# I.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

Analytic Geometry is a branch of algebra that is used to model geometric objects - points, (straight) lines, and circles being the most basic of these. Analytic geometry is a great invention of Descartes and Fermat. In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry, or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate and the principles of algebra and analysis. Analytic geometry is widely used in physics and engineering, and is the foundation of most modern fields of geometry, including algebraic, differential, discrete, and computational geometry. In plane analytic geometry, points are defined as ordered pairs of numbers, say, (x, y), while the straight lines are in turn defined as the sets of points that satisfy linear equations. From the view of analytic geometry, geometric axioms are derivable theorems. For example, for any two distinct points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), there is a single line ax + by + c = 0 that passes through these points. Its coefficients a, b, c can be found (up to a constant factor) from the linear system of two equations ax1 + by1 + c = 0 ax2 + by2 + c = 0, or directly from the determinant equation

However, no axiomatic theory may escape using undefined elements. In Set Theory that underlies much of mathematics and, in particular, analytic geometry, the most fundamental notion of set remains undefined. Geometry of the three-dimensional space is modelled with triples of numbers (x, y, z) and a 3D linear equation ax + by + cz + d = 0 defines a plane. In general, analytic geometry provides a convenient tool for working in higher dimensions.

Within the framework of analytic geometry one may (and does) model non-Euclidean geometries as well. For example, in plane projective geometry a point is a triple of homogenous coordinates(x, y, z), not all 0, such that (tx, ty, tz) = (x, y, z), for all t ≠ 0, while a line is described by a homogeneous equation ax + bx + cz = 0. In analytic geometry, conic sections are defined by second degree equations: ax² + bxy + cy² + dx + ey + f = 0. That part of analytic geometry that deals mostly with linear equations is called Linear Algebra. Cartesian analytic geometry is geometry in which the axes x = 0 and y = 0 are perpendicular. The components of n-tuple x = (x1, ... xn) are known as its coordinates. When n = 2 or n = 3, the first coordinates is called abscissa and the second ordinate.

**II. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS
**

The distance between two points, P, and P2, can be expressed in terms of their coordinates by using the Pythagorean Theorem. From your study of Mathematics, Volume 1, you should recall that this theorem is stated as follows: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (longest side) is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.

Let the coordinates of P, be (x),y,) and let those of P2 be (X2,Y2), as shown in figure 1-2. By the Pythagorean theorem,

Figure 1-2.-Distance between two points. where P1N represents the distance between x, and x2, P2N represents the distance between y1 and y2, and d represents the distance from P1 to P2. We can express the length of P1N in terms of x, and x2 and the length of P2Nin terms of y1 and y2 as follows:

Although we have demonstrated the formula for the first quadrant only, it can be proven for all quadrants and all pairs of points. EXAMPLE 1: In figure 1-2, x, = 2,x2 = 6, y, = 2, and y2 = 5. Find the length of d. SOLUTION:

This result could have been foreseen by observing that triangle P1NP2 is a 3-4-5 triangle. EXAMPLE 2: Find the distance between P 1 (4,6) and P2 (10,4). SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE 3: Find the distance between point (-1, -3) and the midpoint of the line segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6). square root of.

•

We first find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6) M = [ (2 + 4) / 2 , (4 + 6) / 2 ] = (3, 5)

•

We now use the distance formula to find the distance between the points (-1, -3) and (3, 5) D = sqrt [ (3 - (-1)) 2 + (5 - (-3)) 2 ] = sqrt (80) = 4 sqrt (5)

**III. DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT
**

Many times you may need to find the coordinates of a point that is some known fraction of the distance between P1 and P2. In figure 1-3, P is a point lying on the line joining P1 and P2 so that

If P should lie 1/4 of the way between P1 and P2, then k would equal 1/4. Triangles P1MP and P1NP2 are similar. Therefore,

Figure 1-3.-Division of a line segment.

Since

is the ratio that defines k 1 then

Therefore, P 1M = k(PIN) Refer again to figure 1-3 and observe that P1N is equal to X2- x,. Likewise, P 1M is equal to x - x1. When you replace P 1M and P1N with their equivalents in terms of x, the preceding equation becomes

By similar reasoning,

The x and y found as a result of the foregoing discussion are the coordinates of the desired point, whose distances from P1 and P2 are determined by the value of k. EXAMPLE 1: Given two points P1 and P2 in space find the point R dividing the line segment P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1. Solution If R divides P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1 then = -2 .

B. as shown in the diagram below. f and g respectively. e. then CF also passes through G). if G is the point of intersection ofAD and BE. E and F be the midpoints of the three sides of the triangle. F and G relative to some origin O be a. and CF. b. and then that the pointG divides each median in the ratio 2 : 1. The formula for the position vector of the midpoint of a line segment then allows us to write
. LetABC be any triangle. d. D. consider the problem from classical geometry on the concurrency of the three medians of a triangle.
Solution Let the position vectors of A. the origin O and the seven position vectors are not drawn on the diagram. For simplicity. BE. The three medians are AD. and the problem is to prove first that they are concurrent (that is. and let D.The position vector
is then equal to
EXAMPLE 2: To illustrate the use of the formula for the division of a line segment in a certain ratio. E. c. C.

Since G is defined to be the point of intersection of AD and BE. and e.
It is clear that is the position vector of a point on AD. we obtain
Now compare these expressions with the formula for the position vector (relative to O) of a point R on the line segment P1P2. we seek an equation involving a. to show that CF also passes through G. rearranging and dividing by 3. b. observe that
. This can be obtained by eliminating c from the first two equations above. d. we see that
These equations also show that G divides both AD and BE in the ratio 2 : 1. Finally. and is a position vector of a point on BE.
After multiplying by 2. Since G is the point of intersection of these two lines.

