explains that Iire is hot and dry; earth is dry and cold; water is cold and wet; and
air is wet and hot.
5. Accordingly water is an embodiment oI cold and wet qualities, and when the cold quality is
replaced by the hot quality, the element water is changed into the element air, with the wet and
hot qualities.
6. Consequently, transmutation is deIinitely implied in the teaching oI this symbol.
7. It is the oldest teaching oI physical science and has been traced to the Egyptians, as Iar back as
5000 B.C.
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8. It shows that Plato and Aristotle (who had been credited with the authorship oI this teaching)
derived their doctrines or portions oI them Irom the Egyptians. (Rosicrucian Digest, May 1952,
p. 175).
CHAPTER VI: The Athenian Philosophers
1. Socrates: (i) His LiIe (ii) Doctrines (iii) Summary oI Conclusions
(I) LiIe oI Socrates
(a) Date and place of birth
Socrates was born in Athens, in the year 469 B.C. He was the son oI Sophroniscus, a sculptor,
and Phaenarete, a midwiIe. Very little is known about his early years; but we are told that he was
brought up in the proIession oI his Iather, and that he called himselI not only a pupil oI Prodicus
and Aspasia, (which statement suggests that he might have learnt Irom them, music, geometry
and gymnastics): but also a selI taught philosopher, according to Xenophon in the Symposium.
Up to the age oI 40, his liIe appears to be a complete blank: the Iirst mention being made oI him,
when he served as an ordinary soldier in the sieges oI Potidaea and Delium between (432429)
B.C. (Trial and Death oI Socrates: F. J. Church: p. 15 oI Introduction).
(b) His economic status and personalitv
Socrates did not accept Iees Ior what he taught, and he became so poor, that his wiIe Xanthippe
became very dissatisIied with domestic conditions. He believed that he possessed (Daimonion
Ti) a divine something, i.e., a divine voice which advised and guided him in the great crises oI
his liIe. (Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 7879; and Plato's Apology).
(c) His Condemnation and death in 399 B.C.
AIter the accustomed speeches oI the accusers: (Miletus, Anytus and Lycon); Socrates Iollowed
with his deIense, at the conclusion oI which, the judges voted 281 to 220, and Socrates was
condemned to death. As a parting word, he addressed himselI both to those who voted against
him and those who voted in his Iavor. In the case oI the Iormer, he rebuked them by predicting
that evil would beIall them, in consequence oI their crime in condemning him.
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In the case oI the latter, he not only consoled them with the assurance that no evil could come to
a good man either in liIe or in death; but also expressed to them his idea about immortality.
"Death is either an eternal and dreamless sleep, wherein there is no sensation at all; or it is a
journey to another, and a better world, where are the Iamous men oI old". Whichever alternative
be true, death is not an evil, but a good. His death is willed by the gods, and he is content.
(Plato's Apology Chapters 2528).
His death was delayed through a state religious ceremonial, and he remained in prison Ior 30
days. We are told that during this time, he was visited by his Iriends, who consisted oI the inner
circle, and also his wiIe Xanthippe; that this was the occasion oI his discourse concerning the
immortality oI the soul; that he could have escaped Irom death iI he wished; because his Iriends
visited him beIore day-break and oIIered to set him Iree; but that he reIused the oIIer.
Accordingly Socrates drank the hemlock and died. (Plato Phaedo;) (Xenophon Memorabilia IV,
8, 2).
(d) Crito´s account.
Crito, on the night beIore the death oI Socrates, while he was in prison, on behalI oI the company
oI visitors, made a Iinal appeal to him to permit them to secure his escape, and spoke as Iollows:
"O, my Socrates, I beseech you Ior the last time to listen to me and save yourselI. For to me your
death will be more than a single disaster: not only shall I lose a Iriend the like oI whom I shall
never Iind again, but many persons, who do not know you and me well, will think that I might
have saved you, iI I had been willing to spend money, but that I neglected to do so. And what
character could be more disgraceIul than the character oI caring more Ior money than Ior one's
Iriends? The world will never believe that we were anxious to save you, but that you yourselI
reIused to escape.
"Tell me this Socrates. Surely you are not anxious about me and your other Iriends, and aIraid,
lest, iI you escape, the inIormers should say that we stole you away, and get us into trouble, and
involve us in a great deal oI expense, or perhaps in the loss oI all our property, and it may be,
bring some other punishment upon us besides? II you have any Iear oI that kind, dismiss it. "For
oI course we are bound to run those risks, and still greater risks than those iI necessary, in saving
you. So do not, I beseech you, reIuse to listen to me." Then Socrates replied: "I am anxious about
that, Crito, and about much besides," and Crito continued the appeal:
"Then have no Iear on that score. There are men who, Ior no very large sum, are ready to bring
you out oI prison into saIety, and then, you know, these inIormers are cheaply bought, and there
will be no need to spend much on them.
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"My Iortune is at your disposal, and I think that it is suIIicient, and iI you have any Ieeling about
making use oI my money, there are strangers in Athens, whom you know, ready to use theirs,
and one oI them, Simmias oI Thebes, who actually brought enough Ior the purpose. And Cebes
and many others, are ready too.
"And thereIore, I repeat, do not shrink Irom saving yourselI, on that ground. And do not let what.
you said in court (that iI you went into exile, you would not know what to do with yourselI),
stand in your way: Ior there are many places Ior you to go to, where you will be welcomed.
"II you choose to go to Thessaly, I have Iriends there who will make much oI you, and shelter
you Irom any annoyance Irom the people oI Thessaly.
"Consider then, Socrates; or rather the time Ior consideration is past; we must resolve, and there
is only one plan possible. Everything must be done tonight. II we delay any longer, we are lost.
"O, Socrates, I implore you not to reIuse to listen to me." (Plato's Crito C. 35).
(e) Phaedo´s account of the final scene fust before the death of Socrates.
In answer to another question Irom Echecrates, Phaedo replied: I will try to tell you the whole
story:
"On the previous days, I and the others had always met in the morning at the court, where the
trial was held, which was close to the prison; and then we would go in to Socrates.
"We used to wait each morning until the prison was opened, conversing; Ior it was not opened
early. When it was opened we used to go in to Socrates, and we generally spent the whole day
with him. But on that morning we met earlier than usual, Ior the evening beIore we had learnt, on
leaving the prison, that the ship had arrived Irom Delos. So we arranged to be at the usual place
as early as possible. When we reached the prison, the porter, who generally let us in came out to
us and bade us wait a little, and not to go in until he himselI summoned us; Ior the 'Eleven' were
releasing Socrates Irom his Ietters and giving him directions Ior his death.
"In no great while he returned and bade us enter. So we went in and Iound Socrates just released.
When Xanthippe saw us, she wailed aloud, and cried in her woman's way: 'This is the last time:
Socrates, that you will talk with your Iriends, or they with you.' And Socrates glanced at Crito
and said, 'Crito, let her be taken home'. So some oI Crito's servants led her away; weeping
bitterly and beating her breasts. And it was about sunset, and the servant oI the Eleven aIter
bidding Socrates Iarewell, gave him the instructions as to how to take the poison, and then
handed it to him. Socrates took the cup, and drank the poison cheerIully, and then walked about
until his legs Ielt heavy.
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And when he had lain down, he made his last request to Crito in the Iollowing words: I owe a
cock to Asclepius, do not Iorget to pay it. By this time the poison took eIIect and he passed
away." (Plato Phaedo C. 3 and 65).
(ii) The Doctrines oI Socrates
i. The doctrine of Nous, i.e., mind or an Intelligent Cause, in order to account Ior God and
Creation. He is credited with the teleological premise: whatever exists Ior a useIul purpose is the
work oI an Intelligence. (Xenophon Memorabilia I, 4, 2; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 82).
ii. The Doctrine oI the Supreme Good:
The Supreme good i.e., the summum bonum is equated both with happiness and with knowledge.
This however is not merely eutuchia which depends upon external conditions and accidents oI
Iortune; but is (eupraxia), a well-being, which is conditioned by good action. This is an
attainment in which man becomes godlike through selI denial oI external needs and the
cultivation oI the mind: Ior happiness comes not through the perishable things oI the external
world, but through the things that endure, which are within us. (Xenophon Memorabilia I, 5, 4.)
Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 83).
iii. The Doctrines oI Opposites and Harmony:
(a) Odd and even are the elements oI numbers. One is deIinite but the other is unlimited, and the
unit is the product both oI odd and even. Hence the universe consists oI opposites: the Iinite and
the inIinite, the male and the Iemale; the odd and the even; the leIt and right.
(b) Harmony is the Union oI Opposites
(Plato's Phaedo C. 15; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41; 47). (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 61).
iv. The Doctrines Concerning the Soul:
(a) The Immortality oI the Soul
(b) The Transmigration oI the Soul
(c) The Salvation oI the Soul:
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The purpose oI philosophy is the salvation oI the Soul, whereby it Ieeds upon the truth congenial
to its divine nature, and thus escapes Irom the wheel oI re-birth, and Iinally attains the
consummation oI unity with God. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 5056; Roger's Hist. oI Phil. p. 29
and 60; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41 and 48).
(d) The body is the tomb oI the Soul
(e) The aspirations oI the Soul:
There is a realm oI true reality, which is above the world oI sense. To this the Soul aspires.
v. The Doctrine oI SelI-Knowledge: Know ThyselI (seauton gnothi).
SelI-knowledge is the basis oI true knowledge. The Mysteries required as a Iirst step, the mastery
oI the passions, which made room Ior the occupation oI unlimited powers. Hence, as a second
step, the Neophyte was required to search within himselI Ior the new powers which had taken
possession oI him. The Egyptians consequently wrote on their temples: "Man, know thyselI".
(Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 105; S. Clymer's Fire Philosophy p. 203).
vi. Astrology and Geology:
There was a suspicion that Socrates was also engaged in the study oI Astrology and Geology,
and that he taught these subjects, Ior in his deIense beIore the Athenian judges, he stated that the
more Iormidable oI his accusers tried to persuade them with lies, that one Socrates, a wise man,
was speculating about the heavens and about things beneath the earth, and that he was capable oI
making the worse appear the better reason. (Plato's Apology C. 2). This suspicion is Iurther
supported by the indictment brought against Socrates, and which reads as Iollows:"Miletus,
the son oI Miletus, oI the deme Pitthis, on his oath, brings the Iollowing accusation against
Socrates, the son oI Sophroniscus, oI the deme Alopece. "Socrates commits a crime by not
believing in the gods oI the city, and by introducing new divinities. He also commits a crime by
corrupting the youth. Penalty, death."(Plato's Apology C. 24; C. 18 and 19).
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There is still a third source Irom which the suspicion arose that Socrates was engaged also in
Astrology and Geology. This was the caricature oI Socrates, published by Aristophanes in his
comedy: the Clouds, as Iollows:
"Socrates is a miserable recluse, who speaks a great deal oI absurd and amusing nonsense about
Physics, and declares that Zeus is dethroned, that Rotation reigns in his stead, and that the new
divinities are Air, which holds the earth suspended, Ether, the Clouds and Tongue. "He proIesses
to possess the power oI Belial, which enables him to make the worse appear the better reason,
and his teachings cause children to beat their parents." (Aristophanes Clouds, 828 and 380; LiIe
and Trial oI Socrates; F. J. Church: Introduction p. 18).
(iii) Summary oI Conclusions
1. LiIe and Personality oI Socrates
There are two circumstances in the liIe oI Socrates which demand our attention: (a) he is said to
have been completely unknown up to the age oI 40 and (b) to have lived a liIe oI poverty. These
circumstances point to secrecy in training, and poverty as conditions oI his liIe; and as such, they
coincide with the requirements oI the Mystery System oI Egypt, and her secret schools, whether
in the land oI Egypt or abroad, which exacted the vows oI secrecy and poverty Irom all
Neophytes and Initiates. All aspirants oI the Mysteries had to receive secret training and
preparation, and Socrates was no exception. He alone oI the three Athenian philosophers
deserves the appellation oI a true Master Mason. Plato was a great coward and Aristotle was
greater still. At the execution oI Socrates, Plato Iled to Megara to the lodge oI Euclid, and
Aristotle when indicted Iled in exile to Calchis. (Clement oI Alexandria: Stromata Bk. 5. C. 7
and 9; Plutarch on "Isis and Osiris" Sec. 911; Plato's Apology C. 8; 17; Phaedo C. 10; 13; 32;
63).
2. The Doctrines:
(i) The Doctrine oI the Nous or an Intelligent Cause
With reIerence to this doctrine, we Iind that it is also credited to Anaxagoras, who is said to have
lived between 500 and 430 B.C. and who thereIore antedated Socrates (469399 B.C.) in
expounding it (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 63; p. 82). Secondly, Iurther examination shows
that the doctrine oI the Nous is also a direct inIerence Irom the doctrine oI Cognition, as credited
to Democritus (460360 B.C.), who is credited with stating that Iire atoms are distributed
through the universe, and that mind is composed oI Iire atoms. ThereIore it can be inIerred (a)
that mind Iills or is distributed through the universe and (b) since only like can produce like, then
the mind oI the Universe must have been produced by a mind which is its source. (Wm. Turner's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 68; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 80).
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Thirdly, this doctrine oI the Nous, is a doctrine that originated Irom the ancient mysteries oI
Egypt, where the God Osiris was represented in all Egyptian temples by the symbol oI an Open
Eye. This symbol indicated not only sight that transcends time and space, but also the
omniscience oI God, as the great mind which created and which directs the Universe. This
symbol is carried as a decoration in all modern Masonic lodges and has the same meaning.
(Ancient Mysteries: C. H. Vail p. 189).
(ii) The Doctrine oI the Supreme Good
This doctrine oI the supreme good or summum bonum is likewise a very ancient doctrine which
takes us back to the Egyptian mysteries. As stated in the books on Greek philosophy and by
Socrates, it is only in part, and consequently a mistaken notion oI the original doctrine has
resulted. To say that the supreme good is happiness, that happiness is well-being, that well-being
is knowledge, and that knowledge is virtue, is the same thing as saying that the Supreme Good is
virtue. (Xenophon Memorabilia I 4, 5; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 8183).
In the Egyptian mysteries, however, the concept oI the supreme good is expressed as the purpose
oI virtue, and that is the salvation oI the soul, by liberating it Irom the ten bodily Ietters. This
process oI liberation is a process oI puriIication both oI mind and oI body: the Iormer by the
study oI philosophy and science, and the latter by bodily ascetic disciplines. This training was
continued Irom the baptism oI water, and was subsequently Iollowed by the baptism oI Iire,
when the candidate had made the necessary progress. This process transIormed man and made
him godlike, and Iitted him Ior union with God.
The concept oI the Supreme Good, which originally came Irom the Egyptian Mysteries is the
earliest theory oI salvation: and Socrates must have derived this doctrine Irom that source, or
indirectly Irom the Pythagoreans. (Plato's Phaedo C. 31; 3334; Ancient Mysteries, C. H. Vail p.
2425; Fire Philosophy, R. S. Clymer p. 19; 74; 80).
(iii) The Following Doctrines are Generally admitted as having been derived Irom The
Pythagoreans:
(a) Transmigration oI the Soul
(b) The immortality oI the Soul
(c) The tomb oI the Soul is the body.
(d) The doctrines oI opposites and harmony.
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Since doctrines (a), (b), (c) and (d) originated Irom the Pythagoreans, and since the Pythagoreans
derived them Irom the Egyptians, then their Egyptian origin, directly or indirectly becomes
evident. (Roger's Hist. oI Phil. p. 29 and 60; Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 41 and 48; Plato's Phaedo).
(iv) Astrology and Geology:
From (a) the indictment (b) his deIense beIore the Athenian Judges and (c) the caricature by
Aristophanes in the Clouds, we discover that Socrates was suspected oI being a student oI
Nature, and oI introducing new divinities into Athens. Again it must be stated, that under the
Mystery System oI Egypt, the study oI Nature was a requirement, and since the Athenians
prosecuted and condemned Socrates to death, Ior engaging in this study and spreading the
knowledge, they must have regarded the new ideas as Ioreign or oI Egyptian origin. (Plato's
Apology C. 2428; Ancient Mysteries, C. H. Vail p. 2425).
(v) The Doctrine oI SelI-knowledge:
The doctrine oI selI-knowledge, Ior centuries attributed to Socrates is now deIinitely known to
have originated Irom the Egyptian Temples, on the outside oI which the words "Man, know
thyselI" were written. It is evident that Socrates taught nothing new, because his doctrines are
eclectic containing elements Irom Anaxagoras, Democritus, Heraclitus, Parmenides and
Pythagoras, and Iinally have been traced to the teachings oI the Egyptian Mystery System. (Fire
Philosophy, S. R. Clymer p. 203).
(vi) The Importance oI the Farewell Conversations oI Socrates with his pupils and Iriends at the
prison:
In examining what took place during the Iarewell conversations oI Socrates with his pupils and
Iriends, at least Iive points should be noted:
(a) The subject oI the Conversations
(b) The determination oI his Iriends to smuggle him away
(c) His reIusal to accept liberation
(d) His dying request, which was addressed to Crito, whom he asked to pay an important debt Ior
him
(e) The value oI those conversations, in their present Iorm in literature.
Now the question arises, what is the meaning and signiIicance oI these Iive points? The answers
and conclusions are as Iollows:
(a) As the subject oI the conversations dealt with the immortality and salvation oI the Soul, we at
once recognize the Iact that this was the central theme oI the Ancient Mysteries, and
consequently that Socrates was acquainted with the doctrines.
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Moreover, when we read the Phaedo and the doctrines, both oI Opposites and Recollection
which he had advanced in prooI oI immortality, we are convinced that he must have received his
training Irom the Mystery System oI Egypt, in connection with which there were Hierophants
and qualiIied teachers.
(b) Secondly, in dealing with the behavior oI his Iriends, in their determination to smuggle him
away, we are dealing with their attempt to render help to a brother in distress. This was the liIe
that Initiates were expected to live, Ior brotherhood was another great principle upon which, the
Egyptian Mysteries laid emphasis. Evidently, Socrates was a "Brother Initiate" oI the Egyptian
Mysteries, since it comprised one universal brotherhood.
(c) Thirdly, in dealing with the reIusal oI Socrates to accept liberation, again we are dealing with
a type oI behaviour, which singles him out as an advanced Initiate oI the ancient mysteries oI
Egypt. In the paths to mastery and victory, the Mystery System regarded unselIishness or
sacriIice as an advanced stage oI attainment, which must be accomplished beIore unlimited
power could be bestowed upon the candidate. It is true that Anaxagoras escaped Ior his liIe and
in like manner Plato and Aristotle; but this only serves to show that Socrates had reached a
higher degree in the Mysteries than all oI them. This necessitated training and the training centre
was Egypt.
(d) Fourthly, with reIerence to the dying request oI Socrates, addressed to Crito, in which he
asked him to pay a certain debt, we again encounter another oI the great ideals essential to the
liIe oI an Initiate. This in the teaching oI the Mysteries embraces the exercise oI a cardinal virtue
i.e., justice; a practice which the Candidate must adopt, in order that his sense oI value might
also develop. Here again the action oI Socrates reveals that he was a Brother Initiate, with a high
sense oI justice and honesty, since he did not wish to die without discharging all his obligations.
Certainly, the dying request oI Socrates reveals him as a loyal member oI the Mystery System oI
Egypt.
(e) FiIthly and Iinally, what value may we attach to the literature which deals with the Iarewell
conversations oI Socrates with his Iriends and pupils? Since this literature embraces a man
whose belieIs and practices coincide with those oI the Initiates oI the ancient mysteries oI Egypt,
then we may regard the study oI Xenophon's Memorabilia, Plato's Apology, the Phaedo,
Euthyphro, Crito and Timaeus as valuable specimens oI literature oI the Mysteries, or Masonic
World. (Ancient Mysteries; C. H. Vail C. 2425; also C. 32). (The Phaedo oI Plato; The Timaeus
oI Plato). (R. S. Clymer; Fire Philosophy C. 44; 49; 67; 75).
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2. Plato: (i) Early LiIe (ii) Travels (iii) Disputed Writings (iv) His Doctrines (v) Summary oI
Conclusions.
(i) His Earlv Life.
Plato is said to have been born at Athens in 427 B.C., and that his Iather's name was Aristo, and
his mother's name was Perictione, who was a relative oI Solon.
Little inIormation is known about his early liIe and training: but there is a supposition that
because his parents were wealthy, he must have had such educational opportunities as were
available to a wealthy youth. He is said to have studied the doctrines oI Heraclitus under
Cratylus, and to have been a pupil oI Socrates Ior eight years. It is also said that he was a soldier.
(Roger's Student Hist. oI Philosophy p. 76) (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Philosophy p. 93) (Will.
Durant's Story oI Phil.)
(ii) (a) His Travels.
He was 28 years old, when Socrates died (i.e., 399 B.C.), and together with the other pupils oI
Socrates, he Iled Irom Athens to Euclid at Megara Ior SaIety. He kept away Irom Athens Ior 12
years, during which time, it is also said that apart Irom visiting Euclid, he travelled (a) to
Southern Italy where he met the remnant oI Pythagoreans, (b) to Syracuse in Sicily, where,
through Dion, he met Dionysius to whom he became a Tutor: who subsequently caused him to
be sold as a slave, and (c) to Egypt. (Fuller's Hist. oI Philosophy) (Roger's Student's Hist. oI
Philosophy) (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 94) (Diogenes Laertius Bk. III, p. 277).
