Tap chi Gong ngh~ Sinh hoc 2(2): 133-148,2004

, A'

BA! TONG QUAN

CONG NGH~ SINH HQC NANO

Le Thi Thu Hi~n, Nong Vim Hili, Le Trdn Binh Vi~n Cong ngh~ Sinh hoc

TOM TAT

Tren the' gidi, khoa h9C va cong nghe nano, mQt linh vue da nganh ke't tinh nhfmg thanh tuu mdi nh~t cua nhieu nganh khoa h9C tl;1 nhien va nhieu linh vue cong' nghe ... da va dang c6 nhimg budc phat tri8n manh me vdi r~t nhieu ung dung c6 'hi~u qua kinh te' cao. Vi~c ung dung cong ngh~ nano VaG linh vue khoa h9C v~ su s6ng va cong nghe sinh h9C d~n de'n sl;1 hinh thanh m_Qt linh vl;1c khoa h9C va cong nghe mdi - Khoa h9C v~ sl;1 s6ng d kich thudc nano va cong nghe sinh h9C nano. Chinh phu cua nhieu qu6c gia tren the' gidi da dfiu tu nhung ngudn kinh phi 16n va thong qua cac chuong trinh quoc gia v~ khoa h9C va cong ngh~ nano, trong d6 chu trong VaG cong nghe sinh hoc nano. R~t nhieu san pham cua nganh khoa h9C mdi me nay nhu hat nano, chip sinh h9C ... da du<;jc dua ra thi trudng va ducc si':i dung rQng rai trong cac linh vl;1c y h9C, duoc pham, sinh h9C, cac nganh cong nghiep thuc pham va nong nghiep, 0 nude ta, linh vl;1c khoa hoc cong nghe hien dai nay con r~t mdi me. Cac nghien cuu va ung dung cong nghe nano n6i chung con it v~ so' hrong 'd~ tai va cac cong trinh chu ye'u thuoc hudng khoa h9C v~t li~u va vat ly nano. D(ic biet, cong nghe sinh h9C nano c6 nhieu tri8n vong phat tri8n nhanh tren the' gioi, nhung lai chua duoc bAt dfiu d nude tao Vi~c uu tien phat tri8n va tmg dung khoa h9C va cong nghe nano, d(ic bi~t la cong nghe sinh h9C nano thea nhirng hudng chon 19C se thuc dfty su phat tri8n cua nhieu nganh khoa h9C cong nghe lien quan va g6p phan VaG su nghiep cong nghiep h6a va hien dai h6a d~t nude,

Tit khoa: Chip sinh hoc, cong ngh~ nano, cong ngh~ sinh hoc, cong ngh~ sinh h9C nano, hat nano, sensor sinh hoc

MODAU

Khoa hQC va cong nghe nano la mQt linh vue khoa hoc va cong ngh~ mdi da nganh bao gam til v~t ly, di~n tli nano d~n hoa hoc, cong nghe sinh hoc nano va dat trinh dQ vao loai tien tien nhat trong n~n khoa hoc cong nghe th~ gidi hien nay. Khoa hoc va cong nghe nano, vdi pham vi tmg dung rQng len, da va dang lam bien d5i nhanh chong ky nghe san xuB:"t v~t li~u, cac san pham di~n tli va cong nghe thong tin, cac san pham phuc vu cham soc suc khoe ... theo hirdng giam kich thudc, hoan hao va uu viet hen vdi t6c dQ

xli lyva v~n chuyen thong tin IOn.

Hudng ung dung cong ngh~ nano vao khoa hoc v~ s1,1 s6ng va cong nghe sinh hoc la mQt trong nhirng hudng nghien ctru va tri~n khai mfii nhon co nhfing buoc phat tri~n manh me. Cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano da md ra nhimg tri~n vong he't sue to IOn cho cong nghe sinh hoc noi chung va dlllc biet dO"i vdi linh vue cong nghe sinh hoc y - duoc noi rieng, Cac h~ thong ke't hop gifia cac thanh phan hoa hoc va sinh hoc cling voi cac iinh kien di~n tli do cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano tao ra ngay cang duoc ung dung rQng rai, khong chi trong viec phat tri~n cac thie't bi phan tich va

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giam sat sieu nho, rna con cho cac phan ung sinh hQC d muc dQ phan tlt (Laval et al., 2000; Lowe, 2000; Galvin, 2002; Antipina et al., 200?; Chen et al., 2003; Haruyama, 2003; Faijes et al., 2004; Hamada et al., 2004; Lee, Lee, 2004). Nhd cac linh ki~n mdi nhu chip sinh hoc (biochip), ngtldi ta da va dang dua ra dU9C cac phuong phap sang loc nhanh va hieu qua, tao ra cac loai thu6c chua benh d(tc hi~u the' h~ mdi ciing nhu md ra tri~n vong cho Iinh vue tim kiem dU9C pham, cha:n doan, kham chua benh ...

Trong bai t6ng quan nay, chung toi gidi thieu tom tiit v~ cong nghe sinh hoc nano, cac thanh tuu, hien trang va tri~n vong cua cong nghe nay tren the' gidi ciing nhu d Vi~t Nam.

DJNH NGHIA CONG NGH:¢ NANO vA CONG NGH:¢ SINH HQC NANO

Voi su ph at tri~n nhanh chong va bao g6m nhieu Iinh vue, cong nghe nano, cho de'n nay, v~n chua co dU9C mQt dinh nghia thong' nhat. Theo Co quan Hang khong Vii tru Hoa Ky (NASA), cong nghe nano la cong ngh~ che' tao ra cac cau true, v~t lieu, thiet bi va h~ thong' chirc nang vdi kich thudc do bang nanometer (khoang tU 1 de'n 100 nm) va khai thac trng dung cac di_ic tinh dQc dao cua nhfmg san pham nay (http://www.ipt.arc.nasa.gov/nanotechnol ogy.htrnl). Cong nghe nano ciing co th~ hi~u la nganh cong nghe dua tren cac hi~u bie't v~ cac quy luat, hien tuong, tinh chat cua cau true v~t ly co kich thudc di_ic trung d thang nano (Vii Dinh Cu, N guyen Xuan Chanh, 2004).

Nhu v~y, khai niem trong tam d day 18. c~u true, v~t lieu nano. Cftli true nano dU9C hi~u la cac h~ th6ng co kich cd thuoc thang nano g6m cac nguyen tlt, phan tlt dU9C slip d(tt sao cho ca h~ thong thuc hien du<;IC cac chtrc nang dinh trudc, Tren

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co sd phan loai hinh hoc, cau true nano co th~ la hat nano, sci, day hoac 6ng nano, ldp nano hay mang mong nano. V~ chuc nang, cau true nano co th~ dU9C phan thanh: (i) V~t lieu nano nhu cac hat nano; (ii) Linh kien nano (nanodevices) nhu cac cam bien nano (nanosensors); (iii) Cac may nano nhu cac phan tlt protein co kha nang t\;l Illp rap (Vii Dinh Cu, Nguyen Xuan Chanh, 2004).