EXAMPLE 3: Find the coordinates of a point 1/4 of the way from P1(2. the value of (Io is 1/2. SOLUTION:
Therefore.This shows that G lies on CF and divides CF in the ratio 2 : 1.
.
When the midpoint of a line segment is to be found. Therefore.3) to P2(4. as required.1). point P is
.
such that
By similar reasoning.

IV. When the slope of the line is 0. you know that the line is horizontal and you know it's a vertical line when the slope of a line is undefined. y1) then y1 = mx1 + b or with subtraction y . (m for slope? Seems to be the standard!) When the slope passes through a point A(x1. in the above figure. this is the 'rise over run' concept. A(x. In the Figure below. y) are on the line y= mx + b :
. Slope of a Line
The slope of a straight line. This is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line.
y = mx + b is the equation that represents the line and the slope of the line with respect to the x-axis which is given by tan q = m. parallel and perpendicular lines are all explored interactively using an applet. For instance. y) and B(s. The change in y whether up or down is divided by the change in x going to the right. B and C indicate the fact that there are three points on the line. the subscripts on point A.y1 = m (x x1) You now have the slope-point form of the equation of a line. You can also express the slope of a line with the coordinates of points on the line.

another line passes through the points (–3. Picking x = 2. perpendicular. Then the points (–1.y + 1 = 0
EXAMPLE 1: Find the slope of y = –2x + 3. 2) and (0. get y = –2(2) + 3 = –4 + 3 = – 1. it looks like this:
Picking x = –1.
Graphing the line. 2). I get y = –2(–1) + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5. 5) and (2. –1) are on the line y = –2x + 3.1) the equation would be: 2x . -1) the equation would be: 2x . Are these lines parallel. The slope of the line is then calculated as:
EXAMPLE 2: One line passes through the points (–4.
. 3).m = tan q =
therefore. –2) and (3. For (-1.y + 5 = 0. you can use the following for the equation of the line AB:
The equations of lines with slope 2 through the points would be: For (-2. or neither? I'll find the slopes.

CONDITION 1 : A point P moves such that it is always m units from the point Q. Solution: Construct a circle with centre Q and radius 2 cm. 0) and (–3.
Example : Construct the locus of a point P at a constant distance of 2 cm from a fixed point Q. Locus formed: A circle with centre Q and radius m.
.EXAMPLE 3: One line passes through the points (0. –4) and (–1. –7). another line passes through the points (3.). Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2006-2008 All Rights Reserved
V. Are these lines parallel. The Locus of a Moving Point
When a point moves in a plane according to some given conditions the path along which it moves is called a locus. (Plural of locus is loci. or neither? I'll find the values of the slopes. perpendicular. 2).

Example: Construct the locus of point P moving equidistant from fixed points X and Y and XY= 6 cm.CONDITION 2 : A point P moves such that it is equidistant form two fixed pointsX and Y.
CONDITION 3: A point P moves so that it is always m units from a straight lineAB.
. Solution: Construct a perpendicular bisector of the line XY. Locus formed: A pair of parallel lines m units from AB. Locus formed: A perpendicular bisector of the line XY.

Locus formed: Angle bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD.
CONDITION 4: A point P moves so that it is always equidistant from two intersecting lines AB and CD.
Solution:
. Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 2 cm from AB. Construct the locus of point P such that it is always equidistant from AB and CD.Example: Construct the locus of a point P that moves a constant distant of 2 cm from a straight line AB.
Example: The following figure shows two straight lines AB and CD intersecting at point O.

Example : Given the line AB and the point Q. We could do this by constructing the locus for each of the conditions and then determine where the two loci intersect. Draw a circle with centre Q and radius 5 cm.
Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 3 cm from line AB.Construct angles bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD.
The points of intersections are indicated by points X and Y.
. find one or more points that are 3 cm from ABand 5 cm from Q.
INTERSECTION OF TWO LOCI Sometimes you may be required to determine the locus of a point that satisfies two conditions.

Since PQRS is a square the diagonal PR would be the angle bisector of the angle formed by the lines PQ andPS. Mark the points as A and B. The diagonal when extended intersects the circle at points A and B
Note: A common mistake is to identify only one point when there could be another point which could be found by extending the construction lines or arcs. Example: Given a square PQRS with sides 3 cm.
. Solution: Construct a circle with centre P and radius 2 cm.It means that the locus consists of the two points X and Y. as in the above examples. Construct the locus of a point which is 2 cm from P and equidistant from PQ and PS.

circumference: the distance around the circle. radius: distance from center of circle to any point on it. Circle
Definition: A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a central point. then length = r x Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees.. origin: the center of the circle pi ( ): A number. 3. diameter = 2 x radius of circle Circumference of Circle = PI x diameter = 2 PI x radius where PI = = 3. Definitions Related to Circles arc: a curved line that is part of the circumference of a circle chord: a line segment within a circle that touches 2 points on the circle. tangent of circle: a line perpendicular to the radius that touches ONLY one point on the circle. diameter: the longest distance from one end of a circle to the other. then length = x (PI/180) x r if the angle is in radians.VI. k) and radius (r): (x-j)2 + (y-k)2 = r2 Equation of Circle: (polar coordinates) for a circle with center (0.141592. 0): r( ) = radius
. equal to (the circumference) / (the diameter) of any circle... Area of Circle: area = PI r2 Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees.. sector: is like a slice of pie (a circle wedge). then area = ( /2) r2 Equation of Circle: (cartesian coordinates)
for a circle with center (j. then area = ( /360) PI r2 if the angle is in radians..141592.

Solution to Problem :
•
If the center O is on AC then AC is a diameter of the circle and the triangle has a right angle at B (Thales's theorem). k) and radius r: x(t) = r cos(t) + j y(t) = r sin(t) + k
EXAMPLE 1: In the figure below. triangle ABC is a triangle inscribed inside the circle of center O and radius r = 10 cm. If At is the area of triangle ABC and As the shaded area then
. ) and radius a: r2 .2cr cos( .for a circle with center with polar coordinates: (c.) + c2 = a2 Equation of a Circle: (parametric coordinates) for a circle with origin (j. Find the lengths of AB and CB so that the area of the triangle is twice the shaded area.

