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00 © 2011 IEEE

Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper

Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis

Rui-jin Liao, Li-jun Yang, Jian Li

The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology

Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, 400044

and Stanislaw Grzybowski

High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA

ABSTRACT

This paper presents aging condition assessment of oil-paper transformer insulation based

on partial discharge analysis in order to realize statistical parameters reduction. The

extracted feature factors of this proposed model were used to identify oil-paper samples

with different aging degrees. An accelerated aging test was implemented using artificial

oil-paper samples with an internal flat air gap. During the aging test, partial discharge

signal acquisition was conducted periodically. In the new model, conventional statistical

parameters of phase resolved partial discharge (PRPD) patterns were analyzed using

principal component and factor analysis (PCFA), and a group of new features constituted

by the extracted factors was obtained. These factors were not only independent of one

another, they had their own specific properties. To a great extent, these factors represent

information on PRPD patterns through a limited number of variables. Through the use of

the new features extracted from PCFA method, the clustering and discriminating results

of the samples with different aging stages provided significantly referenced information

on the condition assessment of oil-paper insulation.

Index Terms — Partial discharge, oil-paper insulation, transformer, ageing diagnosis

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

SYMBOLS

Q

m

the maximum PD magnitude

Hq

max

(φ) peak charge distribution

Hq

ave

(φ) average charge distribution

H(φ) charge count rate, phase distribution

H(q) charge magnitude distribution

X matrix of PD sample

R correlative matrix of X

λ

i

the ith eigenvalue of R

u

i

the ith eigenvector corresponding to λ

i

A factor loading matrix

γ factor score coefficient matrix

{d

ij

} the discrimination coefficient

ABBREVIATIONS

PRPD Phase Resolved Partial Discharge

PCFA Principal Component and Factor Analysis

PCA Principal Component Analysis

DP Degree of Polymerization

PD Partial Discharge

KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure test

ku kurtosis

sk skeweness

peak the number of peaks

asy asymmetry

cc cross-correlation coefficient.

1 INTRODUCTION

POWER transformers are the most critical and expensive

equipment in the field of transmission and distribution of electric

energy. Any major fault in these units can cause not only

catastrophic damage to various equipment but also cause

interruption of electricity supply. These direct or indirect effects

often lead to large economic losses [1]. Many power transformers

around the world are approaching the end of their designated

lifetime; thus, insulation degradation has become a major concern.

Some standards have been formulated for transformer aging

condition assessment based on techniques such as dissolved gas

analysis (DGA), furan analysis by high performance liquid

chromatography (HPLC), degree of polymerization (DP), etc. [2].

However, a number of problems still exist in terms of practical

application, and there is still no ideal way of monitoring the aging

condition of transformers online. Manuscript received on 23 May 2010, in final form 16 September 2010.

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 18, No. 1; February 2011 303

Partial discharge (PD) is regarded as a symptom, and sometimes

a cause, of material deterioration. With the development of

computer and electronic techniques, PD has been used as a

powerful electrical method in modern insulation diagnosis. Online

PD testing can help in determining loose, overheated, and

contaminated windings in motors and generator stators before these

problems lead to failure. The earliest PD parameter used in the

solid insulation assessment is the maximum PD magnitude, Q

m

.

Stone [3] investigated machines aged between 1 and 50 years, and

demonstrated that similar PD levels in both aged and new windings

exist. Therefore, Q

m

is not a reliable parameter to assess the aging

condition of solid insulation.

In recent years, fingerprint identification of PD spectra has been

widely investigated and developed. Thus far, 24 major metrics and

hundreds of statistical parameters are in use. These parameters can

be measured using time-resolved (TR) and/or phase-resolved (PR)

methods [4, 5]. Among these metrics, the most widely used and

successful pattern is phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD).

PRPD patterns, integrated with elegant mathematical methods such

as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic mathematics, and

probability analysis, significantly improve the failure diagnosis of

electrical equipment.

Most studies have focused on using PD features to evaluate the

aging condition of solid insulation materials. Many experiments

have been performed in the hope of finding an ideal online

monitoring method for solid insulation materials and obtaining

precise diagnosis and life prediction of power equipment. Bozzo

investigated PD features during the initiation and growth process of

electrical trees in 6 mm thick EVA and XLPE samples [6]. Results

showed that the Weibull parameters associated with the discharge

amplitude distribution, H(q), have a close relationship to the

discharges occurring in cavity and tree channels. Contin studied the

PD characteristics of internal flat cavities in PE and epoxy

insulation under long-term ac voltage. Contin observed phenomena

similar to Bozzo, and proved that Q

m

is unreliable for use in aging

condition assessment [7]. Montanari implemented a model in

which aging is considered the primary function of both the tree

length and intensity of discharges occurring within the trees [8].

Lorenzo studied aging induced by PD in flat cavities of epoxy resin

under different thermal conditions [9]. Statistical spectra have also

been studied by various researchers. The mean pulse height

distribution, Hq

ave

(φ), is considered to be the most useful spectrum

for obtaining information related to aging progression. Weilbull

parameters and PD energy fluctuate with aging time. In addition, in

a coordinate plane of positive vs. negative skewness of Hq

ave

(φ), a

trajectory can be used to infer the aging evolution of specimen [10].

More works relevant to this topic are presented in [11-16]. These

references are concerned with the aging characteristics of motor

stator windings; however, few works discuss transformer

insulation.

Most of these works have been based on the statistical

parameters extracted from PRPD patterns and their developing

rules in aging progression. Other researchers have also focused on

different spectra and features. Determining an effective method that

uses the fewest features to indicate the maximum amount of

information existing in PD spectra is therefore necessary. All

correlated parameters must be simplified to several independent

parameters without losing the necessary information. The common

method for dimensionality reduction is principal component and

factor analysis (PCFA). PCFA was first presented by psychologists

Pearson and Searman in the early 20th century and used to solve

the problem of linear correlation in multivariate data. The purpose

of this method is to use fewer variables to lead to the indication of

variations existing in the original information.

Based on this method, this paper presents a new model for PD

feature extraction. In the proposed new model, 4 two-dimension

PD spectra were analyzed, and 27 statistical parameters were

extracted from these spectra and reduced into a group of new

features with only 8 independent factors. These factors are not only

able to best represent the original information, but also have their

own specific properties. Furthermore, to verify and validate the

new model, accelerated thermo-electrical aging experiments using

oil-paper models with an artificial flat cavity were performed.

During the aging process, the PD data obtained at certain time

intervals and the new features extracted were analyzed using the

new model. Consequently, the results of the analysis are very close

the real aging condition of oil-paper.

2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

An experimental specimen for the accelerated thermo-

electrical aging test was designed in the lab according to the

model of CIGRE Method II [17-19]and shown in Figure 1. The

specimen is made of 1-mm thick high-density transformer

pressboard. The pressboard was supported by a ring of Kraft

paper with thickness of 0.1 mm and was placed on a grounded

copper plate electrode. A cavity was created between the

pressboard and the copper plane electrode. The epoxy resin was

used to seal the cavity and avoid the oil penetrating into the

cavity. The pressboard had a density of 825 kg/m

3

, a kinematic

viscosity of 10.5 mm

2

/s, an acid value of 0.01 mgKOH/g, and a

moisture content of 8.6 mg/kg. The oil index conformed to

IEC296-82 and ASTM D3487-1993 standards.

9

8mm

3

7

2

1

o5.6mm

10

o10mm

8

o60mm

11

12 13

4

5

o38mm

6

1) HV copper rod, 2) LV copper plate, 3) pressboard (1mm thick), 4) Kraft paper

(0.1mm thick), 5) epoxy resin, 6) flat cavity (0.1mm thick), 7) epoxy board, 8)

epoxy bolt, 9) epoxy nut, 10) insulation oil, 11) steel container, 12) porcelain

cover, 13) steel nuts.

Figure 1. Thermo-electrical experimental model configurations.

All pre-sized pressboard and Kraft paper samples underwent a

pretreatment procedure whereby they were dried and

impregnated with oil before being tested. This procedure is

304 R.-j. Liao et al.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis

shown in Figure 2, and is similar to that in the previous

experiments [20]. The oil-impregnated pressboard specimens

were then bottled and sealed under a nitrogen atmosphere within

a steel container, as shown in Figure 1. In each steel container,

the mass ratio of oil versus paper was 10:1.

Figure 2. Diagram of pretreatment procedure.