Tren cd sd cong ngh~ nano va cong ngh~ sinh hoc, cac nguyen tlt hay phan tlt co th~ dU9C thie't ke'va ghep lai vdi nhau d~ tao ra mQt so' loai linh kien, cftu true nano nhu chip sinh hoc co pham vi ung' dung rQng rfii trong khoa hoc su s6ng, d(tc biet trong y - dU9C (Laval et al., 2000; Paull et al., 2003; Whitesides, 2003). Co nhieu each dinh nghia cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano (nanobiotechnology/nano - biotechnology/ nanobiotech). Thuat ngfi nay co th~ dU9C slt dung d~ rno ta nhirng vftn d~ chung cua cong ngh~ nano va sinh hoc. Cong' ngh~ sinh hoc nano ciing co th~ dU9C xern la nhiing irng dung cong nghe nano vao Iinh V\;lc nghien ciru sinh hoc, tim kiem dU9C pham va d~n chuyen thu6c hudng dich, cac vat li~u nano moi, cac thie't bi ch~n doan, tri lieu giiip loai bo cac th~ ngoai lai khoi co th~, slta chua te' bao va rna ... (Laval et al., 2000; Paull et al., 2003).

Trong tu nhien luon luon t6n tai cac qua trinh va v~t th~ cau true d mire dQ nano. Rftt nhieu h~ thong sinh hoc nhu cac virus, phirc h9P protein va mang ... co cau true nano va cong nghe sinh hoc nano chinh la s\;l sinh trudng cua cac te' bao va rna da chuc nang d thuc v~t va dQng v~t til mQt te' bao sinh vat.

PH4M VI UNG Dl)NG CVA CONG NGH:¢ SINH HQC NANO

Tren the' gidi, cac bai bao khoa hoc v~

Tap chi Cong ngh~ Sinh hoc 2(2): 133-148,2004

cong nghe nano xuat hien tit giira thap ky 90. Tit do d~n nay, so luong h6 so dang ky bao hQ sang che' trong Iinh vv.c cong nghe nano tang rfft manh (tit 500 h6 so/nam 1998 len 1300 h6 so/nam 2000) chimg to tinh hap dfin va gia tri img dung to IOn cua nganh khoa hoc cong nghe mdi me nay. Pham vi ung dung cua cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano rfft rQng, tit linh vue y hoc, duoc phflm, sinh hoc, tOi cac nganh cong nghiep thuc pham va nong nghiep.

Trong linh vue sinh hoc, cong nghe sinh hoc nano dV<;Ic irng dung d~ nghien cuu bQ gen hoc (genomies), sinh tin hoc (bioinformaties), xac dinh trinh tv. gen, tim kiem va sang loc nhanh duoc pham ...

Doi vdi y hoc, mQt trong nhimg Iinh vue ung dung chu y~u cua cong nghe sinh

hoc nano, cac van d~ chinh bao g6m: Tai sinh mf (tissue regeneration), nuoi cffy va sira chua cac co quan (growth and repair of organs), cac h~ thong dfin chuyen va hudng dich duoc pham (drug - targeting and delivery systems). D:;ic biet, cac h~ thong dfin chuyen va hudng dich duoc pham tren co sa cong ngh~ nano ngay cang diroc quan tam nghien cuu va dua vao tmg dung, bai vi tren thuc te' hau h~t duoc phflm khong chi co cac tac dung duoc ly huu ich rna con co nhirng tac dung phu, Cac h~ thong nay bao g6m nhimg hat nano (nanoparticles) la vector dieu khien duoc pham tac dQng true ti~pvao t~ bao dich va khong gay anh hudng d~n cac t~ bao xung quanh (Lawrence, 2002; Lobenberg, 2003).

I Tiii sinh mol

I Nuoi cay va sUa chua cac cd quan I

Cac lop phil co tinh tharn dll bao quan thuc pham

Hinh 1. Pham vi ung dung cua cong nghe sinh hoc nano (http://nanobio.kaist.ac.kr).

Trong Iinh vue duoc pham, cong nghe sinh hoc nano cung voi nganh hoa hoc da tao ra sv. phat tri~n manh me cua mang

tim kiem duoc pham. Nhting tri~n vong mdi cua cong' nghiep duoc pham da rna ra cung vdi sv. ra ddi va phat tri~n cua cong

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ngh~ DNA chip b-ay DNA microarray; Ching han, t1'Ouetrubng hQp ung thu the tangeinht6:oaolympho B, h~u h~t benh nhan ban, diu,· phan ung r~t t6t dO'i vdi phuongph8.p. tri, li~u chuan. Sau do, hon ll\{>t npar,JJhung trudng hop nay nhanh chOng ~huyin sang tinh trang nguy kich, MQt vai nam truoc day, cac nha di~u tri kh~ng cO each nao d~ phat hien cac benh nbAnthuQc nhom co nguy co rui ro cao nAyd~ di~u tri tfch cue. G~n day, cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano cho phep cac nha nghien ctru phan biet giua cac nhom benh nhan co th~ chong Iai benh t~t trong mQt thoi gian dai va ngan dua tren s~ khac bi~t t6ng th~ cua cac hoat dQng lien qual}d~n hang tram gen trong cac t~ bao khoi u cua ho vao thoi di~m chan doan. Thanh tuu nay la co sd d~ dua ra thli nghiem chAn doan cac benh nhan co nguy co cao.

Trong cac nganh cong nghiep thuc pham va nong nghiep, cong nghe sinh hoc nano dugc ung d~ng d~ bao qu~n th~c pham, che' tao cac mang nhua tong hop nano co th~ phan huy sinh hoc, trong cac ky thuat sieu loc.,; (Hinh 1) (http:// nanobio.kaist.ac.kr) .

MOT s6 SAN PHAM CllA CONG NGH~ SINH HQC NANO

Cac hat nano - vector dan chuy~n

. .

hli(jng dich dliqc pham

Trong nhfing nam g~n day, bao che' thuO'c hien dai dang co xu hudng di vao th~ gioi ~ieu 'nho, ch~ ra cac hat co kich thuoc ca nm ... vOi nhfmg n6 luc nhamdua thuO'c tOi dfch, Cac thi~t bi giai phong du<;IC phAm thong minh (bi~u hien hoat tfnh cua du<;IC pham d nhirng vi trf dich nh~t dinn) tr@n eo Sd cac hat nano la mQt trong rthilrigdong san pham chinh cua nganh'khoa hqc ti~m nang nay

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(Lawrence, 2002).