As = (1/2) * AB * CB = 200 cos (A) sin(A) = 100 sin (2A) = 50 Pi / 3
•
The above equation gives.4 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 74. Two solutions 2A = 31. sin (2A) = 0.At = 2 As
•
We also have.8 degrees 2A = 148. we now use the internal angle (to the triangle) A to write.2 degrees
. As = 50 Pi / 3
•
Since triangle ABC has a right angle. sin(A) = CB / AC = CB / 20 which gives CB = 20 sin (A) and cos(A) = AB / AC = AB / 20 which gives AB = 20 cos (A)
•
The area As might also be written as follows (using the identity sin(2A) = 2 sin (A) cos (A)). At + As = (1/2) area of circle = (1/2) Pi 10 2 = 50 Pi 2 As + As = 50 Pi
•
Which gives.5 Pi / 3
•
Use calculator to solve for 2A.6 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 15.

24 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (15.2) = 5. what is the ration A1 / A2?
Solution to Problem :
•
If x is the size of one side of the small square.8) = 5.•
We now calculate the lengths of AB and CB. If A1 is the area of the large square and A2 is the area of the small square.
EXAMPLE 2: The small square is inscribed inside the circle and the larger circle circumsrcibes the same circle.45 (2 decimals) second solution AB = 20 cos (74.2) = 19.8) = 19.24 (2 decimals)
•
The two solutions correspond to two congruent right triangles.45 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (74. then its area A2 is given by A2 = x 2
•
The diagonal d of the small square is given by d2 = x2 + x2 d = x sqrt (2)
•
d is also equal to the side of one side of the large square
. Two solutions first solution AB = 20 cos (15.

we can start with the formula for the area of a circle:
Step 3 Since the radius is given as 5cm. we can substitute r with 5.14. as shown below:
Step 4 Now.5 only has meaning if we include the unit for it.14. we can substitute π with 3. Since the radius is in cm.5 cm2
. Step 1 The picture below shows the circle with the radius of 5cm. Similarly. Find the area of this circle. Take π as 3. A1 = ( x sqrt (2) ) 2 = 2 x 2
•
Hence A1 / A2 = 2 x 2 / x 2 = 2
EXAMPLE 3: Given a circle with the radius of 5cm. we can calculate for A.
Step 2 To calculate the area. After doing so. the unit for the area will be cm2. Hence: A = 78. the calculated number 78.•
The area A1 of the large square A1 is given by.

y) represents any point on the curve.g. In the following graph. p). p) is the same as the distance from (x.Vertical Axis Adding to our diagram from above. y) to the directrix.
The Formula for a Parabola . pay TV dishes.g. headlight reflectors). solar radiation collectors) or Radiation needs to be transmitted from a single point into a wide parallel beam (e.
The parabola is defined as the locus of a point which moves so that it is always the same distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a given line (called thedirectrix). The focal distance is |p| (Distance from the origin to the focus.
• • • • •
The focus of the parabola is at (0. y) to the focus (0. The distance d from any point (x.
.) The point (x.VII. The directrix is the line y = -p. We take absolute value because distance is positive. and from the origin to the directrix. radio telescopes. we see that the distance d = y + p. Parabola
The parabola has many applications in situations where:
• •
Radiation needs to be concentrated at one point (e.

we have
Squaring both sides gives: (x − 0)2 + (y − p)2 = (y + p)2 Simplifying gives us the formula for a parabola: x2 = 4py In more familiar form.
Parabolas with Horizontal Axis We can also have the situation where the axis of the parabola is horizontal:
. with "y = " on the left. we can write this as:
where p is the focal distance of the parabola. p) and (x. and equating it to our value d = y + p. using the distance formula on the general points (0.Now. y).

. Similarly.] Parabola is a member of conic sections. Like ellipse and hyperbola. Note that parabola is not a family of curves. along with hyperbola and ellipse.
Tracing a Parabola Tracing a Parabola The axis of a parabola is a line perpendicular to its directrix and passing its focus. there are two or more values of y for each value of x. there are many ways to define parabola. Parabola can be thought of as a limiting case of ellipse or hyperbola. Vertex of the parabola is the intersection of the parabola and its axis. the eccentricity of Parabola is 1. a function only has one value of y for each value of x. part of a large circle appears to be a line may induce us to conclude that there are different shapes of circles.In this case. On the other hand. As a conics section. A common definition defines it as the locus of points P such that the distance from a line (called the directrix) to P is equal to the distance from P to a fixed point F (called the focus). we have the relation: y2 = 4px [In a relation. The impression that some parabola are more curved is because we are looking at different scale of the curve.

P]]==length[segment[P. A streched line is still a line.F].
For the given formulas.d]. xf[t]^2/(4 yf[t]) }. Further.
Invariant under certain Dilation Parabola have the property that when scaled (streching/shrinking) along a direction parallel or perpendicular to its axis. P is a point on parabola. its focus is {0. focus is at {0. Let P := Intersect[b. 1/4 t^2}. Let b := Perpendicular[B. but a streched circle is no longer a circle) When a parabola is streched along the directrix “a” units and along the axis by “b” units. Let t := LineBisector[B.0}. Let B := Point[d]. (For example.F]]. yf[t]} with vertex at Origin and focus along the y-axis.
. the curve remain unchanged.
Properties Point and Tangent Construction Let F be a given point and d be a give line.Formulas
• •
Parametric: {t. but circle do not. Given a parametrization of a parabola {xf[t]. vertexes is at {0.1}. the resulting curve is the original parabola scaled in both direction by “a^2/b”. line also have this property.t] Since length[segment[B. -∞ < t < ∞ Cartesian: y == 1/4 x^2. t is the tangent at P.