(ii) (b) His Academv
Plato is said to have returned to Athens in 387 B.C. when a middle aged man oI 40 years and to
have opened an Academy in a gymnasium on the western suburbs oI Athens over which he
presided Ior 20 years. He is said to have taught the Iollowing subjects (a) Political Science (b)
Statesmanship (c) Mathematics (d) Dialectics, and it is said that the curriculum was based upon
the educational principles advocated in the Republic. (Fuller's Hist. oI Philosophy: Plato's LiIe)
(B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Philosophy p. 68) (Roger's Students Hist. oI Philosophy p. 72) (Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Philosophy p. 122123).
(iii) His Writings are disputed and doubted bv modern scholarship.
There are 36 dialogues and a number oI letters, which Plato is supposed to have written: but
which are disputed and doubted by modern scholarship.
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(a) Grote states that Plato has written only those dialogues that bear his name.
(b) Schaarsmidt states that only nine oI the 36 dialogues are genuine while
(c) Aristotle considered the Platonic dialogues as nine in number, namely The Laws, Timaeus,
Phaedo, Symposium, Phaedrus, Georgias, Theaetus, Philebus and the Republic, which he
thought are genuine.
(d) OI the remaining 27 dialogues some scholars contend that the youthIul dialogues should be
included with the genuine ones, and these are the Apology, Crito, Enthydemus, Laches, Lysis
and Protagoras, and
(e) OI the remaining 21 dialogues scholars suggest that those which were not written by Plato
must have been written by his pupils (B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Phil. p. 68).
(iv) The doctrines oI Plato:
The doctrines attributed to Plato are scattered over a wide area oI literature: being Iound in
piecemeal throughout what are called dialogues; but particularly in connection with:
(I) the theory oI ideas and its application to natural phenomena which includes the doctrines oI
(a) the real and unreal (b) the Nous (mind) and (c) Creation.
(II) the ethical doctrines concerning (A) the highest good (B) deIinition oI virtue and (C) the
cardinal virtues.
(III) the doctrine oI the Ideal State whose attributes are compared with the attributes oI the soul
and justice. Following this order, they are as Iollows:
(I) The Theorv of Ideas
A. Definition of Ideas. This may be expressed in the Iollowing syllogism:
The idea (retaining its unity, unchangeableness and perIection) is the element oI reality in a
thing. The idea is the concept by which a thing is known. ThereIore the concept by which a thing
is known is the element oI reality in a thing (To on). It Iollows also, that since the concept or idea
oI a thing is real, then the concrete thing itselI is unreal. (Timaeus 51) (Phaedrus 247).
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B. The application of the theorv of Ideas to natural Phenomena.
In view oI the deIinition oI the Idea, three doctrines have resulted:
(a) The doctrine of the real and unreal.
The things which we see around us are the phenomena oI nature, they belong to the earthly
realm, they are only copies (Eidola) oI their prototypes (paradeigmata), the Ideas and noumena,
which dwell in the heavenly realm. The Ideas are real and perIect, but the phenomena are unreal
and imperIect; and it is the Iunction oI philosophy to enable the mind to rise above the
contemplation oI the visible copies oI Ideas, and advance to a knowledge oI the Ideas
themselves. (The Phaedrus 250). There is however, something common between them, because
the phenomena partake oI the Idea (metechei). This participation is an imitation (mimesis), but it
is so imperIect that natural phenomena Iall Iar short oI Ideas. (Parmenides 132 D) (Aristotle's
Metaphysics I, 6; 987b, 9).
(b) The doctrine of the Nous or World Soul.
This teaches that the universe are living animals and that they are endowed with the most perIect
and intelligent souls; that iI God had made the world as perIect as the nature oI matter allowed,
that He must have endowed it with a perIect soul. This soul acts as mediator between the Ideas
and natural phenomena, and is the cause oI liIe, motion, order, and knowledge in the universe.
(Timaeus, 30, 35).
(c) The doctrine of a Demiurgos in Creation (Cosmologv)
In the myth oI creation Iound in the Timaeus, we Iind the doctrine on Creation, as it is ascribed
to Plato's authorship, as Iollows:
Out oI chaos, which was ruled by necessity, God the Demiurgos or Creator, made order, by
Iashioning the phenomena oI matter according to the eternal prototypes (i.e., the Ideas) in as
perIect a manner, as the imperIection oI matter would allow. He next created the Gods, and
ordered them to Iashion the body oI man, while He himselI, made the soul oI man, Irom the
same material as that oI the world soul. The soul oI man is a selI-moving principle and is
responsible Ior liIe, motion and consciousness in the body. (Myth oI creation in Timaeus; Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Philosophy, p. 109110).
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(II) The Ethical Doctrines
The ethical doctrines that have been attributed to Plato are (A) that oI the highest good, i.e., the
Summum Bonum (B) the connotation oI virtue and (C) the reduction oI the virtues to Iour and
the place oI wisdom among them (A) as something subjective, and as an earthly experience, the
highest good is happiness: but as an objective attainment, it is the Idea oI good, and consequently
identiIied with God. ThereIore the purpose oI man's liIe is Ireedom Irom the Ietters oI the body,
in which the soul is conIined, and the practice oI virtue and wisdom, makes him like a God, even
while on earth.
(B) and (C)
Virtue is the order, the health and the harmony oI the soul. There are many virtues, but the
greatest is wisdom. All virtues may be reduced to the Iour cardinal virtues: wisdom, Iortitude,
temperance and justice. (Symposium 204E); (Theaetetus 176A); (Phaedo 64 sqq.) (The Republic
IV, 441, 443).
(III) The Ideal State (The Republic)
The doctrine attributed to Plato in the Iield oI civics is the doctrine oI the Ideal state whose
attributes are compared with the attributes oI the soul and justice.
In a state, virtue should be the chieI aim, and unless philosophers become rulers, or rulers
become thorough students oI philosophy, there will be unceasing troubles Ior states and
humanity at large. The Ideal state is modeled upon the individual soul, and just as the soul has
three parts, so also should the state have three parts: the rulers, the warriors, and the workers.
(Republic VI, 490 sq.; V, 478; III, 415).
Similarly, just as the harmony oI the soul depends upon the proper subordination oI its parts, so
also does the state depend upon the proper subordination oI its parts, in order to enjoy peace.
Here Plato introduces the allegory oI the charioteer and the winged steeds, in order to show that
virtue is to the soul as justice is to the state:One horse is oI noble origin: while the other is
ignoble; and consequently they cannot agree. As the noble horse strives to mount up to the
heavenly regions which are suitable to its nature: so the other tries to drag him down. Likewise in
dealing with the soul, it is the proper subordination oI its parts, that enables the noble in man to
attain its excellence; so also in dealing with the state, it is justice, or the proper subordination oI
the diIIerent classes, that makes it an Ideal State. (Roger's Students Hist. oI. Phil. p. 83); (Plato's
Republic).
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(v) Summary oI conclusions.
The doctrines oI Plato are eclectic and point to Egyptian origin.
1. The doctrine oI the real and unreal to represent doctrine Iound in the comparison between
natural phenomena and the Ideas, is only an instance oI the application oI the doctrine oI
opposites. Here the things oI this world have their corresponding types in the heavenly realm;
here the Ideas correspond to Being, while the natural phenomena correspond to not-Being. But
the doctrine oI opposites may be traced back not only to Socrates, Democritus, Parmenides and
the Pythagoreans, but Iurther back to its original source, i.e., the Egyptian Mystery System,
where the principle oI opposites was represented not only by pairs oI male and Iemale Gods,
such as Osiris and Isis, but also by pairs oI pillars in the Iront oI all the Egyptian temples.
(Memphite Theology in Kingship and the Gods, by FrankIort, C. 3, p. 2526 and 35). (Herodotus
I, 626) (Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick, Bk. I, p. 339). (Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 64,
73, 88). (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 61). (The Phaedo C. 15, 16, 49).
II. The doctrine of the Nous or World Soul is a principle of Egvptian magic.
Plato is credited with expressing this doctrine in the Iorm oI a simile, in which he compares the
world to a living animal, which is composed oI Souls. One being made perIect and responsible
Ior the liIe, motion and knowledge oI the animal or universe. This doctrine may be traced not
only to (a) Democritus who based his teaching about the Iire atoms oI the soul, and cognition
upon the magical principle oI the Egyptians: "that the qualities oI an animal are distributed
throughout its parts." (Golden Bough by Frazer) (Hist. oI Phil., B. D. Alexander, p. 40). (Wm.
Turner, Hist. oI Phil., p. 68), but also to (b) Anaxagoras, who is said to have advanced the Nous
(mind) as responsible Ior creating order out oI chaos, and which is omnipotent and omniscient.
(History oI Philosophy, Wm. Turner, p. 63).
The doctrine oI the Nous as a matter oI Iact, originated Irom (c) the Mystery System oI Egypt, in
connection with which, the God Osiris was represented in all Egyptian temples, by the symbol oI
an Open Eye, reIerred to elsewhere. This symbol indicated not only sight that transcended space
and time: but also omniscience, as the Great Mind which created and which still directs the
universe. This symbol also Iorms a part oI the decoration oI all Masonic lodges oI the modern
world and dates back to the Osirian or Sun worship oI the Egyptians more than 5000 B.C. This
same notion was also represented by the Egyptians by a God with eyes all over Him and was
known as the "All seeing Eye." (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil., p. 809). (The Ancient Mysteries, C. H.
Vail, p. 189). (Max Muller: Egyptian Mythology).
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III. The doctrine of the Demiurge in Creation.
This doctrine which is ascribed to the authorship oI Plato, did not by any means originate Irom
Plato. It was not only a current doctrine at the time oI Plato, but was well known among the
Eastern Ancient nations and taught by them many centuries beIore his time (427347 B.C.).
History tells us that the Persians taught this doctrine more than six centuries B.C. through their
leader Zoroaster. History also tells us that Pythagoras (500 B.C.), taught the same doctrine
expressed in terms oI Monads. The universe consisted oI two unities, i.e., (a) the Unity Irom
which the series oI numbers or beings is derived, being absolute Unity, which is the source oI all,
i.e., the Monad oI Monads or the God oI Gods and (b) the One, i.e., the Iirst in the series oI
derived numbers or beings. It is opposed to and limited by plurality, and thereIore it is relative
unity, i.e., a created Monad or God (a Demiurge), consequently the opposition between the One
and the many is the source oI all the rest. Furthermore, history likewise tells us that the original
source oI the doctrine oI a Demiurge in creation was Egypt, and it dates back to the creation
story oI Egypt 4000 B.C. which is to be Iound in the account given by the Memphite Theology:
an inscription on a stone, now kept in the British Museum. It contains the theological and
cosmological views oI the Egyptians which date back to the very beginning oI Egyptian history,
when the Iirst dynasties had made their new capital at Memphis, the city oI the God Ptah, i.e.,
about 4000 B.C., or even earlier.
The Egyptian cosmology must be presented in three parts; each part being supplementary to the
other, and presenting a complete philosophy by their combination. Part (I) deals with the Gods oI
chaos, part (II) deals with the Gods oI order and arrangement in creation, and part (III) deals with
the Primate oI the Gods, through whose Logos creation was accomplished. In part (I) pre-
creation or chaos is represented by (i) Ptah, the Primate oI the Gods, emerging Irom the primeval
waters Nun in the Iorm oI a Hill, Ta-tjenen, i.e., The Risen Land (ii) Atum, i.e., Atom, the sun
God, immediately joining Ptah, by emerging also Irom the chaotic waters Nun, and sitting upon
him (the Hill). (iii) A description oI the other qualities within the chaos Iollows:There are Iour
pairs oI male and Iemale Gods in the Iorm oI Irogs and serpents. Their names are (a) Nun and
Naunet, the primeval ocean and primeval matter; (b) Huh and Hauhet, the Illimitable and the
Boundless, (c) Kuk and Kauket, Darkness and Obscurity; and (d) Amon and Amaunet, the
Hidden and concealed ones. (Memphite Theology in Ancient Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p.
10, p. 21; FrankIort's Intellectual Adventure oI Man, p. 10, 21, 52).
In part (II) the Gods oI order and arrangement are represented as Iollows:
The same Iirst pair oI pre-creation Gods are together present, i.e., Ptah, the primeval Hill, who is
the thought and word oI all the Gods, together with Atum, who rests upon Ptah. Atum, i.e.,
Atom, having absorbed the thought and creative power oI Ptah, then proceeds with the work oI
Creation. He names Iour pairs oI parts oI his own body, which become Gods, and in this way,
eight Gods are created, who together with himselI become nine Gods in one Iamily or Godhead,
called the Ennead.
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N.B.
Magic is the kev to the interpretation of ancient religions and philosophv.
(a) Part (III) tells oI the speciIic powers oI Ptah, which Atum absorbs, but does not tell us how
He absorbs them.
(b) Part (I) tells us how, Ior it describes the movement oI Atum, as emerging Irom the primeval
waters, and sitting upon Ptah (the risen land or hill). It however does not give us the reason Ior
Atum's movement: a behavior which can be understood, only when we apply to its interpretation,
the key oI magical principles.
(c) The Magical Principle
Now, what is the magical principle involved in Atum's behavior? It is this: "The qualities or
attributes of entities, human or divine, are distributed throughout their various parts, and
contact with such entities, releases those qualities."
(d) It is now clear that by making contact with Ptah, Atum immediately received the attributes oI
Ptah's creative thought and speech and omnipotence and became the instrument and the Logos
and the Demiurge, through whom the task oI creation was undertaken and completed. (Dr.
Frazer's Golden Bough).
(e) It is also clear that according to the Memphite Theology, the doctrines oI a Demiurge and
created Gods originated Irom the Egyptian religion and Mystery System, and not Irom Plato who
lived Irom 427 to 347 B.C. (Ancient Egyptian Religion: Memphite Theology by FrankIort, p. 20
and 23). (Intellectual Adventure oI Ancient Man, by FrankIort, p. 21, and 5160). (The Egyptian
Book oI the Dead, c. 17). (The Golden Bough, by Dr. Frazeron Magic). (The Mediterranean
World, by SandIord, p. 182). (History oI Philosophy, by Weber, p. 2122). (The Cure oI the
woman who touched the hem oI Christ's garment: Mark, chapter 5, verses 2534). (The cure oI
several people who held the kerchieIs oI St. Paul: Acts, chapter 19, verse 12).
N.B.
The Memphite Theology will be dealt with in a separate chapter to show the origin oI Greek
Philosophy.
IV. The doctrines of (A) the highest good (B) virtue and (C) the cardinal virtues.
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N.B.
This is really the earliest theory oI salvation and it originated Irom the Egyptian Mysteries but
not Irom Plato.
(A) The main purpose oI the Egyptian Mysteries was the salvation oI the human soul. The
Egyptians believed the human body to be a prison house, where the soul is chained by ten Ietters.
This condition not only kept man separated Irom God, but made him subject to the wheel oI re-
birth or re-incarnation.
In order to escape Irom the eIIects oI his condition, two requirements had to be IulIilled by the
Neophyte:
(i) He must keep the Ten Commandments taught by the Mysteries, Ior by such a discipline, he
would gain conquest over the Ietters oI the soul, and liberate it, so as to make its development
possible, and (ii) he now being well qualiIied and duly prepared, must undergo a series oI
initiations, in order to develop his soul Irom the human stage to that oI a God. Such a
transIormation was known as salvation. It placed the Neophyte in harmony with nature, man and
God. It deiIied him, i.e., made him become godlike; and this attainment was known as the
highest good.
According to this theory oI salvation, man is expected to work out his own salvation, without a
mediator between himselI and his God.
(B) Plato deIines virtue as the order or discipline oI the soul. This meaning we accept, since it
agrees with the purpose oI the ten commandments oI the Mysteries.
The doctrines oI the ten virtues and the ten Ietters are as old as the Egyptian history itselI. Each
commandment or discipline represented a principle oI virtue, and the Iunction oI each virtue was
to remove a Ietter. Hence a liIe oI virtue was antecedent and preparatory to those Iurther
experiences, i.e., the initiations which led to gradual perIection and the divinity oI the Neophyte.
(C) Plato is also credited with having reduced all virtues to Iour cardinal virtues, and with
assigning the highest place among them to wisdom, as Iollows:wisdom, Iortitude, temperance
and justice.
We are also inIormed through the history oI philosophy, that Socrates, the alleged teacher oI
Plato, taught that wisdom was the equivalent oI all virtue. This divergence oI opinion between
pupil and teacher is signiIicant, since it points to the Iact that both oI them simply speculated
about a system oI Ethics which was current in the ancient world, and which neither oI them had
produced.
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This system oI Ethics as has already been mentioned belonged to the Mystery System oI Egypt,
which required Neophytes in preparation Ior initiation, to keep the Iollowing ten commandments,
underlying which were ten principles oI virtue:
The Neophyte must (I) control his thoughts (II) control his actions (III) have devotion oI purpose
(IV) have Iaith in the ability oI his master to teach him the truth (V) have Iaith in himselI to
assimilate the truth (VI) have Iaith in himselI to wield the truth (VII) be Iree Irom resentment
under the experience oI persecution (VIII) be Iree Irom resentment under experience oI wrong,
(IX) cultivate the ability to distinguish between right and wrong and (X) cultivate the ability to
distinguish between the real and the unreal (he must have a sense oI values).
II we now compare the order in the above outline with the order in which the cardinal virtues are
said to be arranged, we shall immediately see that the Iirst place which wisdom occupies among
the virtues was given to it by the Egyptian Mysteries, and not by Plato. Consequently in (I) and
(II) Irom the control oI thoughts and actions, we derive the virtue oI wisdom; in (VI) Irom
Ireedom oI resentment under persecution, we derive the virtue oI Iortitude; in (IX) and (X) Irom
an ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and between the real and unreal, we derive the
virtues oI justice and temperance. (Plato's Republic, c. IV, 44, and 443). (Ancient Mysteries by
C. H. Vail, p. 25 also 109112). (Wm. Turner's History oI Philosophy, p. 115). (Zeller's History
oI Philosophy, p. 155157).
V. (A) The doctrine of the Ideal State.
Concerning the authorship and source oI this doctrine, there are two conclusions: First, Plato was
not the author oI the Republic and second, the allegory oI the charioteer and winged steeds, is
not a product oI Plato, but is derived Irom the Egyptian Book oI the Dead, in the Judgment
Drama.
Concerning the Iirst conclusion it is only necessary to reaIIirm what has already been stated in
connection with the writings oI Plato, and that is that they are disputed not only by such modern
scholars as Grote and Schaarsmidt, but also by ancient historians: Diogenes Laertius,
Aristoxenus and Favorinus (80150 A.D.), who declare that the subject matter oI the Republic
was Iound in the controversies written by Protagoras (481411 B.C.) at the time oI whose death
Plato was but a boy.
Furthermore, the authorship oI Plato rests only upon the opinions oI Aristotle and Theophrastus,
both oI whose aims were the compilation oI a Greek philosophy with Egyptian material.
(Diogenes Laertius, p. 311 and 327; Aristotle Metaphysics Bk. I). (Zeller's History oI
Philosophy; Introduction, p. 8 and 13; Wm. Turner's History oI Philosophy, p. 95).
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Concerning the second conclusion, it must be pointed out that the allegory oI the "Charioteer and
the winged steeds" is a description oI the quality and destiny oI the soul as it appears at the bar oI
justice, in the Judgment Drama oI the Egyptian Book oI the Dead. In this Drama, the Great ChieI
Justice and President oI the Unseen World, Pethempamenthes, i.e., Osiris is seated on a throne,
and is attended by the Goddesses Isis and Nephthys, while 42 assistant judges are seated around.
Near Osiris there are Iour genii oI Amenthe, the Unseen World, represented as short vases, called
canopi, in which the diIIerent viscera, symbolizing the moral qualities oI the individual, are kept
embalmed. The intestines hive a very important connection with the moral qualities oI the
individual since they are blamed Ior any sin which the individual commits. At the opposite end
the deceased is introduced by Horus, while in the centre stands the Scale oI Justice which has
been erected by Anubis. On one side oI it, there appears a heart-shaped vase containing the moral
qualities oI the deceased, while on the other side, there is a Iigure oI the Goddess oI Truth. Toth,
the scribe, holding a roll oI papyrus, stands by and makes a record oI the weighing. AIter this is
completed, Horus receives the record Irom Toth and advances to Osiris to make known the
results. Osiris listens and at the end oI the report, pronountes sentence oI reward or punishment.
In the meantime, IearIul monsters lurk around the scene to destroy the soul, iI the verdict is
against it.
Let us observe that:
(1) the motion oI the scale in the Judgment Drama corresponds with the up and down motion oI
the winged steeds oI the allegory
(2) the opposite qualities weighed on the scale correspond with the opposite qualities possessed
by the noble and ignoble steeds oI the allegory
(3) the idea oI justice symbolized by the scale oI Judgment Drama, corresponds with the idea oI
justice expressed in the allegory.
(4) The winged steeds corresponds with the monsters oI the judgment drama.
(B) The Authorship of the Republic.
According to Diogenes Laertius book III and pages 311 and 327, it is stated both by Aristoxenus
and Favorinus, that nearly the whole oI the subject matter oI Plato's Republic was Iound in the
Controversies, written by Protagoras.
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Furthermore, according to Roger's Students History oI Philosophy p. 78, it is stated that although
Plato might have drawn heavily upon the reminiscences oI Socrates, whose lectures he attended:
yet the subject matter oI the Republic is a more careIully reasoned system oI philosophy, than
can be easily attributed to Socrates. 'That the whole volume is a cumulative argument into which
there are subtly interwoven opinions on almost every subject oI philosophical importance.
It is obvious that modern scholarship doubts that Plato drew the subject matter oI the Republic
Irom Socrates, and is inclined to attribute authorship to Plato himselI. II however, we take into
consideration the Iact that the subject matter oI the Republic was in circulation long beIore the
time oI Plato: Ior Protagoras is supposed to have lived Irom 481411 B.C. and Plato, Irom 427
347 B.C., reason Iorbids the assignment oI the authorship to Plato.
But the important question remains: From what source did Protagoras draw the ideas oI the
Republic which were circulated in the Controversies?