Cac hat nano la nhirng hat keo riin co kfch thudc tu 10 nm d~n 1000 nm. Chung bao g6m nhfmg v~t lieu dai phan tli lam chat mang nho kha nang hoa tan, bao vo va/hoac k~t bam hay dinh kern nguyen ly chu dQng (active principle) v~ sinh hoc hay duoc pham, Cac hat nano nay co nhfing dl}.c tinh quy nhu kich thudc sie~ nho, dQ b~n cao va co kha nang thay doi cac dac tfnh b~ mat cua chung mQt each d~ da~g. Hien nay, co met sO'lo~i v~t lieu tuong hop sinh hoc (biocompatible) dung trong san xuat cac hat nano va nhirng phuong phap san xuat cling nhu cai bien khac nhau da dugc xay dung. Ngoai tinh tirong hop v~ mat sinh hoc, dl}.c tinh co th~ phan huy duoc la mQt trong nhfing yeu c~u quan trong khac dO'i vdi cac loai vat lieu sli dung d~ san xuat hat nano.

.. .

Ba loai vector chfnh dugc sli dung trong h~ . thong d~n chuyen duoc pham hirdng dich la liposome (phospholipid), nanocapsule (pha nude hoac d~u bao boc bdi polymer co th~ phan huy) va nanosphere (polymer co th~ phan huy). Trong do, hai loai vector sau chinh la cac hat nano. Sd di cac hat nano la nhung vector ly tudng cho h~ thO'ng d~n chuyen va huong dich diroc pham bdi? vi cluing thoa man nhirng yeu c~u la the mang co kha nang tang cirong s~ tuan hoan mau, voi kfch thudc du nho d~ co th~ tie'p xuc duoc vdi cac mo va te' bao dfch, cling nhu co tinh hudng linh hoat co th~ ung ~~~g duoc trong nhieu loai benh va co the dan, ch~y~n phan co heat tfnh vao trong te bao ... Hien nay, cac thie't bi xay dung tren co sd nguyen ly d~n chuyen chu dQng hay thong minh co th~ nhan bi~t vi trf ?ug~ pham tac dQng va giai phong nhan to chu dQng true tie'p vao te' bao dfch hoac ~ao thu th~ da va dang r~t duoc quan tam nghien ctru, ung dung d~ thay the' d~n cac he thong d~n chuyen 'thu dQng' ('passive'

Tap chi Cong ngh~ Sinh h9C 2(2): 133-148,2004

delivery systems)

Lobenberg, 2003).

Ben canh do, trong y hoc, cac hat nano tu ciing duoc stt dung d~ danh dau cac te' bao dich. Cac hat nano nay diroc boc m9t ldp chat tuong hop sinh hoc rfft mong va duoc xtt ly hoa sinh b~ mat tao kha nang lien ke't vdi m9t loai te' bao dich nao do nhu te' bao ung thu. Hien nay, m9t so ki~u hat tu nano dang dUQc ban r9ng rai tren thi truong . (Vii Dinh Cu, Nguyen Xuan Chanh, 2004).

(Meier,

2000;

Chip sinh hoc

Chip sinh hoc la nhom san pham chinh, co gia tri ung dung r9ng IOn cua cong nghe sinh hoc nano. Chip sinh hoc duoc xay dung tren cd sd chuyen m9t phan ung sinh hoc thanh m9t tin hieu dien ttt va bao g6m DNA chip, protein chip, chip te' bao, sensor sinh hoc, lab chip, thie't bi dien ttt sinh hoc, chip co th~ ghep cffy (http://nanobio.kaist.ac.kr). Du doan tU cac nguon khac nhau cho thffy thi truong phat tri~n chip sinh hoc rfft co tri~n vong, t6ng uoc tinh dat d~anh thu khoang 3 ty usn vao nam 2004 (H uels et al., 2002).

Sensor sinh hoc

Sensor sinh hoc la thie't bj tuong doi don gian, duoc cffu tao tu 2 thanh phan chinh: Phan thu th~ sinh hoc (bioreceptor) va b9 chuy~n d6i (bien nang, transducer). Ngoai, hai. thanh phan nay, thie't bi doc thich hop cfin duoc giin vdi phan chuyen d6i tin hieu,

Tfft ca sensor sinh hoc d~u dua vao d~c tinh nhan dang d~c hieu muc d9 cao d~ phat hien cac dich can phan tich va chua m9t de' phu hop d~ giin m~u do. Phan img lai gifia m~u do va dich tren b~ m~t di~n cue duoc transducer chuyen d6i thanh tin hieu phan tich. Transducer co

th~ la thie't bi di~n hoa, quang, phan tich trong IUQng hoac di~n. Trong do, thie't bi dien hoa kha hoan hao va co nhieu uu di~m hon so vdi cac h~ thong do luong' hien co. Cac sensor sinh hoc dien hoa cho phep nhan bie't nhftng phan ttt dich nhanh, don gian va vdi chi phi thap (Kerman et al., 2004).

Doi vdi cac ung dung sensor sinh hoc, cac phan trng tuong tacd~c trung cua DNA (nhu gifia DNA va cDNA - complementary DNA - DNA b6 sung, DNA - RNA), cua protein (nhu thu th~ - hormone, khang th~ - khang nguyen) ... la co sd d~ DNA sensor, protein sensor nhan dang cac phan ttt dich. B~c biet, doi vdi DNA sensor, su ke't hop theo c~p base cua DNA m~u do (dang soi don giin tren b~ mat transducer) vdi cac trinh tu DNA b6 sung rfft d~c hieu va tuong .doi b~n (Drummond et al., 2003; Kerman et al., 2004).

DNA chip (DNA Microarray)

DNA chip con duoc goi la chip gen hay DNA microarray la m9t thie't bi sieu nho co th~ thuc hien song song hang chuc nghin phan ung phan ttt. Chip nay co th~ duoc thiet ke' d~ phat hien cac gen d~c biet hoac danh. gia hoat dong cllagen trong cac m~u mo khac nhau va cho phep thu nhan nhieu thong tin tir m9t IUQng m~u tirong doi nho.

Giong nhu sensor sinh hoc, nguyen ly hoat d9ng cua DNA chip rfft don gian, dua tren kha nang nhan dang chon IQC va ttrc thoi cac DNA dich (target) khi cac DNA m~u do (probe) va dich ke't hop vdi nhau tao thanh sci kep (double strand) nhd sl,t biit c~p b6 sung giua cac base A, T, G, C trong qua trinh lai phan ttt. Su biit c~p chon IQc duoc dam bao bang lien ke't hydrogen va sl,t toi uu hoa tuong tac khong gian giua cac base (lien ke'tgiua

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cac base thuQc nh6m purine A va G vdi cac base thuQc.n·Ji6lDJpyI"imidine T va C). Cac base A t11&lmQt sQi DNA se chi ket c~p vdi base:~r(b68ung ciia A) tren sci kia va C chiktt e4p voi G. Vi vay, neu phan tii DNA dfchlien ket voi m~u do co trinh t~ 1a ATCGGC thi co th~ suy ra trinh tu b6 sung cua phan ti't DNA dich nay la TAGCCG. RNA cling twin theo nguyen tilc ghep c~p base nghiern ngat khi ket hop vdi DNA, do vay rll't d~ dang suy luan trinh tl,t cua ba-t ky sci RNA nao bilt c~p vdi DNA tren DNA chip (Friend, Stoughton, 2002).

sa di chip co th~ thuc hien d6ng thci hang loat phan trng trong mot thi nghiem dudi nhfing dieu kien g&n nhu nhau vi m6i loai m~u do dU<;IC dinh vi a mot vi tri c6 dinh tren de cua chip va cac phan ti't

Le Thi Thu Hien et al.