suppose you pick three tangents call them a. it will be cut into the same proportions.
Tangents of parabola cutting other tangents into the same proportion. c. Tagents a.
above: Left. two of which share a common focus. b. Thus. Now pick any other tangent x1. That is. Now pick a arbitrary tangent x. the envelope of lines with a positive constant sum of intercepts is a segment of parabola. c will cut x into segments with certain proportions. Parabola with a Moving Light Source Tangents of Parabola Any set of tangents on the parabola will always cut a arbitrary tangent into the same proportion.
. The figure shows three parabolas. Right: A photo of a car's headlight (Honda Civic 2000).Optical Property A radiant point at the focus will reflect off the parabola into parallel lines. 3 parabolas with its reflection property. b.

the right figure is rotated to visually show that it coincides with parabola in the standard position.A segment of parabola formed by envelope of lines.
. Evolute and Semicubic Parabola The evolute of a parabola is the semicubic parabola. The left figure shows the line positions. The envelope of the normals is the semicubic parabola. Note: this is not astroid.
Parabola and its normals. because the lines that forms astroid as Trammel of Archimedes do not have the same positions as this. pedal with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles. Pedal The pedal of a parabola with respect to its focus is a line.

Inversion The inversion of a parabola with respect to its focus is a cardioid.
EXAMPLE 1: What is the minimum value of the expression 2x2 – 20x + 17?
Solution:
. inversion with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles.

coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` =` (-(-20))/(2(2))` = `20/4` = 5. The coordinates of P are (4. Therefore the minimum value of the expression 2x220x + 17 for any value of x is – 33. Let the equation of the parabola be y2 = 4ax..Consider the function y = 2x2 – 20x + 17. through the point (-2.coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` = `(-(-12))/(2(-3))` = `12/-6` = -2. `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. 17). 0) = (4.2. 0). find the focus. i.3x 2 – 12x + 5. Hence the coordinates of the vertex are (. For x = 5.
Solution: let POQ be the vertical section of the reflector. 17). the line x = -2 EXAMPLE 3: If a parabolic reflector is 16 cm in diameter and 4cm deep. y = -3 (-2) – 12(. Hence the curve is a parabola opening up ward. Focus coincides with M. y = 2(5)2 – 20(5) + 17 = . The curve is symmetric with respect to the vertical line through its vertex. the mid-point of PQ
. This function is defined by a second degree equation. Mid . Let OX be along OM and OY parallel to MP. and locate the axis of symmetry. The coefficient of x2 term is negative. EXAMPLE 2: Find the coordinates of maximum point of the curve y = . `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. 2 For x = -2.33.2) + 5 = 17. 8) (8)2= 4a (4) or a = 4 Focus = (a.e. This minimum value is assumed only when x = 5. Solution: The curve is defined by a second degree equation.point of PQ is M. This xo-efficient of its x2 term is positive.

a "falling short") is a plane curve that results from the intersection of a cone by a plane in a way that produces a closed curve.[2][3] the major and minor semiaxes. An ellipse is a smooth closed curve which is symmetric about its horizontal and vertical axes. is maximum along the major axis ortransverse diameter. formed when the horizontal and vertical motions are sinusoids with the same frequency.[1] The semimajor axis (denoted by a in the figure) and the semiminor axis (denoted by b in the figure) are one half of the major and minor diameters. ELLIPSE
In geometry. the curves that result from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane that does not pass through its apex. obtained when the cutting plane is orthogonal to the cone's axis. Ellipses also arise as images of a circle underparallel projection and the bounded cases of perspective projection. [4][5] or major radius and minor radius. These are sometimes called (especially in technical fields) the major and minor semi-axes. respectively. an ellipse (from Greek ἔλλειψις elleipsis.VIII. the other two (open and unbounded) cases are parabolas and hyperbolas. which are simply intersections of the projective cone with the plane of projection. Circles are special cases of ellipses. An ellipse is also the locus of all points of the plane whose distances to two fixed points add to the same constant. It is also the simplest Lissajous figure. The distance between antipodalpoints on the ellipse.[6][7][8][9]
. or pairs of points whose midpoint is at the center of the ellipse. and a minimum along the perpendicular minor axis or conjugate diameter. Elements of an ellipse
The ellipse and some of its mathematical properties. Ellipses are closed curves and are the bounded case of the conic sections.

while keeping the string taut. Refer to the lower Directrix section of this article for a second equivalent construction of an ellipse. It tends towards a line segment (see below) if the two foci remain a finite distance apart and a parabola if one focus is kept fixed as the other is allowed to move arbitrarily far away. and its tip will trace out an
. When the eccentricity is 0 the foci coincide with the center point and the figure is a circle. Move the pencil around. Tie the string into a loose loop around the two pins. a loop and a pen. the ellipse gets a more elongated shape. usually denoted by ε or e.The foci of the ellipse are two special points F1 and F2 on the ellipse's major axis and are equidistant from the center point. so as to form a triangle. The distance ae from a focal point to the centre is called the linear eccentricity of the ellipse (f = ae). For an ellipse the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 (0<e<1). and a pencil: Push the pins into the paper at two points. is the ratio of the distance between the two foci. The sum of the distances from any point P on the ellipse to those two foci is constant and equal to the major diameter (PF1 + PF2 = 2a ). Each of these two points is called a focus of the ellipse. The eccentricity of an ellipse. to the length of the major axis or e = 2f/2a = f/a. which will become the ellipse's foci. Drawing ellipses The pins-and-string method
Drawing an ellipse with two pins. An ellipse can be drawn using two drawing pins. Pull the loop taut with the pencil's tip. As the eccentricity tends toward 1. a length of string.