Textbooks on Greek philosophy tell us that Protagoras was a pupil oI Democritus; but when we
turn to the writings oI Democritus we are unable to discover any connection between them and
the (a) educational system and the (b) paternal government which are advocated in the Republic.
This Iact Iorces us to the conclusion that the subject matter oI Plato's Republic was neither
produced by Plato, nor any Greek philosopher.
(C) The Authorship of Timaeus.
According also to Diogenes Laertius Book VIII p. 399401, when Plato visited Dionysius at
Sicily, he paid Philolaus, a Pythagorean, 40 Alexandrian Minae oI silver, Ior a book, Irom which
he copied the whole contents oI the Timaeus.
Under these circumstances it is clear that Plato wrote neither the Republic nor the Timaeus,
whose subject matter identiIies them with the purpose oI the Mysteries oI Egypt. (Roger's
Students Hist. oI Philosophy p. 76; 78; and 104). (Zeller's Hist. oI Philosophy: Introduction p. 13
and 103). (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Philosophy p. 79 and 95). (Plato; Apology, Crito, and Phaedo).
(Xenophon: Memorabilia; Strabo; Ancient Mysteries by C. H. Vail). (Clement: Stromata Bk. V.
C. 7 and 9).
VI. The Chariot was not a culture pattern of the Greeks, at the time of Plato, nor was it used bv
them in warfare.
Greek culture and traditions did not Iurnish Plato with the idea oI the chariot and winged steeds,
Ior nowhere in their brieI military history, (i.e., up to the time oI Plato) do we Iind the use oI
such a war machine by the Greeks.
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The only nearby nation who specialized in the manuIacture oI chariots and the breeding oI
horses was the Egyptians. When Joseph was Governor in Egypt, the horse and war chariot were
in use; and when the Israelites Iled Irom the country, Pharaoh pursued them to the Red Sea in
chariots. Even Homer and Diodorus who visited Egypt, testiIy that they saw a great multitude oI
war chariots and numerous stables along the banks oI the Nile, Irom Memphis to Thebes.
And since the Judgment Drama in the Egyptian Book oI the Dead reveals the entire philosophy
contained in the allegory, Plato cannot be credited as its author.
The Iollowing sketch oI the military history oI the Greeks shows that the chariot was not used by
them, nor was it their culture pattern:
A. External wars or wars with the Persians.
(a) The Ionian revolt against Persian rule, 499494 B.C. This climaxed in a naval engagement at
Lade, where the Ionian Ileet was deIeated.
(b) The battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.
During the summer oI 490 B.C., the Greeks met the Persians at the bay oI Marathon, and aIter a
brieI Iight with bows and arrows, both belligerents withdrew to prepare Ior more decisive
engagements.
(c) The battle of Thermopvlae, 480 B.C.
Ten years aIter Marathon, the Persians and Greeks met again to settle their grievances. The
Persians anchored in the GulI oI Pagasae, while the Greeks anchored oII Cape Artimesium. A
battle Iollowed and Thermopylae was captured by the Persians.
(d) The battle of Salamis, 479 B.C.
Both Persians and Greeks met again at Salamis in 479 B.C., and a naval engagement Iollowed,
with considerable loss oI ships on both sides. Both belligerents withdrew without any decision.
(e) The confederacv of Delos and their wars with the Persians, 478448 B.C.
The purpose oI the conIederacy was deIense against Persian aggression, and two naval battles
were Iought: one at the river Eurymedon in 467 B.C., when the Greeks gained a minor victory,
and the other at Cyprus in 449 B.C., when the island was captured by the Persians.
N.B.
Chariots were not used in any oI these engagements.
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B. Internal wars, i.e., the Peloponnesian wars, 460445 B.C., and 431421 B.C. respectivelv.
These wars were Iought between the diIIerent Greek states, and their major engagements were
maritime.
In 432 B.C. Athens blockaded Potidaea and Megara was excluded Irom Greek markets. In 431
B.C. Thebes attacked Plataea, and while a Peloponnesian army occupied Attica, an Athenian
Ileet raided Peloponnesus.
Pericles conducted the evacuation oI Attica, the oligarchs at Corcyra were massacred, and aIter
the seizure oI Amphipolis; Nicias sued Ior peace 422 B.C.
N.B.
It is evident that Greek culture and tradition did not Iurnish Plato with the idea oI the charioteer
and winged steeds, Ior nowhere in their brieI military history, (i.e., up to the time oI Plato) do we
Iind the use oI such a war machine by the Greeks as a chariot. The only nearby nation who
specialized in the manuIacture oI chariots and horse breeding was the Egyptians, as already
mentioned.
And since the Judgment Drama in the Egyptian Book oI the Dead depicts the allegory oI the
charioteer and winged steeds, credit Ior its authorship cannot be given to Plato, but to the
Egyptians. (SandIord: Mediterranean World, c. 12, p. 197; 202; 203; 205; c. 13, p. 220221).
(Genesis, c. 45, 27; c. 47, 17; Deut. c. 17, 16). (I Kings, c. 10, 28). (Homer II. i, 381; Diodorus;
Roger's Hist. oI Phil., p. 8384). (John Kendrick: Ancient Egypt, Vol. I, p. 166). (The Egyptian
Book oI the Dead).
3. Aristotle: (i) (a) Early LiIe and Training and (b) His Own List oI Books (c) Other Lists oI
Books (ii) Doctrines (iii) Summary oI Conclusions: A. His Doctrines B. (i) The Library oI
Alexandria B. (ii) True Source oI his Unusual Number oI Books C. The Discrepancies and
Doubts in His LiIe.
(i) (a) Birth and earlv life and training.
According to the textbooks on the history oI Greek philosophy, Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. at
Stagira, a town in Thrace. His Iather, Neomachus is said to have been a physician to Amyntas,
King oI Macedonia. Nothing is mentioned in books about his early education, only that he
became an orphan and at the age oI 19 he went to Athens, where he spent twenty years as a pupil
oI Plato.
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We are also inIormed that aIter the death oI Plato, his nephew, became the master oI his school,
and that Aristotle leIt immediately Ior Mysia, where he met and married the niece oI Hermeias.
Likewise, that aIter the death oI Amyntas oI Macedon, his son Phillip having become king,
appointed Aristotle as Tutor oI his son Alexander a boy oI 13 years (later to be called the Great
in consequence oI his conquest oI Egypt).
AIter Phillip's assassination in 336 B.C. Alexander became king, and we are inIormed that he
immediately planned an Asiatic campaign and included Egypt, during which time Aristotle is
said to have returned to Athens and Iounded a school in a gymnasium called the Lyceum. We are
Iurther inIormed that Aristotle conducted this school Ior only twelve years, that Alexander the
Great advanced him the Iunds to purchase a large number oI books, that his pupils were called
Peripatetics, and that owing to an indictment Ior impiety, brought against him by a priest named
Eurymedon, he Iled Irom Athens to Chalcis in Euboea, where he remained in exile until his death
in 322 B.C. (Roger's Student's History oI Phil. p. 104). (Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p. 171
172). (Fuller's History oI Philosophy, Aristotle's LiIe). (B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI Phil. p. 91
92). (Diogenes Laertius Bk. V. p. 449).
(b) His own list of books.
Aristotle is credited with classiIying his own writings as Iollows:
(i) The Theoretic, whose object is truth, and which included (a) Mathematics (b) Physics and (c)
Theology. (ii) The Practical, whose object is the useIul, and which included (a) Ethics (b)
Economics and (c) Politics. (iii) The Productive or Poetic whose object is the beautiIul, and
which included (a) Poetry (b) Art and (c) Rhetoric.
N.B.
Neither Logic nor Metaphysics was in this list. (History oI Philosophy, B. D. Alexander, p. 92).
(c) Other lists of books.
There are two lists oI books which have come down to modern times Irom Alexandrine and
Arabian sources.
(i) The older list, derived Irom the Alexandrine Hermippus (200 B.C.), who estimated the books
oI Aristotle at 400, which, according to Zeller's suggestion, must have been in the Alexandrine
Library, at the time oI the compilation oI the list, since works which are now considered to be
Aristotle's are not Iound in the list.
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(ii) The later, derived Irom Arabian sources, was compiled by Ptolemus, oI the First or Second
Century A.D. This list mentions most oI the works in the modern collection, and has a total oI
one thousand books. (Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p. 172173; B. D. Alexander's History oI
Philosophy, p. 9293).
(ii) Doctrines oI Aristotle
I. Metaphvsics. or The Principles of Being, in the Metaphvsical realm.
1. Aristotle deIines Metaphysics as the science oI Being as Being.
2. He names the Attributes oI Being as
(a) actuality (entelecheia) i.e., perIection and
(b) potentiality i.e., the capacity Ior perIection. (dvnamis).
3. He states that all created beings are composed oI actuality and potentiality. These two
principles are present and are mixed in all created beings except one, whose being is actuality,
and includes the composition oI (a) matter and Iorm (b) substance and accident (c) soul and its
Iaculties (d) active and passive intellect.
II. Principles of being in the phvsical realm.
There are Iour principles oI being in the physical realm which are called Causes:
(1) Matter (hvle) the material cause, is the potentiality or capacity oI existence (hvle prole). It is
that out oI which being is made.
(2) Form or Essence (morphe) i.e., the Iormal cause is that which gives actuality to existence. It
is that into which a thing is made. When matter is united with Iorm the result is organized or
realized being that has come to existence in the processes oI nature (svnolon, ousia prote).
(3) Final Cause, is that Ior which everything exists. Everything has a purpose and that purpose is
the Iinal cause. A Iinal cause always implies intelligence: but this is not always true in the case
oI the eIIicient Cause.
Consequently in the realm oI nature, every being or living organism is the complex eIIect oI Iour
causes:
(1) The substance out oI which it is made (i.e., material cause). (2) The type or idea, according to
which the embryo tends to develop (i.e., Iormal cause). (3) The act oI creation or generation (i.e.,
eIIicient cause).
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(4) The purpose or end Ior which the organism is created (i.e., Iinal cause). In other words,
matter, type, creation and purpose are the Iour principles which underlie all existing things. (B.
D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy, p. 97100; Aristotle, Meta. I, 3; Wm. Turner's History oI
Philosophy, p. 136140. AlIred Weber's Hist. oI Phil., p. 8084).
III. Doctrines concerning the existence of God.
(1) Although motion is eternal, there cannot be an indeIinite series oI movers and the moved,
thereIore there must be One, the Iirst in the series which is unmoved (proton kinoun akineton)
i.e., The Unmoved Mover.
(2) The actual is antecedent to the potential Ior although last in appearance, is really Iirst in
nature. ThereIore beIore all matter and the composition oI actual and potential, pure actuality
must have existed. ThereIore actuality is the cause oI all things that exist and since it is pure
actuality, its liIe is essentially Iree Irom all material conditions. It is the thought oI thought, the
absolute spirit, who dwells in eternal peace and selI enjoyment, who knows himselI and the
absolute truth, and is in need oI neither action nor virtue.
(3) God is one, Ior matter is the principle oI plurality, and the First Intelligence is Iree Irom
material conditions. His liIe is contemplative thought: neither providence nor will is comparable
with the eternal repose in which He dwells. God is not concerned with the world.
IV. The doctrine of the origin of the world.
The world is eternal, because matter, motion and time are eternal.
V. The doctrine concerning Nature.
Nature is everything which has the principle oI motion and rest. It is spontaneous and selI
determining Irom within. Nature does nothing in vain, but according to deIinite law. It is always
striving Ior the best according to a plan oI development, which is obstructed only by matter. The
striving oI nature is through the less perIect to the more perIect.
VI. The doctrine concerning the Universe.
The world is globe shaped, circular and most perIect in Iorm. The heaven, which is composed oI
ether, stands in immediate contact with the First Cause. The stars, which are eternal come next in
order, the earth-ball is in the middle, and is the Iurthest Irom the prime mover, and least
participant oI divinity.
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(Eth. Wic 10, 8; 1178b, 20) (Op. cit. 10: 8, 9; 1179). (Wm. Turner's History oI Philosophy, p.
141143; B D. Alexander, History oI Phil. p. 102103; Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p. 221;
Roger's History oI Philosophy, p. 109). (Aristotle's Physics II, I, 192b 14) (De Caelo, I, 4, 271a,
33). (De Part. An. IV, 2, 677a 15). (Aristotle's Physics II, 8, 199). (B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI
Phil. p. 104). (De Generatione Animalium, IV, 4, 7706, 9).
VII. The doctrine of the soul.
The soul is not merely a harmony oI the body or the blending oI opposites. It is neither the Iour
elements nor their compound, Ior it transcends all material conditions. The soul and body are not
two distinct things: but one in two diIIerent aspects, i.e., just as Iorm is related to matter.
The soul is the power which a living body possesses, and it is the end Ior which the body exists,
i.e., the Iinal cause oI its existence.
While the soul which is the radical principle oI liIe, is one, yet it has several Iaculties. Those
Iaculties are: (1) Sensitive (2) Rational (3) Nutritive (4) Appetitive (5) Locomotive.
OI these, the sensitive and the rational are the most important: sensation being the Iaculty by
means oI which the Iorms oI sen'sible things are received, just as impression is made as by a
seal; and intelligent knowledge being the Iaculty by means oI which intellectual knowledge is
acquired. It is the seat oI ideas only, it does not create them, since knowledge comes through the
senses. (B. D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy, p. 105106). (Wm. Turner's History oI
Philosophy, p. 147153). (Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p 201204).
(iii) Summary oI Conclusions
A. His Doctrines.
1. The doctrine of Being (To on).
By declaring the attributes oI Being as (a) actuality or the determining principle, and (b)
potentiality or the indeterminate principle: Aristotle attempted to explain Reality in terms oI the
principle oI opposites.
But this principle was used not only by the Pythagoreans, Parmenides, and Democritus in a
similar manner but also by Socrates in his attempt to prove the immortality oI the soul, and by
Plato who saw reality as the concept oI things as distinguished Irom the things themselves: as the
noumena as distinct Irom phenomena, and as the real, distinct Irom the unreal.
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But the principle oI opposites originated Irom the Egyptian Mystery System, whose Gods were
male and Iemale, and whose temples carried in Iront oI them two pillars as symbols oI the
principle oI opposites. It is obvious that Aristotle was not the author oI this doctrine, but the
Egyptians. (Aristotle's Metaphysics I, 5, 985b, 24; Aristotle's Metaphysics I, 5, 98b, 31).
(Aristotle's Metaphysics I, 6, 987b, 9; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil., p. 41; 47; 48). (Plato's Phaedo,
c. 15; c. 16 and c. 49; Parmenides 132D). (Memphite Theology, King-ship and the Gods, by
FrankIort, c. 3, p. 25, 26, 35). (Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 64, 73, 88).
2. The existence of God
(a) The teleological concept has not only been embraced by Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but
also by the peoples oI the remotest antiquity. In the accounts Iound in the Iirst chapter oI Genesis
and in the Memphite Theology, Iound in chapters 20 and 23 oI FrankIort's Ancient Egyptian
Religion, creation proceeds Irom chaos to order, by deIinite and gradual steps, showing design
and purpose in nature, and suggesting that it must be the work oI a divine Intelligence. The dates
oI these sources carry us Iar back into antiquity, many centuries beIore the time oI Aristotle,
between 2000 and 5000 B.C.
We are also told that in addition to the teleological concept, Aristotle introduced the concept oI
the "Unmoved Mover" in order to prove the existence oI God. But the "Unmoved Mover" is
none other than the Atum oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians, the Demiurge, through
whose command (logos) Iour pairs oI Gods were created out oI diIIerent parts oI his body and
who accordingly moved out oI him. This act oI creation took place while Atum remained
unmoved; as he embraced Ptah. Thus the Iamily oI Nine Gods was created, and has been named
the Ennead. It is quite clear that the concept oI the "Unmoved Mover" is derived Irom the
Egyptian theological or mystery system, and not Irom Aristotle, as the modern world has been
made to believe.
N.B.
Incidentally, but no less important, it might be mentioned here that in this story oI the created
Gods by Atum the Sun God into a Iamily oI nine, i.e., the Ennead, we have the original source oI
two important scientiIic hypotheses oI modern times:
(1) There are nine major planets and (2) The Sun is the parent oI the other planets (This latter
being supported by the Nebular Hypothesis). Let us remember also that (a) the worship oI the
planets began in Egypt and (b) the Egyptian temples were the Iirst observatories oI history.
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(c) In attempting to prove the existence oI God or a First Cause by reIerence to actuality and
potentiality, Aristotle simply Iollowed the traditional custom oI the Ancients, who used the
principle oI Opposites in order to explain the Iunctions oI nature.
(d) Plato used it, through the theory oI Ideas, to explain the real and unreal in the phenomena oI
nature.
(e) Socrates used it in order to establish the Iact oI immortality by showing that the death oI one
Iorm oI liIe oI existing things, is but the beginning oI another Iorm oI liIe oI these things. In
other words liIe is perpetual, it only changes its Iorm in its course oI progress.
Democritus applied the principle oI opposites in their interpretation oI a particular phase oI
reality. We cannot thereIore consider Aristotle's use oI the terms, actuality and potentiality in the
problem oI the existence oI God as a new method oI interpretation.
Furthermore, Aristotle's review oI the doctrines oI all previous philosophers including Plato,
together with his exposure oI their errors, and inconsistencies, shows that he had become
conIident not only oI the Iact that he was in possession oI a new and correct knowledge one that
had not beIore been made available to the Greeks, but also that he could then speak with great
authority. Right here I must say that I am convinced that Aristotle represents a culture gap oI
5000 years or more between his innovation and the Greek level oI civilization; because it is
impossible to escape the conviction that he obtained his education and books Irom a nation
outside oI Greece, the Egyptians who were Iar in advance oI the culture oI Greeks oI his day.
(Memphite Theology in Kingship & The Gods by FrankIort c. 3. p. 25, 26, 35). (Herodotus I, 6
26) (Egyptian Religion by FrankIort p. 64, 73, 88). (Plato's Phaedo c. 15, 16, 49) (Zeller's
History oI Philosophy p. 61). (Aristotle's Eth., Nic. 10, 8; 1178b, 20) (Op. cit. 10: 8, 9; 1179).
(Zeller's History oI Philosophy p. 221) (Roger's History oI Philosophy p. 109). (William Turner's
History oI Philosophy p. 141143). (B. D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy, p. 102, 103). (B
D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy p. 92, 93; Roger's Student History oI Philosophy p. 104).
(William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 126127, 135). (Zeller's History oI Philosophy p.
171173) (Plutarch's Alexander) (Aristotle's Metaphysics) (William Turner's History oI
Philosophy, p. 128 Iootnote also Noct. Mt. 20: 5).(Strabo).
3. The doctrine of the origin of the world.
According to the doctrine that has been ascribed to Aristotle: "because matter, motion and time
are eternal, thereIore the world is also eternal", he plainly accepts and repeats a doctrine which
has also been ascribed to Democritus (400 B.C.), whose dictum we are all quite Iamiliar with: ex
nihillo nihil fit (nothing comes out oI nothing), and consequently matter or the world must
always have existed.
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But the antiquity oI the doctrine oI the eternal nature oI matter, takes us back to the creation
story oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians, in which Chaos is represented by the Primeval
Ocean Nun, out oI which there arose the Primeval Hill Ta-tjenen. Under these circumstances we
cannot give Aristotle credit Ior the authorship oI this doctrine.
In addition to the Ialse authorship that has been attributed to Aristotle, he contradicts himselI in
his physics VIII 1. 25; when he also speaks oI the world as caused. A thing cannot be eternal and
inIinite, and at the same time Iinite. (Memphite Theology in Egyptian Religion by FrankIort p.
20). (Intellectual Adventure oI Man by FrankIort p. 10, 21, 52).
4. The doctrine of the attributes of nature.
Aristotle deIines nature as that which possesses the principle oI motion and rest and also adds
that the motion is an eIIort to move Irom the less perIect to the more perIect by a deIinite law:
supposedly what we would today call evolution.
As we examine this deIinition, we Iind that Aristotle has only applied the principle oI opposites
to explain one oI the modes by which nature has revealed herselI just as he has done in his
attempt to explain Being in the dual terms oI actuality and potentiality.
But change and motion, permanence and rest, were by no means new problems at the time oI
Aristotle; since they appear to have been investigated not only by Parmenides, Zeno and
Melissus, but also by Democritus, who stressed the notion oI permanence in his Iamous dictum:
ex nihillo nihil Iit (out oI nothing, nothing comes) implying thereby that nature is permanent and
eternal.
Similarly, his reIerence to nature's movement Irom the less perIect to the more perIect, was by no
means a new discovery oI a principle oI nature.
The creation account Iound in the Iirst chapter oI Genesis speaks oI the gradual development oI
liIe, in which the Demiurge or Logos was engaged at work during six stages and rested on the
seventh. Similarly, the creation account oI the Egyptians pound in the Memphite Theology, also
speaks oI nature's movement Irom Chaos to order.
These accounts by many thousand years antedate Aristotle's time Ior the Iormer is about 2000
B.C. while the latter 4000 B.C., and since the principle oI opposites has already been shown to
originate Irom the Egyptians, as well as that oI the gradual development oI liIe, it is clear that
this doctrine on the attributes oI nature did not originate Irom Aristotle. (Zeller's History oI
Philosophy, p. 6065;) (William Turner's History oI Philosophy p. 4452). (Genesis c. 1).
(Roger's History oI Philosophy p. 2832). (Intellectual Adventure oI Man by FrankIort, p. 21,
5160). (Ancient Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 20, 23).