DNA hay RNA dua len b~ mat chip da danh dau (vi du, bang' huynh quang) co th~ duoc ph at hien tren may quet. Khi chip duoc quet thi may tinh se chuyen s6 lieu tho sang ket qua co th~ doc duoc (Hinh 2). Nhirng tien bQ va sl,t cai tien v~ dQ chinh xac cua thiet bi dinh vi va may quet array cling nhu cac phudng phap nghien ciru trong phong thi nghiem cho phep chip phan tich d6ng thoi rll't nhieu thong s6 phuc tap a cac pham vi khac nhau. LUQng du lieu thu duoc ra-t IOn d~t ra yeu C&U thiet ke nhfing phan mern phu hop va d~ si't dung. Hien nay, kha nhieu chuong trinh chuyen dung da duoc xay dung va dua vao ung dung co kha nang thu nhan, quan ly va phan tich hieu qua cac du lieu thi nghiern si't dung DNA chip (Hess et al., 2001; Saeed et al., 2003).

Hinh 2. So deS eDNA mieroarray (Duggan et al., 1999).

DNA chip duoc cong b6 l&n d&u vao nam 1995 (Schena et al., 1995). Den nay, hen 20 cong ty ban thiet bi nay cling voi nhimg phan mem phan tich lien quan nhu Affymetrix, Aligent Technologies, Amersham Biosciences, Axon

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Instruments, BioDiscovery, Clontech, Genomic Solutions, Mergen, Motorola Life Sciences, N anogen, Partek, PerkinElmer, Rosetta Inpharmatics, Spotfire (Hoa Ky); Virtek Vision International (Canada)... (Friend,

Tf1-p chi GIJng ngM Sinh h9C 2(2): 133-148,2004

Stoughton, 2002). DNA chip diroc xem la cong cu hiru hieu trong nghien cuu tim kiem diroc pha:m. Thiet bi nay cling la co sd d~ cac nha khoa hoc kham pha hoat dQng cua cac te bao binh thuong trong co th~ va nhirng sai sot d muc phan tli la can nguyen cua b~nh ung thu cling nhu cac benh phuc tap khac, Trong nhieu truong hQP, DNA chip la cong cu tang cuong cha:n doan nhanh, chinh xac va h6 tro bac sy di~u tri dua ra nhimg phuong phap tri lieu rieng, cling nhu chon lua nhfing loai thuoc thich hop va it gay phan ung' phu nhat cho tung ca nhan, Nho co cong nghe DNA chip, nganh cong nghiep duoc pham co th~ sang loc nhanh hang loat ph an tli lam nguyen lieu san xufft thuoc. Thiet bi sieu nho nay ro rang co gia tri d~c biet cho cac nha sinh hoc te bao, cac nha nghien ciru duoc pha:m (Friend, Stoughton, 2002; Howbrook et al., 2003; vande Valk, 2003) ...

Nhin chung, cac nha khoa hoc sli dung DNA chip cho hai muc dich rfft khac nhau. Nhirng ung dung v~ ki~u gen tien hanh so sanh DNA co tren chip vdi DNA trong m~u mo d~ xac dinh gen hay giai rna trinh tl,t trong nhiing soi DNA chua ro trinh tu. Tuy nhien, thong thuong cac nha di~u tra hien nay khong chi sli dung cac thiet bi nay d~ xac dinh sl,t co mat hay trinh tl,t cua cac gen co trong m~u rna con d~ xac dinh su bi~u hien hoac mire dQ hoat dQng cua cac gen nay. Huang ung dung v~ ki~u gen cling dUQc cac nha nghien cuu sli dung trong viec so sanh cac gen cua nhtrng sinh vat khac nhau (vi du, d~ tim kiem bang chtmg v~ lich sli tien hoa cua sinh v~t) va so sanh cac gen trong nhung kh6i u vdi cac gen trong nhimg mf binh thuong (nham phat hien su khac biet v~ cau true hoac sO' luong gen). Huang tiep c~n nay co gia tr] d~c biet trong y hoc tmg dung, Chip co th~ cho biet, vi dv, nguyen nhan lay nhi~m chinh

xac cua b~nh nhan co trieu chung giong cum (nhu dau dAu, sO't cao va kho tho). B~ mat cua chip co th~ duQc glln cac DNA dai dien cho cac gen chi xufft hien trong nhfing tac nhan gay b~nh chon loc va phong thi nghiem y hocco th~ tach ehiet va danh dau DNA tu m~u mo lay nhiem (vi du, tu dich miii cua b~nh nhan). Sl,t ket hop giua DNA cua benh nhan vdi mQt sO' trinh tl,t gen tren chip co th~ cho bie't dau la tac nhan gay benh. Tuong tu, hien nay nhieu chip dang diroc thiet ke nham xac dinh cac loai vi khuan than d~c bi~t dung trong khung b6 sinh hoc hay cac mam benh khac xam nhap vao cQng d6ng.

Huang trng dung khac va rfft quan trong cua chip Ia nghien ctru sl,t bi~u hien gen tren co sd xac dinh hrong mRNA co trong m~u mo. Cac chip xac dinh true tie'p hrong protein m~c du rfft phuc tap cling dang dUQc nghien cuu thiet ke'. Cac nha sinh hoc te bao thudng sli dung loai chip nay d~ thu thap cac thong tin v~ nhfing protein chiem uu the sau khi mo chiu tac dQng bdi nhirng di~u kien khac nhau. Cac chip bi~u hien cling duoc cac nha khoa hoc ung dung d~ nghien cuu chuc nang cua gen ngay ca khi khong co nhimg bang chimg ban dAu v~ vai tro cua gen do trong co th~. Trong y hoc, thiet bi nay cho phep phat hien cac nguyen nhan co ban gay benh va xac dinh nhirng huang chien luoc mdi va chinh xac hon trong cha:n doan, xli ly, phong ngira va cu6i cung la chua tri (Gwynne, Heebner, 2001).