The probable discharges of this CIGRE II model may occur in

such locations as follows: the first one is the creepage discharge

from high voltage electrode along the surface of the pressboard; the

second one is the air bubble discharge presented in the pressboard;

the last one is the cavity discharge between the pressboard and the

ground electrode. The whole model is immersed in the oil and our

experiment has shown the PDIV of surface discharge in the oil is

much higher than our stressing voltage for PD testing; Furthermore,

the pressboard and paper ring used in the experiment were well

pretreated to drive away the air bubble in themselves, and their

PDIVs were also much higher than our PD testing voltage. Hence,

the most probable discharge in our model is generated from the

cavity between the pressboard and the ground electrode, which

may have some influences on the inner surface of the 1 mm

pressboard.

After the pressboard and Kraft paper samples were made into

specimens, they were divided into two groups. Each group

comprised six specimens. One group was used for PD data

acquisition, while the other was used for measuring the degree of

polymerization (DP) by viscometry method to indicate the degree

of aging. One specimen from the second group was removed from

the aging chamber every of 48 h interval to measure DP value.

Figure 3 shows the schematic setup used to perform the

accelerated aging experiments and partial discharge measurements.

PD signal was detected using the impulse current method

according to IEC60270. A discharge-free ac voltage source (50

kV/50 kVA) was applied to the sample with amplitude of 0-50 kV

and frequency of 50 Hz. The coupling capacitances C (1000 pF)

facilitated the passage of the high-frequency current impulses. All

of the specimens were aged with a test voltage 12 kV and

temperature of 130 °C. A digital instrument was used to acquire

partial discharge sample data. The digital instrument mainly

comprised of a PD detector D with the overall bandwidth from 20

kHz to 15 MHz, an amplifier, and a Lecroy Wavepro 7100 digital

oscilloscope used to measure and store the pulse peak and phase

angle of the PD signal. The calibration of partial discharge

detection system was carried out by directly connecting the

calibrator to the terminals of the sample. At the beginning of aging,

the temperature of the aging chamber was stabilized at 130° C. A

slow voltage ramp was applied to the specimens until the inception

voltage V

inc

(=3.2 kV) was observed on the oscilloscope. Generally,

20% above V

inc

should be chosen as the test voltage. However, the

PD signal at this voltage often lasts for a certain period and then

becomes extinct. As a result, 7 kV was chosen as the test voltage

V

test

in our experiment since, under this condition, stable PD signals

could be obtained from the oscilloscope. A sampling rate of 50

MHz was used to record PD waveform. The discharge signal of

every continuous 100 cycles was accumulated to form one PD

sample.

HV power

source

C1

C2

C：Discharge-free

voltage divider

Cx

D

Voltage meter

Amplifier

Oscilloscope

Test AC

voltage

Calibration

modular

Aging

chamber

Figure 3. Diagram of the aging system.

The accelerated aging experiment lasted for 288 h. The trace of

DP with aging time is shown in Figure 4. DP values decreased

dramatically from 1164 at the beginning, to 733 at 48 h in the

earlier aging stage, 576 at 96 h in the middle aging stage, and 400

at 192 h in the later aging stage. In the final aging stages, DP

decreased slowly and approached 300 at the final point of the

experiment, at 288 h. The specimens were taken out of aging oven

when the experiment was finished. It was observed that the oil

color changed from bright to light brown, the pressboard became

brittle due to the very low DP value. There was no obvious spark

spot around the internal cavity surface resulting from PD.

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0 48 96 144 192 240 288

Time(Hours)

D

P

Figure 4. Development of DP with the aging time.

The DP dropped very quickly in the first 48 h aging time; thus,

the first four PD measurements were performed at the beginning

of aging and after 12, 36, and 48 h respectively, after all the

specimens were placed into the aging chamber. After that, PD

measurement was carried out every 24 h.

It has been found that there may be some visible traces left

when the 2500-100,000 pC PD happened and would be more

obvious traces and damages onto the solid insulations for longer

stressing time [21]. But there is no visible trace on the surface of

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 18, No. 1; February 2011 305

the solid insulation when the PD≤1000 pC in short stressing

time. In our experiment, the hundreds pC signals after about 300

hr ageing testing can hardly damage the pressboard insulation

and no obvious trace left on its surface in this paper. At the same

time, the DPs decreased dramatically in the serious aged samples.

Hence, it can be concluded that there was no visible trace and

damage from PD in our test, and the major influences of the

changes of the PD characteristics were the changing of the

surface of the cavity caused by thermal ageing.

3 ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW MODEL

3.1 STATISTICAL PARAMETERS OF PRPD

MODEL

As described above, four two-dimensional PD spectra of the

PRPD model, Hq

ave

(φ), Hq

max

(φ), H(φ), and H(q) are studied in this

paper. Figure 5 shows the changes in these four two-dimension

spectra at each aging stage. Conventionally, 27 statistical operators

are used to indicate these spectra (Table 1). Each parameter

represents the information contained in the PD spectra to a certain

extent. The definition and methods for calculating these parameters

are described in [16, 22]. If each parameter is labeled x

i

, a PD

sample can be represented by a vector with 27 variables,

X={x

i

|i=1,2…27}. However, a diagnosis model constituted by

these variables would not only be complex in structure, but also

result in serious errors because of the correlation of these variables.

In order to remove redundant (highly correlated) variables, all of

the parameters must be replaced with fewer variables without

losing any important information. In other words, a new vector that

maximizes information inclusion with the least number of variables

must be found. The new model will use factor analysis to extract

common factors from these 27 variables.

qmax/pC qave/pC

0 h

48h

96h

192h

288h

¦Õ(¡ã) ¦Õ(¡ã)

(a) (b)

¦Õ(¡ã)

n n

q/pC

0 h

48h

96h

192h

288h

(c) (d)

Figure 5. Two- dimensional graphs at different aging stages (a) Hq

max

(φ) (b)

Hq

ave

(φ) (c) H(φ) (d) H(q)

Table 1. Statistical parameters of PD spectra.

Hq

ave

(φ) Hq

max

(φ) H(φ)

H(q)

＋ － ＋ － ＋ －

ku √ √ √ √ √ √ √

sk √ √ √ √ √ √ √

peak √ √ √ √ √ √ √

asy √ √ √

cc √ √ √

sk: skeweness. ku: kurtosis. peak: the number of peaks

asy: asymmetry. cc: Cross-correlation coefficient.

＋: positive cycle. －: negative cycle

3.2 PCFA OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA

The PD samples are obtained at different aging times for PCFA.

These samples are from six specimens mentioned in Section 2. To

guarantee that each factor has its own meaning, different kinds of

statistical parameters are analyzed separately. Six kurtosis

parameters are used here as an example to develop the PCFA. The

definition of each variable is shown in Table 2. Here, X

i

denotes the

ith sample. Figure 6 shows the procedure of PCFA [23, 24]. For

the first step, the original variable X is a matrix with size m x n.

Here, m and n denote the number of samples and variables,

respectively. In the following analysis, m =30 and n =6.

Table 2. Variable definitions of Ku.

H

qave

(φ) H

qmax

(φ) H(φ)

＋ － ＋ － ＋ －

Kurtosis ku

1

ku

2

ku

3

ku

4

ku

5

ku

6

X

i

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

x

5

x

6

Normalizing,

Correlat ive mat rix R

Calculat ing

KMO Test Bart let t Test

Principal Analysis

Loading Mat rix A

Calculat ing

Component Score Coefficient Mat rix ¦Ãand

Fact or Score F Calculat ing

F=¦ÃX

Keep X Unchanged

Specific Meaning

of Fact or

Fact or Rot at ion

Exit

KMO>0.5&

Significance level of

Bart let t <0.05

N

Y

N

Y

Original Variable X

Figure 6. Flowchart of PCFA.

306 R.-j. Liao et al.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis

3.2.1 TESTS OF VARIABLES CORRELATION

PCFA is effective in the extraction of common factors only

when correlation exists in the original variables. Independent

variables should remain unchanged. Two testing methods are

used to determine the suitability of PCFA data [25]: the Kaiser-

Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, which measures the partial correlation

between samples, and Bartlett's test of sphericity. The KMO

method is described as equation (1).

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

¯ ¯

= =

=

+

=

i j i j

ij

i j i j

ij

i j i j

ij

s r

r

KMO

) (

2

) (

2

) (

2

(1)

where r

ij

and s

ij

are the correlation and partial correlation

coefficients for variables X

i

and X

j

.