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5. The Soul.
According to Aristotle the soul possesses the Iollowing attributes (1) Identity with body, as Iorm
with matter (2) The power which a living body possesses, i.e., the radical principle oI liIe,
maniIesting itselI in the Iollowing attributes:
(a) sensitive
(b) rational
(c) nutritive
(d) appetitive
(e) locomotive.
This description oI the soul by Aristotle, seems to vary somewhat Irom the more Iamiliar and
current ideas held by the Atomists, on the one hand and Socrates, Plato and the Pythagoreans on
the other; Ior while the Iormer believed that the soul is material and is composed oI Iire atoms;
the latter regarded it as a harmony oI the body and a blending oI opposites. (William Turner's
History oI Philosophy, p. 42, 6768). (Plato Phaedo, c. 15) (Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p.
61). (De Respiratione, 4, 30, 47a).
Naturally we are now Iorced to ask the question: Did this doctrine oI the soul originate Irom
Aristotle? It is clear that he did not get it Irom his teacher Plato, nor Irom the Pythagoreans and
Atomists; but Irom some other source outside oI Greece.
As we turn our attention to ancient history, we happily discover that there are two such sources
outside oI Greece (1) The Creation story in Genesis Iirst chapter and (2) The Egyptian Book oI
the Dead, which does not only contain attributes oI the soul, identical with those mentioned by
Aristotle, but Iar more in an elaborate system oI philosophy in which human nature is explained
as a unity oI nine inseparable parts consisting oI diIIerent bodies and souls interdependent one
upon another, the physical body being one oI them. (The Egyptian Book oI the Dead by Sir E. A.
Budge. Introduction, p. 2964).
In the Genesis story, it is asserted that God made man out oI matter (i.e., the dust oI the earth),
and breathed into his nostrils, the breath oI liIe, and "man became a living soul". Here we have a
clear statement oI the identity oI "body and soul", taken Irom a document (Genesis) which
antedates Aristotle by many centuries.
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In the Egyptian Book oI the Dead, we also Iind that the human soul is composed oI the Iollowing
nine inseparable parts:
(1) The Ka, which is an abstract personality oI the man to whom it belongs possessing the Iorm
and attributes oI a man with power oI locomotion, omnipresence and ability to receive
nourishment like a man. It is equivalent to (Eidolon), i.e., image.
(2) The Khat, i.e., the concrete personality, the physical body, which is mortal.
(3) The Ba, i.e., the heart-soul, which dwells in the Ka and sometimes alongside it, in order to
supply it with air and Iood. It has the power oI metamorphosis and changes its Iorm at will.
(4) The Ab, i.e., the Heart, the animal liIe in man, and is rational, spiritual and ethical. It is
associated with the Ba (heart-soul) and in the Egyptian Judgment Drama it undergoes
examination in the presence oI Osiris, the great Judge oI the Unseen World.
(5) The Kaibit, i.e., shadow. It is associated with Ba (heart-soul) Irom whom like the Ka, it
receives its nourishment. It has the power oI locomotion and omnipresence.
(6) The Khu, i.e., spiritual soul, which is immortal. It is also closely associated with the Ba
(heart-soul), and is an Ethereal Being.
(7) The Sahu, i.e., spiritual body, in which the Khu or spiritual soul dwells. In it all the mental
and spiritual attributes oI the natural body are united to the new powers oI its own nature.
(8) The Sekhem, i.e., power or the spiritual personiIication oI the vital Iorce in a man. Its
dwelling place is in the heavens with spirits or Khus.
(9) The Ren, i.e., the name, or the essential attribute Ior the preservation oI a Being. The
Egyptians believed that in the. absence oI a name, an individual ceased to exist.
N.B.
It must be noted that according to the Egyptian concept
(1) The soul has nine parts, whose unity is so complete, that even the Ren, i.e., the name, is an
essential attribute, since without it, it cannot exist.
(2) The Ba (or heart-soul), is connected with the Ka, Kaibit and Ab (Abstract personality or
Shadow and Animal liIe) on the one hand, and also with Khu and Sekhem (spiritual Soul and
spiritual personiIication oI vital Iorce) on the other hand, as the power oI Nourishment.
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(3) The Sahu is a spiritual body which is used both by Khu and Sekhem.
(4) The Khat, i.e., the physical body, is essential to the soul while maniIesting itselI upon the
physical plane.
(5) The soul has the additional Iollowing attributes:
(a) omnipresence
(b) metamorphosis
(c) locomotion
(d) nutritive
(e) mortality (in case oI one khat)
(I) immortality
(g) rationality
(h) spirituality
(i) morality
(j) ethereal
(k) shadowy
(6) It is clear thereIore Irom such a comparison as this, that the Aristotelian doctrine oI the soul
is identical and coincides with only a very small portion oI the Egyptian philosophy oI the soul,
which thereIore stands in relation to it as a whole to its part. Consequently we must conclude that
Aristotle obtained his doctrine oI the soul Irom the Egyptian Book oI the Dead, directly or
indirectly.
B (i) The Librarv of Alexandria was the true source of Aristotle´s large numbers of books.
It is to be expected that the library oI Alexandria was immediately ransacked and looted by
Alexander and his party, no doubt made up oI Aristotle and others, who did not only carry oII
large quantities oI scientiIic books: but also Irequently returned to Alexandria Ior the purpose oI
research.
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Just as these books were captured in Egypt by the army oI Alexander and Iell into the hands oI
Aristotle, so aIter Aristotle's death, these very books were destined to be captured by a Roman
army and conveyed to Rome according to the Iollowing story taken Irom the histories oI Strabo
and Plutarch:
The books oI Aristotle Iell into the hands oI Theophrastus who succeeded him as Head oI his
School. At the death oI Theophrastus, they were bequeathed to Neleus oI Scepsis. AIter the death
oI Neleus, the books were hidden in a cellar, where they remained Ior almost two centuries.
When Athens was captured by the Romans in 84 B.C., the books were captured by Sulla and
carried to Rome, where Tyrannio a grammarian secured copies and enabled Andronicus oI
Rhodes to publish them. (Strabo; Plutarch; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil., p. 128 Iootnote). (Noct.,
Mt, 20; 5).
The Iragmentary character oI Aristotle's writings and their lack oI unity, reveal the Iact that he
himselI made notes hurriedly Irom books while doing his research at the great Egyptian Library.
The ancient teaching method was oral; not by lecture and note taking.
Right here I must repeat that I am convinced that Aristotle represents a culture gap oI 5000 years
between his innovation and the Greek level oI civilization; because it is impossible to escape the
conviction that he obtained his education and books Irom a nation outside oI Greece, who was
Iar ahead oI the culture oI the Greeks oI his day, and that was the Egyptians. (B. D. Alexander's
History oI Philosophy, p. 92 and 93). (Roger's Student History oI Philosophy, p. 104). (AlIred
Weber's History oI Philosophy, p. 77 and 78). (Wm. Turner's History oI Philosophy, p. 126, 127,
135). (Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p. 171173). (Plutarch's Alexander, c. 8). (Aristotle's
Metaphysics) (Wm. Turner's History oI Phil., p. 128 Iootnote also Noct., Mt., 20; 5). (Strabo).
The so-called books oI Aristotle deal with scientiIic knowledge which was not in circulation
among the Greeks, and consequently, it was impossible, as has already been stated, Ior him to
have purchased them Irom other so-called Greek philosophers.
It is Ior the purpose oI concealing the true source oI his books and oI his education, that history
tells the very strange stories about Aristotle (a) that he spent 20 years, as a pupil under Plato,
whom we know was incompetent to teach him; and (b) that Alexander the Great also gave him
money to buy the large number oI books to which his name has been attached; but at the same
time, Iails to tell us when, where and Irom whom Aristotle bought the books.
Furthermore, as already pointed out, Aristotle's review oI the doctrines oI all previous
philosophers including Plato, together with his exposure oI their errors and inconsistencies,
shows that he had become conIident not only oI the Iact that he was in possession oI correct
knowledge, one that had not beIore been made available to the Greeks; but also that he could
then speak with great authority.
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B (ii) The lack of uniformitv between the lists of books points to doubtful authorship.
1. There are at least three lists oI books. One list is said to be Aristotle's own classiIication oI his
writings, and naturally it must be dated within the period oI his own liIe time 384322 B.C. In
this list Aristotle has told the world that he wrote texts on (a) Mathematics, Physics and
Theology, (b) Ethics, Economics and Politics and (c) Poetry, Art and Rhetoric.
Now, in order to write these texts one must have received his education and training in the
subjects on which they are written. We are told in the history oI Greek philosophy, that Socrates
taught Plato and that Plato taught Aristotle. But there is no evidence that Socrates ever taught
mathematics or economics or politics.
Consequently, it was impossible Ior him to teach Plato these subjects, and also impossible Ior
Plato to teach Aristotle these subjects, under the Egyptian Mystery System which was graded,
and which required prooI oI eIIiciency beIore promotion.
We are thereIore unable to accept the claim oI Aristotle to have been the author oI those books.
2. Two lists are derived Irom diIIerent sources and the two together diIIer widely in (a) number
(b) subject matter and (c) date.
The list oI Hermippus the Alexandrine (200 B.C.) contains 400 books. The list compiled by
Ptolemus, between First and Second Centuries A.D. contains 1000 books. The very Iact that
there is no uniIormity in the lists points to a doubtIul authorship. Also, iI Aristotle in 200 B.C.
had only 400 books, by what miracle did they increase to 1000 in the Second Century A.D.? Or
was it Iorgery?
C. The discrepancies and doubts in his life.
(i) He wastes 20 vears as a pupil under Plato:
It is said that he went to Plato at the age oI 19 and spent 20 years with him as a pupil. But this is
doubtIul and unreasonable. DoubtIul because Plato is regarded as a philosopher, while Aristotle
as a scientist, who has been credited with all the scientiIic knowledge oI the ancient world, and it
is impossible Ior a master to teach a pupil what he himselI does not know.
It is also unreasonable to expect a man who has been credited with Aristotle's knowledge, to
waste 20 oI the best years oI his liIe, under a master who was incompetent to teach him. (B. D.
Alexander, Hist. oI Phil., p. 92; Roger's Student History oI Philosophy, p. 104).
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(ii) The truth of how he got such a large number of books is misrepresented.
He is said to have received Iinancial aid Irom Alexander the Great, and was able to purchase a
large number oI books in order to advance his studies. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil., p. 171; Wm.
Turner's History oI Phil. p. 127).
But this sounds more like a Iable than the truth, Ior up to the time oI Aristotle, Greek education
was represented by the Sophists who taught Rhetoric and dialectics; while the study oI
elementary science was conIined to a Iew unknown philosophers. This was the standard oI Greek
education, Ior the Sophists were the only authorized teachers.
Yet Aristotle is credited with producing a thousand diIIerent books dealing with all branches oI
the scientiIic knowledge oI antiquity. Certainly he could not have obtained them Irom the
Greeks, Ior that vast body oI knowledge, which bears his name and which was presented as new,
would really have been the traditional common possession oI all who were members oI the
Greek schools oI philosophy Ior they would have been the only persons inside Greece permitted
to own such books; Ior knowledge was protected as secret.
Under these circumstances it is evident that the vast body oI scientiIic knowledge ascribed to
Aristotle, was neither in the possession oI the Greeks oI his time, nor was there any one in
Greece competent to teach him Science and, least oI all, on so vast a scale.
(iii) He got the books bv looting the Librarv of Alexandria.
The question must now be asked: how did Aristotle, a single individual, come to possess such a
vast number oI scientiIic works, a body oI knowledge which took the ancient world Iive
thousand years or more to accumulate? It is evident that Aristotle's Iame as a scholar has been
grossly exaggerated: Ior such an accomplishment would have been both a physical and mental
impossibility. Throughout the intellectual advancement oI man, the world has witnessed many a
genius; but those have always been specialists in particular Iields, not specialists in every branch
oI science.
And the modern world is no exception, Ior our great men oI science are not specialists in every
branch oI science, but only in a particular one. That appears to be nature's way.
As a matter oI Iact, the many discrepancies and doubts in the liIe and activities oI Aristotle lead
us to the only reasonable solution oI the problem that instead oI the tales (a) that Alexander the
Great gave him money to buy books (b) that he spent 20 years oI his liIe as a pupil with Plato
and (c) that he leIt the palace oI Alexander Ior Athens, when Alexander started on his Egyptian
invasion, he, on the contrary, must have spent a large part oI those 20 years under the tutorship
oI the Egyptian priests, and also must have accompanied Alexander on the Egyptian invasion,
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which gave him the opportunity, not only to carry away Irom the Alexandrian Library, the vast
number oI books which are now said to be his, but also to copy notes Irom a large number oI
volumes. Indeed modern scholarship has shown that the writings oI Aristotle bear all the marks
oI hurriedly copied notes which oI course suggests that Aristotle himselI copied these notes Irom
the books oI the Alexandrian Library. The historical account oI Aristotle's liIe is incredible.
(iv) It was the custom of ancient armies to capture books as valuable war bootv.
When a victorious army takes possession oI a country, it is customary Ior special companies to
search Ior and seize war booty, i.e., to help themselves to everything that is considered valuable.
The Greeks, among all the surrounding nations, were the most anxious to obtain the valuable
secrets oI the Egyptians, in the Ancient Sciences, and it would appear that the greatest
opportunity came to them to accomplish the desire when Alexander the Great invaded Egypt. As
stated elsewhere, ancient invading armies looted libraries, because oI the great value attached to
books; and temples were also looted, not only Ior books, but also Ior the gold and silver, out oI
which the gods and ceremonial vessels were made.
CHAPTER VII: The Curriculum of the Egyptian Mystery System
1. The Education of the Egvptian Priests According to Their Orders
From Diodorus, Herodotus and Clement oI Alexandria, we learn that there were six Orders oI
Egyptian Priests, and that each Order had to master a certain number oI the books oI Hermes.
Clement has described a procession oI the Priests, calling them by their Order, and stating their
qualiIications, as Iollows:
First comes the Singer Odus, bearing an instrument oI music. He has to know by heart two oI the
books oI Hermes; one containing the hymns oI the Gods, and the other, the allotment oI the
king's liIe. Next comes the Horoscopus, carrying in his hand a horologium or sun-dial, and a
palm branch; the symbols oI Astronomy. He has to know Iour oI the books oI Hermes, which
deal with Astronomy.
Next comes the Hierogrammat, with Ieathers on his head, and a book in his hand, and a
rectangular case with writing materials, i.e., the writing ink and the reed. He has to know the
hieroglyphics, cosmography, geography, astronomy, the topography oI Egypt, the sacred utensils
and measures, the temple Iurniture and the lands.
Next comes the Stolistes, carrying the cubit oI justice, and the libation vessels. He has to know
the books oI Hermes that deal with the slaughter oI animals.
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Next comes the Prophetes carrying the vessel oI water, Iollowed by those who carry the loaves.
The Prophetes is the President oI the temple and has to know the ten books which are called
hieratic, and contain the laws and doctrines concerning the Gods (secret-theology) and the whole
education oI the Priests. The books oI Hermes are 42 in number and are absolutely necessary. 36
oI them have to be known by the Orders which precede, and contain the whole philosophy oI the
Egyptians.
The remaining six books must be known by the Order oI Pastophori. These are medical books
and deal with physiology, male and Iemale diseases, anatomy, drugs and instruments. The books
oI Hermes were well known to the ancient world and were known to Clement oI Alexandria,
who lived at the beginning oI the third century A.D.
In addition to the education contained in the 42 Books oI Hermes, the Priests gained considerable
knowledge Irom the selection and examination oI sacriIicial victims, and the strict bodily purity
which their priestly oIIice imposed.
In addition to the Hierogrammat and Horoscopus, who were skilled in theology and
hieroglyphics, a Priest was also a Judge and an interpreter oI the law. This led to a select
tribunal, which made the Egyptian Priest the custodian oI every kind oI literature. We are also
told that the Science oI Statistics was cultivated to the greatest perIection among the Egyptian
Priests. (Diodorus I, 80; Clement oI Alexandria; Stromata 6, 4, p. 756; John Kendrick's Ancient
Egypt Bk. I, p. 378379; Bk. II, 8587; Aelian, Var. Hist. 14, 34; Clement oI Alexandria:
Stromata 6, 4, p 758: John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt Bk. II p. 3133).
2. The Education of the Egvptian Priests in. A. The Seven Liberal Arts. B. Secret Svstems of
Languages and Mathematical Svmbolism. C. Magic
A. The education of the Egvptian Priests in the Seven Liberal Arts.
As has already been pointed out, in connection with Plato and the Cardinal Virtues, the Egyptian
Mysteries were the centre oI organized culture, and the recognized source oI education in the
ancient world. Neophytes were graded according to their moral eIIiciency and intellectual
competence, and had to submit to many years oI tests and ordeals, in order that their eligibility
Ior advancement might be determined. Their education included the Seven Liberal Arts, and the
virtues. The virtues were not mere abstractions or ethical sentiments; but positive valours and the
virility oI the soul. Beyond these, the Priests entered upon a course oI specialization.
B. The education of the Egvptian Priests consisted also in the speciali:ation in secret svstems of
language and mathematical svmbolism.
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(i) It would appear that there were two Iorms oI writing in use among the Egyptians: (a) The
demotic, believed to have been introduced by Pharaoh Psammitichus, Ior trade and commercial
purposes; and (b) The hieroglyphics oI which there were two Iorms, i.e., the hieroglyphics
proper, and the hieratic a linear Iorm, both oI which were used only by the Priests, in order to
conceal the secret and mystical meaning oI their doctrines. (Clement oI Alexandria: Stromata
Bk. V. c. 4 p. 657; Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride Bk. II, p. 374; John Kendrick; Ancient Egypt,
Bk. II, p. 84; 119, 336, and 245).
(ii) We are also inIormed that the mystery system oI Egypt employed modes oI spoken language
which could be understood, only by the initiated. These consisted not only oI myths and
parables; but also oI a secret language called Senzar. (Ancient Mysteries: C. H. Vail, p. 23).
(iii) We also understand that the Egyptians attached numerical values both to letters oI words and
to geometrical Iigures, with the same intention as with their use oI hieroglyphics, i.e., to conceal
their teachings. It is Iurther understood that the Egyptian numerical and geometrical symbolism
were contained in the 42 Books oI Hermes, whose system was the oldest and most elaborate
repository oI mathematical symbolism. Here again we are reminded oI the source oI the number
philosophy oI Pythagoras. (Ancient Mysteries: C. H. Vail, p. 2223; Clement oI Alexandria:
Stromata Book V, c. 7 and 9).
C. The Education of the Egvptian priests consisted also in the speciali:ation in magic
According to Herodotus, the Egyptian Priests possessed super-natural powers, Ior they had been
trained in the esoteric philosophy oI the Greater Mysteries, and were experts in Magic. They had
the power oI controlling the minds oI men (hypnosis), the power oI predicting the Iuture
(prophecy) and the power over nature, (i.e., the power oI Gods) by giving commands in the name
oI the Divinity and accomplishing great deeds. Herodotus also tells us that the most celebrated
Oracles oI the ancient world were located in Egypt: Hercules at Canopis; Apollo at Apollinopolis
Magna; Minerva at Sais; Diana at Bubastis; Mars at Papremis; and Jupiter at Thebes and
Ammonium; and that the Greek Oracles were Egyptian imitations.
Here it might be well to mention that the Egyptian Priests were the Iirst genuine Priests oI
history, who exercised control over the laws oI nature. Here it might also be well to mention that
the Egyptian Book oI the Dead is a book oI magical Iormulae and instructions, intended to direct
the Iate oI the departed soul. It was the Prayer Book oI the Mystery System oI Egypt, and the
Egyptian Priest received training in post mortem conditions and the methods oI their veriIication.
It must also be noted that Magic was applied religion, or primitive scientiIic method. (The
Egyptian Book oI the Dead; Herodotus Bk. II 109, 177; SandIord's Mediterranean World, p. 27;
507; DeIinition oI Magic, Frazier's Golden Bough).
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3. A Comparison of the Curriculum of the Egvptian Mvsterv Svstem with the Lists of Books
Attributed to Aristotle
A. The Curriculum
The Curriculum oI the Egyptian Mystery System consisted oI the Iollowing subjects:
(i) The Seven Liberal Arts, which Iormed the Ioundation training Ior all Neophytes and included:
grammar, Arithmetic, Rhetoric and Dialectic (i.e., the Quadrivium) and Geometry, Astronomy
and Music (i.e., the Trivium).
(ii) The Sciences of the 42 Books of Hermes
In addition to the Ioundation training prescribed Ior all Neophytes, those who sought Holy
Orders, had to be versed in the books oI Hermes and according to Clement oI Alexandria, their
orders and subjects were as Iollows:
(a) The Singer or Odus, who must know two books oI Hermes dealing with Music i.e., the
hymns oI the Gods.
(b) The Horoscopus, who must know Iour books oI Hermes dealing with Astronomy.
(c) The Hierogrammat, who must know the hieroglyphics, cosmography, geography, astronomy
and the topography oI Egypt and Land Surveying.
(d) The Stolistes, who must know the books oI Hermes that deal with slaughter oI animals and
the process oI embalming.
(e) The Prophetes, who is the President oI the temple, and must know ten books oI Hermes
dealing with higher esoteric theology and the whole education oI priests.
(I) The Pastophori, who must know six books oI Hermes, which are medical books, dealing with
physiology, the diseases oI male and Iemale, anatomy, drugs and instruments.
(iii) The Sciences of the Monuments (Pyramids, Temples, Libraries, Obelisks, Phinxes, Idols);
Architecture, masonry, carpentry, engineering, sculpture, metallurgy, agriculture, mining and
Iorestry. Art (drawing and painting).
