Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Vishnupuri, Nanded, 431606
A SEMINAR ON
FLUORESCENT MULTILAYER DISC BY
RUIKAR JAYESH D. Reg. No.-2006BEC204
ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT T Y B.TECH
- GUIDED BY Mr. A. I. TAMBOLI SIR Mrs. U. R. KAMBLE
CLASS CO-ORDINATOR Mrs. U. R. KAMBLE
EXAM CO-ORDINATOR Dr. D. D. DOYE SIR
DATE : 28/02/09
PLACE : NANDED
. Kamble successfully. from THIRD
RUIKAR JAYESH DEORAO
(EXTC) Has given a seminar on
Under the guidence of Mr. U.CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mr. R. Tamboli sir. & Mrs. I. A.
Application of FMD 12. Introduction 3. Future project 10. Advantages of FMD 9. FMD real device 11. Characteristic of FMD 8. Reading from FMD 7. Reference
. Principle of operation 5.Operating Principle 4. Conclusion 13. FMD ROM. Abstract 2.INDEX
1. Recording on FMD 6.
Compact discs were a revolutionary product at its time and influenced many spheres of human activity. The latter were able to increase volume of their program products by adding video and audio elements etc. As soon as CDs appeared in computer industry they immediately became an undoubted helper both for users and for programmers. So we need a completely new method of storing information on portable data medium. A usual CD is far not enough (640 MBytes). but this is a limiting point. Later discs were used for digital video (VideoCD). So. the company Constellation 3D demonstrates a new format: FMD (Fluorescent Multilayer Disk) which can soon become a leader. Data are growing faster and faster. Of course we are happy with those 17 GBytes that can be kept on one DVD disc. People started recording music of high quality which didn't get worse with the time as it happens to be on tape or vinyl. But technologies are progressing. And at last.
. there appeared DVD technology.
It's interesting to compare them with DVD that keep up to 17.
FMD-ROM: operating principle
On the picture you can see how a FMD-ROM looks like.INTRODUCTION
Constellation 3D Inc.(C3D)
The first generation of disc productions from Constellation 3D will be a family of 120 mm multi-layer FM-discs with capacity up to 140 GBytes and with read speed up to 1 GBytes/s.
You can see that a disc is transparent. But where is a reflective layer like on CD and DVD discs? The matter is
.4 GBytes. New discs will be capable for example to keep up to 20 hours of compressed movies in HDTV format.
The fluorescence is caught up by a photo-receiver and is fixed as a value "1"
. this matter becomes excited again but with a laser of lower power. In FMD there is no reflected laser beam: when a laser beam reaches an informational layer the latter starts radiating. Initially photochrome doesn't possess fluorescent properties. The matter is that an informational element of FMdisc (photochrome) can change its physical properties (such as color and presence of fluorescence) under influence of a laser of a definite power and wavelength. In optical discs such as CD. DVD and MÎ the process of reading is implemented the following way. Some years ago russian chemists discovered a stable organic material a "stable photochrome" which when acted upon by a laser beam obtains fluorescent properties.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The principle of operation of FM-discs is based on a phenomenon of photochromism. Let's consider FM disc in detail. When reading.that this technology doesn't need it. When switching on a laser a photochemical reaction starts what causes fluorescent properties to appear. A beam of a semi-conducting laser gets on the surface of an informational layer and then reflects from aluminum (or any other metallic) layer and fixed with a detector-receiver.
Let's talk about it a bit in depth. Note that this technology allows preventing a problem of multiple inference between layers since the reflected light is not coherent. it means that there is necessity in mirror surfaces. It's explained by the fact that these technologies use a reflected signal. it passes through layers without any difficulties and is easily defined by a receiver. Signals reflected from both layers interfere because of their coherence.Excited photochrome radiates shifting the spectrum of falling light to the red color side within 30-50 nm what allows to differ laser signal from the light from the disc. In usual optical discs (CD/DVD) with increasing number of informational layers a signal gets worse. That's why in DVD technology an external layer is made to be semitransparent in order to allow a laser to reach an internal one.
And a signal while passing an external layer leaves a part of its energy because of reflecting. it
The problem can be solved by improving detector-receivers. Increasing number of layers aggravates an effect of multiple interference between the layers what makes reading more complicated.
.results in losses of useful signal. In case of fluorescent discs the quality of the signal gets worse much slower with increasing number of layers. even with a hundred layers a useful signal will be acceptable. but it is possible only in laboratory. Look at the graph below:
According to FMD-ROM developers.
As you can see in the picture a disc consists of several plastic (polycarbone) layers connected to each other. Another interesting feature is parallel reading. A technology of manufacturing these discs will be the same as for FMD ROM except the fact that they will use another fluorescent
. That's why such disc is called "3-dimensional".
The developers state that with a blue laser (480 nm) it's possible to increase record density up to tens Tbyte on one FM disc.