A higher value given by KMO (near to 1.0) generally indicates

that the data are more suitable for factor analysis. In contrast, if

the value is less than 0.50, the results of the PCFA should be

regarded as useless.

Bartlett's test of sphericity is based on a correlation coefficient

matrix. The null hypothesis is that the correlation matrix is an

identity matrix, which means that each variable is unrelated to the

other variables and is unsuitable for structure detection. Small

values (less than 0.05) of the significance level indicate that the

data are suitable for factor analysis.

The test results for original variables are given in Table 3.

The repeated information is included in these variables. PCFA

can be developed for factor extraction and data reduction.

Table 3. KMO and Bartlett’s tests.

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. 0.719

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 298.364

Level of significance 0.000

3.2.2 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

Principal component analysis is one of the most common

and efficient methods of factor extraction. In this method, the

first step is to calculate the correlative matrix, R, of X. Both

the n eigenvalues of R, (λ

1

≥λ

2

≥…λ

n

), and the corresponding

eigenvectors, u

1

, u

2

, …u

n,

are obtained. After a linear

transformation of the original variables by Equation (2), a

group of new independent variables, y, is generated. These are

the components of the original variables. Only the first p

(p<n) components with eigenvalues greater than 1 are chosen

as principal components for further analysis.

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

´

¦

+ + + =

+ + + =

+ + + =

n nn n n n

n n

n n

x u x u x u y

x u x u x u y

x u x u x u y

2 2 1 1

2 2 22 1 21 2

1 2 12 1 11 1

(2)

Table 4 shows the six eigenvalues of matrix R and their

percentage accounting for the variability in the original variables.

Only two have eigenvalues greater than 1 (p=2). Overall, these

eigenvalues account for nearly 91.802% of the variability in the

original variables. This means that the first two latent factors are

associated with these variables; thus, the complexity of the data

set can be significantly reduced by these two factors with only

100%-91.802% = 8.198% information loss.

Table 4. Total variance of 6 Eigen values of matrix R.

No.

Eigen values

Value % of Variance Cumulative %

1 3.734 62.234 62.234

2 1.774 29.568 91.802

3 0.229 3.821 95.622

4 0.144 2.399 98.021

5 0.076 1.262 99.283

6 0.043 0.717 100.000

3.2.3 FACTOR LOADING MATRIX AND FACTOR ROTATION

The relationship between a factor, F, and its original variable,

X, is described as Equation (3).

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

´

¦

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

p pp p p m

p p

p p

F a F a F a X

F a F a F a X

F a F a F a X

2 2 1 1

2 2 22 1 21 2

1 2 12 1 11 1

(3)

where A={a

ij

| i,j=1,2… p} is a factor loading matrix,

representing the correlation coefficients between F and X. The

factor loading matrix be calculated by Equation (4).

=

p pp p p

p p

p p

u u u

u u u

u u u

A

ì ì ì

ì ì ì

ì ì ì

,

,

,

2 2 1 1

2 2 22 1 21

1 2 12 1 11

， ，

， ，

， ，

(4)

The factor loading matrix for the kurtosis corresponding to the

first two factors is shown in the first two columns in Table 5. For

most of variables, the loading values are relatively high. This

means that each variable is highly correlative with these two

factors. To give the factors more obvious meaning and make

them easier to interpret, a factor rotation must be carried out.

Varimax rotation is applied, which is an orthogonal rotation

method that minimizes the number of variables that have high

loadings on each factor. The rotated factor loading matrix is

shown in the last two columns in Table 5. The first factor F

1

is

most highly correlated with x

2

, x

4

, and x

6

, while these variables

are not particularly correlated with the second factor F

2

. Thus,

there are two major groups of variables. The first group consists

of x

1

, x

3,

and x

5

, representing the negative cycle kurtosis of

Hq

ave

(φ), Hq

max

(φ), and H(φ), respectively, which are interpreted

by F

1

. Similarly, the second group consists of x

2

, x

4

, and x

6

,

representing the positive cycle kurtosis of Hq

ave

(φ), Hq

max

(φ), and

H(φ), respectively, which are interpreted by F

2

.

Table 5. Rotated and un-rotated component matrix.

Variable x

i

Un-rotated Rotated

a

i1

a

i2

a

i 1

’ a

i 2

’

x

1

0.777 0.580 0.151 0.958

x

2

0.834 -0.518 0.958 0.212

x

3

0.743 0.612 0.104 0.957

x

4

0.754 -0.572 0.939 0.118

x

5

0.824 0.449 0.275 0.897

x

6

0.797 -0.517 0.931 0.188

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 18, No. 1; February 2011 307

3.2.4 FACTOR SCORE MODEL

The last step of PCFA is to use the regression method to

obtain the factor score model shown in equation (5). This model

represents factor Fi as the linear combination of the factor score

coefficient matrix γ and the original variable X. Therefore, a final

factor score can be used for further analysis. The score

coefficient matrix calculated using six numbers of kurtosis is

shown in Table 6. A complex data set constructed from these six

variables is reduced to a simple one consisting of only two

factors. This new data set can interpret 88.355% of the variability

in the original variables.

Table 6. Component score coefficient matrix.

γ 1 2 3 4 5 6

F 1 -0.08 0.364 -0.099 0.370 -0.019 0.356

2 0.379 -0.053 0.386 -0.089 0.335 0.059

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

´

¦

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

n pn p p p

n n

n n

x x x F

x x x F

x x x F

¸ ¸ ¸

¸ ¸ ¸

¸ ¸ ¸

2 2 1 1

2 2 22 1 21 2

1 2 12 1 11 1

(5)

An overview of matrix transformation is shown in Figure 7.

An N-dimension variable X initially used to represent m samples

can be reduced to p-dimension factor F by PCFA.

Original Variable

s

1

s

2

s

3

s

m

S

a

m

p

l

e

s

Observed Val ue: X

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

f act or rot at i on and expl anat i on

Pri nci pal component anal ysi s

Correl at i on Mat ri x:R

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

New Variable£¨ factors£©

s

1

s

2

s

3

s

m

y

p

y

1

y

2

Ei genvect ors:

U

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

F

1

F

2

F

p

Fact or

Score:

F

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

F

1

F

2

F

p

Component

Score

Coef f i ci ent :

¦Ã

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

n

F

1

F

2

F

p

Fact or l oadi ng: :A

Figure 7. Overview of matrix transforms.

The same analysis procedure is utilized for other kinds of

parameters to reduce the number of variables. Table 7 lists eight

extracted factors and related information. Therefore, a new

model consisting of eight extracted factors, F1-F8, is obtained.

The corresponding interpretations are shown in the right-most

column of Table 7. This group is also able to substitute the

original 27 parameters to interpret the original information of

each spectrum with no more than 30% information loss.

Table 7. Extracted principal component factors.

Parameter KMO

% of

Variance

Factors and interpretation

Ku 0.72 91.8

F

1

Negative cycle Kurtosis of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)、

F

2

Positive cycle Kurtosis of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

Sk 0.64 83.2

F

3

Positive cycle Skeweness of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

F

4

Negative cycle Skeweness of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

peak 0.60 77.5

F

5

Positive cycle Peaks of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

F

6

Negative cycle peaks of Hq

ave

(m)、

Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

asy and

cc

0.663 74.7

F

7

asymmetry of Hq

ave

(m)、Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

F

8

cross-correlation coefficient of Hq

ave

(m)

、Hq

max

(m)、H(m)

3.3 CLUSTERING AND DISCRIMINANT

ANALYSIS

After the completion of PCFA and reduction of the number of

variables, validation of the extracted factors is necessary before

using these factors in aging diagnosis. At this stage, one problem

needs to be clarified: whether these factors can cluster different

specimens with the same aging stage or distinguish the data from

different aging stages with the same specimen. Constructing a

factor database based on a large number of samples with known

degrees of aging would aid in recognizing the new samples with

unknown degrees of aging.

3.3.1 CLUSTERING ANALYSIS

Table 8 shows five groups of samples obtained from six

specimens at five different stages of aging and marked A, B, C,

D, and E respectively. The corresponding DP values of these

stages are 1164 (Virgin), 733 (earlier stage), 576 (middle stage),

400 (later stage), and 300 (end stage). Hierarchical cluster

analysis (HCA) is used for clustering PD samples of the six

specimens at one aging stage and separating PD samples

generated by one specimen at five aging stages. HCA begins by

separating each object into a cluster by itself. At each stage of

the analysis, the criterion to separate objects is relaxed in order

to link the two most similar clusters. The HCA process will end

when all objects are joined together into a complete

classification tree [26]. During this process, Manhattan and

furthest-distance algorithms are used to calculate the case

distance and linkage distance separately. A dendrogram of the

data is shown in Figure 8.