(iv) The Secret Sciences
Numerical symbolism, geometrical symbolism, magic, the book oI the Dead, myths and
parables.
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(v) The Social Order and Its Protection
The Priests oI Egypt were also Lawyers, Judges, oIIicials oI government, Business Men and
Sailors and Captains. Hence, they must have been trained in Economics, Civics, Law,
Government, Statistics, census taking, navigation, ship building, military science, the
manuIacture oI chariots and horse breeding.
II we compare 3A with 3B which immediately Iollows, we would discover that the curriculum oI
the Egyptian Mystery System covered a much wider range oI scientiIic subjects than those oI
Aristotle's list, which it includes.
N.B.
Note also that The Seven Liberal Arts: The Quadrivium and Trivium originated Irom the
Egyptian Mysteries. (The Mechanical Triumphs oI the Ancient Egyptians by F. M. Barber). (The
Book oI the Foundation oI Temples by Moret). (A short history oI Mathematics by W. W. R.
Ball). (The Problem oI Obelisks by R. Engelbach). (The Great Pyramid Its Divine Message by
D. Davidson). (History oI Mathematics by Florian Cajori).
B. Aristotle´s list of books, prepared bv himself.
(1) Aristotle is said to have prepared a list oI books in the Iollowing order (B. D. Alexander's
Hist. oI Phil. p. 97; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 129).
(i) Theoretic whose purpose was truth, and which included (a) Mathematics (b) Physics and (c)
Theology.
(ii) Practical, whose purpose was useIulness, and which included (a) Ethics (b) Economics (c)
Politics and
(iii) Poetic or Productive, whose purpose was beauty, and which included (a) Poetry (b) Art and
(c ) Rhetoric. An examination and comparison oI 3 A. with 3 B. show that (a) The Curriculum oI
the Egyptian Mystery System included all the scientiIic and philosophic subjects credited to the
authorship oI Aristotle. (b) The books attributed to Aristotle's authorship cannot be dissociated
Irom Egyptian origin, as elsewhere reIerred to, both through the plunder oI the Royal Library oI
Alexandria and through research carried on at the centre by Aristotle himselI. As has been
mentioned elsewhere, the writings oI Aristotle are disputed by modern scholarship (Wm.
Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 127) and I Ieel more justiIied in making the comparison between the
curriculum oI the Mystery System and the list said to be drawn up by Aristotle himselI; rather
than with the notorious list oI one thousand books, whose subjects are nevertheless included
under the curriculum oI the Egyptian Mystery System. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 173).
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CHAPTER VIII: Memphite Theology is the Basis of all Important Doctrines
in Greek Philosophy
Historv and Description.
The Memphite Theology is an inscription on a stone, now kept in the British Museum. It
contains the theological, cosmological and philosophical views oI the Egyptians. It has already
been reIerred to in my treatment oI Plato's doctrines; but it must be repeated here to show its Iull
importance as the basis oI the entire Iield oI Greek philosophy. It is dated 700 B.C., and bears the
name oI an Egyptian Pharaoh who stated that he had copied an inscription oI his ancestors. This
statement is veriIied by language and typical arrangement oI the text, and thereIore assigns the
original date oI the Memphite Theology to a very early period oI Egyptian history, i.e., the time
when the Iirst Dynasties had made their new capital at Memphis: the city oI the God Ptah, i.e.,
between 4000 and 3500 B.C. (Intellectual Adventure oI Man by FrankIort, p. 55).
The Text.
This consists oI three supplementary parts, each oI which will be treated separately: both as
regards its teachings and the identity in Greek philosophy. Part I presents the Gods oI Chaos.
Part II presents the Gods oI Order and arrangement in creation; and Part III presents the Primate
oI the Gods, or the God oI Gods, through whose (Logos) creation was accomplished. In Part I
pre-creation or chaos is represented as Iollows:
A. Text of Part I.
The Primate oI the Gods Ptah, conceived in his heart, everything that exists and by His utterance
created them all. He is Iirst to emerge Irom the primeval waters oI Nun in the Iorm oI a Primeval
Hill. Closely Iollowing the Hill, the God Atom also emerges Irom the waters and sits upon Ptah
(the Hill). There remain in the waters Iour pairs oI male and Iemale gods (the Ogdoad, or unity
oI Eight-Gods), bearing the Iollowing names:
(1) Nun and Naunet, i.e., the Primeval waters and the counter heaven.
(2) Huh and Hauhet, i.e., the boundless and its opposite:
(3) Kuk and Kauket, i.e., darkness and its opposite; and
(4) Amun, i.e., (Amon) and Amaunet, i.e., the hidden and its opposite.
(Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 20; 23. Intellectual Adventure oI Ancient Man by FrankIort,
p. 21).
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B. The Philosophv of Part I.
(1) Ptah has the Iollowing attributes: (a) The Primate oI the Gods, i.e., The God oI Gods (b) The
Logos. Thought and creative utterance and power (Egyptian Religion by FrankIort, p. 23). (c)
The God oI Order and Iorm (d) The Divine ArtiIicer and Potter (Fire Philosophy by Swinburne
Clymer; Jamblichus; Ancient Egypt by John Kendrick, Bk. I, p. 318; 339).
It must be noted that while the Sun God Atom sits upon Ptah the Primeval Hill He accomplishes
the work oI creation. But the Memphite Theology dates back to 4000 B.C., when it is believed
the Greeks were unknown (FrankIort's Intellectual Adventure oI Man, p. 5; 53; 55. The Book oI
the Dead, p. 17).
This arrangement in the Memphite Theology could only mean that the ingredients oI the
Primeval Chaos contained ten principles: Iour pairs oI opposite principles, together with two
other gods: Ptah representing Mind, Thought, and creative Utterance; while Atom joins himselI
to Ptah and acts as Demiurge and executes the work oI creation. From such an
arrangement in the cosmos we are in position to inIer the Iollowing philosophies:
(a) Water is the source oI all things.
(b) Creation was accomplished by the unity oI two creative principles: Ptah and Atom, i.e., the
unity oI Mind (nous) with Logos (creative Utterance).
(c) Atom was the Demiurge or Intermediate God in creation. He was also Sun God or Fire God.
(d) Opposite Principles control the liIe oI the universe.
(e) The elements in creation were Fire (Atom), Water (Nun), Earth (Ptah or Ta-tjenen) and Air.
Part I oI the Memphite Theology is the correct Source oI these philosophies: but strangely the
Greeks have claimed them as their production, although without any right whatever.
C. Individual Greek Philosophers to whom portions of the philosophv of the Memphite Theologv
has been assigned.
OI these doctrines, "water as the source oI all things" has been assigned to Thales (Zeller: Hist.
oI Phil. p. 38); that oI the "Boundless or Unlimited", has been assigned to Anaximander (Zeller:
Hist. oI Phil. p. 40); while that oI "Air as the basis oI liIe" has been assigned to Anaximenes
(Zeller: Hist. oI Phil. p. 42). Furthermore, the doctrine "that Fire underlies the liIe oI the
universe", has been assigned not only to Pythagoras, who spoke oI the Iunctions oI the central
and peripheral Fires; but also to Heraclitus who spoke oI the transmutation oI Fire into the other
elements, and their transmutation back into Fire.
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Also Democritus who spoke oI Fire Atoms, as Iilling space as the Mind or Soul oI the World;
and Plato who spoke oI a World-Soul, which is composed oI Fire Atoms. (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI
Phil. p. 42; 5; Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 53; 149; Plato's Timaeus, 30A; B. D. Alexander's Hist. oI
Phil., p. 40).
Likewise the doctrine oI opposites has been assigned not only to Pythagoras, who spoke oI the
elements oI the unit as odd and even; but also to (a) Heraclitus who spoke oI "the unity oI
warring opposites"; (b) Parmenides who spoke oI the distinction between Being and Not-Being;
(c) Socrates, who spoke oI things as being generated Irom their opposites; and (d) Plato who
spoke oI Ideas and Noumena as real and perIect; but phenomena as unreal and imperIect. (The
Phaedrus oI Plato 250; Parmenides 132D; Aristotle Metaphysics I, 6; 987b, 9; Plato Phaedo 70E;
Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 51; 61, 68; The Timaeus, p. 28).
Furthermore, the doctrines oI the Nous (or Mind) or an Intelligent Agency as responsible Ior
creation, has been assigned not only to Anaxagoras, but also to Socrates who spoke oI the
existence oI useIul things as the work oI an Intelligence: To Plato who spoke oI a World-Soul or
Mind, as the cause oI liIe and knowledge in the universe and to Democritus, who attached a
similar meaning. (Zeller's Hist. oI Phil. p. 80; p. 85; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 82; p. 109).
The doctrine oI the Logos has been assigned to Heraclitus who spoke oI Fire as the Logos or
creative principle in nature; while the doctrine oI the Demiurge, or an Intermediate God who
created the world, has been assigned to Plato (Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 55, p. 108).
A. Text of Part II
The Gods oI Order and arrangement in the cosmos are represented by nine gods, in one God-
head, called the Ennead. Here Atum (Atom), the source oI the Ogdoad, is also retained as the
source oI the Gods oI Order and arrangement. Atum (Atom) names Iour pairs oI parts oI his own
body, and thus creates eight Gods, who together with himselI become nine. These Eight Gods are
the created Gods, the Iirst creatures oI this world; and Atum (Atom), the Creator God, the
Demiurge, oI whom Plato spoke. The Gods whom Atum (Atom) projected Irom his body were:
(i) Shu (Air)
(ii) TeInut (Moisture)
(iii) Geb (Earth) and
(iv) Nut (Sky);
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who are said to have given birth to Iour other Gods:
(v) Osiris (the God oI omnipotence and omniscience)
(vi) Isis (wiIe oI Osiris, Female Principle)
(vii) Seth (the opposite oI good)
(viii) Nephthys (Female Principle in the Unseen World). (Plutarch: Isis et Osiris, 355A; 364C;
371B; FrankIurt; Intellectual Adventure oI Ancient Man, p. 6667).
B. The Philosophv of Part II
As we read the text oI Part II, we Iind that the Sun God Atum (Atom) who was present in the
Chaos was also present at the development oI orderly arrangement in the cosmos. At this stage
Atum (Atom) assumes the role oI creator oI all Gods except Ptah, the God oI Gods. He next
proceeds to accomplish this special type oI creation in the Iollowing manner: He commands
Eight Gods to proceed Irom His own body according to the names oI those eight parts.
The result oI this creation presents us with what has been called (a) the "Ennead" or the unity oI
"nine Gods in one Godhead" (b) the doctrine oI the Demiurge as in Part I, (c) the doctrine oI the
created Gods and (d) the doctrine oI the Unmoved Mover; also (e) the doctrine oI opposites and
(I) Omnipotence and Omniscience. OI these doctrines, that oI the "Ennead" will be dealt with
elsewhere, and since the doctrine oI the Demiurge has already been treated, together with (c) the
created Gods, I shall now discuss the doctrine oI the Unmoved Mover, as based upon the same
act oI creation. According to the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians, Atum created Eight Gods
who proceeded Irom eight parts oI His own body. He was seated upon Ptah the Hill and was
unmoved. In this act oI creation Atum (Atom) became the Unmoved Mover. In spite oI the
Memphite Theology being the direct source oI these doctrines, yet Plato has been given credit Ior
the doctrine oI the created Gods; while Aristotle has received credit Ior that oI the "Unmoved
Mover". Certainly the world has never been more misled.
Here it must be made quite clear, that the doctrine oI a Demiurge in creation includes two other
doctrines: that oI the created Gods and that oI the Unmoved Mover. It was the Iunction oI the
Demiurge to create the universe; and in doing so, his Iirst act was the creation oI the Gods, who
accordingly became the Iirst creatures. But the manner in which the Demiurge created the Gods
was the process oI projecting them Irom His own body. This method oI creation clearly makes
the Demiurge the Unmoved Mover.
However the history oI Greek philosophy has assigned the authorship oI the doctrines oI the
Demiurge and the created Gods to Plato, and the authorship oI the doctrine oI the Unmoved
Mover to Aristotle. But this so-called Platonic doctrine is one, made up oI three inseparable parts
(a) the Demiurge (b) the Iunction oI the Demiurge and (c) the method oI the Iunction: a unity
which contradicts Aristotle's authorship oI what is really only an inIerence Irom the supposed
original doctrine oI Plato.
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(The Myth oI Creation in Plato Timaeus; Wm. Turner; Hist. oI Phil., p. 109110; Zeller's Hist. oI
Phil. p. 192; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. p. 142).
The doctrine oI opposites has already been discussed, however, in Part I oI the Memphite
Theology. One oI the pairs oI created Gods, Osiris and Isis was used to represent the male and
Iemale principles oI nature. In addition to this, Osiris had other qualities attached to Him, which
might be understood Irom the Iollowing derivatives (a) osh meaning many, and (b) iri meaning
to do and also (c) meaning an Eye. Consequently Osiris came to mean not only many eyed or
omniscient, but also omnipotent or all powerIul. Here again, as in all instances already
mentioned, in spite oI the Iact that the Memphite Theology is the source oI Greek philosophy,
yet the doctrines oI "an Intelligent Cause", a Nous as responsible Ior the liIe and conduct oI the
world, has been assigned to Anaxagoras, Socrates and also Plato, whose World Soul, consisted
oI Iire atoms, like the World Soul oI Democritus. (Plato Timaeus 30, 35. Xenophon Memorabilia
I, 4, 2; Wm. Turner's Hist. oI Phil. 63).
A. Text of Part III
In this third part oI the Memphite Theology, the Primate oI the Gods is represented as Ptah:
Thought, Logos and Creative Power, which are exercised over all creatures. He transmits power
and spirit to all Gods, and controls the lives oI all things, animals and men through His thought
and commands. In other words it is in Him that all things live move and have their eternal being.
B. The Philosophv of Part III
From Part III we inIer the Iollowing doctrines:(a) all things were created by the thought and
command oI Ptah, the God oI Gods. (b) Through the thought and command oI Ptah, we all live,
move and have our eternal Being. (c) Ptah is Creator and Preserver as has already been pointed
out elsewhere; Ptah's powers were transmitted by magical means to Atum who perIormed the
work oI creation. (Intellectual Adventures oI Man by FrankIort, p. 5260).
II. Memphite Theologv is the Source of Modern Scientific Knowledge
A. The Ennead and the Nebular Hypothesis.
B. The identity between the Sun God Atom, and the atom oI science.
A. The Ennead and the Nebular Hvpothesis coincide
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Just as the Memphite Theology is the source oI Greek philosophy or primitive science, so it is
also the basis oI modern scientiIic belieI. The Gods oI Order and arrangement in the cosmos are
represented by nine Gods in the Godhead, called the Ennead. Atum, (Atom), the Sun God, i.e.,
Fire God, creates eight other Gods, by naming Iour pairs oI parts oI his own body, Irom which
they came Iorth. Here the names oI the created Gods were given as Shu and TeInut (Air and
Moisture), Geb and Nut (Earth and Sky); and two other pairs oI opposites: Osiris and Isis; and
Seth and Nephthys, who are supposed to be the Iirst creatures oI this world (FrankIort's
Intellectual Adventures oI Man, p. 54).
Now iI we compare this Egyptian cosmology with the Nebular hypothesis oI Laplace, we would
Iind very striking similarities in the two contexts. According to the Nebular hypothesis our
present solar system was once a molten gaseous nebula. This nebula rotated at an enormous
speed, and as the mass cooled down it also contracted and developed greater speed. The result
was a bulging at the equator and a gradual breaking oII oI gaseous rings, which Iormed
themselves into planets. These planets in turn threw oII gaseous rings, which Iormed themselves
into smaller bodies, until at last, the sun was leIt as the remnant oI the original parent Nebula.
From this context it is clear that the original parent nebula was Iire or the Sun, and that by
throwing oII parts oI itselI, it created some planets, which in turn threw oII parts oI themselves
and created others. According to the context oI the Memphite Theology, the creator God was the
Sun God or Iire God Atum (Atom), who named Iour pairs oI parts oI his own body, Irom which
Gods came Iorth.
But Atum (Atom) together with the Eight Created Gods composed the Ennead or Godhead oI
nine: a very striking similarity with modern science which teaches that there are nine major
planets. We may now summarise these similarities: (a) The creator God in both the Egyptian and
Modern Cosmologies is the Sun or Fire. (b) The creator God in both cosmologies creates Gods
Irom parts oI HimselI. (c) The number oI Gods are nine and correspond with the nine major
planets. These similarities make it evident that Laplace obtained his hypothesis Irom the
Memphite Theology or other Egyptian sources.
OI course the Memphite Theology, according to FrankIort in his Intellectual Adventure oI
Ancient Man, p. 54 does not mention the creation oI planets. Nevertheless, since it was the
method oI the Egyptian to conceal the truth by the use oI myths, parables magical principles
(primitive scientiIic method), number philosophy and hieroglyphics, we can easily see what
methods might be involved beIore we could arrive at a better translation oI the Memphite
Theology.
At any rate, the entire setting oI the Memphite Theology is astronomical, and what could be
more natural, than to expect an astronomical interpretation? It seems well within reason, to
regard the Ennead as the heliocentric system oI history. Atom the sun God, creating eight other
Gods or planets Irom his own body, as the Unmoved Mover a teaching which has been Ialsely
attributed to Aristotle.
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B. The identitv between the Egvptian Sun God Atum (Atom) and the atom of Modern Science.
There are two things which I desire to point out in connexion with the relationship between
Atum (Atom) the Egyptian Sun God and the atom oI modern science. These things are (i) the
similarity oI attributes and (ii) the similarity oI names. (i) The Egyptian God Atum (Atom)
means selI-created; everything and nothing; a combination oI positive and negative principles:
all-inclusiveness and emptiness; a Demiurge, possessing creative powers; the Creator Sun. (p.
53, FrankIort's Intellectual Adventure oI Ancient Man; p. 182, FrankIort's Kingship and the
Gods).
Atum (Atom) also means "the all and the not yet Being"; (p. 168 FrankIort's Kingship oI the
Gods). As a God Atum (Atom) represents the principles oI opposites. The atom, as the
substratum oI matter, according to Greek philosophy, is deIined by Democritus as "movement oI
that which is" (To on) within "that which is not" (To mƝ on). It thereIore represents the principle
oI opposites, and shows the identity between the Egyptian Sun God and the substratum oI matter.
Furthermore, the atom is deIined as "the Iull and void; being and not-being (Zeller's Hist. oI
Phil., p. 38) and these deIinitions coincide with the everything and nothing, and the "all-
inclusiveness" and emptiness oI the Egyptian Sun God.
(ii) The similaritv of names shared bv the Egvptian Sun God and the atom of science.
Now, with reIerence to the similarity oI these two names, the Iirst thing we should bear in mind
is the Iact that they both possess identical attributes, as has been already pointed out in section i;
and consequently we are compelled to conclude that the atom oI science is the identical name oI
the Egyptian Sun God: the most ancient oI Gods except Ptah, who was present with Atom at
creation. The second thing we should bear in mind is the Iact that the name oI the God Atom
(sometimes spelt Atum) belongs to the cosmology oI the Memphite Theology, whose date goes
back to 4000 B.C. when the Greeks were not even known. Consequently we are compelled to
conclude that the Greeks obtained both the original name and the attributes oI the Sun God Atom
Irom the Egyptians.
Furthermore, the Greeks were unacquainted with the Egyptian language, during the period oI the
so-called Greek philosophy, dating Irom the sixth century B.C. and as a consequence
transliterated Egyptian words into Greek without regard to their Coptic derivatives. The
Iollowing Homeric stories veriIy the practice oI the Greeks in the transliteration oI Egyptian
words and the plagiarism oI their legends. (a) According to Homer, Proteus was a Maritime
Divinity Ieeding his phocae on the coast oI Egypt. He was endowed with the giIt oI prophecy
which was exercised only upon compulsion. Proteus, however was an Egyptian Pharaoh who
succeeded to the throne on the death oI Pheron, the son oI Sesostris. Proteus was also
worshipped at Memphis. The Greeks did not only transliterate the name oI this Egyptian King,
but also plagiarized on the legend. (Herodotus II, 112).
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(b) Likewise the story oI Io the Argive Princess, who was changed into a heiIer, and aIter long
wanderings, reached Egypt, where she gave birth to a God, and where she herselI was
worshipped as the Goddess Isis, points clearly to the introduction oI the worship oI Isis or Athor,
under the symbol oI the heiIer, at an early period into Argos. Here it must be pointed out that Io
is the Coptic name Ior Moon, and the same word was preserved as the dialect oI Argos, without
any aIIinity with any Greek root. It was a habit oI the Greeks to Hellenize Egyptian words by
transliterating them and adding them to the Greek vocabulary.
(c) This practice oI borrowing words Irom nearby nations continued until New Testament times.
In Acts oI Apostles oI the Greek Testament, Chapter 13th and verse 1, the word Niger (i.e., black
man) in the name Simeon the Negro is a Roman or Latin word (niger, nigra, nigrum) meaning
black. Simeon, oI course, was an Egyptian ProIessor attached to the Church at Rome.
The atom oI science is really the name oI the Egyptian Sun God that has come down to modern
times, through the so-called Greek philosophy, and carries identical attributes, with the Sun God.
(Diodorus I, 29; John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt, vol. II 552; Eust. ad Dionys: Perieg: V).
It must be remembered that what we erroneously call Greek philosophy, was the beginning oI
science or the investigation oI nature; and consequently we cannot separate modern science Irom
Greek philosophy.