Protein chip

Vai trinh tl,t gen cua mQt sO' sinh v~t da duoc cong b6 tren cac ngan hang du li~u qu6c te', cQng d6ng khoa hoc dang tien tdi, budc tie'p theo: Tim hi~u cac h~ th6ng sinh hoc thong qua protein - cac ph an tli sinh hoc dam nhan chirc nang quan trong trong te bao (Gwynne,

139

Heebnerj2001)~:06. ngh~ nano d~c biet quan tAm1tM'nc_t>h1n tit protein nay va hi~n nay, 'da~ALt(U nhu c~u r~t IOn doi ven icac:-tlli&;ibi nghi~n ctru sl:i dung proteiD (f6lrttt6' 'phArt tfch d6ng thoi nhieu t~ f*6;,,6ilhi~u Bu~t cao. Hen nfia, cac cariglO\1ydS ithu nhan thong tin tu cac du litu ·hAy cung dong vai tro he't sue quan trQng;·Cac cong ty chinh ban, phat tri~n sart phAm hay cung c~p dich vu lien quan dtnprotein chip la Biacore International (Thuy Di~n); Biosite Diagnostic, Ciphergen, Large Scale Biology (Hoa KY)···

V~ ky thuat, cac protein khong chi khac nhau v~ trinh tu amino acid rna con v~ hinh dang va kich thuoc. MQt so protein co kha nang tan trong nude (vi du, cac protein sua va huye't thanh) hoac h~u nhu khong tan trong ba't ky dung moi nao (vi du, keratin va cac protein cau true khac). Hen niia, cau true, chuc nang va dQ b~n cua cac protein, khi d trong hay ngoai h~ thong sinh hoc, d~u ra't da dang. Tinh da dang va d~c trung ca th~, met mat cho phep moi dang song thich ung vdi moi truong, mat khac, lai tao ra nhirng kho khan cho cac nha thiet ke', xay dung va san xuat protein chip.

MQt trong nhimg van d~ chinh d~t ra khi san xua't protein chip la viec lai cac protein tren b~ mat chip. Nhieu nhom nghien ctru da sl:i dung ky thuat di truyen d~ xl:i ly cac protein nham dinh len b~ mat. Doi vdi cac protein tai t6 hop, each thich hop nh~t la giin cac duoi vao d~u N hoac C. His-tag co th~ duoc sl:i dung d~ lai cac protein co dinh Ni2+ tren b~ m~t chip (Zhu et al., 2001). MQt phuong phap khac lien quan de'n d~u N la giin serine hay threonine vao trinh t\1 protein tao co sd d~ gAn dl}c hi~u vi tri vdi polyethylene glycol (Gaertner, Offord, 1996). Cac duoi khac nhu protein d~c hi~u biotin cling da duoc Btl dung d@ lai va cho ke't qua tot. Trong

140

Le Thi Thu Hi~n et al.

khi do, doi vdi cac protein khong tai t6 hop, nguoi ta ap dung cac phuong phap khac d~ lai co dinh hudng dua tren cac nhom chuc nang s~n co trong protein. Dai da so phuong phap duoc xay dung cho cac khang th~ don dong va duoc thie't ke' nham dam bao cac vi tri d~c hieu khang nguyen cua khang th~ hudng ra khoi b~ m~t chip. Nhimg chip khang th~ nay co muc dQ hoat dQng manh hen va d6ng d~u so vdi truong hop lai khong dinh hudng (Lu et al., 1996; Vijayendran, Leckband, 2001).

V~ co ban, viec thie't ke' protein chip tuong tu nhir DNA chip, trong do hang tram tdi hang ngan protein khac nhau (vdi hang trieu ban sao) diroc nho len nhfmg vi trf nhat dinh tren b~ mat ra't mong va nho cua chip nho cac robot va quy trinh san xua't protein chip co th~ duoc t\1 dQng hoa ra't cao nho nhimg loai robot d~c biet nay. 8\1 giin ke't giua cac protein co trong m~u mau vdi cac protein co tren chip cho bie't loai va so 111c;1ng cua protein trong m~u. Loai protein giin len chip r~t da dang tuy thuoc vao tung yeu c~u cu thl Cac protein chip co kha nang duoc thi trucng' chap nhan duoc thie't ke' tren co sd cac ph an tl:i d~c biet cua h~ thong mien dieh - do la cac khang th~. M6i khang th~ nhan bie't va giin vdi mQt protein nh~t dinh hoac chinh xac hen la voi mQt doan cu th@ ciia protein. MQt so chip khang th~ nay hoat dQng theo phuong phap "kep giira" ("sandwich method"): Protein duoc chip nhan bie't se nam giua hai loai khang th@ khac nhau, mQt khangthe tren b~ mat chip dung d~ nhan bie't va giin voi protein trong mau va khang th~ con lai da danh dau huynh quang se dinh voi phan tl:i protein nay. Vi du, d~ phat hien tac nhan vi sinh v~t gay nhiem cho benh nhan la chung mdi co th~ d~n de'n tl:i vong hay chi la chimg gay cum thong thuong, ngiroi ta tie'n hanh

ftHt'~M C6ng ngh~ Sinh hoc 2(2): 133-148,2004

dua cac protein co trong m~u mau cua b~nh nhan len chip da chua s~n cac khang th~ d nhimg dien tich nhat dinh tren bg mat chip. M5i dien tich chua rfft nhieu ban sao cua mQt loai khang th~ co kha nang ke't hop vdi mQt protein cu th~ cua mQt dO'i tuong sinh v~t (vi du, protein ciia virus cum; d~u mila; benh than). Nhu v~y, phan irng khang nguyen - khang th~ dai dien cho mQt tao nhan gay benh xac dinh. Sau do, b6 sung cac khang th~ danh dau huynh quang co kha nang dinh voi protein da giin ke't vdi khang th~ co tren bg mat chip. Chip nay se duoc nO'i voi may quet d~ xac dinh vi sinh v~t nao co trong co th~ benh nhan. Ne'u khang th~ nhan dien protein cua vi khuan gay benh than ke't hop vdi protein cua m~u mau va

khang th~ danh dffu huynh quang giin vdi protein nay thi thu pham chinh gay benh se duqc may quet chi ra la vi khuan gay benh than (Anderson, Valkirs, 2002).

Tuy nhien, vi~c san xufft protein chip phtrc tap hen va doi hoi chi phi cao hen so vdi DNA chip. MQt mat, protein kern bgn hon so voi DNA. Protein thudng chi co hoat tinh sinh hoc khi d trang thai tl;l nhien vdi cau true 3-D chinh xac, Su thay d6i vg pH, nhiet dQ, luc ion cua dung dich co th~ d~n de'n st;t thay d6i hmh dang va bien tinh cac protein tu nhien, ke't qua gay bfft hoat protein. Protein diroc xem la dO'i tuong rfft kho phan tich (Gwynne, Heebner, 2002). Nhfing khac biet co ban giira DNA chip va protein chip duoc trinh bay tren Bang 1.

Bang 1. So sanh giua DNA chip va protein chip (Huels et al., 2002).

D~c di~m

DNA

Protein

Cau true

GiO'ng nhau, xay dung tu 4 nucleotide

Khi d trang thai bien tinh

Co th~ bao quan kho

Chuc nang

Bao quan

Luc tuong tac

Lai (giin ke't)

DNA-DNA Cac kha nang DNA-RNA

tuong tac

(DNA-protein) (RNA-protein)

Khac nhau, xay dung tu 20 amino acid co th~ duqe bien d6i sau dich rna

Can d cau true 3-D

C~n bao quan d cac digu kien "tt;t nhien"

Giin ke't Protein-protein Protein - peptide

Protein-chat giin ke't (vi du, khang th~) .

Protein-pharr ti't nho 'I'hu th~-phO'i ti't Protein-DNA Protein-RNA

San xuat

San xufft trong E. coli

Nhan ban thong qua PCR Protein bi~u hien d cac h~ thO'ng bi~u hien prokaryote va eukaryote khac

nhau

Tinh tan

Co th~ tan trong cac dung

Cac d~c tinh tan rfft da dang dich nude

141

RO . rang,proteiw·!chip lA oong cu cha:n doan hl!uhif\l,biji'Vl .. kh6ng gi6ng nhu DNA chip, J>l'(1tfem chip c6 th~ thu nhan duc;Jc i'ltl"lihilifl1th6ng tin tit v~t lieu d~ thu thtpil'ihuyit thanh. H~u he't, nhtmg truiJnt~'r&11o~n y hoc tit cac benh lay nhiim:dt1n nhihlg Wn thuong d tim hoac thtn d4u'd4i lai nhfing d~u hieu c6 th~ phath~nduc;Jc d trong mau. Hen nfia, chi quam~t phep th11, protein chip c6 th~ xac dlnh du~ r~t nhieu hoac t~t ca protein duc;Jc bie't c6 lien quan de'n nhfing van d~ suc khoe. Trong khi d6, cac phep th11 chan doan tieu chuan thuong chi phat hien du~ mQt hoac mdt vai protein lien quan

,de'n nhimg benh nhat dinh (Anderson, Valkirs, 2002).

The' h~ protein chip dau tien diroc thie't ke' d~ nhan bie't m6i tuong tac gifia khang nguyen - protein. Tren co Sd cac nghien ctru sau v~ ke't c~p khang th~, cac phep th11 d6ng thoi ki~u ELISA s11 dung nhieu hay it protein bien tinh ciing diroc phat tri~n. Cac mang protein (protein arrays) do khang nguyen s11 dung cac khang th~ hoac protein glln ke't tuong t1;t khang th~, khong khac biet v~ dQ b~n va chuc nang d pH xac dinh, nhiet dQ, luc ion, b~ mat, dung moi.,; ciing thuoc the' he protein chip dau tien (Huels et al., 2002). Hien nay, cac protein chip c6 tri~n vong s11 dung lam thie't bi chftn do an va he, trQ nghien cuu sinh hoc dang diroc tri~n khai nghien ciru rQng rai.

DAU TV TRONG LINH Vl)'C CONG NGHt SINH HOC NANO

Cang ngh~ nano diroc du bao 113. mQt trong nam nganh cong' ngh~ dQt pha, trong vong 25 nam tdi c6 anh hUdng r~t tich cue de'n kinh te' the' gidi, So' qu6c gia d~u tu nghien cuu v~ cong nghe nano, doanh thu ciing nhu cac b~ng bao hQ sang che' c6 dUQc lien quan de'n nganh cong

142

Le Thi Thu Hien et al.

nghe nay tang manh hang nam.

Tai Hoa Ky, trong sau nam trd lai day, kinh phi lien bang dau tu cho nghien ciru trong linh v1;lc cong nghe nano tang gan 7 lan, tit 116 trieu usn (1997) len 847 trieu usn (2004). Nam 2000, Chinh phu Lien bang da quye't dinh thanh l~p chirong trinh lien nganh "Sang kie'n qu6c gia v~ cong' nghe nano' ("National Nanotechnology Initiative"). MQt so' truong dai hoc cung nhau xay dung Mang luoi cac nha S11 dung cong nghe che' tao nano Qu6c gia (National N anofabrication Users Network).

Khong chi phat tri~n d Hoa Ky, tren pham vi toan cau, trong nam 2003, cac nghien ctru va phat tri~n cong nghe nano da diroc dau tli khoang hon 3 ty USD. Nhat Ban da tang kinh phi dau tu cho cong nghe nano tit 120 trieu usn (1997) len gan 750 trieu USD (2002). M~c du khong c6 chuong trinh rieng cua Chinh phu v~ cong' nghe nano nhung s1;l phdi hop chat che giua cac trudng dai hoc, vien nghien cuu, phong thi nghiem, hang, cong ty ... da tao ra s1;l phat tri~n manh me cua cong nghe nano vdi nhfing san pham gia tri duoc nhanh ch6ng dua vao ung dung thuc ti~n. CQng d6ng Chau Au du kien dau tu cho cang nghe nano tren 1 fy USD giai doan tit 2002 de'n 2006. Trong khi d6,

Chau A t~p trung dao tao nguon nhan luc va tim kiem cac sang che' cua cac trirong dai hoc d Hoa Ky (Brumfiel, 2003; Wolfe et al., 2003).

Tit 1999, 52% tren tang so' 900 trieu USD kinh phi dau tu cho cong nghe nano thuoc v~ cac cong ty cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano (Hinh 3, Hinh 4A). Tren thuc te', tit 2001 de'n 2002, trong khi tang ngudn v6n d&u tu cho cong ngh~ nano giam thi kinh phi d~u tu cho cang nghe sinh hoc nano lai tang toi 313% (Wolfe et al., 2003). Cac nha dau tu nhan th~y r~ng, mac du c6 nhieu rui ro lien quan de'n quy trinh phe

T(Lp chi Cong ngh~ Sinh hoc 2(2): 133-148,2004

chuan duoc pham, chi phi phat tri~n san phAm rai cao va t6n thdi gian ... nhung cac cong ty cong nghe sinh h9C nano co nhirng ti~m nang va co hQi phat tri~n to IOn. Tai Hoa Ky, kinh phi dAu tu cho cong ngh~ sinh h9C nano tang manh d nhirng khu Vlj.c nhu Vi~n Y h9C Qu6c gia (National Institute of Health - NIH), Hiep hQi Ky thuat Sinh h9C (Bioengineering Consortium - BEN CON), Chuong trinh N ghien cuu D6i mdi Kinh doanh nho (Small Business Innovation Research - SBIR), Vi~n H<Jp tac Cong' ngh~ Sinh h9C, Dai hoc California (Paull et al., 2003) ... Ben canh cac cong ty, rat nhieu truong'

450
400
l' 350
:8 .'00
=
!!'
~ 250
'l:S
..
= 200
'~
'<8 150
..
'(8 100
....
50
0 dai h9C, vien, trung tam Ion dftu tu va tri~n khai nghien ciru cong nghe sinh hoc nano nhu Trung tam Cong' nghe Sinh hoc Nano thuoc Trtrong Dai h9C Cornell, New York, Hoa Ky (http://www.nbtc.comell. edu); TrU'dng Dai h9C Washington; Vi~n H~ thong' Nano California (California NanoSystems Institute - CN!) thuoc Truong Dai hoc California, Los Angeles, Hoa Ky; Vi~n Cong ngh~ N ano tai Vuong qu6c Anh (http://www.nano.org.uk) ...

Trong cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano, phan v6n IOn nhat dAu tu vao Iinh vue chan doan (37%) va tim kiem diroc pham (54%) (Hinh 4B).

~CNSHNano
o Cac CN Nano khac
~
~190 t--


~~
r--
~
~145 ~~f~~ t--
~ 217 t--
90 t--
-W~1~ 68 1999

2000

2001

2002

Hinh 3. Von da.u tu 1999 - 2002 vao cong nghe sinh hoc nano so vdi cac cong' nghe nano khac (Paull et al., 2003).

D~ an Genome ngiroi co Ie la mQt trong nhimg co sd dem lai s~ phat tri~n cho cong nghe sinh hoc nano. Giam d6c D~ an, Mark Guyer cho bie't, cong' ty Applied Biosystems (Hoa Ky) cung cap cac may xac dinh trinh W DNA co Ie nhan dU'qc t~c tie'p ttl 5 - 10% trong t6ng kinh phi cua Vi~n Nghien ciru Genome Qu6c

gia (National Genome Research Institute). Nhan thay nhu cAu mua thiet bi lam viec d cap dQ nano cua mQt sO' trung tam nghien ciru mdi v~ cong nghe nano, Veeco Instruments (Hoa Ky) va Cong' ty FEI (Hoa KY) ... dB. dAu tu san xuat, cung ung thie't bi va thu duoc loi nhuan rat cao. Trong giai doan slip t6i, van' d~ dAu tir

143

san xuat thiet bi, d~c bi~t lien quan den Iinh yV.c cong ngh~ sinh hoc nano, dUQc xem la Iinh yV.c d~u tu hieu qua. Tit ngan den trung han, cac v~t lieu va phan mem co th~ dem lai nhilng co hQi d~u tu tot Tuy nhien, rAt nhieu co hQi d~u tu ngan

Cong CI;I 4%

CNSH Nano 52%

V~t lieu 12%

A

Le Thi Th u Hign et al.

va trung han lai khong hfi'p da.n cac nha d~u tu, Nhimg cong ty khoa hoc vat lieu (vi du, san xufi't eac hat nano) thuong phai doi m~t vdi chi phi san xuAt rfi't cao (cac ke hoach thli nghiem) va chiu ap luc v~ gia rAt IOn (Paull et al., 2003).

Sinh dllQ"c pham 4%

Tun klem duoc pham 54%

Im~. ChAn doan 37%

Din chuyen thuoc 5%

B

Hinh 4. Tign dllu tu vao dau? (Paull et al., 2003). A: S\i phan b6 (theo phan tram) von dllu tu trong cong nghe nano tit 1998 de'n 2003; B: Su phan b6 (theo phan tram) von dllu tu cho cong hgh~ sinh hoc nano tit 1998 cho de'n 2003.

Cling c~n nhan manh rang, ben canh viec d~u tu nhimg ngudn kinh phi IOn cho nghien cuu va irng' dung cong nghe nano, chinh phu mot so quoc gia cling blit d~u quan tam den cac vfi'n d~ khac lien quan tdi cong nghe nano nhu H~ vien cua Quoc hQi Hoa Ky da keu goi b6 sung cac nguon d~u tu cho nhimg nghien cuu v~ mdi quan h~ v~ mat dao due, xa hQi cua cong nghe nano va Thuong vien thi mong muon xay dung trung tam nghien cuu v~ cac vAn d~ nay. Chfnh phu Vuong' quoc Anh da yeu c~u HQi Khoa hoc Hoang Gia va HQc vien Ky nghe Hoang Gia (Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering) tien hanh di~u tra v~ anh hudng ti~m tang cua cong nghe nay. Cac du an mdi

144

da nhan duoc nhirng nguon kinh phi ban d~u, trong do nam 2003, chi rieng Co quan Bao v~ Moi truong Hoa Ky (US Environmental Protection Agency - EPA) chi tdi 6 trieu USD. MQt so nhom nghien cuu v~ cong nghe nano cling quan tam den van d~ phong ngira. Smalley (giai Nobel Hoa hoc nam 1996) khi tien hanh chuong trinh nghien cuu san xuat ong nano carbon tai Truong Dai hoc Rice vao cudi nhfing nam 1990 da xem xet ky luang moi rui roo Nhom nghien cuu cua Smalley khi nhan thfi'y cac hat nano co xu huang phat tan khap phong thi nghiem, bam vao quan ao va da... da tien hanh d~u tu xay dung khu yV.c thf nghiem khep kin (Brumfiel, 2003).

Tap chi Cong ngM Sinh hoc 2(2): 133-148, 2004

Bang 2. Danh sach 10 hang dung dllu v~ c6ng nghe sinh hoc nano tai Hoa Ky can Cll vao s6 v6n dllu tv (Paull et al., 2003).

STT

Ten hang

V6nd~u hi (tri~u USn)

Linh vf/.c

Mota

Cac trng dung y sinh hoc

Tim kiem pham

Sang loc ch~n doan dung cac hat nano

Cac tinh th~ nano ban d~n

1 Immunicon (Huntington 86,20 Ch":> d' bA h

valley, PA) an oan en

2 Quantum Dot (Hayward, 44,50 CA)

3 Surface Logix (Brighton, 38,00 MA)

cho phan tfch sinh hoc duoc Cac phan tfch sinh hoc

4 Genicon Sciences (San

Diego, CA) 34,00 Ch~n doan benh

mini

Tao ra va phat hien cac tin hieu d pham vi nano

5 PicoLiter CA)

(Sunnyvale, 27,10 Ch~n doan benh San xufft hat nano

6 US Genomics (Woburn, Tim kiern diroc Cac phep thu phan tfch

MA) 27,00 pham dan phan tli

Cac h~ thong m~u do nano 23,50 Ch~n doan benh dung trong ch~n doan va phan tich hinh anh

Tim kiem duoc Cac phan tfch sinh hoc su

15,00 ?

pham dung chip sinh hoc

Tim kiem duoc D~n chuyen thuoc sli dung

15,00 ?

pham cac luc tU

7 N anosphere (Northbrook,IL)

Advion Biosciences

8 (Ithaca, NY)

9 Ferx (San Diego, CA)

10 Nanogram (Fremont, CA)

Devices

9,20

THU'ONG ~ HOA CONG NGH~ NANO vA CONG NGH~ SINH HOC NAN 0

Hien nay, co han 700 cong' ty lien quan de'n cong' nghe nano (Wolfe et al., 2003). Nhin chung, cac cong ty dfiu tu sdm nhfft la cac cong ty san xuat cac thie't bi thuQc phan cung va xay dung cac chuang trinh phan mem d~ xac dinh d~c tfnh, danh gia va thuc hien d muc do

.. .

nano (Paull et al., 2003). V~ khfa canh

Cac trng' dung y - sinh hoc

Cac v~t li~u nano dung d~ san xudt cac v~t lieu tmg dung trong y - sinh

dfiu tu, cac thie't bi phan cung nhu kinh hi~n vi nang hrong nguyen tli va bQ di~u chinh cQng hUdng thirong dUQC chao ban d~ sli dung trong cong nghe sinh hoc va v~t lieu doi hoi nguon von Ion vdi chu ky ban hang lau dai, trong khi do, hau he't nha dfiu tu muon hop tac vdi cac cong ty co mo hinh kinh doanh d~ dang tang loi nhuan theo cffp so nhan. Vi vay, nhieu cong ty diroc ldn, mac du co nhfing n6 hrc nghien ciru cong' nghe sinh hoc nano la: khong quan tam d~c biet de'n viec di dau

145

trong san xuat thi€t bi d~ dua ra thi truong. Thong thuong, ~ac cong ty nay; khi cftn, se mua san pham true ti€p tu cac cong ty nho tao ra.