308 R.-j. Liao et al.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis

Table 8. Definition of sample number.

NO.

Ageing

time/h DPs Ageing stage

A1~A6 0 900 A

B1~B6 48 733 B

C1~C6 96 576 C

D1~D6 192 400 D

E1~E6 288 300 E

Figure 8. Dendrogram of PD samples.

The scale in the lower part indicates the degree of dissimilarity

between cases. Similar cases are connected at relatively low

dissimilarity levels. From the tree structure, the five aging stages

have been discriminated correctly.

Starting from the right side of Figure 8, a gap lies between

linkage distance 60 and 64. It splits the 30 cases into two

clusters. One cluster includes 12 cases of aging stages A and

B. The other consists of 18 cases of stages C, D, and E. The

30 cases are then subsequently split into five sub-clusters with

another gap from approximately 36 to 40.

3.3.2 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS AND TRAINING

The samples of aging stages A, B, C, D, and E, marked as TS1

to TS30, are used as training data to identify other samples

whose aging stages are regarded as unknown and need to be

recognized. In this paper, a simple and effective method,

Fisher linear discriminant analysis, is used. The detailed

principle and calculating procedure are skipped as they can be

found easily in many references [23, 27-28]. The discriminant

function is shown as Equation (6).

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

+ + + =

+ + + =

p wp w w w

p p

F d F d F d Y

F d F d F d Y

2 2 1 1

1 2 12 1 11 1

(6)

where F

i

(i=1, 2, ···, 8) denotes the i

th

extracted factor and {d

ij

} is

the discrimination coefficient.

By transforming equation (6), any sample can be projected into a

w-dimensional space with axis of Y

w .

The nearest distance to group

center is taken as a criterion to classify the sample into the proper

class. The optimal projecting dimension w can be determined

through PCA [28, 29]. Ordinarily, samples are often projected into

a two- or three-dimensional space for the convenience of

visualization. Changing the training sample will create a different

discrimination coefficient {d

ij

} calculated by PCA and will

seriously affect recognition results. However, once the sample

number is sufficiently large, different training sample are found not

to change {d

ij

} significantly, and better results can be obtained.

4 VALIDATION OF NEW MODEL

In Section 3, eight new feature factors were extracted from 27

variables, taking most of the PRPD information. The new factors

are independent and have their own physical meanings. By

combining these eight new feature factors, a new model was set

up. In the new model, the nearest distance was taken as a

criterion to identify the aging stage to which the samples belong.

Y1

10 5 0 - 5 - 10

Y

2

5. 0

2. 5

0. 0

- 2. 5

- 5. 0

E S121- S150

D S91- S120

C S61- S90

B S31- S60

A S1- S30

Figure 9. Projection graph of 150 samples.

A total of 150 new PD samples from the lab experiment

were judged using the new feature factor model. The purpose

is to classify the samples into aging stages A, B, C, D, or E.

Figure 9 shows the projection graph for 150 samples; the

identification results are shown in Table 9. A comparatively

good result was obtained.

Table 9. Recognition results to the aging procedure of oil-paper insulation

specimens.

Ageing

time

(hours)

Data number

Number of sample data

recognized as three ageing

stages

Validity

A B C D E

12 S1~S30 20 8 2 0 0 93%

36 S31~S60 9 20 1 0 0 96%

72 S61~S90 1 8 20 0 1 93%

120 S91~S100 0 0 8 2 0

100%

144 S101~S110 0 0 6 4 0

168 S110~S120 0 0 3 7 0

216 S121~S130 0 0 1 8 1

93%

240 S130~S140 0 0 1 4 5

264 S140~S150 0 0 0 4 6

5 CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents aging condition assessment of oil-paper

transformer insulation based on partial discharge analysis in order

to realize statistical parameters reduction. PCFA was used for data

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 18, No. 1; February 2011 309

mining of statistical parameters of PRPD. Clustering and

discriminating analysis was developed based on the PD data

obtained at different aging stages in order to identify the validity of

the extracted factors in aging diagnosis of oil-paper samples.

Validation of proposed new model is carried out by new testing PD

samples. As a result, the following were found:

KMO and Bartlett’s test results indicate that the conventional

statistical parameters extracted from PRPD spectra included

repeated information. Redundant information must be removed

before these parameters can be used as input variables for the next

job diagnosis. A significant tool for reduction of variables is factor

analysis. Through the use of this method, 27 conventional

parameters were reduced into eight factors with less than 30%

information loss. Moreover, the clustering result for five aging

stages A, B, C, D, and E agreed with the actual condition

represented by DP value. The discriminating result for the other

150 samples is still very good. However, accuracy can be improved

further by increasing the number of training samples.

Excellent results were obtained in the experiments through the

use of the model presented in this paper. This model is also useful

in the application of PD monitoring in aging condition assessment

of transformer insulation. In addition, it can also be utilized for

pattern recognition of PD sources.

Indeed, it must be noted of the following when using the method

and model presented in this paper for real applications:

Firstly, PD features can be used to assess the insulation aging

condition only when PD signals are detectable, and the

precondition of PD is the existence of defects in insulation.

Therefore, if thermal aging only results in DP decrease of

insulation paper, instead of defects and PD, the present method in

this paper is not suitable. Secondly, thermal and electrical field

were applied to specimens at the same time in this study. Thus the

aging should be considered as the combined process of thermal

aging and electrical aging. Thirdly, the thermal ageing is the most

important factor of insulation ageing in actual power transformers,

while the electrical stress (no PD producing) has less effect on their

insulating ageing. Therefore, to further verify and improve the

effective of our model, future work will be focused on the

diagnoses of different (initial) thermal ageing degrees of the oil-

paper samples using the PD characteristics.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank the financial support of National

Basic Research Program (973 Program) (2009CB724505-1),

China and the Scientific Research Found of SKL of Power

Transmission Equipment & System Security and New

Technology (2007DA10512708103), Chongqing University,

China.

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310 R.-j. Liao et al.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis

Rui-jin Liao was born in Sichuan, China in 1963. He

received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical

engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University, China and

Chongqing University, China, respectively. Since 1999

he has been a professor of Electrical Engineering

College at Chongqing University, China. His research

activities lie in the field of on-line monitoring of

insulation condition and fault diagnosis for high voltage

apparatus, as well as aging mechanism and diagnosis for power transformer.

He is author/ co-author of one book and over 100 journal and international

conferences.

Lijun Yang was born in Sichuan, China in 1980. She

received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical

engineering from Chongqing University, China in 2004

and 2009, respectively. Her major research interests

include online detection of insulation condition of

electrical devices, partial discharges, and insulation fault

diagnosis for high voltage equipment.

Jian Li (M’05) received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in

electrical engineering in 1997 and 2001, respectively

from Chongqing University, Chongqing, China. He is

currently a professor and the head of High Voltage and

Insulation Technology Department at Chongqing

University. His major research interests include online

detection of insulation condition in electrical devices,

partial discharges, and insulation fault diagnosis for high

voltage equipment. He is an author and coauthor of more than 20 journal

papers and 25 papers published in proceedings of international conferences.

Stanislaw Grzybowski (SM’70-F’99-LF’02) was born in

1933, Poland. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in

electrical engineering from the Technical University of

Warsaw, in 1956 and 1964, respectively. In 1984, he

obtained the Dr. Hab. (Dr. Habilitated) degree from the

Technical University of Wroclaw, Poland. In 1956, he

joined the faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Technical

University of Poznan, Poland. In 1987, He joined

Mississippi State University, where he is Professor and Director of High

Voltage Laboratory in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.

His main research interests are in the areas of high voltage engineering,

electrical strength of high voltage devices, lightning protection of power

systems, ships, aerostats, and other objects. He is author/co-author of three

books in high voltage engineering, three problems books, and over 220 papers

published in IEEE Transactions and in Proceedings of International and

National Conferences.

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 18, No. 1; February 2011 311

Online PD testing can help in determining loose. the results of the analysis are very close the real aging condition of oil-paper. Most of these works have been based on the statistical parameters extracted from PRPD patterns and their developing rules in aging progression. a kinematic viscosity of 10. of material deterioration. In addition. 6) flat cavity (0. 3) pressboard (1mm thick). Consequently. 4 two-dimension PD spectra were analyzed. Qm is not a reliable parameter to assess the aging condition of solid insulation. Most studies have focused on using PD features to evaluate the aging condition of solid insulation materials.6mm 8 38mm 9 8mm 60mm 10mm 6 4 3 5 7 2 1) HV copper rod. 2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES An experimental specimen for the accelerated thermoelectrical aging test was designed in the lab according to the model of CIGRE Method II [17-19]and shown in Figure 1. and proved that Qm is unreliable for use in aging condition assessment [7]. and contaminated windings in motors and generator stators before these problems lead to failure. PRPD patterns. Qm. have a close relationship to the discharges occurring in cavity and tree channels. Thus far. With the development of computer and electronic techniques.304 R. however. The purpose of this method is to use fewer variables to lead to the indication of variations existing in the original information. 4) Kraft paper (0. Furthermore.-j. Hqave(φ). Bozzo investigated PD features during the initiation and growth process of electrical trees in 6 mm thick EVA and XLPE samples [6]. few works discuss transformer insulation. Based on this method. All correlated parameters must be simplified to several independent parameters without losing the necessary information. In recent years. Stone [3] investigated machines aged between 1 and 50 years. PD has been used as a powerful electrical method in modern insulation diagnosis. overheated. 12) porcelain cover. This procedure is . 8) epoxy bolt. Results showed that the Weibull parameters associated with the discharge amplitude distribution. is considered to be the most useful spectrum for obtaining information related to aging progression. These parameters can be measured using time-resolved (TR) and/or phase-resolved (PR) methods [4.1mm thick). and a moisture content of 8.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis Partial discharge (PD) is regarded as a symptom. a trajectory can be used to infer the aging evolution of specimen [10]. the most widely used and successful pattern is phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD). PCFA was first presented by psychologists Pearson and Searman in the early 20th century and used to solve the problem of linear correlation in multivariate data. 11) steel container. Thermo-electrical experimental model configurations. significantly improve the failure diagnosis of electrical equipment.5 mm2/s. integrated with elegant mathematical methods such as artificial neural networks. Many experiments have been performed in the hope of finding an ideal online monitoring method for solid insulation materials and obtaining precise diagnosis and life prediction of power equipment. but also have their own specific properties. Lorenzo studied aging induced by PD in flat cavities of epoxy resin under different thermal conditions [9]. 5].1mm thick). 5) epoxy resin. and 27 statistical parameters were extracted from these spectra and reduced into a group of new features with only 8 independent factors. and sometimes a cause. Other researchers have also focused on different spectra and features.01 mgKOH/g. Weilbull parameters and PD energy fluctuate with aging time. The common method for dimensionality reduction is principal component and factor analysis (PCFA). negative skewness of Hqave(φ). Figure 1. Statistical spectra have also been studied by various researchers. fingerprint identification of PD spectra has been widely investigated and developed. The oil index conformed to IEC296-82 and ASTM D3487-1993 standards. A cavity was created between the pressboard and the copper plane electrode. and demonstrated that similar PD levels in both aged and new windings exist. to verify and validate the new model. These factors are not only able to best represent the original information. The epoxy resin was used to seal the cavity and avoid the oil penetrating into the cavity. 9) epoxy nut. The earliest PD parameter used in the solid insulation assessment is the maximum PD magnitude. In the proposed new model. The mean pulse height distribution. These references are concerned with the aging characteristics of motor stator windings. During the aging process. Determining an effective method that uses the fewest features to indicate the maximum amount of information existing in PD spectra is therefore necessary. 24 major metrics and hundreds of statistical parameters are in use. 7) epoxy board.6 mg/kg. in a coordinate plane of positive vs. H(q). Montanari implemented a model in which aging is considered the primary function of both the tree length and intensity of discharges occurring within the trees [8]. Contin observed phenomena similar to Bozzo. Contin studied the PD characteristics of internal flat cavities in PE and epoxy insulation under long-term ac voltage. fuzzy logic mathematics. The pressboard was supported by a ring of Kraft paper with thickness of 0. The pressboard had a density of 825 kg/m3. accelerated thermo-electrical aging experiments using oil-paper models with an artificial flat cavity were performed. 13 12 11 10 1 5. Among these metrics. All pre-sized pressboard and Kraft paper samples underwent a pretreatment procedure whereby they were dried and impregnated with oil before being tested. Therefore. More works relevant to this topic are presented in [11-16]. The specimen is made of 1-mm thick high-density transformer pressboard.1 mm and was placed on a grounded copper plate electrode. an acid value of 0. this paper presents a new model for PD feature extraction. the PD data obtained at certain time intervals and the new features extracted were analyzed using the new model. Liao et al. 13) steel nuts. 2) LV copper plate. and probability analysis. 10) insulation oil.

The specimens were taken out of aging oven when the experiment was finished. PD signal was detected using the impulse current method according to IEC60270.2 kV) was observed on the oscilloscope. It has been found that there may be some visible traces left when the 2500-100. the temperature of the aging chamber was stabilized at 130 C. they were divided into two groups. 1200 1000 800 DP 600 400 200 0 0 48 96 144 Time(Hours) 192 240 288 Figure 4. Hence. the second one is the air bubble discharge presented in the pressboard. Figure 3 shows the schematic setup used to perform the accelerated aging experiments and partial discharge measurements. Each group comprised six specimens. to 733 at 48 h in the earlier aging stage. Voltage meter Oscilloscope Calibration modular Test AC voltage The probable discharges of this CIGRE II model may occur in such locations as follows: the first one is the creepage discharge from high voltage electrode along the surface of the pressboard. The calibration of partial discharge detection system was carried out by directly connecting the Figure 3. the most probable discharge in our model is generated from the cavity between the pressboard and the ground electrode. All of the specimens were aged with a test voltage 12 kV and temperature of 130 C. The oil-impregnated pressboard specimens were then bottled and sealed under a nitrogen atmosphere within a steel container. 36. as shown in Figure 1. and 48 h respectively.000 pC PD happened and would be more obvious traces and damages onto the solid insulations for longer stressing time [21]. the pressboard became brittle due to the very low DP value. stable PD signals could be obtained from the oscilloscope. The trace of DP with aging time is shown in Figure 4. A sampling rate of 50 MHz was used to record PD waveform. the mass ratio of oil versus paper was 10:1. Development of DP with the aging time. One specimen from the second group was removed from the aging chamber every of 48 h interval to measure DP value. after all the specimens were placed into the aging chamber. Diagram of pretreatment procedure. while the other was used for measuring the degree of polymerization (DP) by viscometry method to indicate the degree of aging. the pressboard and paper ring used in the experiment were well pretreated to drive away the air bubble in themselves.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 20% above Vinc should be chosen as the test voltage. As a result. 7 kV was chosen as the test voltage Vtest in our experiment since. an amplifier. However. and 400 at 192 h in the later aging stage. 18. In the final aging stages. 1. The accelerated aging experiment lasted for 288 h. Diagram of the aging system. 576 at 96 h in the middle aging stage. calibrator to the terminals of the sample. and a Lecroy Wavepro 7100 digital oscilloscope used to measure and store the pulse peak and phase angle of the PD signal. There was no obvious spark spot around the internal cavity surface resulting from PD. The whole model is immersed in the oil and our experiment has shown the PDIV of surface discharge in the oil is much higher than our stressing voltage for PD testing. Generally. and their PDIVs were also much higher than our PD testing voltage. at 288 h. After the pressboard and Kraft paper samples were made into specimens. The digital instrument mainly comprised of a PD detector D with the overall bandwidth from 20 kHz to 15 MHz. But there is no visible trace on the surface of . A slow voltage ramp was applied to the specimens until the inception voltage Vinc (=3. PD measurement was carried out every 24 h. thus. The DP dropped very quickly in the first 48 h aging time. It was observed that the oil color changed from bright to light brown. The discharge signal of every continuous 100 cycles was accumulated to form one PD sample. After that. The coupling capacitances C (1000 pF) facilitated the passage of the high-frequency current impulses. the first four PD measurements were performed at the beginning of aging and after 12. DP decreased slowly and approached 300 at the final point of the experiment. the last one is the cavity discharge between the pressboard and the ground electrode. HV power source C1 C：Discharge-free voltage divider Cx Aging chamber C2 Amplifier D Figure 2. under this condition. the PD signal at this voltage often lasts for a certain period and then becomes extinct. One group was used for PD data acquisition. Furthermore. At the beginning of aging. which may have some influences on the inner surface of the 1 mm pressboard. February 2011 305 shown in Figure 2. A digital instrument was used to acquire partial discharge sample data. A discharge-free ac voltage source (50 kV/50 kVA) was applied to the sample with amplitude of 0-50 kV and frequency of 50 Hz. and is similar to that in the previous experiments [20]. No. DP values decreased dramatically from 1164 at the beginning. In each steel container.

Figure 6 shows the procedure of PCFA [23. respectively. Correlative matrix R Calculating 0h 48h 96h KMO T est Bartlett T est 192h 288h ¦Õ ) (¡ã ¦Õ ) (¡ã KMO>0. In our experiment. cc: Cross-correlation coefficient. In order to remove redundant (highly correlated) variables. it can be concluded that there was no visible trace and damage from PD in our test. Hqave(φ). However. Two. ＋: positive cycle. Table 2. different kinds of statistical parameters are analyzed separately.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis Table 1.306 R. the original variable X is a matrix with size m x n. Six kurtosis parameters are used here as an example to develop the PCFA. These samples are from six specimens mentioned in Section 2. the hundreds pC signals after about 300 hr ageing testing can hardly damage the pressboard insulation and no obvious trace left on its surface in this paper. For the first step. 22]. Here.-j. At the same time. Conventionally. a new vector that maximizes information inclusion with the least number of variables must be found. the DPs decreased dramatically in the serious aged samples. m and n denote the number of samples and variables. Hqmax(φ). and the major influences of the changes of the PD characteristics were the changing of the surface of the cavity caused by thermal ageing. a diagnosis model constituted by these variables would not only be complex in structure. four two-dimensional PD spectra of the PRPD model. In the following analysis.2…27}. Liao et al. The new model will use factor analysis to extract common factors from these 27 variables.dimensional graphs at different aging stages (a) Hqmax(φ) (b) Hqave(φ) (c) H(φ) (d) H(q) Component Score Coefficient Matrix ¦Ãand Factor Score F Calculating F=¦ÃX Figure 6.1 STATISTICAL PARAMETERS OF PRPD MODEL As described above. Hqave(φ) ku sk peak asy cc ＋ √ √ √ √ √ － √ √ √ Hqmax(φ) ＋ √ √ √ √ √ － √ √ √ H(φ) ＋ √ √ √ √ √ － √ √ √ H(q) √ √ √ 3 ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW MODEL 3. Here. m =30 and n =6. a PD sample can be represented by a vector with 27 variables. . H(φ). Hence. qmax/pC qave/pC sk: skeweness. Xi denotes the ith sample. but also result in serious errors because of the correlation of these variables. The definition and methods for calculating these parameters are described in [16.5& Significance level of Bartlett<0. Figure 5 shows the changes in these four two-dimension spectra at each aging stage. 24]. If each parameter is labeled xi. ku: kurtosis. and H(q) are studied in this paper. To guarantee that each factor has its own meaning. Statistical parameters of PD spectra. Each parameter represents the information contained in the PD spectra to a certain extent. X={xi|i=1. In other words.2 PCFA OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA The PD samples are obtained at different aging times for PCFA. the solid insulation when the PD≤1000 pC in short stressing time. Flowchart of PCFA. －: negative cycle 3. Variable definitions of Ku. peak: the number of peaks asy: asymmetry. Hqave(φ) Kurtosis Xi ＋ ku1 － ku 2 Hqmax(φ) ＋ ku 3 － ku 4 H(φ) ＋ ku 5 － ku 6 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 Original Variable X Normalizing. all of the parameters must be replaced with fewer variables without losing any important information. The definition of each variable is shown in Table 2.05 Y Principal Analysis 0h N Keep X Unchanged (a) n n (b) Exit 48h Loading Matrix A Calculating 96h 192h Specific Meaning of Factor Y N Factor Rotation 288h ¦Õ ) (¡ã q/pC (c) (d) Figure 5. 27 statistical operators are used to indicate these spectra (Table 1).

if the value is less than 0.2… p} is a factor loading matrix. In this method. representing the positive cycle kurtosis of Hqave(φ).229 0. Small values (less than 0. and x6. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.957 x3 x4 0. and the corresponding eigenvectors. which is an orthogonal rotation method that minimizes the number of variables that have high loadings on each factor.824 0. y. x4.198% information loss. In contrast. the first step is to calculate the correlative matrix. The factor loading matrix be calculated by Equation (4). and its original variable. Eigen values Value 3. To give the factors more obvious meaning and make them easier to interpret. are obtained.234 91.05) of the significance level indicate that the data are suitable for factor analysis. x4. respectively.802% = 8.734 1. and x5. these eigenvalues account for nearly 91. The repeated information is included in these variables. u11 1，u12 2 ， .043 % of Variance 62. y1 u11 x1 u12 x 2 u1n x n y u x u x u x 2 21 1 22 2 2n n y n u n1 x1 u n 2 x 2 u nn x n (2) The factor loading matrix for the kurtosis corresponding to the first two factors is shown in the first two columns in Table 5.774 0. and Bartlett's test of sphericity.275 0.897 x5 0. The rotated factor loading matrix is shown in the last two columns in Table 5. Varimax rotation is applied.000 The relationship between a factor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 r KMO r s i j (i j ) 2 ij i j (i j ) 2 ij i j (i j ) 2 ij (1) 3.834 -0. which measures the partial correlation between samples. u pp p (4) 3. Similarly.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 3. The first group consists of x1. the results of the PCFA should be regarded as useless.212 0. set can be significantly reduced by these two factors with only 100%-91. After a linear transformation of the original variables by Equation (2). Hqmax(φ). February 2011 307 PCFA is effective in the extraction of common factors only when correlation exists in the original variables. Total variance of 6 Eigen values of matrix R. Bartlett's test of sphericity is based on a correlation coefficient matrix. PCFA can be developed for factor extraction and data reduction. which means that each variable is unrelated to the other variables and is unsuitable for structure detection. representing the negative cycle kurtosis of Hqave(φ). A higher value given by KMO (near to 1.2.188 x6 Table 4 shows the six eigenvalues of matrix R and their percentage accounting for the variability in the original variables.754 -0. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx.612 0.104 0.449 0. R. the second group consists of x2.262 0.958 x2 0. u 2 p p A u p1 1，u p 2 2 ， .076 0.517 0.958 0.3 FACTOR LOADING MATRIX AND FACTOR ROTATION where rij and sij are the correlation and partial correlation coefficients for variables Xi and Xj. X 1 a11 F1 a12 F2 a1 p F p X 2 a 21 F1 a 22 F2 a 2 p F p X a F a F a F p1 1 p2 2 pp p m (3) where A={aij | i.572 0.2.939 0. representing the correlation coefficients between F and X.797 -0.568 3.2 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS Principal component analysis is one of the most common and efficient methods of factor extraction.0) generally indicates that the data are more suitable for factor analysis.717 Cumulative % 62. Hqmax(φ). the complexity of the data . x3. and H(φ). Table 5. Rotated and un-rotated component matrix. and x6.144 0.118 0. KMO and Bartlett’s tests. For most of variables. No.802% of the variability in the original variables.802 95. The KMO method is described as equation (1). Two testing methods are used to determine the suitability of PCFA data [25]: the KaiserMeyer-Olkin (KMO) test. which are interpreted by F1. is described as Equation (3). This means that each variable is highly correlative with these two factors. 18.399 1. Both the n eigenvalues of R. The first factor F1 is most highly correlated with x2. u1 p p u 21 1，u 22 2 ， .622 98. The null hypothesis is that the correlation matrix is an identity matrix.580 0. Variable xi Un-rotated Rotated ai1 ai2 ai 1’ ai 2’ x1 0. …un. respectively. is generated. Thus. X. u2. 1. there are two major groups of variables. Chi-Square Level of significance 0. The test results for original variables are given in Table 3. the loading values are relatively high.518 0. This means that the first two latent factors are associated with these variables. and H(φ). a factor rotation must be carried out. while these variables are not particularly correlated with the second factor F2.931 0. Table 3.777 0.364 0. (λ1≥λ2≥…λn).2.743 0. F.50. a group of new independent variables.151 0. Independent variables should remain unchanged. Table 4.234 29.021 99. Only two have eigenvalues greater than 1 (p=2).821 2.283 100. Only the first p (p<n) components with eigenvalues greater than 1 are chosen as principal components for further analysis. of X.j=1. which are interpreted by F2.719 298. These are the components of the original variables. u1.1 TESTS OF VARIABLES CORRELATION Vol. thus.000 No. Overall.

At each stage of the analysis.4 FACTOR SCORE MODEL The last step of PCFA is to use the regression method to obtain the factor score model shown in equation (5). Manhattan and furthest-distance algorithms are used to calculate the case distance and linkage distance separately. The corresponding interpretations are shown in the right-most column of Table 7.1 CLUSTERING ANALYSIS x1 x2 x3 xn C ponent om S e cor C f i ci ent : oef ¦Ã f act or r ot at i on and expl anat i on x1 x2 i x3 E genvect or s: U x1 F1 F2 Fp x2 x3 xn F or l oadi ng: :A act xn Figure 7. Overview of matrix transforms. The HCA process will end when all objects are joined together into a complete classification tree [26].089 5 -0. An N-dimension variable X initially used to represent m samples can be reduced to p-dimension factor F by PCFA. Table 7 lists eight extracted factors and related information.355% of the variability in the original variables.3. The score coefficient matrix calculated using six numbers of kurtosis is shown in Table 6. and 300 (end stage). Liao et al.386 4 0. Extracted principal component factors.099 0.7 F7 asymmetry of Hqave()、Hqmax()、H() cross-correlation coefficient of Hqave() F8 、Hqmax()、H() x2 x3 xn New Variable£¨ factors£© F1 F2 Fp S ml e ap s s1 s2 s3 F or act S e: cor F sm x1 x2 x3 xn x1 x2 x3 C r el at i on M r i x:R or at xn P i nci pal com r ponent anal ysi s y1 y2 yp sm F1 F2 Fp 3.019 0. 400 (later stage). a new model consisting of eight extracted factors. This new data set can interpret 88. Table 8 shows five groups of samples obtained from six specimens at five different stages of aging and marked A.60 77. Therefore. one problem needs to be clarified: whether these factors can cluster different specimens with the same aging stage or distinguish the data from different aging stages with the same specimen.-j. Table 6. HCA begins by separating each object into a cluster by itself. the criterion to separate objects is relaxed in order to link the two most similar clusters. Table 7. During this process. a final factor score can be used for further analysis.5 F5 F6 An overview of matrix transformation is shown in Figure 7. % of Factors and interpretation Parameter KMO Variance F1 Negative cycle Kurtosis of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H()、 Positive cycle Kurtosis of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H() Positive cycle Skeweness of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H() Negative cycle Skeweness of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H() Positive cycle Peaks of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H() Negative cycle peaks of Hqave()、 Hqmax()、H() Ku 0. The corresponding DP values of these stages are 1164 (Virgin). and E respectively.356 0. x1 s1 s2 s3 O bser ved V ue: X al Original Variable asy and cc 0.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis 3. .370 -0.3 CLUSTERING AND DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS After the completion of PCFA and reduction of the number of variables. Component score coefficient matrix. F1-F8. B. At this stage.72 91.308 R. A dendrogram of the data is shown in Figure 8.8 F2 F3 F1 11 x1 12 x 2 1n x n F x x x 2 21 1 22 2 2n n F p p1 x1 p 2 x 2 pn x n Sk 0. 3.663 74. C.08 0. This model represents factor Fi as the linear combination of the factor score coefficient matrix γ and the original variable X. Constructing a factor database based on a large number of samples with known degrees of aging would aid in recognizing the new samples with unknown degrees of aging.64 83.364 -0. is obtained.379 2 0. This group is also able to substitute the original 27 parameters to interpret the original information of each spectrum with no more than 30% information loss.2 F4 (5) peak 0. A complex data set constructed from these six variables is reduced to a simple one consisting of only two factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is used for clustering PD samples of the six specimens at one aging stage and separating PD samples generated by one specimen at five aging stages. Therefore. validation of the extracted factors is necessary before using these factors in aging diagnosis. γ F 1 2 1 -0.2.053 3 -0. 733 (earlier stage).059 The same analysis procedure is utilized for other kinds of parameters to reduce the number of variables. D. 576 (middle stage).335 6 0.

once the sample number is sufficiently large. The new factors are independent and have their own physical meanings. It splits the 30 cases into two clusters. 5 A B C D E S1. Similar cases are connected at relatively low dissimilarity levels. the five aging stages have been discriminated correctly. Ageing time/h DPs Ageing stage 0 48 96 192 288 900 733 576 400 300 A B C D E Vol. In this paper. The scale in the lower part indicates the degree of dissimilarity between cases.S150 Y2 0. 29]. samples are often projected into a two.5.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Table 8. Dendrogram of PD samples. the identification results are shown in Table 9. 0 . D. and better results can be obtained. The detailed principle and calculating procedure are skipped as they can be found easily in many references [23. No. C. eight new feature factors were extracted from 27 variables. PCFA was used for data . C. By transforming equation (6). 27-28]. Number of sample data Ageing recognized as three ageing time Data number Validity stages (hours) A B C D E 12 36 72 120 144 168 216 240 264 S1~S30 S31~S60 S61~S90 S91~S100 S101~S110 S110~S120 S121~S130 S130~S140 S140~S150 20 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 20 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 20 8 6 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 4 7 8 4 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 6 93% 100% 93% 96% 93% where Fi (i=1.or three-dimensional space for the convenience of visualization. The other consists of 18 cases of stages C. 2.S30 S31. A comparatively good result was obtained. any sample can be projected into a w-dimensional space with axis of Yw . B. Y1 d 11 F1 d 12 F2 d 1 p F p Y d F d F d F w1 1 w2 2 wp p w (6) A total of 150 new PD samples from the lab experiment were judged using the new feature factor model. 4 VALIDATION OF NEW MODEL In Section 3. is used. The samples of aging stages A. 0 2.3. 0 . The purpose is to classify the samples into aging stages A. 5 Figure 8. The nearest distance to group center is taken as a criterion to classify the sample into the proper class. taking most of the PRPD information. Table 9. The 30 cases are then subsequently split into five sub-clusters with another gap from approximately 36 to 40. The discriminant function is shown as Equation (6). 18. D. and E. Ordinarily. Figure 9 shows the projection graph for 150 samples. and E. Recognition results to the aging procedure of oil-paper insulation specimens. February 2011 309 NO. Fisher linear discriminant analysis. ···. a simple and effective method. Starting from the right side of Figure 8.S60 S61. D. One cluster includes 12 cases of aging stages A and B. However. From the tree structure. By combining these eight new feature factors.S120 S121.10 -5 0 5 10 Y1 Figure 9.2 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS AND TRAINING . marked as TS1 to TS30. Definition of sample number. 5. A1~A6 B1~B6 C1~C6 D1~D6 E1~E6 seriously affect recognition results. or E. a gap lies between linkage distance 60 and 64. B. different training sample are found not to change {dij} significantly. 8) denotes the ith extracted factor and {dij} is the discrimination coefficient. 3. In the new model. are used as training data to identify other samples whose aging stages are regarded as unknown and need to be recognized. Projection graph of 150 samples. the nearest distance was taken as a criterion to identify the aging stage to which the samples belong. 1. Changing the training sample will create a different discrimination coefficient {dij} calculated by PCA and will 5 CONCLUSIONS This paper presents aging condition assessment of oil-paper transformer insulation based on partial discharge analysis in order to realize statistical parameters reduction.S90 S91.2. a new model was set up. The optimal projecting dimension w can be determined through PCA [28.

M. Conf.. 15. 667-675. pp. Dielectr. T. 1994. 5. Mizutani. Thus the aging should be considered as the combined process of thermal aging and electrical aging. G. The discriminating result for the other 150 samples is still very good. Secondly. (ISEI). Insul.. "Partial discharge tests using CIGRE method II". Liao. J. Electr. Conf. G. Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues. Application of SPSS and data statistical analysis. "Analysis on Aging Condition of Stator Winding Insulation of Generator Based on the Moment Characteristics of Partial Discharge". 2. CRC. Zhang.. Insul. 463-465. (CSEE). 951956. Validation of proposed new model is carried out by new testing PD samples. M. Insul. Dielectr. 165-168. A. IEEE Trans. Vol. T. accuracy can be improved further by increasing the number of training samples. Montanari. L. Contin. Yang. Proc. Holboll.-G. Xie. and G. IEEE Trans. and K.5. 276-284. D. Z. However. Master degree. 2000. pp. pp. IEEE Trans. 2002 (in Chinese). J.. 118-124.. B. 5. 2000 (in Chinese). Kranz. Beijing. Dielectr. Dongbo. Through the use of this method. Di Lorenzo del Casale. C. Electr. Edinburgh. Redundant information must be removed before these parameters can be used as input variables for the next job diagnosis. 2001. L. F. and J.310 R. 1995. Electr. 2004. Uttamchandani. Xie. and the precondition of PD is the existence of defects in insulation. IEEE Trans. 1995. 9498. X. if thermal aging only results in DP decrease of insulation paper. "Investigation of temperature effect on an epoxy resin: Aging due to partial discharges". Insul. pp. Gulski. C.821. Eng. Clustering and discriminating analysis was developed based on the PD data obtained at different aging stages in order to identify the validity of the extracted factors in aging diagnosis of oil-paper samples. Electr. 2004. pp. of the Chinese Soc. 1281-1287. the clustering result for five aging stages A. W. IEEE Trans. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to thank the financial support of National Basic Research Program (973 Program) (2009CB724505-1). it must be noted of the following when using the method and model presented in this paper for real applications: Firstly. Montreal. C. "Review of modern diagnostic techniques for assessing insulation condition in aged transformers". and H. Chin. 102112. pp. B. IEEE Trans. to further verify and improve the effective of our model. Yue. Xuhong. B. IEEE Trans. 2001. D. of Electr.. X. T. Vol. "Automated recognition of partial discharges". 20. C. Eighth Intern. Appl. (CSEE). J. Insul. "On multistress aging of epoxy resins PD and temperature". R. H. "Infrared detection of transformer insulation degradation due to accelerated thermal aging". Jiang. Yue. This model is also useful in the application of PD monitoring in aging condition assessment of transformer insulation. Uchida. Electr. Insul. Farish.-o. 2003 (in Chinese). pp. "Aging diagnosis of large generator stator winding insulation based on ac dielectric characteristic parameters". 709-712. Suzuoki. Chinese Soc. J. pp. IEEE Electr. and W. the present method in this paper is not suitable. Contin. Manly. 2000. Cacciari. Vol. pp. Moreover. Vol. Insul. pp. G. "Inference of PD in electrical insulation by charge-height probability distribution. Vol. Dielectr. Xi'an. Electr. Mueller. Vol. Eng. 27 conventional parameters were reduced into eight factors with less than 30% information loss. and G. 9-13. "Partial discharge patterns and degradation diagnosis in polyethylene and polyimide". [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] R. IEEE Trans. instead of defects and PD. L. Di Lorenzo del Casale and R. "The Use of the CIGRE data format for PD diagnosis applications". 6th Intern. Insul. 8. Song. PD features can be used to assess the insulation aging condition only when PD signals are detectable. the following were found: KMO and Bartlett’s test results indicate that the conventional statistical parameters extracted from PRPD spectra included repeated information. 106-107. C. and H. Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials. Song. it can also be utilized for pattern recognition of PD sources. Multivariate statistical methods: A primer. Vol. Montanari. L. K. Dielectr. 1998. Montanari. M. Saha. Y. No. 2000 (in Chinese). High Voltage Engineering. Canada. 299-303. 2004. California. H. 2000. Vol. Vol. Gemme. A significant tool for reduction of variables is factor analysis. pp. Blue. IEEE Intern. Vol.. Yue. IEEE Trans. 3-7. pp. China. M. "New estimating techniques for multi-stress aging test of large generator stator winding insulation". Cacciari. Vol. pp. Electr. 2000. E.: Aging Condition Assessment of Transformer Oil-paper Insulation Model based on Partial Discharge Analysis [4] [5] [6] H. Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials... T. Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials. and E agreed with the actual condition represented by DP value. X. Conf. 110-117. Vol.. Indeed. and Z. IEEE Intern. 903-917. Jia. Insul. Zhang. B. CIGRE Working Group A2. R. IEEE Trans. June-Ho. High Education Press. Lapp and H. Inc. IEEE Trans. and G. 22. M. Liao et al. Del Casale. Electr. Mag. Grzybowski. Diagnosis of insulation system degradation". China. Contin. Bozzo. Song. Y. B. 630-633. IEEE Trans. 1998. Cheng. 4th Intern. In addition. Electr. "Aging and life models for insulation systems based on PD detection". Chongqing University. Electr. post and tele press. E. thermal and electrical field were applied to specimens at the same time in this study. W. Ito. Tang. pp. Guastavino. USA. Excellent results were obtained in the experiments through the use of the model presented in this paper. pp. Y. 20. 2. pp. Schifani. winding age and insulation type on stator winding partial discharge levels". China and the Scientific Research Found of SKL of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology (2007DA10512708103). pp. B. Lu. while the electrical stress (no PD producing) has less effect on their insulating ageing. Y. 13-17. 2003. C. R. Therefore. Conf. Proc. A. 2008. Hao. B. 2004 (in Chinese). and J. Dielectr. UK. and H. and S. Dielectric Materials. Measurements and Applications. Electr. Vol. J. Dielectr. . Okamoto. Qiongsun. H.. the thermal ageing is the most important factor of insulation ageing in actual power transformers. B. Gulski. 509512.. 133140. 416-419. "Aging diagnosis of insulation systems by PD measurements.. Clustering/Classification Theory and its Application in Text Data Mining. Yue. Thirdly. Cacciari. Dielectr. 40. Kranz. J. and O. "PD pulse sequence analysis and its relevance for on-site PD defect identification and evaluation". "Study on multifactor aging characteristics of motor stator windings". Himeji. Electr. Insul. 10. 1996.18. pp. Beijing. Insul. K. J. "Classification of PD patterns from multiple defects". pp. 796 . C. 2000 (in Chinese). As a result. Bo. Vol. Dielectr. "Study on multi-stress aging test system for stator winding insulation of large generator". Indust. future work will be focused on the diagnoses of different (initial) thermal ageing degrees of the oilpaper samples using the PD characteristics. Dielectr.. Hu. Dielectr. 1978. 7. Xie. Vol. pp. pp. 7. 2003. 2000. Zhang. SAGE Publications . A. Montanari. Insul. Insul. Yazici. Krivda. mining of statistical parameters of PRPD. Y. "Guide for life management techniques for power transformer". 1579-1594. 2005. 26. H. Vol. Therefore. 12. Kim and C. pp. Extraction of partial discharge features in electrical treeing". a. China. 5. 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He is currently a professor and the head of High Voltage and Insulation Technology Department at Chongqing University.D. degrees in electrical engineering in 1997 and 2001. .D. February 2011 311 Rui-jin Liao was born in Sichuan. In 1956. He joined Mississippi State University. In 1984. partial discharges. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Warsaw. He is author/ co-author of one book and over 100 journal and international conferences. and Ph.S. China. and insulation fault diagnosis for high voltage equipment. China. and Ph. aerostats. Hab. Since 1999 he has been a professor of Electrical Engineering College at Chongqing University. China. lightning protection of power systems. Jian Li (M’05) received the M. Her major research interests include online detection of insulation condition of electrical devices. respectively from Chongqing University. She received the M. Poland. He received the M. (Dr. electrical strength of high voltage devices. and over 220 papers published in IEEE Transactions and in Proceedings of International and National Conferences. he obtained the Dr. He is an author and coauthor of more than 20 journal papers and 25 papers published in proceedings of international conferences. and Ph. Stanislaw Grzybowski (SM’70-F’99-LF’02) was born in 1933.D. and insulation fault diagnosis for high voltage equipment. respectively. he joined the faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Technical University of Poznan.Sc. China in 2004 and 2009. He received the M. His research activities lie in the field of on-line monitoring of insulation condition and fault diagnosis for high voltage apparatus. degrees in electrical engineering from Chongqing University. China and Chongqing University. In 1987. degrees in electrical engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University. partial discharges. His major research interests include online detection of insulation condition in electrical devices. ships. where he is Professor and Director of High Voltage Laboratory in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. respectively. 18. Lijun Yang was born in Sichuan. Chongqing. No.IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. and other objects. as well as aging mechanism and diagnosis for power transformer. China in 1963. His main research interests are in the areas of high voltage engineering. He is author/co-author of three books in high voltage engineering. Poland.D.S. respectively. China in 1980. 1.S. in 1956 and 1964. Poland. and Ph. Habilitated) degree from the Technical University of Wroclaw. three problems books.

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