pushing less it will be smaller. Draw a circle centered on A. From corner B draw a tangent to the circle. Move the second pin to the other focus.C. thus it is called the gardener's ellipse. Loop the string around the two pins and tie it taut. this procedure is traditionally used by gardeners to outline an elliptical flower bed. these will be the major and minor axes of the ellipse.ellipse.D be the corners of the rectangle. This length L can be calculated with the Pythagorean theorem. at distance L/2 from the center. Draw a horizontal line through the center of the rectangle. square root of the long side of the rectangle squared minus short side squared. whose radius is the short side A-D. one must first determine the position of the foci and the length of the string loop: Let A. Then draw the ellipse as above. If the ellipse is to be inscribed within a specified rectangle. a set square. B. Place the foci on the major axis. This will be the major axis of the ellipse. in clockwise order. C on the ruler. It may take a few tries to push just hard enough to make the ellipse fit the rectangle.(A-D)squared) i. Unfortunately strings tend to be elastic so if you push harder on the pencil stretching the string more you will get a bigger ellipse. A->C being the length of the major axis
. it should fit snugly in the original rectangle.B. The length L of this tangent is the distance between the foci. To adjust the length of the string loop. Using two pegs and a rope. As the tangent is at a right angles to the radius at the intersect of the tangent with the circle L equals square root ((A-B)squared . Other methods
Trammel of Archimedes(ellipsograph) animation An ellipse can also be drawn using a ruler. with A-B being one of the long sides. and a pencil: Draw two perpendicular lines M. insert a pin at one focus. and the second pin at the opposite side of the rectangle on the major axis. tangent to its four sides at their midpoints.N on the paper. Mark three points A.e.

all the planets have an orbit whose minor axis differs from the major axis by less than half of one percent. or simply
. move the ruler on the paper.and B->C the length of the minor axis. The mechanism is also used in a toy called the "nothing grinder". The ruler is replaced by a rod with a pencil holder (point C) at one end. To draw the orbit with a pair of compasses the centre of the circle should be offset from the focus by an amount equal to the eccentricity multiplied by the radius. With the exception of Mercury. The tip will trace out an ellipse. With the other hand. With one hand. Eccentricity The eccentricity of the ellipse (commonly denoted as either e or ε) is
(where again a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively) or. keep the pencil's tip on the paper. The trammel of Archimedes or ellipsograph is a mechanical device that implements this principle. as expressed in terms using the flattening factor
The distance from the center to either focus is ae. or as the set of points such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is constant. and two adjustable side pins (points A and B) that slide into two perpendicular slots cut into a metal plate. following point C of the ruler. Mathematical definitions and properties In Euclidean geometry Definition In Euclidean geometry. turning and sliding it so as to keep point Aalways on line N. The equivalence of these two definitions can be proved using the Dandelin spheres.[10] The mechanism can be used with a routerto cut ellipses from board material. an ellipse is usually defined as the bounded case of a conic section. and B on line M. Approximations to ellipses An ellipse of low eccentricity can be represented reasonably accurately by a circle with its centre offset.

Besides the well known ratio e=f/a.
. Area The area enclosed by an ellipse is πab. it is also true that e=a/d. where (as before) a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively. Ellipse as hypotrochoid
An ellipse (in red) as a special case of the hypotrochoid with R=2r. e=PF/PD. then the area is
. The distance from any point P on the ellipse to the focus F is a constant fraction of that point's perpendicular distance to the directrix resulting in the equality. Refer to the illustration on the right. The ratio of these two distances is the eccentricity of the ellipse.
If the ellipse is given by the implicit equation Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 = 1.Directrix
Each focus F of the ellipse is associated with a line parallel to the minor axis called a directrix. This property (which can be proved using the Dandelin spheres) can be taken as another definition of the ellipse. The ellipse is a special case of the hypotrochoid when R=2r.

Circumference C of an ellipse is:
where the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. The exact infinite series is:
or
For computational purposes a much faster series where the denominators vanish at a rate is given by:[11]
A good approximation is Ramanujan's:
or better approximation:
For the special case where the minor axis is half the major axis. we can use:
.

x2 = 22
. See also: Meridian arc#Meridian distance on the ellipsoid The inverse function. d) Sketch the graph of the equation. is given by the elliptic functions.or the better approximation
More generally. EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 + 4y2 = 36 a) Find the x and y intercepts of the graph of the equation. x2 / 22 = 1 Solve for x. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. is given by an incomplete elliptic integral. b) Find the coordinates of the foci. the angle subtended as a function of the arc length. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 36 9x2 / 36 + 4y2 / 36 = 1 x2 / 4 + y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 22 + y2 / 32 = 1 We now identify the equation obtained with one of the standard equation in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an ellipse with a = 3 and b = 2 (NOTE: a >b) .[citation needed] Chords The midpoints of a set of parallel chords of an ellipse are collinear. the arc length of a portion of the circumference. as a function of the angle subtended. c) Find the length of the major and minor axes.

y2 = 32 y=±3 b) We need to find c first. c 2 = a 2 . find extra points if needed and sketch. d) Locate the x and y intercepts. c 2 = 32 . -(5)1/2)
c) The major axis length is given by 2 a = 6. (5)1/2) and F2 (0 .
.b2 a and b were found in part a). y2 / 32 = 1 Solve for y.x=±2 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts.22 c2 = 5 Solve for c. c = ± (5)1/2 The foci are F1 (0 . The minor axis length is given by 2 b = 4.

