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Bringing TV One Step Closer to Film
HDTV - Bringing TV One Step Closer to Film
History of TV Standards Technical Aspects Implementation Impact
History of TV
1842 Alexander Bain managed to transmit a still image over wire. First fax machine!
In 1884 Paul Gottlieb Nipkow went a step further, and discovered (and patented) a way to scan a moving image and transmit it sequentially. Birth of mechanical television.
demonstrated what many refer to as the first television broadcast on January 26. 1926. .Mechanical Television John Logie Baird. presented to members of the Royal Institution in London had only about 30 lines of resolution. Baird’s grayscale image. a Scottish inventor.
First “mass produced” TV set .
Mechanical Television 1927 .First TV broadcast in the US Herbert Hoover From NY to Washington Had about 50 scanning lines Broadcast by wire and radio(same results) .
Electronic Television 1934 Philo Farnsworth demonstrated an allelectronic system Less cumbersome than mechanical TV Quickly gained popularity .
The search for standards: the FCC & the NTSC FCC Established by the Communications Act of 1934 Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA) recommended a standard for television using 441 horizontal scan lines and 30 frames per second with a 4:3 aspect ratio .
which kept the 4:3 aspect ratio but called for a higher resolution image with 525 scan lines refreshing at a rate of 30 interlaced frames.NTSC established its first set of standards. 1941 . commission) & the NTSC FCC urged the RMA(Radio Manufacturers Association .The search for standards: the FCC(federal Comm.now the Electronics Industries Association) to form the National Television System Committee (NTSC) in 1940. or 60 fields per second. (263 lines followed by 262) .
Eventually covered a frequency range spanning from 54 MHz to 890 MHz on the broadcast spectrum .The search for standards: the FCC & the NTSC FCC allotted 6 MHz slices of bandwidth to TV stations.
The NTSC standard had to be revised .The search for standards: the FCC & the NTSC 1950s brought the addition of color (Home viewing was brought a step closer to cinema) 1953 .
Field refresh rate of 60 Hz was slowed down by a factor of 1000/1001 to 59.The search for standards: the FCC & the NTSC 1953 . Engineers split the signal into two components: luma. which contained the color information. Broadcast television downshifted from 30 to 29.97 frames per second . which contained the brightness information.The NTSC standard had to be revised to adapt to color TV. and chrominance.94 Hz.
production and broadcast gear. and in television receivers Despite advances.Same old standard (The song remains the same) Many improvements were made in cameras. the quality of analog broadcast was still limited to the NTSC standard of 60 fields and 525 horizontal scan lines Stuck with more or less same standards created in 1941. .
Same old standard (The song remains the same) By the 1980s. manufacturers had been developing and using both analog and digital HD systems It became clear that the replacement for analog would use digital television technology. . Needed a new set of standards to ensure compatibility.
ATSC(Advanced TV system committee for colored TV) Formed in 1982 The Advanced Television Systems Committee is a not-for-profit organization whose purpose is to develop standards for the transition to DTV. Its published broadcast standards are voluntary unless adopted and mandated by the FCC. ATSC proposed DTV Standard (A/53) that .
WRAL of Raleigh. . the FCC adopted standards proposed by the ATSC. mandating that broadcasters begin broadcasting digitally.DTV In December 1996. North Carolina was the first station to broadcast in digital.
Broadcaster do not have to broadcast in HD. DTV and HDTV. SDTV. . just in DTV.DTV. & HDTV NTSC standards defined one analog format ATSC created a framework supporting multiple digital formats There is considerable confusion among consumers regarding SDTV.
30p. 60i. 60i. 24p 60p. 30p. 30p. 29. 24p 60p. 24p 60i.DTV formats HDTV/SD Horizontal TV lines SDTV SDTV HDTV HDTV 640 704 1280 1920 Vertical lines 480 480 720 1080 Aspect Ratio 4:3 4:3 and 16:9 16:9 16:9 Frame Rate 60p. . 30p.97) omitted for clarity. 24p Note: Non-integer formats (eg.
HDTV & SDTV Comparison Judging simply on pixel count. The ATSC standards call for AC3 or Dolby Digital sound.9 times better than a standard. NTSC image Audio is also improved. a 1080i HDTV image is 6 . which can provide 24-bit 5.1 surround sound .
HDTV & SDTV Comparison .
Technical Aspects .
Technical Aspects Codec is short for compressor-decompressor or coder-decoder. In order to squeeze the data into a form that can be reliably broadcast within a 6 MHz section of bandwidth. . and refers to a manner in which data is compressed and uncompressed Broadcast and production codecs differ(TXcomplex). the HDTV signal must be compressed at about a 50:1 ratio.
Images are divided into macroblocks. cable & satellite) use MPEG-2 MPEG-2’s compresses the video into groups of pictures (GOPs) not individual frames. I frames are intracoded frames. and B frames. which are areas of 16 x 16 pixels.Technical Aspects Most DTV broadcasts (terrestrial. GOPs are created with three types of pictures: I. P. P are predicted frames .
closed captioning.auxiliary information related to the program or its content including audio dialog level info. .Technical Aspects In addition to audio & video. format descriptor tags. and digital rights management (DRM) data. DTV contains metadata .
.Technical Aspects HDTV allows for both interlaced and progressive content.
Technical Aspects Interlaced display .