III. Memphite Theologv Opens Great Possibilities for Modern Scientific Research
A. Greek Concept of the Atom, erroneous.
The Greeks derived the meaning oI the atom Irom (i) (alpha) i.e. a negative preIix meaning not;
and (ii) (temnein) i.e. the present inIinitive active oI (temno) to cut. The two derivatives together
meaning "that which cannot be cut". For centuries the world has been misled by this
misconception oI the Greeks: a Iact which no doubt, had impeded the progress oI atomic
research by Western scholars, who had believed in the so-called Greek origin oI philosophy or
primitive science. Today, however, the Greek conception oI the atom is no longer tenable, since
modern science has successIully split the atom.
B. Great Scientific Secrets in the Memphite Theologv, Yet to be Discovered
I believe that the time has come, within which man will be able to unlock most oI the secrets oI
nature hitherto hidden and unknown. I have shown that the Nebular Hypothesis oI modern times
coincides with the teachings oI the Memphite Theology, in which the Sun God Atom is said to
have created eight other Gods, which together with himselI constitute the Ennead oI the
Egyptians, which correspond to the nine major planets oI modern scientiIic teaching.
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We also know that out oI Cosmic Chaos there arose Irom the primeval waters a pair oI Gods i.e.
the Primeval Hill and Atom the Sun God, and that through the contact oI Atom with the Hill, He
received power to create the other eight major planets. This seems to imply that:
(i) Atomic energy originates Irom water and earth, since water H
2
O, and uranium, an
indispensable ingredient in atomic energy, is Iound in the bowels oI the earth. Note that both
Atom and the Hill came out oI the primeval Waters.
(ii) Four pairs oI Gods, representing positive and negative principles still remain in water, in the
Iorm oI male and Iemale Irogs and snakes, and constitute Iour IiIths oI the secrets oI creation,
which man has yet to Iathom.
(iii) SuccessIul scientiIic research in the principles and secrets oI nature lies in the study oI the
Memphite Theology, whose symbology requires the key oI magical principles Ior its
interpretation. With this approach our men oI science should be able to unlock the doors oI the
secrets oI nature and become the custodians oI unlimited knowledge.
This is the legacy oI the AIrican continent to the nations oI the world. She has laid the cultural
Ioundations oI modern progress and thereIore she and her people deserve the honour and praise
which Ior centuries have been Ialsely given to the Greeks. And likewise, it is the purpose oI this
book to make this revelation the beginning oI a universal reIormation in race relations, which I
believe would be the beginning oI the solution oI the problem oI universal unrest.
Part II
Chapter IX: Social Reformation through the New Philosophy of African
Redemption
.
Now that it has been shown that philosophy, and the arts and sciences were bequeathed to
civilization by the people oI North AIrica and not by the people oI Greece; the pendulum oI
praise and honour is due to shiIt Irom the people oI Greece to the people oI the AIrican continent
who are the rightIul heirs oI such praise and honour.
This is going to mean a tremendous change in world opinion, and attitude, Ior all people and
races who accept the new philosophy oI AIrican redemption, i.e. the truth that the Greeks were
not the authors oI Greek philosophy; but the people oI North AIrica; would change their opinion
Irom one oI disrespect to one oI respect Ior the Black people throughout the world and treat them
accordingly.
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It is also going to mean a most important change in the mentality oI the Black people: a change
Irom an inIeriority complex, to the realization and consciousness oI their equality with all the
other great peoples oI the world, who have built great civilizations. With this change in the
mentality oI the Black and White people, great changes are also expected in their respective
attitudes towards each other, and in society as a whole.
In the drama oI Greek philosophy there are three actors, who have played distinct parts, namely
Alexander the Great, who by an act oI aggression invaded Egypt in 333 B.C., and ransacked and
looted the Royal Library at Alexandria and together with his companions carried oII a booty oI
scientiIic, philosophic and religious books. Egypt was then stolen and annexed as a portion oI
Alexander's empire; but the invasion plan included Iar more than mere territorial expansion; Ior
it prepared the way and made it possible Ior the capture oI the culture oI the AIrican continent.
This brings us to the second actor, that is the School oI Aristotle whose students moved Irom
Athens to Egypt and converted the royal library, Iirst into a research centre, and secondly into a
University and thirdly compiled that vast body oI scientiIic knowledge which they had gained
Irom research, together with the oral instructions which Greek students had received Irom the
Egyptian priests, into what they have called the history oI Greek philosophy.
In this way, the Greeks stole the Legacy oI the AIrican continent and called it their own. And as
has already been pointed out, the result oI this dishonesty has been the creation oI an erroneous
world opinion; that the AIrican continent has made no contribution to civilization, because her
people are backward and low in intelligence and culture.
This erroneous opinion about the Black people has seriously injured them through the centuries
up to modern times in which it appears to have reached a climax in the history oI human
relations. And now we come to the third actor, and that is Ancient Rome, who through the edicts
oI her Emperors Theodosius in the 4th century A.D. and Justinian in the 6th century A.D.
abolished the Mysteries oI the AIrican continent; that is the ancient culture system oI the world.
The higher metaphysical doctrines oI those Mysteries could not be comprehended; the spiritual
powers oI the priests were unsurpassed; the magic oI the rites and ceremonies Iilled the people
with awe; Egypt was the holy land oI the ancient world and the Mysteries were the one, ancient
and holy Catholic religion, whose power was supreme. This loIty culture system oI the Black
people Iilled Rome with envy, and consequently she legalized Christianity which she had
persecuted Ior Iive long centuries, and set it up as a state religion and as a rival oI Mysteries, its
own mother. This is why the Mysteries have been despised; this is why other ancient religions oI
the Black people are despised; because they are all oIIspring oI the AIrican Mysteries, which
have never been clearly understood by Europeans, and consequently have provoked their
prejudice and condemnation. In keeping with the plan oI Emperors Theodosius and Justinian to
exterminate and Iorever suppress the culture system oI the AIrican continent the Christian church
established its missionary enterprise to Iight against what it has called paganism.
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Consequently missionaries and educators have gone to the mission Iield with a superiority
complex, born oI miseducation and disrespect: a prejudice which has made it impossible Ior
them to accomplish the blessings which missionary enterprise might otherwise have
accomplished. For this reason Missionary enterprise has been responsible Ior a positive injury
against the AIrican people, which consists oI the perpetual caricature oI AIrican culture in
literature and exhibitions which provoke laughter and disrespect. This then is only a brieI
summary oI the parts played by the persons oI the drama oI Greek philosophy and the resultant
eIIects upon the Black people. This drama might be called the Causa Causarum oI the social
plight oI the peoples oI AIrican descent, because it has made the White and Black races not only
common victims oI a Ialse racial tradition about the AIrican continent but also partners in the
solution oI the problem oI racial reIormation.
I believe that a reIormation oI this kind is possible, iI the best minds oI both racial groups co-
operate in its accomplishment. Both groups have been the common victims oI miseducation
arising Irom a Ialse tradition about the AIrican continent and it has caused them to develop
attitudes according to their common belieI: The White people, a superiority complex; and the
Black people, the corresponding inIeriority complex; and iI we are to accomplish a reIormation
in race relations it is obvious that both racial groups must combine their eIIorts in the
abandonment and destruction oI that mentality which has plunged the Black people into their
social plight.
This I suggest should be done by a worldwide dissemination oI the truth, through a system oI re-
education, in order to stimulate and encourage a change in the attitude oI races toward each other
In combining their eIIorts, both races must not only preach and teach the truth that the Mystery
system oI the AIrican continent gave the world philosophy and religion, and the arts and
sciences, but they must see to it that all Ialse praise oI the Greeks be removed Irom the textbooks
oI our schools and colleges: Ior this is the practice that has blind-Iolded the world, and has laid
the Ioundations Ior the deplorable race relations oI the modern world. (a) The name oI
Pythagoras, Ior instance, should be deleted Irom our mathematical textbooks: in Geometry,
where the theorem oI the square on the hypotenuse oI a right angled triangle is called the
Pythagorean theorem, because this is not true. (b) we must point out to the world the deception in
attaching the authorship oI Socrates to the precept 'man know thyselI'; and in attaching the
authorship oI Plato to the Iour cardinal virtues; since Socrates obtained the selI-knowledge
precept Irom the Egyptian temples where it was used as an inscription; and Plato reduced the ten
virtues oI the North AIrican Mystery system to Iour (c) we must also prove to the world that the
doctrines oI the so-called Greek philosophers originated Irom the ancient Mystery System oI
North AIrica.
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This prooI has been set Iorth in chapters Iive to eight oI 'Stolen Legacy,' and in order to carry out
our world-wide crusade we must recommend 'Stolen Legacy,' Ior adoption and study in the
schools and colleges oI both racial groups and in our Iraternities, sororities and inter-racial
groups, in order that young and old oI our present generation might all get to know the truth and
be able to pass it on to Iuture generations.
This I believe would be a very helpIul method by which this process oI re-education would
become universal and eIIective in the creation oI a much needed racial reIormation. The White
people oI 'our modern age cannot be regarded as wholly responsible Ior social conditions which
are the result oI Ialse racial tradition. It is this that makes race relations a challenge to the best
minds oI both racial groups to combine their eIIorts in its solution.
But our disturbed race relations have also another cause. This I would say is both supplementary
and intensive; Ior the Ialse tradition about the backwardness oI the AIrican continent , created
by Alexander the Great and Aristotle's School has been dramatized by missionary literature and
exhibitions, as the will oI Roman Emperors and as a source oI laughter and disrespect. There is
no doubt that this policy has created bitterness and dissatisIaction in the minds oI natives, who
have been compelled to question the sincerity oI the missionary. In the meantime missionary
enterprise gains the sympathy and support oI a miseducated world, in order to carry on its
programme.
What can we do to eradicate this second and more subtle evil: the dramatization oI a Ialse
tradition so as to make it appear as true? I suggest that since the missionary dramatizes Ialse
tradition because he himselI also believes it, we should combine our eIIorts, Iirst oI all in re-
educating him so that he might know the truth and change his superiority complex which is
responsible Ior his mistaken policy. His re-education should not only consist oI a thorough study
oI the ideas and arguments contained in my book 'Stolen Legacy'; but he must also be given
special training in the language, customs and ideals oI AIricans, in order to make him cultivate
an attitude oI respect Ior the culture oI the AIrican continent, seemingly the oldest specimen to
have been developed by mankind; because that continent is the birth place and the cradle oI the
Ancient Mysteries. With a world enlightened as to the real truth about the place oI the AIrican
continent in the history oI civilization, Ialse tradition and belieI should cease to be eIIective,
disrespect and prejudice should tend to disappear, and race relations should tend to be normal
and peaceIul. This brings us to the Iinal problem, the problem oI AIrican redemption. The aims
oI 'Stolen Legacy' are not only to stimulate a reIormation in race relations and scientiIic research;
but also to cultivate race pride in the Black people themselves and to oIIer them a New
Philosophy oI AIrican Redemption as the Modus Operandi oI achieving racial reIormation.
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This New Philosophy oI Redemption consists oI a simple proposition as Iollows:
'The Greeks were not the authors oI Greek philosophy, but the Black people oI North AIrica, The
Egyptians.' Now, in order to explain the value oI this proposition, three questions must be asked
and answered.
(a) As a simple proposition, what is its significance?
Its signiIicance lies in the Iact that it is a statement oI an important truth, which is the exposure
oI Greek dishonesty.
(b) Whv is this proposition called a philosophv?
A philosophy is an accepted belieI, and this proposition is a philosophy because it is oIIered as a
belieI, worthy oI acceptance.
(c) What is a philosophv of redemption?
A philosophy oI redemption is not merely an accepted belieI; but a belieI that is also lived in
order to enjoy the beneIits oI its teaching. This proposition will become a philosophy oI
redemption to all Black people, when they accept it as a belieI and live up to it. This brings us to
our Iinal question and that is, how to live up to this philosophy oI redemption? In other words,
how shall the Black people work out their own salvation?
From the outset my readers and co-workers in the solution oI a common problem, must be
reminded that our philosophy oI redemption is a psychological process, involving a change in
belieI or mentality to be Iollowed by a corresponding change in behaviour. It reallv signifies a
mental emancipation, in which the Black people will be liberated from the chain of traditional
falsehood, which Ior centuries has incarcerated them in the prison oI inIeriority complex and
world humiliation and insult. This mental emancipation or redemption, it must be remembered,
has two Iunctions. It is general, when, on the one hand, the phenomenon oI our unwholesome
race relations is regarded as a general problem needing a general emancipation oI both races in
order to aIIect a solution. In this general sense emancipation transcends the limitations and
boundaries oI race, and thereIore includes the whole world, White and Black people, since we
are all victims oI the same chain oI the traditional Ialsehood, that has incarcerated the modern
world. On the other hand, emancipation or redemption is speciIic, when we reIer to the eIIects oI
the phenomenon oI unwholesome race relations upon the Black people. It is Ireedom Irom such
conditions that constitutes the speciIic Iunction oI emancipation or redemption.
We digressed somewhat in order to explain the terms philosophv and philosophy oI redemption,
believing it to be necessary beIore proceeding to answer the next question: how to live up to this
New Philosophy oI Redemption? How must it be worked out?
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Being liberated Irom inIeriority complex by their New Philosophy oI Redemption, which is
destined to destroy the chain oI Ialse tradition which has incarcerated them, the Black people
must Iace and interpret the world according to their new vision and philosophy. Throughout the
centuries up to our modern times, world conditions have been inIluenced by two phenomena
which have aIIected human relations.
(i) The giving oI Ialse praise to the Greeks: a custom which appears to be an educational policy
conducted by educational institutions. This has led to the Ialse worship oI Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle, as intellectual gods in all the leading universities oI the world, and in support oI this
intellectual worship, these institutions have also organized what are known as Greek lettered
Iraternities and sororities, as the symbols oI the superiority oI Greek intellect and culture.
(ii) The second phenomenon is Missionary enterprise whereby the Black people's culture has
been caricatured in literature and exhibitions, in such specimens as provoke disrespect and
laughter. Never let us Iorget that the Roman Emperors Theodosius and Justinian were
responsible Ior the abolition oI the Egyptian Mysteries that is the culture system oI the Black
people, and also Ior the establishment oI Christianity Ior its perpetual suppression. Likewise,
never let us Iorget when we are reviewing this bit oI history that the Greeks called the Egyptians
Hoi Aiguptoi which meant Black people.
In living up to their New Philosophy oI Redemption, the liIe oI the Black people will have to be
one oI counteraction against these two sets oI conditions. In the Iirst place the Black people must
adopt a negative attitude towards this type oI phenomena, because they have become Iully aware
that these phenomena are the result oI a Ialse tradition, and thereIore also partake oI the nature oI
Ialsehood and insincerity.
In this negative attitude the Black people oI the world must shun the Ialse tradition and must
teach the truth, which is their New Philosophy oI Redemption. This must be done in the home to
young children; in the colleges and schools to students; Irom the pulpits and platIorms to
audiences; and in the Iraternities and sororities to young men and women. This New Philosophy
oI Redemption, being a revelation oI truth in the history oI Black people's civilization must
become a necessary portion oI their education, and must be taught Ior generations and centuries
to come; in order to Iill them with inspiration and pride and liberate them Irom mental servitude.
In the second place, in this negative attitude the Black people must demonstrate their disbelieI in
the Ialse worship oI Greek intellect. This should be done in the Iollowing three ways:
(i) They must discontinue the practice oI quoting Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in their speeches
as intellectual models; because we know that their philosophy was stolen (ii) They must
relinquish membership Irom all Greek lettered Iraternities and sororities and (iii) They must
abolish all Greek lettered Iraternities and sororities Irom all colored colleges because they have
been a source oI the promotion oI inIeriority complex and oI educating the Black people against
themselves.
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We come now to the counteraction oI the second set oI phenomena, the missionary activities in
deIamatory literature and exhibitions which provoke disrespect Ior and laughter at the Black
people.
Just as in the Iirst set oI phenomena, so is it in the second, the Black people must adopt a
negative attitude in their attempt to live up to their philosophy oI redemption. OI course, they are
perIectly well aware that the activities oI missionaries are the result oI their own miseducation
through the medium oI a Ialse tradition about Black people; but since their problem is also one oI
emancipation Irom certain social evils, the Black people Ieel that they are entitled to a change in
Missionary policy. For these reasons I suggest that the negative attitude oI the Black people
should consist Iirst oI a boycott oI missionary literature and exhibitions, and secondly, oI a
perpetual protest against these Iorms oI missionary policy, until a change is brought about. For as
long as Missionary enterprise maintains its policy oI militancy against AIrican culture, the Black
people will be disrespected. This is the least that the Black people are entitled to: respectIul
treatment, because they are the representatives oI the oldest civilization in the world, Irom which
all other cultures have borrowed. I have Irequently seen in the parish magazines oI some
European churches, pictures oI the Iollowing description: An AIrican ChieI, dressed in a new
silk hat, a long shirt, but no trousers, a Irock coat and bareIeet; probably to provide amusement
Ior the parishioners and to excite their pity. This is what the Black people must protest against
and this is how they must live up to their philosophy oI redemption and work it out.
In conclusion, let us remember that the unIortunate position oI the modern church in being
associated with the drama oI Greek philosophy is excusable; because her missionary Iunction has
been due to the erroneous mandates and edicts oI secular Princes and Emperors, who ruled the
church, when it was only a department oI state. This bit oI ecclesiastical history should be well
known to the early branches oI the Christian church and consequently, they are the ones whom
our enlightened age expects to initiate a change in missionary policy, which would Iree
themselves Irom the error and superstition oI human relations.
This lead oI the various branches oI Catholicism should be Iollowed by Protestantism, so that the
entire church oI Christ on earth should be united in this racial reIormation, and carry to the
mission Iield a practical gospel oI happiness; that is happiness that must begin while we are here
on earth; a gospel that is interested in the total welIare oI the people. A gospel which ignores the
social and economic rights oI natives and emphasizes only happiness in an unknown world is
one-sided, misleading, and contrary to Christian tenets and practice. It was early Christianity that
established a diaconate Ior the express purpose oI solving the economic problems oI its
adherents; so that they might begin in their earthly liIe to experience what happiness reallv
meant.
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It is evident that the beneIits oI religion are intended to be coextensive with human needs and
unless the Christian religion changes its missionary policy with respect to the Culture oI the
Black people, it would be diIIicult Ior them to obtain complete emancipation Irom the social
injuries created by Ancient Rome.
Appendix
The purpose oI this appendix is to present a brieI analysis and summary oI the arguments,
conclusions and inIerences which relate to the subject matter which has already been treated. It is
also hoped that it will serve the secondary purpose oI simpliIication.
ARGUMENT I: Greek philosophv was stolen Egvptian philosophv
Because history tells us that (i) The teachings oI the Egyptian Mystery System travelled Irom
Egypt to the island Samos, and Irom Samos to Croton and Elea in Italy, and lastly Irom Italy to
Athens in Greece through the medium oI Pythagoras and the Eleatic and late Ionic philosophers.
Accordingly, Egypt was the true source oI the Mystery teachings and thereIore any claim to such
origin by the ancient Greeks is not only erroneous but must have been based upon dishonest
motives.
(ii) History also represents the early liIe and education oI Greek philosophers as a blank and their
chronology as a matter oI speculation. Consequently it has given the world the opinion that the
Greek philosophers, with the exception oI the three Athenians, might never have existed and
might never have taught the doctrines alleged to them. In other words History represents the Pre-
Socratic philosophers as questionable in existence and under those circumstances they could
neither produce philosophy nor claim its authorship, except by questionable and dishonest
methods.
(iii) The compilation oI Greek philosophy appears to have been the idea oI Aristotle, but the
work oI the alumni oI his school. The movement was unauthorized by the Greek Government
which always hated and persecuted philosophy, because it was Egyptian and Ioreign. The
organization, control and operation oI the Mysteries gave the Egyptians the right oI ownership to
philosophy, and thereIore any claims by the ancient Greeks to philosophy must be considered as
illegal and dishonest.
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ARGUMENT II: So-called Greek philosophv was alien to the Greeks
Because (i) the period oI Greek philosophy (Thales to Aristotle) was a period oI internal wars
among the city states themselves and external wars with their common enemy, the Persians. The
Greeks were victims oI perpetual internal striIe and perpetual Iear oI annihilation by their
common enemy. They had no time which they could devote to the study oI nature, Ior this
required the riches and wealth oI the leisure classes: but they were too poor to engage in such a
pursuit. This is one oI the reasons why the Greek philosophers were so Iew and why the Greeks
were unacquainted with philosophy.
(ii) The Greeks did not possess the native ability essential to the development oI philosophy. The
death oI Aristotle, who had inherited a vast quantity oI books Irom the library oI Alexandria
through his Iriendship with Alexander the Great, was also Iollowed by the death oI Greek
philosophy which soon degenerated into a system oI borrowed ideas known as eclecticism. This
system contained nothing new in spite oI the great treasure oI knowledge which they had
obtained through Alexander's Iriendship with Aristotle and his conquest oI Egypt.
(iii) The Greeks rejected and persecuted philosophy owing to the Iact that it came Irom an
outside and Ioreign source and contained strange ideas with which they were unacquainted. This
prejudice led to the policy oI persecution. Hence Anaxagoras was indicted and escaped Irom
prison and Iled to Ionia in exile. Socrates was executed; Plato Iled to Megara to the rescue oI
Euclid; and Aristotle was indicted and escaped into exile. This policy oI the Greeks would be
meaningless, iI it did not indicate that philosophy was alien to Greek mentality.
ARGUMENT III: Greek philosophv was the offspring of the Egvptian Mvsterv Svstem
Because complete identity had been Iound to exist between the Egyptian Mystery System and
Greek philosophy with the only exception oI age in relation oI parent to child. The Egyptian
Mystery System antedated that oI Greece by many thousands oI years. The Iollowing are the
circumstances and conditions oI identity:
(i) Complete agreement between the Egyptian, theory oI salvation and the purpose oI Greek
philosophy, i.e., to make man become Godlike by virtue and educational disciplines.