NGUONLl)'C

Theo danh gia cua Quy Khoa hoc Qu6c gia Hoa Ky (the US National Science Foundation - NSF), Hoa Ky hien co khoang 40000 nha khoa hoc co cac ky nang lien quan d~ lam viec trong IInh V1j.c cong' nghe nano. Tuy nhien, d~ dap ung cho nganh cong nghiep cong nghe nano tri gia mQt nghin ty USD nhu du doan cua NSF vao nam 2015, Hoa Ky· cftn it nhat 800000 lao dQng (chiem 40% t6ng lao dQng trong lInh V1j.c nay tren toan cfiu). Vi vay, van d~ dao tao, quan ly va luan chuyen nguon nhan luc tU cac Iinh vue lien quan dong vai tro rfft quan trong. Chinh phu Vuong qudc Anh dil cffp tdi 20 trieu bang Anh cho cac truong dai hoc dao tao cac nha khoa hoc lam viec trong lInh vue cong nghe nano (Lawrence, 2002; Paull et al., 2003) ... Hen nira, d~ dat duoc nhfmg budc ph at tri~n mdi, viec hop tac giira cac nha khoa hoc sinh hoc, v~t ly, hoa hoc, cong nghe nano ... va g~n k€t cac cong nghe cua ho co vai tro quyet dinh (Lawrence, 2002). Hoa Ky dil xay dung cac Phong thi nghiem QuO"c gia Oak Ridge vdi cac thi€t bi nghien ctru cong nghe

nano. 0 do, cac nha sinh hoc hi~u bi€t sau tdi muc t€ bao va ph an tl:i cling lam viec vdi cac nhom chuyen gia v~ laser,so~g quang hoc ...

TINH HINH NGHIEN CUu CONG NGH~ NAND T~ VI~T NAM

o nude ta, vdi s~ dftu tu cua Nha nude, tu nam 1998 d€n nay, mQt so' nghien ciru trong Iinh V1j.c nano (chu y€u la v~t ly va

146

Le Thj Thu Hi~n et al.

v~t lieu nano) thuoc Chuong trlnh Nghien ctru Co ban v~ Khoa hoc Tu nhien dB. dude tri~n khai. Ngoai ra, -riec 't6 chuc cac hai thao qu6c t€ (nhu HQi thao v~ V~t ly nano va Cong' nghe nano - International Workshop on Nanophysics and Nanotechnology nam 2002 do Trung tam Khoa hoc ~ nhien va Cong ngh~ Qu6c gia, nay la Vi~n Khoa hoc va Cong' ngh~ Vi~t Nam, ph6i hop vdi mQt so' co quan khoa hoc cua Hoa Ky, Nh~t Ban, Han Qu6c t6 chuc); lop chuyen d~ (nhu "Cac cong nghe micro va nano va tri~n vong trng' dung d Vi~t Nam" nam 2003 do Trung tam Khoa hoc ~ nhien va Cong' ngh~ QuO"c gia, Dai hoc QuO"c gia, Ha NQi ph6i

hop vill Uy ban Nang hrong Nguyen ttl ciia Phap t6 clnrc)..; D~c biet, tu nam 2004, hudng nghien cuu trong di~m khoa hQC va cong nghe nano (Chirong trlnh Cong nghe nano, Chu tich HQi d6ng GS. Nguyen Van Hieu) trong Chirong trlnh Nghien cuu Co ban v~ Khoa hoc ~ nhien giai doan 2004 - 2006 voi dftu tu khoang 300000 USD se thuc d~y s~ nghien ctru, dao tao va trng' dung cua nganh khoa hoc va cong ngh~ nay d Vi~t Nam (http://nanotechwire.com/ news. asp? nid-655&ntid-116&pg=7; Phan Hong Khoi, 2004).

Tuy nhien, Iinh V1j.C khoa hoc cong nghe dUQc coi la uu tien d nhieu quoc gia tren th€ gidi, cho d€n nay, con rfft mill me d mroc ta va co ti~m luc khoa hoc nho be. Cac nghien cuu va U~g dung ~ong nghe nano noi chung con rfft it vdi so' hrong d~ tai khong nhieu va chi d mire tham do. Dac biet, hftu nhu chua co nghien ciru trong Iinh vue cong' nghe sinh hoc nano. D6i vdi cac nha cong nghe sinh hoc, doi hoi thoi gian d~ co th~ nhap cUQc va tham gia cac d~ tai theo hudng eong ngh~ sinh hQC nano. Vi vay, vi~c UU tien phat tri~n va ung dung khoa hoc va cong' nghe nano, d~c biet la cong nghe sinh hoc nano theo nhfing hudng chon loc la rfft cffp bach, co y

Tap chi Cong ngh~ Sinh h9C 2(2): 133·148,2004

nghia khoa h9C va th1,1'C ti€in cao. 81,1' phat tri~n cua cong nghe sinh h9C nano se dong gop dang k~ van cac nganh y . diroc, gop phan irng dung khoa h9C cong ngh~ tien ti~n van viec chfln doan va di~u tri, tao ra s1,1' phat tri~n cua nganh cong ngh~ sinh h9C phuc vu bao y~ sire khoe con nguoi.

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Le Thi Thu Hien, Nong Van Hai*, Le Tran Binh Institute of Biotechnology

SUMMARY

In the world, nanotechnology, a combination of the latest and greatest achievements from many natural science and technology areas, has been grown spectacularly with a multitude of value applications. The convergence between the field and the recent achievements in biotechnology has lad to the development of a nascent field of life science in a nano scale and nanobiotechnology. Many countries in the world led by the DSA, Japan and ED, have invested and developed national programs for nanotechnology with high attention to nanobiotechnology. Nanobiotechnology is very important, not only for its research and development tools, but also for its potential commercial significance in the development of new analytical devices and molecular - scale bioreactors. A wide range of this new field products especially nanoparticles, biochips has come onto the markets and being used broadly in pharmacology, medicine, biology, food and agricultural industries, etc. In Vietnam, however, nanotechnology research and development works, up to now, are relatively new and mostly are in the field of physical and materials sciences. Particularly, nanobiotechnology has not yet been started up. The development of nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology following selected approaches will promote the development of related areas and move our national modernization and industrialization forward.

Key words: Biochip, biotechnology, biosensor, nanobiotechnology, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

* Author for correspondence: Tel: 04. 7562934; Fax: 04. 8363144; E-mail: vhnong@ibt.ac.vn 148

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