Recording on FMD-ROM
We still haven't seen a prototype of record device but the company says that it is under developing now. There used a technology WORM (Write Once Read Many). and then this radiation is caught by a photodetector. When reading a laser focuses on a certain layer and excites its fluorescent elements. A series of rewritable discs will be called FMD WORM. If we record a sequence of bits not along a track but deep into layers we can increase speed of data access. A layer contains surface structures (pits) which are filled with fluorescent material.
or even a usual LED. Besides. and the material gets fluorescent properties. The second principle (chemical) means usage of a material that doesn't possess fluorescent properties form the beginning. The FMD developers offer two record principles. we should note that it's possible to combine WORM and ROM on one storage
.material which will be able to change the state under the influence of a laser. The first principle (thermal) implies usage of material which possesses fluorescent properties from the beginning (logical one). a low-power laser is enough. And when recording those segments which are thermally acted upon with a laser lose these properties (logical zero). The only difference lies in a bit different laser form allowing both reading and writing. There. With the latter (LED matrix) there is possible a simultaneous record of the whole array of information. Record devices don't differ much from read ones. it's very important to choose a recording method. When acting upon with a laser a photochemical reaction starts. And when recording you should follow two rules: sufficient power of a laser in order to provide an element with fluorescent properties threshold power of laser should be used for recording (in order to change fluorescent properties of the material) and for reading must be used less power. Besides.
The record principle is practically the same as in CD-RW technology except for the fact that there it isn't necessary to control reflective ability of a layer . the whole layer of a FM disc will be covered with a fluorescent material which initially doesn't possess fluorescent properties (logical zero) and when recording a logical one a low-power laser excites a photochemical reaction in the required place. imagine a 20-layer disc with 10 layers already recorded and 10 left for a user. That's why we receive three types of data reading: successive. successiveparallel and parallel.device! For example. Erasure will be done with the help of a more powerful laser. For example. The company C-3d also plans to release rewritable FM discs (in the end of 2001).there is enough to convert fluorescent material from one state (absence of fluorescence) into the other (presence of fluorescence). it means that a sequence of bits is recorded not along a track but deep into layers.
READING FROM FMD
As we have already mentioned this technology allows parallel reading. parallel reading
. An advantage of this technology is that the fluorescent material is much more resistant to phase transformations than that used in CD-RW discs that's why you can rewrite it much more times.
Below you can see pictures from the site of the company C3D which clearly demonstrates the principle of operation of parallel reading.
. And the reading speed reaches 1 Gbit/s. We should notice that mechanical speed of the drive is 450 times lower than that of DVD. This device can read lowpower fluorescence of several tens MHz.Reading process is carried out with the help of a solar cell (an array of CDD cameras).
12x enlargement of FMD segment received with CDD cameras
Signals received from each element of CDD array
It may allow increased retrieval rates may be over GB/s
ADVANTAGES OF FMD
.Read & write operation can be performed simultaneously. .
. .It offers storage medium with up to 100data layers .
.2mm in thickness .It can stand with more extreme condition like temperature .Multilayer disc is transparent and homogeneous .Largest capacity available anywhere .It has a Secure Encryption System .Best audio possible .M.It has capacity to hold data up to 140 GB .CHARACTERISTIC OF F.Data transfer rate over 1 Gb/S .120mm in size .Maximum picture resolution .D. .Compatible with existing CD & DVD system.Data transfer rate is higher than single layer disc.
Parameter Disc diameter. Inside there is a FM disc 50 mm in diameter. micron Format Distance between tracks. mm Capacity. Prime cost of this product will be less than $10.FUTURE PROJECT
Beside FM discs the company has another product called FMC ClearCard ROM. The FMC read devices are not big and requires little power.8
Distance between layers .8 12 25±5 275 Modified DVD 0.11 layers. The first models of this device will keep up to 10 GBytes in 20 layers with 400 MBytes/cm2 record density.6
. GBytes Number of layers
CD 120 0. CD 1.64 1
DVD 120 17. It's considered to be a good substitute for current flash-cards in many spheres.4 2 (on each side) 40 2 DVD 0. This is a device for data storage sized a credit card. micron Total width of informational 0.74
FMD 130 50.
different controllers. In structure the drives are similar to CD/DVD ones for example in such parameters as laser. optics. and a service in choosing an informational layer. There appear only systems that can catch and discern fluorescence.
. servodrive.micron Optical system: Wavelength. The developers say that the drives intended for FM discs will easily understand CD and DVD formats. tracking and focusing system. nm
FM READ DEVICE
On the photo you can see a prototype of such device.
capacity of 1 Tbyte and up to 1 GBytes/s data rate.
.set-top recorder & players .prepackage high definition tv .Bank media .advanced interaction & internet connection
Besides.high definition gaming .APPLICATION OF FMD
. the company states that in their laboratory they ha received a disc with 50 layers.PC storage & entertainment .
www. the only I can say here is that these products will be the roughest competitors to CD and DVD. and today it's difficult to say when it will enter in mass sales market.com www.howstuffworks.iet.net/technology.com
www.wikipedia.google.sciencedirect. The company C3D plans to release its first products already in the end of 2000.com www.c-3d. We don't know anything about prices.org www.org www.