(ii) Complete agreement oI the conditions oI initiation into both systems, i.e., preparation (in
gradual stages oI virtue) beIore every initiation.
(iii) Complete agreement in tenets and practice.
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(iv) History tells us that the remains oI the Ancient Grand Temple oI Luxor have been traced to
the banks oI the Nile in the ancient city oI Thebes, a short distance Irom Danderah, now called
upper Egypt. It also tells us that this Grand Temple was constructed by Pharaoh Amenothis III
who began it, and Rameses II who completed it. At the time oI Greek philosophy, the Mystery
System oI Egypt was the only such system in the ancient world, and thereIore its Grand Lodge
was the only such Grand Lodge in existence. It was the seat oI government, having organized the
ancient world into a universal or catholic brotherhood with jurisdiction over all minor lodges and
schools wherever they were. And whether we call it the Mysteries or Greek philosophy or Free
Masonry, the system was one and all branches came out oI that one and were subordinate to it.
(v) The identity between the Egyptian Mysteries and Greek philosophy is also established by the
Iact that when the Roman Emperors Theodosius and Justinian issued their edicts closing down
the Egyptian Mysteries, the eIIect was the same upon the philosophical schools in Greece, Ior
they had to be closed. Things which are aIIected equally by the same cause are themselves equal.
ARGUMENT IV: The Egvptians educated the Greeks
Because history supports the Iollowing Iacts:
(i) The effects of the Persian conquest upon Egvpt
(a) Removed immigration restrictions against the Greeks.
(b) Opened up Egypt to Greek research and
(c) encouraged students Irom Ionia and elsewhere to visit Egypt Ior the purpose oI their
education.
(ii) The effects of the conquest of Alexander the Great upon Egvpt
(a) It was the custom oI ancient armies when invading countries to search Ior treasures in
libraries and temples. Accordingly it is believed that Alexander and his Iriends who accompanied
him ransacked the Library oI Alexandria and other libraries and helped themselves with books. It
is also believed that this was how Aristotle got the vast quantity oI books alleged to his
authorship and how he acquired exaggerated Iame. (b) The Library oI Alexandria was taken over
by the Alumni oI Aristotle's school and converted into a research centre and University, Ior the
education oI the Greeks who were compelled to use Egyptian ProIessors, on account oI linguistic
diIIiculties and other reasons. (c) Apart Irom the looting oI libraries and the conversion oI the
Library oI Alexandria into a University Ior their education, the Greeks had another way oI
adopting the culture oI the Egyptians. The Ptolemies used to commandeer useIul inIormation
Irom the Egyptian High Priests, and we are told that Ptolemy I Soter commanded the High Priest
Manetho to write a history oI religion and philosophy oI the Egyptians and this was done and the
volumes became the chieI text books in the University oI Alexandria.
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(iii) The Egvptians were the first to civili:e the Greeks
History tells us that the Greeks received the inIluence oI civilization Irom three sources:
colonizers Iirst Irom Egypt, colonizers secondly Irom Phoenicia and colonizers thirdly Irom
Thrace. It also tells us that these colonies were under the government oI wise men who subdued
the Ierocity oI the ignorant populace, not only by means oI civil institutions, but also by the
strong chain oI religion and the Iear oI the Gods. Those colonizers were Cecrops Irom Egypt,
Cadmus Irom Phoenicia and Orpheus Irom Thrace.
ARGUMENT V: The doctrines of Greek philosophers are the doctrines of the Egvptian Mvsterv
Svstem
The prooI oI this proposition is really one oI the main purposes oI this book and hence chapters
Iive and six have been devoted to this purpose. The Egyptian teachings were expressed in
symbols oI various types and thereIore their origin can be established by reIerence to the
particular symbol in question. In these chapters thereIore mention has been made not only oI the
names oI Greek philosophers and the doctrines which have been ascribed to them; but also the
necessary reIerences to the particular types oI symbology, in prooI oI their Egyptian origin.
These have been given in the Summary oI Conclusions as Iollow:
1. The earlv Ionic philosophers have been credited with the doctrines that (a) all things
originated Irom water (b) all things originated Irom the boundless or primitive chaos and (c) all
things originated Irom air. But these doctrines could not have been those oI the Ionic
philosophers; since we Iind the same ideas expressed in the Iirst chapter oI Genesis, where we
are told that at the beginning the world was in a state oI chaos, without Iorm and void
(boundless); and how the spirit oI God (air) moved upon the waters and separated them Irom dry
land and earth Irom sky; and how step by step, living things came out oI the waters and how
Iinally, through the breath oI liIe (air) man came into existence. Genesis is the Iirst book oI the
Pentateuch whose date has been placed to the Eighth Century B.C.: a time when the early Ionic
philosophers did not even exist and who thereIore could not have been the authors oI these
doctrines. Similarly, the authorship oI Genesis has been ascribed to Moses, who Philo tells us
was an Egyptian Priest, a Hierogrammat, and learned in all the wisdom oI the Egyptians. But the
age in which Moses lived must be associated with the Exodus oI the Israelites which he
conducted in the 21st Egyptian Dynasty: 1100 B.C. in the reign oI Bocchoris. But the creation
story oI Genesis coincides with the creation story oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians,
which takes us back to between 4 and 5 thousand B.C. This means that the doctrines oI the early
Ionians arose neither at their time (the IiIth century B.C.), nor at the time oI Pentateuch (the
eighth century B.C.), nor yet at the time oI Moses (the eleventh century B.C.), but at the time oI
the Memphite Theology (between 4 and 5 thousand B.C.) and thereIore deIinitely point to
Egyptian origin.
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2. The Eleatic philosophers have been named as (i) Zenophanes who was a satirist (ii) Zeno
whose treatment oI space and time led to a reductio ad absurdum and (iii) Parmenides who alone
deserves notice. He has been credited with the deIinitions oI Being and non-Being, which he
expressed as 'that which is' and 'that which is not'. In other words, nature or reality consists oI
two properties, i.e., a positive and a negative. But Parmenides introduced no new doctrine, when
he deIined the principle oI opposites. This principle was used by Pythagoras in his theory oI
numbers; by Socrates in his prooI oI the immortality oI the Soul; by Plato in his Theory oI Ideas
and the distinction between phenomena and noumena; and by Aristotle in his deIinition oI the
attributes oI Being. In all these instances it has been shown that the doctrine oI opposites
originated Irom the Egyptian Mystery System, in connection with which Gods were represented
as male and Iemale, and temples carried double pillars in Iront oI them to indicate positive and
negative principles oI nature.
3. The late Ionic philosophers have been named as (i) Heracleitus who taught that the world was
produced by Iire, through a process oI transmutation; and that since all things originate Irom
Fire, then Fire is the Logos.
(ii) Anaxagoras, who taught that Mind or Nous is the source oI liIe in the Universe and
(iii) Democritus, who taught that atoms underlie all material things; that liIe and death are merely
changes brought about by variation in the mixture oI atoms, which do not die because they are
immortal. Now, taking these doctrines in the order in which they come, their Egyptian origin has
been Iully established.
(a) The doctrine oI Fire has been traced to the Egyptians, whose Mystery System was a Fire
Philosophy and who worshipped the God oI Fire in their pyramids. The word pyramid is a Greek
word, whose derivative pyr means Iire. This doctrine takes us back to the pyramid age in Egypt
33 hundred B.C. when, oI course, the Greeks were unknown.
(b) It must be noted that the doctrine oI the Logos has been identiIied by Heracleitus with the
doctrine oI Fire. This is as it should be, because (c) in the doctrine oI the created Gods which has
been ascribed to Plato, Atom the Sun God or Fire perIorms the Iunction oI Demiurge in creating
the Gods. (d) Similarly in the doctrine oI the Unmoved Mover ascribed to Aristotle, the Fire God
Atom while unmoved and sitting upon the Primeval Hill, creates the Gods by commanding them
to proceed Irom various parts oI His own body. In this way Atom also became the Unmoved
Mover. This makes it clear that the Logos oI Heracleitus is identical with the Demiurge oI Plato
and the Unmoved Mover oI Aristotle. The Iunction oI Atom as Demiurge and the method oI His
creation are Iound in the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians. Here
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I would like to suggest that students who are interested in tracing the inIluence oI Egyptian
philosophy upon Christian thought, should read this portion oI my book together with the Iirst
chapter oI St. John's gospel. The problem oI permanence and change is also traced in the
Creation story oI the Memphite Theology in which eternal matter is represented by chaos, and
change by the gradual Iormation oI order.
(e) The doctrine oI Mind or Nous, has been ascribed not only to Anaxagoras, but also to
Democritus who spoke oI it as being composed oI Iire atoms distributed throughout the universe
and Socrates who has been credited with the teleological premise: that whatsoever exists Ior a
useIul purpose is the work oI an Intelligence. This doctrine has been traced to the Egyptian
Mystery System, in which the God Osiris was represented by an Open Eye; signiIying not only
omniscience, but also omnipotence. All Masonic lodges carry this symbol with the same
meaning today.
(I) The doctrine oI the atom has been ascribed to Democritus, who does not deIine but describes
its properties. It is the basis oI liIe; it is immortal and does not die; and when many oI them are
mixed in certain ways the result is a radical change. These properties coincide with the properties
oI Atom the Sun God and the Demiurge in creation, who created other Gods Irom various parts
oI himselI. He was the basis oI liIe and giver oI liIe. But Atom the Sun God occurs in the
creation story oI the Memphite Theology and shows the Egyptian origin oI the atom.
4. The svstem of Pvthagoras seems to have been so comprehensive that nearly all subsequent
philosophers have copied ideas Irom his teachings. Interpreting nature in the Iorm oI
mathematics, Pythagoras is credited with teaching the Iollowing doctrines:
(a) The properties of Number include opposite elements: odd and even, Iinite and inIinite, and
positive and negative. This principle oI opposites was copied by and used in the teachings oI
Heracleitus, Parmenides, Democritus, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
(b) The doctrine of Harmonv, deIined as the union oI opposites. This idea was copied by and
used in the teachings oI Heracleitus, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
(c) Fire (central and peripheral) was taught to be the basis oI creation. This doctrine was also
used by and in the teachings oI Heracleitus, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Socrates and Plato.
(d) The immortalitv of the soul and The Summum Bonum. This was taught by Pythagoras in the
Iorm oI a transmigration oI the soul. It was also taught by Socrates as the purpose oI philosophy
through which, the soul Ieeding upon the truth congenial to its divine nature, was enabled to
escape the wheel oI rebirth and to attain the Iinal consummation oI unity with God. All the
doctrines oI Pythagoras have been shown to originate Irom the Egyptian Mystery System.
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Number possesses opposite elements and the principle oI opposites belongs to the Egyptian
Mystery System in which it was represented by male and Iemale Gods. Harmony being a
blending oI opposites, needs no Iurther reIerence, and Fire likewise takes us back to the Egyptian
Mystery System which was a Fire Philosophy and its Initiates Fire worshippers. Finally, the
purpose oI philosophy was the salvation oI the soul. This was accomplished by methods oI
puriIication oIIered by the Egyptian Mysteries, which liIted man Irom the mortal to the immortal
level. This was the Summum Bonum, The Greatest Good.
5. Socrates (A) His life and (B) His doctrines (C) His indictment, condemnation and death (D)
His farewell conversations.
A. In his life he voluntarily adopted secrecy and poverty, in order that he might avoid the
temptation oI riches and be enabled to cultivate the virtues required by the Mysteries.
B. All his doctrines likewise associate him with the Egyptian Mysteries.
(i) His doctrine oI the Mind or Nous as Intelligence which underlies creation, was represented in
Egyptian temples, just as in modern Masonic temples, by the "Open Eye oI Osiris", indicating
omniscience and omnipotence.
(ii) His doctrine oI selI knowledge: "Man know thyselI" was copied directly or indirectly Irom
among the inscriptions which appeared on the outside oI the Mystery temples in Egypt.
(iii) His doctrines oI Opposites and Harmony were a testimony oI the custom oI the Mysteries to
demonstrate the principle oI opposites in nature by pairs oI male and Iemale Gods and also by
double pillars in Iront oI temples.
(iv) His doctrines oI Immortality, Salvation oI the Soul and The Summum Bonum were a
summary oI the theory oI salvation as was taught by the Mysteries. Socrates himselI explained it.
The purpose oI philosophy was the salvation oI the soul by a process oI puriIication which liIted
man Irom the mortal level and raised him to the immortal. This was an attainment, this was the
Summum Bonum or Greatest Good.
C. His indictment, condemnation and death are circumstances which also show his association
with the Mysteries. He was indicted Ior the introduction oI Ioreign Gods and the corruption oI
Athenian Youth and was condemned and put to death. The Ioreign Gods were the Gods oI the
Mysteries and his submission to martyrdom was due on the one hand to the prejudice oI the
Athenian authorities, while on the other hand, to his virtue oI courage, required by the Mysteries.
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D. His Iarewell conversations also show his membership with the great Egyptian Order. There
are two accounts oI these conversations: one by Crito and the other by Phaedo. Crito describes
the brotherly behaviour oI a band oI IaithIul Iriends and Neophytes who visited him daily while
he was in prison awaiting his execution. The purpose oI these visits was to secure the escape oI a
brother; but their eIIorts were in vain, Ior he reIused to yield to their entreaties. Phaedo mentions
that the theme oI the other conversation was the immortality oI the soul in which Socrates
endeavoured to give them some prooIs by his application oI the principles oI opposites. We are
also told that towards the end oI the conversations, and just beIore he drank the poison, Socrates
requested Crito to pay Ior him a certain debt which he owed. These conversations reveal the
Iollowing Iacts:
(a) The brotherly love oI the visiting Neophytes in their attempt to secure the escape oI their
brother Socrates.
(b) A Iinal class was conducted by Socrates on the doctrine oI immortality: the central doctrine
oI the Egyptian Mysteries and
(c) A Iinal request oI Socrates to have a debt paid Ior him and
(d) These conversations constitute the earliest specimen oI Masonic literature. All Iour oI which
Iacts point to membership in the Egyptian Mystery System. It was a Universal Brotherhood and
required the cultivation oI brotherly love. Its central teaching was the immortality oI the soul,
and it also required all Initiates to practice the virtues oI justice and honesty and thereIore to pay
their debts.
E. It is believed that Socrates did not commit his teachings to writings. This was also in
obedience to the secrecy oI the Mysteries.
6. Plato
(A) His early liIe and education as in the case oI all other philosophers are unknown to history,
which represents him as Ileeing Irom Athens aIter the death oI Socrates and aIter twelve years
during which time he visited Euclid at Megara, the Pythagoreans in Italy, Dionysius in Sicily and
the Mystery System in Egypt, he returned to Athens and opened an Academy, where he taught
Ior 20 years.
(B) His doctrines which are scattered over a wide area oI literature consisting oI 36 dialogues are
disputed by modern scholarship. The pupils oI Socrates especially Plato are supposed to have
published his teachings, and it is not known how much oI this vast literature belongs to Plato and
how much to Socrates. The doctrines oI Plato have all been traced to Egyptian origin.
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(i) The Theory oI Ideas, which he illustrated by reIerence to the phenomena oI nature, is a
distinction between the Ideas or noumena and their copies the phenomena; and between the real
and unreal, by the application oI the principle oI opposites, which was maniIested by the
Egyptian Mystery System by male and Iemale Gods and pairs oI pillars carried in Iront oI
Egyptian temples.
(ii) The doctrine oI the Mind or Nous has also been traced to the "Open Eye" used in Egyptian
temples and modern Masonic lodges to symbolize the omniscience and omnipotence oI the
Egyptian God Osiris.
(iii) The doctrine oI the Demiurge and created Gods have also been traced to Atom the Sun God
in the creation story oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians.
(iv) The doctrine oI the Summum Bonum or Greatest Good has been shown to be identical with
the theory oI salvation oI the Egyptian Mystery System. The salvation oI the soul was the
purpose oI philosophy, whose methods oI puriIication liIted the individual Irom the level oI a
mortal and advanced him to the level oI a God. This goal was the Summum Bonum or Greatest
Good.
(v) The doctrine oI the Ideal State whose attributes have been compared with the attributes oI the
soul and justice which are contained in the allegory oI the charioteer and winged steeds, points to
Egyptian origin because the allegory has been traced to the Judgment Drama oI the Egyptian
Book oI the Dead.
(vi) The doctrines oI virtue and wisdom have been shown to have originated Irom the Egyptian
Mystery System which required ten virtues in order to subjugate the ten bodily impediments.
7. Aristotle
1. The life of Aristotle is one of discrepancies and doubts.
(i) While like other philosophers, history does not know anything about his early liIe and
education, yet it tells the strange story that he spent 20 years as a pupil under Plato, that he never
went to Egypt and that Alexander the Great gave him the money to secure the vast number oI
books which are attached to his name. But history also tells us that Plato was a philosopher and
that Aristotle was a scientist and consequently we are Iorced to ask the question: why should a
man like Aristotle waste 20 years oI his liIe under a Teacher who was incompetent to teach him?
These circumstances have led to the suspicion that Aristotle must have spent the greater part oI
those 20 years in advancing his education in Egypt and in accompanying Alexander the Great on
his invasion oI Egypt, when he got the opportunity to ransack the library at Alexandria and carry
oII all the books which he wanted.
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The story oI history does not make much sense; but unIortunately throws a cloud oI darkness
over the liIe oI Aristotle.
(ii) Another discrepancy is to be Iound in connection with three lists oI books said to belong to
him, but which diIIer in source, in date and in quantity, (a) His own list which must receive the
date in which he lived: the 4th century B.C. This contains the smallest number oI books. (b) A
list Irom Hermippus oI Alexandria two centuries later, i.e., 200 B.C. containing 400 books and
(c) A list Irom Arabian sources, compiled at Alexandria, three centuries later, i.e., 1st century
A.D. containing a thousand books. One is Iorced to ask the questions: Did Aristotle write a
thousand books in his liIe time? How has his small list increased aIter his death to 400 aIter the
lapse oI two centuries, and to one thousand aIter the lapse oI Iive centuries? These circumstances
make the authorship oI Aristotle very doubtIul, Ior it is incredible that a single individual could
write a thousand books on the various Iields oI science in a single liIe time.
2. The doctrines of Aristotle have all been shown to originate from the Egvptian Mvsterv Svstem
(i) The doctrine oI Being in the metaphysical realm has been explained as the relation between
potentiality and actuality, which acts according to the principle oI opposites. The Egyptians were
the Iirst scientists to discover the principle oI duality in nature and thereIore represented it by
male and Iemale Gods and by pairs oI pillars in Iront oI their temples. This is the source oI this
doctrine.
(ii) In the prooI oI the existence oI God, Aristotle used two doctrines, (a) Teleology, showing
purpose and design in nature as the work oI an Intelligence and (b) the Unmoved Mover. Both
doctrines have been traced to the creation story oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians
where it is shown that creation moved Irom chaos to order and indicated the work oI an
Intelligence; and also where Atom the Demiurge and Logos while sitting unmoved upon the
Primeval Hill projected eight Gods Irom various parts oI His body and thus became the
Unmoved Mover.
(iii) The doctrine oI the origin oI the world, according to Aristotle, states that the world is eternal
because matter, motion and time are eternal. This same view was expressed by Democritus in
400 B.C. in the dictum ex nihillo nihil Iit (out oI nothing, nothing comes), indicating that matter
is permanent and eternal. The same view has been traced to the creation story oI the Memphite
Theology oI the Egyptians in which chaos or primitive matter is represented by the Primeval
Ocean Nun out oI which arose the Primeval Hill. These are supposed to have always been in
existence.
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(iv) The doctrines oI the attributes oI nature, according to Aristotle, states that nature consists oI
motion and rest and that the motion moves Irom the less perIect to the more perIect by a deIinite
law. I suppose the law oI evolution. This teaching however did not originate Irom Aristotle Ior
the problem oI motion and rest permanence and change were not only investigated by the Eleatic
and later Ionic philosophers, but by the Egyptians in whose creation story, the Memphite
Theology, nature is shown to move Irom chaos by gradual steps to order. Certainly the doctrine
oI the attributes oI nature came Irom the Egyptians.
(v) The doctrine oI the soul, according to Aristotle, states that the soul is a radical principle oI
liIe which is identical with the body, and possesses Iive attributes, being sensitive, rational,
nutritive, appetitive and locomotive. Other philosophers have deIined the soul (a) as material and
composed oI Iire atoms (b) as a harmony oI the body through the blending oI opposites, and (c)
as the breath oI liIe in the creation story oI Genesis. The true source oI Aristotle's doctrine oI the
soul has however been traced to the philosophy oI the soul Iound in the Egyptian Book oI the
Dead. There we Iind the soul explained as a unity oI nine inseparable souls in one just like the
Ennead a God Head oI Nine in One, with necessary bodies. In this Egyptian philosophy, the
attributes oI the soul oI the physical body have been Iound to coincide with those described by
Aristotle, and it thereIore shows the Egyptian source oI Aristotle's doctrine, which relates to a
small Iragment oI the Egyptian philosophy oI the soul.
ARGUMENT VI: The Education of the Egvptian Priests and the Curriculum of the Mvsterv
Svstem show that Egvpt was the source of Higher Education in the ancient world, not Greece.