DTV supports the display of traditional.Technical Aspects(features) DTV supports multiple frame rates including 24p. 24p is the standard film frame rate used by the motion picture industry for years Allows for easier transfer to / from film 16 x 9 aspect ratio more closely matches widescreen film formats. standard resolution. 4:3 content. .
Aspect ratios .
Conversion Up-converting (converting to a superior format) Down-converting (converting to a lesser format) Scaling / sizing Aspect ratio manipulation / conversion Common to see broadcasters delivering images with the improper aspect ratio. .
3-2 pulldown Used to convert film or 24p to interlaced 29.97 .Frame rate conversion .
The Corpse Bride was shot with a Canon digital still camera. Many commercials. and then transferred to digital video for editing. Much of Tim Burton’s recent stop-motion feature. or a project shot on film then converted to a digital format.Implementation HDTV production typically begins with a high-definition camera. cartoons. Other means are possible. and full-length features have been created solely with animation software .
(That’s not including the lens!) Sub-$1.Implementation .000 range targeted to consumers are pushing sales on the lower end.Cameras HDTV cameras have been used for private applications long before the ATSC standards were in place Higher-end production cameras suitable for studio or digital cinematography can cost well over $100.000. .
Implementation Recording & playback can be done in many ways: Tape Hard-drive Optical disc RAM .
Implementation . Sony and JVC offer relatively lower cost cameras that record at a maximum resolution of 1440 x 1080. DVCPRO HD – Also known as D12. DVCPRO HD was developed by Panasonic and has versions that record on magnetic tape as well as memory cards. HDV uses a form of MPEG-2 compression that results in a 25 Mbps signal that can be recorded onto miniDV cassettes. .2 Mbps data rate HDV – Canon.recording & playback D-VHS – This consumer format from JVC records onto VHS tapes using an MPEG-2 stream at up to a 28.
It can record HD content using MPEG-2 encoding at up to 35 Mbps or DV25 for DVCAM.Implementation . and MPEG-4 D-5 HD – Developed by Panasonic in 1991. the D-5 format has been updated to HD. Handles 720 and 1080 content at most possible frame rates.Sony’s tapeless format records onto Blu-Ray optical discs using several possible codecs. HDCAM SR . It uses a 593 Mbps data rate and supports up to 8 channels of audio.recording & playback XDCAM HD . HDCAM .data rates up to 8800 Mbps with up to 12 audio channels .Sony’s format records onto 1/2” videocassettes at a number of possible frame rates.
Editing MPEG-2 works well for transmission. 16-bit codecs available from companies like Pinnacle and Digital Anarchy .Implementation . there are also higher end. In addition to the standard bit depths of 8 and 10. but is not an ideal choice for editing due to its GOP structure and high compression ratio. Editors typically want access to discreet frames with less compression.
.Editing storage HD content. Consider this comparison: An hour of DV footage with a stereo pair of 16-bit audio tracks takes approximately 14 GB of disk space. An hour of 10-bit 1920 x 1080 HD footage with a pair of 24-bit audio channels requires nearly 600 GB of space.Implementation . takes massive amounts of bandwidth and disk space. especially uncompressed.
Because of their use of vacuum tubes.CRT monitors draw the lines one after the next. Flat panel. the displays can’t be constructed much larger than 40” or so.Implementation . use less electricity than . LCD – LCD HDTV monitors work by casting light through an array of cells sandwiched between two polarized planes.Display technologies CRT . from top to bottom to make an entire frame. LCD monitors are less expensive than CRTs to manufacture and come in both flat panel and rear projection varieties. Generally speaking they have pleasing color balance performance and wide viewing angles. direct-view monitors have become popular as computer and DTV monitors as they are bright.
When a current is applied to a sub-cell. The light is channeled through a lens onto the surface of the . Plasma cells contain three separate gas-fill sub-cells. In DLP monitors. blue or green light. DLP – Digital light processing is a technology used in projection displays. it ionizes the gas emitting ultraviolet light. light is reflected off an array of microscopic hinged mirrors. Each tiny mirror corresponds to a visible pixel. one for each color. plasma HDTV sets are thin and are made up of cells that correspond to pixels sandwiched between glass plates. The ultraviolet light in turn excites fluorescent substances in the sub-cells that emit red.Implementation .Display technologies Plasma – Like LCD monitors.
. LCoS projection systems use liquid crystals instead of mirrors to block light. The liquid crystals are arranged in a grid in front of a highly reflective surface.Display technologies LCoS – Similar to DLP.Implementation .
In December 2005. The NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) maintains a growing list of stations that have made the move to digital broadcast.Usage/Saturation A recent survey carried out by Panasonic in December of 2005 reported that 26% of US households will own or will purchase a highdefinition set by the end of 2006. .550 stations were broadcasting digitally. 1.
Impact of HDTV Broadcasters & consumers spend more $ Increased visual clarity has forced designers to spend considerably more money on sets. set dressings and props DVD battle being waged. Blu-Ray vs HD-DVD .
It’s a matter of time before some will . HDTV has brought a more cinematic experience into viewer’s homes and with digital cinema. products. delivered the film industry a few of the benefits of television. and easier as products and services become more widespread and people grow accustomed to the new technology. HDTV still has much lower resolution than 70mm film. However.Conclusion As NTSC retires. HDTV programming. Move will be cheaper. quicker. and production services will continue to grow exponentially.
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