EXAMPLE 2: Find the length of major and minor axes . Solution: Deriving at ellipse problem related to length of axes and directive.
. Length of Ellipse major axis = 2√3 Length of Ellipse minor axis = 2√2 The foci are (0.axis and the minor axis is along x-axis Major axis = 2b = 2√3 so b =√3 Minor axis = 2a = 2√2 so a =√2 C = √b2 .the co ordinates of foci and vertices .-b) => (0.√3)and (0. Equation of direction y = b/e and y = . 2.foci . verticals . and the eccentricity of the ellipse 3x2 + 2y2 = 6. 4. 5.the length of latus rectum and the equation of the latus rectum of the equation of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 + 4y2 + 2x + 16y + 13 = 0.b/e => y=3 and y= -3 EXAMPLE 3: Find the ellipse eccentricity centre. 3x2 + 2y2 = 6 x2/2 + y2/3 = 1 (by dividing by 6) Since b > a.directrices .-c) => (0. Also find the equation of directives of an ellipse. the major axis lie along x-axis and the minor axis lie along y .a2 = √3 .c) and (0. 3.-1) The vertices (0. please follow the below steps.2 = 1 e = c/b = 1/√3 1.b)and (0.1) and (0.-√3) Eccentricity = 1/√3 6.

2 => x = 1 or .1 .-2) . x = -1+√3 or -1-√3 y + 2 = 0 => y = -2 Foci (-1 + √3. -2) and (-1-√3.16 + 13 = 0 (x + 1) 2 + 4(y + 2) 2 = 4 (x + 1) 2/4 + (y+2) 2/1 = 1 Let x = x + 1 and y = y + 1 This is of the form ( x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 . THE HYPERBOLA
Hyperbola
Cartesian equation: x2/a2 . e = c/a = √3/2 Vertices are (x = ± 2. Where a = 2 .b2) = √3 .2 So the vertices are (1. y = 0 => x + 1 = ± √3 so. y = 0) => x + 1 = 2 or x + 1 = .3 And y = 0 => y + 2 = 0 so y = . The cetre is mid point of two vertices (-1.-2) and (-3.y2/b2 = 1 or parametrically: x = a sec(t).-2) The foci are x = ± c. -2) The equation of the directrices are x = ± a/e = ± 4/√3 => x + 1 = ± 4/√3 so x = -1 – 4/√3 The length of latus rectum is 2b2/a = 2/2 =1 The equation of the latus rectum are x = ae so x = -1-√3
IX. y = b tan(t)
.Solution: (x2 + 2x + 1) + 4(y2 + 4y + 4) . y = 0 => x = ± √3. b = 1 c = √(a2 .

The formulas
And
developed in the section concerning the ellipse were derived so that they are true for any value of eccentricity.-The hyperbola. An inspection of figure 2-17 shows that the curve never crosses the Y axis. if the center of symmetry of a hyperbola is the origin.A hyperbola is a conic section with an eccentricity greater than 1. Thus.
Figure 2-17. the semiminor axis of the
. then
Therefore c > a > d. Since e is greater than 1 for a hyperbola. then the foci lies farther from the origin than the directrices. According to this analysis. Thus the solution for the value of b. they are true for the hyperbola as well as for an ellipse.

we can square both sides of the the above equation. at the origin. and since the square of an imaginary number is a negative real number we write
or
and. The solution of this equation for y gives
. In other words. However.ellipse. yields no real value for b. This can easily be seen from the equation
since c > a for a hyperbola. which was developed in the section on the ellipse:
and since
we have
This is a standard form for the equation of a hyperbola with its center. b is an imaginary number. O. since c = a e .
Now we can use this equation to obtain the equation of a hyperbola from the following equation.

and y. will approach zero.11) gives us
As the point (x1.y1) is chosen farther and farther from the center of the hyperbola. The lines of equation (2. The curve. The distance from the line bx .10). A similar result can easily be derived for the line bx + ay = 0.0).a. the vertices of the hyperbola. d.0) and V2( . The two straight lines
can be used to illustrate an interesting property of a hyperbola. therefore.ay = 0 to the point (x1.which shows that y is imaginary only when x2 < a 2. its coordinates satisfy the equation
which may be written
or
Now substituting this value into equation (2. which are usually written
are called the asymptotes of the hyperbola. the absolute values for x.y1) is on the curve.y1) on the curve is given by
Since (x1. They are very important in tracing a curve and studying its properties. lies entirely beyond the two lines x = ± a and crosses the X axis at V1 (a. The
. will increase and the distance.

figure 2-18.
. The conjugate axis is of length 2b and is perpendicular to the transverse axis. length of the focal chord. and the constant difference is 2a. The fixed points are thefoci. the equation of the hyperbola will read
This equation represents a hyperbola with its transverse axis on the Y axis. Its asymptotes are the lines by . and the equations of the asymptotes.Figure 2-18. Whenever the foci are on the Y axis and the directrices are lines of the form y = ± k. asymptotes of a hyperbola. The focal chord
of a hyperbola is equal to
. where k is a constant. The nomenclature of the hyperbola is slightly different from that of an ellipse. directrices.
Another definition of a hyperbola is the locus of all points in a plane such that the difference of their distances from two fixed points is constant. The transverse axis is of length 2a and is the distance between the intersections (vertices) of the hyperbola with its focal axis.-Using asymptotes to sketch a hyperbola. are the diagonals of the rectangle whose center is the center of the curve and whose sides are parallel and equal to the axes of the curve.ax = 0 and by +ax=0 or
The properties of the hyperbola most often used in analysis of the curve are the foci.

c) and (0.0) when the equation of the hyperbola is in the form
If the equation were
the foci would be the points (0. The value of c is either determined from the formula
or the formula
Figure 2-17 also shows that the directrices are the lines hyperbolas open upward and downward.16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 . discussion as . (c. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 . b) Find the coordinates of the foci.16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts.c. -c). if possible. of the graph of the equation. in the case where the
.
or. This was also given earlier in this
EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 . c) Sketch the graph of the equation.0) and FZ ( .y2 / 9 = 1
.Figure 2-17 shows that the foci are given by the points F.

y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts.x2 / 42 . c=±5 The foci are c) 1 .y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3. 0)
. y = -(3/4) x and y = (3/4) x 2 . x2 = 42 x= ± 4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts.Find extra points (if necessary) set x = 6 and find y 9(6)2 . c 2 = a 2 + b2 a and b were found in part a).Find the asymptotes y = . c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c. b) We need to find c first.plot the x intercepts 3 . x2 / 42 = 1 Solve for x.(b/a) x and y = (b/a) x and plot them. 0) and F2 (-5 .16y2 = 144 F1 (5 . .