The Iirst idea that we get Irom chapter seven is the Iact that the Institution oI Holy Orders
originated Irom the Egyptian Mystery System, where AIrican priests were organized into various
Orders and trained according to their rank. This made the priesthood the custodians oI learning
until the dawn oI the modern age and pointed to AIricans as the Iirst proIessors in Higher
Education. The second idea that we get is that the Seven Liberal Arts also originated Irom the
Egyptian Mystery System, because these subjects Iormed the basis oI the education oI the
Priests, who in addition, had to be versed in the 42 Books oI Hermes and to specialize in Magic,
Hieroglyphics, secret language and mathematical symbolism. The third idea that we get is that
the Curriculum oI the Egyptian Mystery System was coextensive with the needs oI the highest
civilization oI the ancient world. Its text books consisted oI:
(i) The 42 Books oI Hermes.
(ii) The therapeutic use oI the Seven Liberal Arts, Ior the cure oI man's soul.
(iii) The applied Sciences and Arts as revealed by the monuments such as sculpture, painting,
drawing, architecture, engineering.
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(iv) The social Sciences appropriate Ior trade and commerce, such as geography, economics and
ship-building.
ARGUMENT VII: The Memphite Theology contains the theology, philosophy and cosmology oI
the Egyptians and is thereIore an authoritative source oI doctrinal origin.
Chapter VIII attempts to show that the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians is the source oI (i)
Greek philosophy by showing that the separate doctrines oI philosophers are portions oI the
teachings contained in it and also the source oI (ii) modern scientiIic hypotheses by showing that
(a) the Nebular Hypothesis and (b) the assumption that there are nine major planets oI the solar
system have originated Irom Atom the Egyptian Sun God or Fire God who has been shown to be
identical with the atom oI modern science. It is because oI this great revelation, i.e., the identity
oI Atom the Sun God oI the Egyptians with the atom oI modern science that I have
recommended the Memphite Theology as a new Iield oI scientiIic research, and magic the
scientiIic method oI the Mysteries as the key to its interpretation. My second reason is the Iact
that the Memphite Theology is the Iirst Heliocentric theory oI the universe, and my third reason
is the Iact that the history oI philosophy is the history oI science.
IX. The New Philosophv of African Redemption
Chapter IX deals with the New Philosophy oI AIrican Redemption, the aim oI which is mental
and social redemption, by converting the world to the New Philosophy that the Black people oI
North AIrica gave philosophy to the world, but not the Greeks; and by reIusing not only to
worship Greek intellect, because it is a process oI miseducation, but also reIusing to submit any
longer to missionary policy. The New Philosophy oI AIrican Redemption is a necessary escape
oI the Black people Irom their social plight caused by a Ialse tradition concerning them which
has been set in motion by (a) Alexander the Great (b) Aristotle and his school and (c) Emperors
Theodosius and Justinian whose edicts abolished the Egyptian Mysteries: the Greatest
Educational and Ecclesiastical System that the world has ever known and established
Christianity as its perpetual rival.
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Notes
Chapter I
(1) The Teachings of the Egvptians. This was called Sophia by the Greeks and meant Wisdom
Teaching. It included (a) Philosophy and the Arts and Sciences (b) religion and magic and (c)
secret methods oI communication both linguistic and mathematical. Read The Stromata oI
Clement oI Alexandria, Bk. 6, p. 756 and 758; also Diodorus I, 80; also Ancient Mysteries by C.
H. Vail, p. 2223; The Stromata oI Clement oI Alexandria, Bk. 5, c. 7 and 9.
(2) The Peri Phvseos. This was the name given to one oI the earliest books on science apart Irom
the manuscripts oI the Egyptians. The name means "Concerning nature". Read Ancient
Mysteries by C. H. Vail, p. 16.
Chapter II
The period oI Greek philosophy was unsuitable Ior the production oI Greek philosophers.
Because (a) Persian domination did not only enslave the Greeks but kept them in a constant state
oI Iear (b) It also kept them busy organizing Leagues in constant selI-deIense against aggression
and (c) The city states could not agree, and the Peloponnesian wars kept them in constant
warIare with each other. Read SandIord's Mediterranean World, c. 12, p. 203, 205; c. 13 and 15,
p. 225, 255; also c. 18, p. 317, 319; also The Tutorial History oI Greece, c. 27, 28 and 29.
Chapter III
(1) The Summum Bonum. This means (a) The Greatest Good (b) the liIting oI man Irom the level
oI a mortal and advancing him to the level oI a God (c) the salvation oI the soul (d) the purpose
oI philosophy (e) the goal oI the Egyptian theory oI salvation. Read C. H. Vail's Ancient
Mysteries, p. 25.
(2) The Grand Lodge of Luxor. The ruins oI the ancient Grand Lodge oI Luxor are Iound today
on the banks oI the Nile in Upper Egypt in the ancient city oI Thebes. It was built by Pharaoh
Amenothis III. It was the only Grand Lodge oI the ancient world. It had branches or minor
lodges throughout the ancient world; in Europe, Asia, AIrica, North America, South America
and probably in Australia. These were some oI the places:(a) Palestine at Mt. Carmel (b) Syria
at Mt. Herman in Lebanon (c) Babylon (d) Media, near the Red Sea (e) India, on the banks oI the
Ganges (I) Burma (g) Athens (h) Rome (i) Croton (j) Rhodes (k) Delphi (l) Miletus (m) Cyprus
(n) Corinth (o) Crete (p) Central and South America, especially Peru (q) Among the American
Indians and among the Mayas, Aztecs and Incas oI Mexico.
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Read Encyclopaedia oI Religion and Ethics by Jas. Hastings; Lives oI Eminent Philosophers by
Diogenes Laertius; and History oI Philosophy by Thomas Stanley. The discovery oI the ruins oI
Luxor on the banks oI the Nile and the organization oI the Egyptian Mysteries into a Grand
Lodge with minor lodges throughout the ancient world are evidence that Egypt was the cradle oI
the Mysteries and oI the Masonic Brotherhood.
(3) The rebuilding of the temple of Delphi. This temple was burnt down in 548 B.C. by the
Greeks who were always hostile towards the Egyptian Mysteries. The Brethren tried at Iirst to
raise Iunds Irom the native Greeks but Iailed in their attempt. They then decided to approach the
Grand Master Amasis King oI Egypt, who unhesitatingly donated three times as much as was
needed Ior the purpose. This act oI King Amasis shows the universality oI the brotherhood oI the
Egyptian Mysteries and oI Free Masonry. Read SandIord's Mediterranean World, p. 135 and
139; also John Kendrick's Ancient Egypt, Bk. II, p. 363.
4) The abolition of Greek philosophv together with the Egvptian Mvsteries. Identical eIIects
proceed Irom identical causes. ThereIore the edicts oI Theodosius in the 4th century A.D. and oI
Justinian in the 6th century A.D., which closed down the Egyptian Mysteries, simultaneously
had the same eIIect upon Greek philosophy, and proved the identity between them. Read The
Ecclesiastical edicts oI the Theodosian Code by W. K. Boyd; also Mythology oI Egypt by Max
Muller, c. 13, p. 241245; also SandIord's Mediterranean World, p. 508, 548, 552568.
(5) The Statue of the Egvptian Goddess Isis with Her Child Horns in Her arms. This was the Iirst
Madonna and Child oI human history. It was a Black Madonna and Child. Read Max Muller's
Mythology oI Egypt, c. 13, p. 241245; also SandIord's Mediterranean World, p. 552568.
Remember that the name Egyptian is a Greek word Aiguptos which means Black, and that
primitive man visualized God in terms oI his own attributes and this included colour.
(6) All the great religious leaders from Moses to Christ were Initiates of the Egvptian Mvsteries
This is an inIerence Irom the nature oI the Egyptian Mysteries and prevailing custom.
(a) The Egyptian Mystery System was the One Holy Catholic Religion oI the remotest antiquity.
(b) It was the one and only Masonic Order oI Antiquity, and as such,
(c) It built the Grand Lodge oI Luxor in Egypt and encompassed the ancient world with its
branch lodges.
(d) It was the Iirst University oI history and it made knowledge a secret, so that all who desired
to become Priests and Teachers had to obtain their training Irom the Mystery System, either
locally at a branch lodge or by travelling to Egypt.
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We know that Moses became an Egyptian Priest, a Hierogrammat, and that Christ aIter attending
the lodge at Mt. Cannel went to Egypt Ior Final Initiation, which took place in the Great Pyramid
oI Cheops. Other religious leaders obtained their preparation Irom lodges most convenient to
them.
(e) This explains why all religions, seemingly diIIerent, have a common nucleus oI similarity;
belieI in a God; belieI in immortality and a code oI ethics. Read Ancient Mysteries by C. H. Vail,
p. 61; Mystical LiIe oI Jesus by H. Spencer Lewis; Esoteric Christianity by Annie Besant, p. 107,
128129; Philo; also read note (2) Chapter III Ior branch lodges oI the ancient world.
Chapter IV
(1) The Genesis of Greek Enlightenment
In the reign oI King Amasis, the Persians through Cambyses invaded Egypt 525 B.C. and as a
result (a) Immigration regulations against the Greeks were removed (b) They were allowed to
settle at Naucratis and do their research (c) This contact enabled the Greeks to begin to borrow
Egyptian Culture and to become enlightened. Read Herodotus, Bk. II, p. 113; Plutarch, p. 380;
Diogenes, Bk. IX 49; Ovid Fasti III 338.
(2) Cheops and Cecrops
Those were Greek names Ior the Egyptian KhuIu who belonged to the 4th Dynasty oI the
Egyptians. It was during the Pyramid Age, and Cheops was also the name oI the Great Pyramid
where Christ received His Final Initiation into the Egyptian Mysteries. Read Brucker's Critical
History oI Philosophy; also Mystical LiIe oI Jesus by H. Spencer Lewis.
Chapter V
(1) The Diagram of the Four Qualities and Four Elements
This is important evidence that the teachings oI the supposed early Ionic philosophers and oI
Heracleitus originated Irom the Egyptian Mysteries. Read the Diagram and also Ancient
Mysteries by C. H. Vail, p. 61; and the Creation Story oI the Memphite Theology by FrankIort;
also Rosicrucian Digest, May 1952, p. 175.
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(2) The Pvthagorean Theorem
Pythagoras travelled to Egypt and was taught geometry by the Egyptian Priests and made to
sacriIice to the Gods, beIore they showed him the prooI oI the theorem oI the square on the
hypotenuse oI a right angled triangle. Pythagoras did not discover this prooI, and it is misleading
to name the theorem aIter him. Read Herodotus, Bk. III, p. 124; Diogenes, Bk. VIII, p. 3; Pliny,
N. H., 36, 9; also Plutarch and Demetrius.
Chapter VI
(1) The doctrine of self-knowledge. Man know thvself (Seauton gnothi)
This doctrine has been Ialsely ascribed to Socrates. It was an inscription that was placed on the
Egyptian temples, and Socrates copied it directly or indirectly. Read Zeller's History oI
Philosophy, p. 105; S. Clymer's Fire Philosophy and Max Muller's Egyptian Mythology.
(2) The Farewell Conversation of Socrates with his pupils and friends
These conversations are signiIicant in the Iollowing respects:
(a) Socrates is identiIied as a member oI the Egyptian Mysteries or Masonic Order.
(b) Masonic behavior is maniIested through these conversations.
(c) The books containing these conversations; Plato's Crito, Phaedo, Euthyphro, Apology and
Timaeus, are the earliest specimen oI Masonic literature apart Irom the secret writings oI the
Egyptians.
(d) OI the three Athenian philosophers Socrates stood highest in the rank oI a Free Mason. He
was not aIraid oI death, he did not publish the knowledge imparted to him and he was an honest
man. Read Crito and Phaedo oI Plato.
(3) Plato´s Theorv of Ideas
AIter the Egyptian Priests discovered the Iundamental principle oI opposites as underlying liIe in
the universe, they applied it in their interpretation oI natural phenomena. Consequently this mode
oI interpretation has been reIlected in the teachings oI the so-called Greek philosophers who had
obtained their education Irom the Egyptian Mystery System. Read the doctrines oI Parmenides
who in the problem oI existence distinguishes between Being and non-Being; also oI Heracleitus
in the problem oI Ilux and change through the process oI transmutation; also oI Socrates in the
prooI oI immortality, and Plato in his supposed Theory oI Ideas, in which he distinguished
between (a) the real and unreal (b) the idea oI a thing and the thing itselI (c) the noumena and
phenomena. In all these instances the principle oI opposites has been used as a method oI
interpretation. This method is Egyptian not Platonic.
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(4) The Republic of Plato. The Ideal State
Plato's authorship oI the Republic is disputed Ior the Iollowing reasons:
(a) The attributes oI an Ideal State are expressed in the allegory oI the charioteer and winged
steeds which is dramatized in the Judgment Drama oI the Egyptian Book oI the Dead and
thereIore proves its Egyptian origin.
(b) The chariot was neither a culture pattern nor war machine oI the Greeks at the time oI Plato.
The wars oI the Greeks with the Persians and the Peloponnesian wars were all maritime.
(c) At this time the Egyptians were specialists in the manuIacture oI chariots and horse breeding
Gen., c. 45, v. 27; c. 47, v. 17; Deut., c. 17, v. 16; I Kings, c. 10, v. 28.
(d) The historians Diogenes Laertius, Aristoxenus and Favorinus have declared that the subject
matter oI the Republic was Iound in the controversies written by Protagoris (481411) when
Plato was but a boy. Read Diogenes Laertius, p. 311 and 327; also The Egyptian Book oI the
Dead, c. 17; also Republic III 415; V 478; and VI 490 sqq.
(5) The Timaeus of Plato
Plato's authorship oI the Timaeus is also disputed Ior the Iollowing reasons:
(a) The historian Diogenes Laertius in Bk. VIII, p. 399401 has declared that when Plato visited
Dionysius in Sicily, he paid Philolaus a Pythagorean Iorty Alexandrian Minae oI silver Ior a
book, Irom which he copied the whole contents oI the Timaeus.
(b) The subject matter oI the Timaeus is eclectic. Read the Timaeus.
(6) Magic is the Kev to the interpretation of ancient religion and natural philosophv
Through the application oI the principle: that the qualities oI entities, human or divine, are
distributed throughout their various parts; and that contact with such entities releases those
qualities, many religious phenomena and those oI primitive science could be interpreted and
understood.
(a) The cure oI the woman who touched the hem oI Christ's garment, Mark, c. 5, verses 2534.
(b) The cure oI several people, who held the handkerchieIs oI St. Paul. Acts, c. 19, verse 12.
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(c) In order to accomplish creation, Atom the Sun God sat upon Ptah, the God oI Gods, in order
to absorb His qualities oI creative thought, speech and omnipotence. This act qualiIied Him as
the Logos and Demiurge and He Iirst created the Gods and Iinally mortals. Read Memphite
Theology in FrankIort's Ancient Egyptian Religion and Dr. Frazer's Golden Bough.
(7) The doubts and discrepancies in the life and activities of Aristotle
It is somewhat unIortunate that history has represented the liIe and activities oI Aristotle in a way
so repugnant to reason, that the world has been compelled to doubt his accomplishments and
Iame. It tells us that
(a) he spent twenty years as a pupil under Plato whom we know was incompetent to teach him.
(b) It tells us that Alexander gave him money to buy his large number oI books, but the Greeks
had no libraries at the time, nor was it easy to purchase books which were not in circulation.
(c) It also tells us that three lists oI books which bear his name diIIer Iroth one another, in source,
date and quantity.
(d) The third list contains one thousand books: a quantity which is a mental and physical
impossibility as the production oI a single individual in a single liIetime.
(e) It is silent about Aristotle's visits to Egypt, although it was the custom in his days Ior Greek
students to go to Egypt Ior the purpose oI their education. Read Zeller's History oI Philosophy, p.
172173; Diogenes, Bk. V, p. 449; B. D. Alexander's History oI Philosophy, p. 9293.
(8) The Unmoved Mover. Proton Kinoun Akineton
A doctrine ascribed to Aristotle in his attempt to prove the existence oI God. The God in this
doctrine was Atom the Egyptian Sun God, who in the creation story oI the Memphite Theology,
sat upon the God oI Gods Ptah and having absorbed His creative qualities, speech and
omnipotence, became the Logos and accomplished the work oI creation by projecting Gods Irom
various parts oI His own body. This doctrine did not originate Irom Aristotle, but has been traced
to the creation story oI the Memphite Theology oI the Egyptians. Read Memphite Theology in
FrankIort's Ancient Egyptian Religion, c. 20 and 23; also p. 25, 26 and 35; William Turner's
History oI Philosophy, p. 141143; B. D. Alexander, p. 102103.
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(9) Aristotle´s doctrine of the Soul
This doctrine has been Iound to be only a very small part oI the elaborate philosophy oI the soul
Iound in the Egyptian Book oI the Dead, which is the original source oI Aristotle's supposed
doctrine. Read the Egyptian Book oI the Dead by Sir E. A. Budge, p. 2964.
Chapter VII
The Curriculum of the Egvptian Mvsteries
Through the curriculum oI the Egyptian Mysteries it is now known that the AIrican continent
has given the Iollowing Legacy to the civilization oI the world. It consists oI the Iollowing
culture patterns:
(1) Holy Catholic Orders, together with a priesthood divided into ranks according to training.
(2) Holy Catholic Worship, consisting oI rituals, ceremonies including processions and
appropriate vestments oI priests.
(3) Greek Philosophy and the Arts and Sciences, including the Seven Liberal Arts, that is, the
Quadrivium and Trivium which were the Ioundation training oI Neophytes. These were included
in the Iorty-two Books oI Hermes.
(4) The applied Sciences which produced the pyramids, tombs, libraries, obelisks, and Sphinxes,
war chariots and ships, etc.
(5) The social sciences, appropriate Ior the highest civilization in ancient times. Read The
Stromata oI Clement oI Alexandria, c. 6, p. 756, 758; also Diodorus I, 80. Read also The
Mechanical Triumphs oI the Ancient Egyptians by F. M. Barber; History oI Mathematics by
Florian Cajeri; History oI Mathematics by W. W. R. Ball.
Chapter VIII
The Memphite Theologv
(1) Definition
The Memphite Theology is an inscription on a stone containing the cosmology, theology and
philosophy oI the Egyptians. Read FrankIort's Ancient Egyptian Religion, c. 20 and 23; also
FrankIort's Intellectual Adventure oI Man. It is located in the British Museum.
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(2) Importance
Its importance lies in the Iact that (a) it is an authoritative source oI Egyptian Philosophy,
Cosmology and Religion (b) it is prooI oI the Egyptian origin oI Greek philosophy.
(3) The Source of Modern Scientific Knowledge
(a) Atom the Egyptian Sun God who is the Logos oI Heracleitus, the Demiurge oI Plato and the
Unmoved Mover oI Aristotle creates eight other Gods by projecting them Irom His own body,
thus producing nine Gods or the Ennead. This is identical with the Nebular Hypothesis oI
Laplace, in which the original Sun creates eight other planets, by throwing oII rings Irom itselI,
thus producing the nine major planets oI modern scientiIic belieI.
(b) It has been shown on pages 146 and 147 oI this book, that the name oI Atom the Egyptian
Sun God is the same name used Ior the atom oI science and also that the attributes oI both are the
same. Read FrankIort's Intellectual Adventure oI Man, p. 53; FrankIort's Kingship and the Gods,
p. 182; also Herodotus II, 112; Diodorus I, 29.
(4) It offers great possibilities for modern scientific research
What science knows about (a) the number oI major planets (b) how these major planets were
created by the Sun and (c) the attributes oI the atom has been traced to the Cosmology oI the
Memphite Theology, which suggests that (d) science knows only 1/5 oI the secrets oI creation
and thereIore 4/5 oI such secrets yet remains to be discovered (e) consequently The Memphite
Theology oIIers great possibilities Ior modern scientiIic research.
Chapter IX
The Drama of Greek Philosophv
(1) This consists oI three actors (a) Alexander the Great who invaded Egypt and plundered the
Royal Library at Alexandria (b) Aristotle and the alumni oI his school, who took possession oI
the Royal Library and having Iirst carried oII large quantities oI scientiIic books, subsequently
converted it into a research Centre and University. (c) The Roman government, which through
the edicts oI Emperors Theodosius and Justinian closed down the Egyptian Mysteries together
with its schools, the University oI the Ancient World and System oI the AIrican Culture.
(2) The result oI this was (a) the misrepresentation and erroneous opinion that the AIrican
continent and people are backward in culture and have made no contribution to civilization and
(b) the establishment oI Christianity as a rival against the Mysteries or AIrican System oI
Culture, in order to perpetuate this erroneous opinion.
134
Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
The Journal of Pan African Studies 2009 eBook
(3) A Iurther result has been (a) the Ialse worship oI Greek intellect and (b) the activities oI
Missionary enterprise through which the culture oI Black people is caricatured both in literature
and in exhibitions.
(4) A Iurther result has been (a) the general Ieeling among Black people throughout the world
that they are in great need oI Ireedom Irom their social plight, and (b) The oIIer by "Stolen
Legacy" oI a "New Philosophy oI AIrican Redemption" in order to meet this universal need oI
"Social ReIormation".
(5) The nature and methods of this New Philosophv and Social Reformation
(a) The New Philosophy oI AIrican Redemption is simply the proposition that the "Greeks were
not the authors oI Greek philosophy: but the people oI North AIrica, the Egyptians". This must
be preached and circulated Ior centuries to come.
(b) The eIIects oI this New Philosophy should be as Iollows
(1) To change the mentality both oI White and Black people and their attitude towards each other
and bring about a Social ReIormation.
(2) To stimulate the Black people to abandon their Ialse worship oI Greek intellect, and to reject
the caricature oI their culture by Missionary enterprise and to demand a change in Missionary
policy.
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Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy by George G. M. James
The Journal of Pan African Studies 2009 eBook

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