324 y2 = 45 / 4 Solve for y y = 3(5)1/2 / 2 and y = .16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts. the points (-6. if possible. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 .3(5)1/2 / 2
so the points (6.16y2 = 144 . -3(5)1/2 / 2) are on the graph of the hyperbola. 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (6. of the graph of the equation. b) Find the coordinates of the foci. -3(5)1/2 / 2) are also on the graph of the hyperbola. x2 / 42 = 1
.y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 42 . 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (-6. Also because of the symmetry of the graph of the hyperbola. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts.y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3.
EXAMPLE 2: Given the following equation 9x2 .16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 ..

y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c.0)..0) and (h+ae. Solution: The mid point of the foci are (0.0) Since h =0 we get ae =2. 0)
EXAMPLE 3: The foci of a hyperbola are given by (-2. c2 = a2 + b2 a and b were found in part a). c=±5 The foci are F1 (5 . 0) and F2 (-5 . So centre of the hyperbola is (0.0) and (2. Now coordinates offoci are (h-ae.0) directrices are x =3/2d x=3/2. . .
. 1 Directrices are given by x=h+a/e and x =h-a/e or x =a/e or -a/e here a/e =3/2 Multiplying these two we get a^2 = 3 or a = root 3 So 2a = 2√3 = Major axis..Find Major Axis. x2 = 42 x=±4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts. b) We need to find c first.Solve for x.0).

Magnetism
I. indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. In recent times these effects have provided important clues to the atomic structure of matter. More subtle effects of magnetism. Romans.e. the iron itself acquires the same ability to attract other pieces of iron. When a piece of iron is stroked with lodestone.INTRODUCTION Magnetism. when freely suspended. one of the fundamental forces of nature. The magnetic compass soon spread to Europe. and Chinese. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons. The magnets thus produced are polarized—that is. The ancient Greeks. Around 1600 William Gilbert.
II. HISTORY OF STUDY The phenomenon of magnetism has been known of since ancient times. was known to the Greeks. The mineral lodestone (see Magnetite). and unlike poles attract. pointed north-south. are found in all matter. near the points defining the axis around which the Earth turns). and also the early Chinese knew about strange and rare stones (possibly chunks of iron ore struck by lightning) with the power to attract iron.
. Columbus used it when he crossed the Atlantic ocean. The unifying frame for these two forces is called electromagnetic theory (see Electromagnetic Radiation). Like poles repel one another. originally those near the city of Magnesia. an aspect of electromagnetism. each has two sides or ends called north-seeking and south-seeking poles. noting not only that the needle deviated slightly from exact north (as indicated by the stars) but also that the deviation changed during the voyage. physician to Queen Elizabeth I of England. with its magnetic poles some distance away from its geographic ones (i. however. proposed an explanation: the Earth itself was a giant magnet. A steel needle stroked with such a "lodestone" became "magnetic" as well. and around 1000 the Chinese found that such a needle. an oxide of iron that has the property of attracting iron objects. The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron.

Magnetic Bodies. the English geologist John Michell invented a balance that he used in the study of magnetic forces. and through a series of experiments. the theories of electricity and magnetism were investigated simultaneously. until the English physicist and physician William Gilbert published his book Of Magnets. which was based on the atomic structure of matter. he investigated and disproved several incorrect notions about magnetism that were accepted as being true at the time. He showed that the attraction and repulsion of magnets decrease as the squares of the distance from the respective poles increase. who studied the forces between wires carrying electric currents. who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon. was followed up by the French scientist André Marie Ampère. Subsequent studies of magnetism were increasingly concerned with an understanding of the atomic and molecular origins of the magnetic properties of matter. In the 13th century. who postulated the existence of an internal. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell. the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field.The compass was first used for navigation in the West some time after AD1200. important investigations of magnets were made by the French scholar Petrus Peregrinus. He pointed out that the earth itself behaves like a giant magnet. The French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb. which showed a connection between electricity and magnetism.
. In 1819 an important discovery was made by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted. while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. when combined with Langevin's theory. Langevin's theory was subsequently expanded by the French physicist Pierre Ernst Weiss. “molecular” magnetic field in materials such as iron. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1831 the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire. This discovery. who magnetized a piece of iron by placing it near a current-carrying wire. served to explain the properties of strongly magnetic materials such as lodestone. and by the French physicist Dominique François Jean Arago. This concept. later verified Michell's observation with high precision. in 1750. who found that a magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. III. and the Great Magnet of the Earth in 1600. His discoveries stood for nearly 300 years. who had measured the forces between electric charges. In 1905 the French physicist Paul Langevin produced a theory regarding the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of paramagnets (discussed below). Gilbert applied scientific methods to the study of electricity and magnetism. This theory is an early example of the description of large-scale properties in terms of the properties of electrons and atoms. Subsequently.

But beyond the dense atmosphere. The Magnetosphere
On Earth one needs a sensitive needle to detect magnetic forces." appearing in the night skies of places like Alaska and Norway. magnetic structures. a region known as the Earth's magnetosphere. (At the atomic level. while demonstrating to friends the flow of an electric current in a wire. The American physicists Samuel Abraham Goudsmit and George Eugene Uhlenbeck showed in 1925 that the electron itself has spin and behaves like a small bar magnet. who concluded that the nature of magnetism was quite different from what everyone had believed. Satellites in space. such forces have a much bigger role. sense much more: radiation belts. on the basis of the newly-developed quantum mechanics (see Quantum Theory). That region contains a mix of electrically charged particles. in oposite directions repel. however. and a region exists around the Earth where they dominate the environment. and out in space they are usually much. for example. noticed that the current caused a nearby compass needle to move. magnetic properties were explored in greater and greater detail.After Weiss's theory. the one produced by iron magnets. and the configuration of the object that produces the magnetic field. But what is magnetism? Until 1821. The theory of atomic structure of Danish physicist Niels Bohr. and the polar aurora or "northern lights. magnetism is measured in terms of magnetic moments—a magnetic moment is a vector quantity that depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. We call it the Earth's magnetosphere Only a few of the phenomena observed on the ground come from the magnetosphere: fluctuations of the magnetic field known as magnetic storms and sub storms. fast streaming particles and processes which energize them. provided an understanding of the periodic table and showed why magnetism occurs in transition elements such as iron and the rare earth elements.
IV. Then a Danish scientist. which Ampere was also able
. Iron magnets are a very special case.) The German physicist Werner Heisenberg gave a detailed explanation for Weiss's molecular field in 1927. All these are described in the sections that follow. It was basically a force between electric currents: two parallel currents in the same direction attract. only one kind of magnetism was known. and electric and magnetic phenomena rather than gravity determine its structure. Hans Christian Oersted. Other scientists then predicted many more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments. The new phenomenon was studied in France by Andre-Marie Ampere. much weaker. with diverse magnetic properties. or in compounds containing these elements.

Such magnetismmust be produced by electric currents. while on the night side they are pulled out into a very long "tail. Near Earth. In nature. field lines are compressed earthward. also proposed a widely used method for visualizing magnetic fields.to explain. Magnetic Field Lines Michael Faraday. credited with fundamental discoveries on electricity and magnetism (an electric unit is named "Farad" in his honor). near a magnet or an electrical current.
What Oersted saw. at least!) the lines one obtains when one "follows the direction of the compass needle... However. in the glowing heat of sunspots and in the molten core of the Earth. currents also flow through space and modify this pattern: on the side facing the Sun. Imagine a compass needle freely suspended in three dimensions. but the term field lines is now in common use.
Compass needles outlining field lines Field lines of a bar magnet are commonly illustrated by iron filings sprinkled on a sheet of paper held over a magnet. Similarly. but finding how those currents are produced remains a major challenge. in the Earth's magnetosphere. however. curve around in space and converge again near the north pole. the lines remain very close to the "dipole
." Faraday called them lines of force. We can trace in space (in our imagination." like that of a comet. magnetic fields are produced in the rarefied gas of space. field lines of the Earth start near the south pole of the Earth. V.

but also developed an intuitive (and perhaps mystical) notion that such space was itself modified. including in it electrical forces as well as magnetic ones. motion from one line to another is more difficult. as well as electric currents (and certain radio-type waves). derived by Maxwell. To Faraday field lines were mainly a method of displaying the structure of the magnetic force. Such a modified space is now known as an electromagnetic field. like the one displayed above (from a mathematical model of the field). they define an "easy direction" in the rarefied gas of space. placed this notion on a firm mathematical footing. because electrons and ions tend to stay attached to them. like the grain in a piece of wood. suggested that they could undergo wave motion. A map of the magnetic field lines of the magnetosphere. Electromagnetic Waves Faraday not only viewed the space around a magnet as filled with field lines. in contrast. tells at a glance how different regions are linked and many other important properties.pattern" of a bar magnet. spreading with the speed of light. however.
.
Magnetic field lines from an idealized model. and Maxwell correctly guessed that this actually was light and that light was in fact an electromagnetic wave. like beads on a wire. even becoming trapped when conditions are right. His younger contemporary. VI. the great Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. so named because of its two poles. they have a much broader significance. Because of this attachment. Today electromagnetic fields (and other types of field as well) are a cornerstone of physics. In space research. even if it was a complete vacuum. Their basic equations. a direction in which ions and electrons. can easily move.

from radio (very long waves. relatively low frequency) to microwaves. X-rays. Powerful magnetic fields are used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Radio waves produced in our magnetosphere are often modified by their environment and tell us about the particles trapped there. The electromagnet. In more recent times. the development of new magnetic materials has also been important in the computer revolution. VII. produced such waves by electrical means. is the basis of the electric motor and the transformer. Nowadays a wide variety of such waves is known. Computer memories can be fabricated using bubble domains. infra-red. In addition to the atomic-sized magnetic units used in computers. Magnetic materials are also important constituents of tapes and disks on which data are stored. extremely high frequency). soon afterwards. in the first laboratory demonstration of radio waves. APPLICATIONS
Numerous applications of magnetism and of magnetic materials have arisen in the past 100 years. the Sun and the distant universe. Depending on this direction. These domains are actually smaller regions of magnetization that are either parallel or antiparallel to the overall magnetization of the material.Heinrich Hertz in Germany. Other such waves have been detected from the magnetospheres of distant planets. the bubble indicates either a one or a zero. too. large. for example. visible light. thus serving as the units of the binary number system used in computers. x-rays and gamma rays (very short waves. are observed to come from such sources and are the signatures of high-energy electrons there. an important diagnostic tool used
. ultra-violet. powerful magnets are crucial to a variety of modern technologies.

Almonidovar
Submitted to: Engr. Pasay City
PHYSICS:
MAGNETISM
Submitted by: Bryan M.by doctors. Mark Gerald Dadivo
. Superconducting magnets are used in today's most powerful particle accelerators to keep the accelerated particles focused and moving in a curved path. Scientists are developing magnetic levitation trains that use strong magnets to enable trains to float above the tracks. reducing friction.
Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden. Villamor.

Mark Gerald Dadivo
. Pasay City
Analytical Geometry
Submitted by: Bryan M. Villamor. Almonidovar
Submitted to: Engr.Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden.