Appropriate Technology: Learning from One Another

Jesse Margolus Tara Nakashima Chantal Orr

Table of Contents

Introducing Appropriate Technology............................................................................................................ 3 The Importance of Appropriate Technology ................................................................................................ 4 Case Studies: Simple Solutions Build Sustainable Communities ................................................................ 5 Appropriate Technology in the South ....................................................................................................... 5 Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Benefits........................................................................................................... 6 Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Challenges and Barriers.................................................................................. 8 Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Evaluation..................................................................................................... 10 Appropriate Technology in the North ..................................................................................................... 11 Overview of EcoVillage...................................................................................................................... 11 EcoVillage: Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 12 EcoVillage: Barriers and Challenges .................................................................................................. 13 Overview of Green Microgym ............................................................................................................ 13 Green Microgym: Benefits.................................................................................................................. 14 Green Microgym: Challenges and Barriers......................................................................................... 15 EcoVillage and Green Microgym: Evaluation .................................................................................... 15 Our Findings ............................................................................................................................................... 17 What We Can Learn from Each Other ........................................................................................................ 19 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... ……………. 20 Limitations………………………………………………………………………………………………...20 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………………..........21 Bibliography………………………...……………………………………………………………………..23

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and spiritual facets. benefits and challenges will be addressed to give an understanding of how AT operates in countries with diverse values and traditions. environmental. 3 . egalitarian societies meeting specific community needs in the long-term using local inputs. For the purposes of this paper our definition of sustainability is embedded in our definition of sustainable communities. Fritz Schumacher in the 1970s. Therefore. to achieve an overall understanding of what can be learned. Sustainable communities can be defined as healthy.Introducing Appropriate Technology: The concept of Appropriate Technology (AT) stemmed from the work of British economist Dr. Appropriate technology is a grass roots approach to technology that builds a strong sense of community and encompasses benefits that span across social. while preserving the natural environment and creating social harmony. Appropriate technology best fits with the community it serves because it is created by the people to meet a need. but rather adapts to best fit the community in which it is developed. These communities offer quality of opportunity to diverse needs allowing members to live and work now and in the future. Appropriate technology is not a one size fits all approach. In order to fully understand the importance of our topic it is also significant to define how sustainability is being measured for the purposes of our paper. environmental. economic. cultural. economic. Upon case study analysis. To begin our paper the importance of appropriate technology will be explained followed by a framework to evaluate case studies. the communities are placed at the centre of decision making and create technologies that will best serve their communities in the long term. Sustainability is the balance of social. self-sufficient. cultural and spiritual values in the long-term on a holistic and cumulative level.

allowing greater local industry participation and implementation of local resources. and is a technology made by and for the people.1 AT recognizes the will of local people to act on their own behalves. it permits local needs to be met more effectively through community involvement. Firstly.The Importance of Appropriate Technology: Appropriate technology is important due to its holistic nature.1 This enables people to self-organize without complicated management training and specialized knowledge. Our version of Wicklein’s evaluation includes 6 criteria: "Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. and plays an undoubtedly critical role in building sustainable communities. it minimizes transport of goods in an era of expensive and environmentally harmful energy. Finally. it establishes a self-sustaining skill base and reduces economic. and for this reason it tends to be aligned with local values and traditions. regions and nations. one of the criteria. both human and material.php>.org/pages/Appropriate_Technology/ ATSourcebook/Introduction. Since no evaluation is perfect." Welcome to Village Earth: The Consortium for Sustainable Village Based Development. 2009) 1 4 .1 Secondly. social and political dependency between individuals.villageearth.1 Fourthly. AT reinforces local control which provides a cushion against the effects of outside economic changes. In order to observe the progress and evaluate the appropriateness of technology. Thirdly. a restructured version of Wicklein’s evaluation is described below and later utilized to provide insight into case studies from the North and South. (accessed November 2. Web. the image of modernity was taken out as it undermines the importance of retaining tradition within a community and buys into the modernity theory. AT utilizes human labour by developing tools rather than machines. <http://www. The benefits of AT can be realized in both Northern and Southern countries.

which relate to the needed support systems2 5. Single-purpose versus multi-purpose technology. All the basic requirements of a community relate to clean water. “Around 1. "Designing for appropriate technology in developing countries. Khosrow Farahbakhsh. whereby solving different problems that the community encounters2 6. no. Ability of technology to stand alone without additional support systems2 2.375. it is apparent that AT does not have clear-cut parameters and is better viewed as a philosophy or a set of characteristics.1 billion people worldwide do not have safe drinking Wicklein. and environmental impacts2 4. 5 .com/science>. economic. especially in regards to southern countries. (accessed October 20. "Appropriate Technology: A Comprehensive Approach for Water and Sanitation in the Developing World. with regard to its capability of being reconfigured to grow with the society it benefits. Evolutionary capacity of technology. This perspective of AT has not always been the conventional wisdom. that relate to the fit in local production systems and external risks. The risk factor including internal risks. but access to water is disparate in southern countries.1. As Murphy et al." Technology in Science 31 (2009): 158. Individual versus collective technology. state. the term AT generally referred to technologies used in developing nations” aimed to alleviate poverty.2 Case Studies: Simple Solutions Build Sustainable Communities Appropriate Technology in the South Considering the definition described above.sciencedirect. 3 (1998): 371 ." Technology in Society Journal 20. Edward McBean.. “In the past. this section will describe the changing perception of technologies in the south and examine the case of the Zimbabwe Bush Pump (ZBP). Robert. H. 2009) 3 2 Murphy.3 Concentrating on the water sanitation sector. <www. where the latter refers to technology that has the ability to complete different tasks at the same time. Cost of technology which takes into account full costs to social. with regard to which one the culture values2 3.

Without being developed to meet local needs and conditions what may be a successful AT in one location is not necessarily in another.org/millenniungoals/pdf/mdg2007. "Improving Human Welfare through Appropriate Technology: Government Responsibility. Citizen Duty or Customer Choice." Soc. launched in the 1980s by the United Nations. “the drawers of water and guardians of family health”. ibid. Bell.6 The latest model (type ‘B’) is an adapted version of the original built in 1933 by Tommy Murgatroyd.4 During the 1960s. It can also be described as fluid for it is not too rigorously bounded. 40/9 (1995): 1171. The millennium development goals report 2007. The Water Decade. engineers believed sophisticated technology was the answer. Med.6 billion do not have access to basic sanitation”. focuses on serving Zimbabweans rather than imposing itself and is adaptable. and ownership. Sci. alternatively. assembly technique. Morag & Richard Franceys. Available from: http://www.un.5 Slow sand filters are popular around the world. at first glance it does not seem exceptionally different from other lever pumps (figure 1). 5 6 6 . 2007. took on a participatory approach and focused on the entire community. responsive and flexible. however once the water is above a certain turbidity they quickly clog. water purification system. especially women. Its uniqueness is encompassed in its durability (some that were installed in the 1930s are still in use).water while 2. Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Benefits The Zimbabwe Bush Pump. Although it has increased its efficiency over the years by lifting water from further depths with fewer strokes. 4 The United Nations (UN) 2007. however they have all been mainly abandoned.pdf.

Village adaptations of part replacements have been noted during site visits and have been incorporated into the design creating a two-way learning process. Drilling is done with a “tubewell drilling device” which is also lent to the village (figure2). NGOs often drill in location based on geological surveys. coli contaminated water has been a severe problem in Zimbabwe villages but can be reduced to safe levels by properly installing the ZBP. although the well is closer in proximity and produces clean water “you may see a path traced out in the sand that leads around it. The village women do not want to use the well.8 Manufactured locally. 8 7 . 233." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 234. Marianne & Annemarie Mol. it explains that it must be situated at least 30 meters from latrines and cattle kraals and what materials to create the base out of (all locally found). Determining the location and drilling the hole are the first stages and this is where many other water sanitization technologies have failed. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. ibid. Delivered with a detailed set of illustrations (as many villagers cannot read). the well is dead. if it has been bored without consulting the nganga (water diviner) or was put into operation without consent.”7 Therefore it is always together with the water diviner that the village chooses the site. spare parts can be normally be obtained and pieces of old tires can be used to replace the normally leather seal. while village men sit on the bar to weigh it down”. but as de Laet and Mol note.E. 7 de Laet. The entire community is able to participate in the process as “village women push the iron crossbar to drive the auger into the ground.

Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Challenges and Barriers The ZMB has become the national standard “Designed for Villagers to Maintain Themselves!”9 and over 30. wooden block level. as demonstration and oral explanation are usually the most effective in the assembly and use of the pump. Once in operation. 10 8 ." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 234. The ZBP’s latest design has incorporated this concern and has altered the hydraulic parts and expanded the cylinder resulting in an easier task for two men. The ZBP “requires a community to maintain it” and can hardly be separated from its maintenance programme. The government has principally covered the initial cost of the pumps. Marianne & Annemarie Mol. Furthermore. arguably more important is its reparability and maintenance. it is also costly to provide the personnel for these services. and a pump head. Although its design for simplicity is crucial. composed out of a steel pump stand. Costs remain to be a challenge. Some components may not be easily found and would need to be imported from the manufacturer. 245.coli may seep into the filtered water. Normally when valves and seals need to be replaced in hydraulic pumps the components often cannot be reassembled by the community. ibid. however maintenance and training costs remain high.000 have been installed in rural areas. This may appear as a typical challenge at first glance. its reliance on community participation cannot be overlooked. the ZBP is not dependant on external agencies and is largely selfsustaining.10 Without proper construction and maintenance E. alternatively. however it relies on a much more 9 de Laet. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology.

On one hand it provides safe drinking water to thousands of people but on the other it can be seen as assuming a “single model of development to which everyone aspires to”.11 From here the community is able to organize itself. Citizen Duty or Customer Choice. Many outsiders. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. What may seem as an amazingly appropriate technology on one scale must be critically analyzed on another. Sci. 11 de Laet.13 The UK manufactured bottle lacks in valuable local knowledge.12 The latter view follows that since women. Although Morgan has found that by distributing one to serve five families. fail to recognize that villages are not always homogenous entities and try to determine the ideal community size per pump. environmental sustainability. for example." Soc. As de Laet and Mol rebut. including the government.significant point: the community must firstly affirm itself as a community. 9 . such as Pritchard's Lifesaver bottle (figure 3). "Improving Human Welfare through Appropriate Technology: Government Responsibility. 1171. Morag & Richard Franceys. and carry the responsibilities needed for the pump to be successful." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 245. successful private ownership has sometimes evolved over collective responsibility. Evidently very small communities may find the maintenance too demanding and large communities may lose their sense of ownership. 13 12 ibid. Med. but aside from these rudimentary concepts the village unit is constantly evolving and difficult to determine. Bell. fitting with the extended family system in Zimbabwe. the community with a well functioning pump is not pre-given in this numbered fashion. 40/9 (1995): 1172. When considering other purification methods. Marianne & Annemarie Mol. its outcomes can be considered startlingly different. would enrol less time in collecting water “new opportunities would be available to engage in more productive tasks and to contribute directly to economic growth”.

to the assembly. Marianne & Annemarie Mol. The majority of all the aspects of the ZBP revolve around the collective community. Although the ZBP may be seen as a single-purpose technology to providing safe water.cultural cohesiveness.14 As mentioned above. once again. and has a large evolutionary capacity as communities have proven to adapt the pumps to fit their needs. As the inventors refuse to take out a patent on the ZBP. often spreading disease and requires a minute utilization demonstration. a northern technology imposed on the south. the technology is largely self-sufficient apart from certain replacement components in some areas and the initial training needed. its appropriateness allows people to remain in their villages. it is arguably a multi-purpose technology. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. rather than traveling to the nearest towns to collect imported water. to the formulated bolts that do not have to be tightened so often. from the initial nganga consultation. An internal risk is the commitment of the community to embrace the pump because without proper maintenance the pump will eventually stop working. Socially and environmentally the ZBP has very few harmful externalities. “The village has joint ownership and collective responsibility” making the already locally manufactured. and effective technology furthermore appropriate. Alternatively. Evaluation of the Zimbabwe Bush Pump When applying the Wicklein’s adjusted framework to the ZBP it is understandably appropriate. 10 ." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 234. 14 de Laet. and self-reliance and can be criticized as being. resilient.

Based on the principles of permaculture. we will focus on infrastructure and food practices. but a nation as a whole. from agriculture practices to residential infrastructure." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 250. For the purposes of this paper.the ownership is granted to 'the people' the ZBP not only brings healthier. recycled materials and a living roof. This section will describe each technology. and more sustainable a communities together. Marianne & Annemarie Mol. and will link the technology to its unique role in building sustainable communities. even in areas littered with modern technologies such as Canada. EcoVillage uses AT in a variety of ways. natural plasters. 11 . Overview of EcoVillage The first example of AT from the north is EcoVillage. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. 15 de Laet. and recognize how nature already has much of what they need. This section of the paper provides examples of AT from the North. EcoVillage has been hugely successful in natural building. a small community in the Cowichan valley dedicated to becoming self sustained. paints. their learning centre was built with a mix of straw bale and cob. citing one from Canada and one from the United States. although EcoVillage serves as a remarkable library of AT successes. For example. The builders look at the process through a different lens.15 Appropriate Technology in the North Appropriate technology is found all over the world. the benefits and challenges associated with that technology. EcoVillage hopes to act as a blueprint for other communities to become change agents and begin implementing sustainable projects that benefit their community.

which are often abandoned on construction sites and in other industrial areas.EcoVillage also has a large community garden where they grow a huge variety of food and even rear their own organic pork. These building processes have also given the community a sense of pride and public recognition for their work. Through creativity and environmental awareness. and how these play an undoubted role in EcoVillage’s community sustainability. Also Styrofoam blocks. EcoVillage has taken an intensive and alternative approach to food production minimizing their reliance on outside food sources and focusing on producing as much food possible themselves. For example. Residents have been utilizing local materials to produce buildings. This prevents the blocks from sitting in landfills for thousands of years. they recycle cardboard boxes and layer them in the soil to provide plants with nitrogen and other vital nutrients. some of these materials include recycled products and commercial waste. scrap lumber that does not meet industry standards is often used. control the pest problem. residents at EcoVillage have been able to create infrastructure that has a small environmental footprint and is cost effective to build. This lumber usually comes from local mills and is considered scrap due to its odd size or different colouring. since they are virtually non-biodegradable. They do this by utilizing labour intensive traditional crop rotation methods 12 . Benefits of EcoVillage This section will describe the benefits derived from the use of local resources in building and food production. Members of the community use traditional crop rotation methods and animals. In addition. such as ducks. are incorporated into the foundation and walls of buildings.

and support global inequality. and gives community members a deep rooted sense of appreciation for their food. it was tough for some of the people to go against traditional culture and accept the notion of “for the common good”. EcoVillage: Barriers and Challenges The progress at EcoVillage has not always been easy. healthy food source. 16 Also. create mass deforestation. By focusing a large part of their efforts towards local food production. creating its own energy through members' workouts. Local food production also provides social benefits as it encourages cross village participation.800-square-foot gym has similar equipment found in gyms of comparable size. 16 However. the use of local materials has provided EcoVillage with cost savings. Overview of Green Microgym A second case study on Appropriate Technology comes from the United States. the villagers struggled with the balance between collective and the individual. Since North America is characterized by paternalism and individualism.to deliver diverse and organic food to the community. The 2. The heavy bureaucracy of legalities weighed down on the community and slowed the building process on several occasions. entrepreneur Adam Boesel opened the first Green Microgym in Portland. EcoVillage is sustained with a seasonal. The gym is unique. Oregon. provides hands-on learning. stable. positive environmental impacts and an array of social benefits. Their traditional methods of agriculture produce nutrient rich soil and pest free plants. Secondly. For example. The locally grown food reduces reliance on imports which have: large carbon footprints. several spin 13 . As shown in these examples. their buildings faced legal constraints on a variety of issues such as safety. In 2008. the gym’s tread mills have energy efficient motors that use 30% less power than normal machines.

the gym uses second hand equipment and has no showers.bikes. 16 All of the energy is captured in a battery that feeds the gyms electricity needs. where members often engage in meaningful conversation and share knowledge of green issues and initiatives.ssf/2008/08/portland_gym_will_run_on_ pedal. Adam wants the gym to become completely self sustained and plans to do so by improving on the equipment technologies and looking at new ways of capturing energy from customers. and solar power awnings. Green Microgym’s most obvious benefits are environmental. 17 14 .com/environment/index. 2009). Our Green Advantage. the gym acts as a hub for social interaction. Furthermore. Many of the gym’s members are from the surrounding area. http://thegreenmicrogym. produce 200 to 600 watts of energy an hour. S. The gym also has cork flooring.17 The gym has positively impacted its own community in a variety of ways. 2009). In the near future. First. energy efficient ceiling fans. Portal Gym Will Run on Peddle Power: Oregon Environmental News (2008). Energy efficient machines and retrofitting of existing infrastructure have created space with a low carbon footprint and costs savings for the owners.oregonlive. due to its proximity to members’ homes. which makes the gym have a truly 16 Wood. which has been huge achievement for Green Microgym and attracted potent media exposure.html (accessed November 12.com/about-2/our-green(accessed November 15. that don’t use electricity. Energy that would have otherwise dissipated uselessly is now being captured to power the gym. advantage/ Green Microgym.16 Green Microgym: Benefits Adam Boesel found a technology that fits well with his business model and the community. http://www. The gym uses 60% less energy than comparable gyms of its size.

is used to judge the appropriateness of the technology for EcoVillage and the Green Microgym.local feel. stating it is unrealistic to expect people to forgo showers after the gym. http://www. especially with regards to food production. Portland Fitness Center First U. like yoga. Green Microgym: Challenges and Barriers Microgym’s equipment is criticized by some for not making significant reductions in the usage of fossil fuels. D. This is mainly because EcoVillage has become relatively self-sustaining with little reliance on outside systems. 18 15 . There is a major emphasis on supporting local businesses. the gym positively impacts peoples’ lives by contributing to their overall health and well-being. The former met many aspects of the evaluation criteria for this framework. The food production and building technologies reflect the collective culture of the village. adhering to Wicklein’s first principle. For instance. Finally. EcoVillage Silverberg. in their own homes.digitaljournal. the gym supports local artists by showcasing their artwork throughout the gym. which rests on the foundation of shared ownership and responsibility.S. Gym to Convert Human Energy to Electricity (2008). which also shows a low external risk factor.18 Evaluation of EcoVillage and Green Microgym Wicklein’s evaluation. they receive certificates for other local businesses. some customers complain about the zero shower policy. Finally. for example. the gym has built in mechanisms for helping local business. once a member has produced a certain level of energy. Moreover. making it inaccessible for people under a certain income level. 2009). Many people feel they can get a great physical workout by going outside or doing body exercises. described in the beginning of the paper.com/article/259787 (accessed November 13. Also. some complain that the gym’s membership fee is too expensive.

The technology is reflective of the local individualistic culture. Green Microgym met some of the evaluation criteria. For example. in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong some disco clubs. Microgym ranked fairly low on this evaluation scale due to a variety of reasons. Microgym has a strong reliance on outside support systems for the production of its exercise machines.17 There are also high costs associated with the use of the machine which are reflected in the gym membership fee. the idea of harnessing energy from physical activity is more capable of evolving with the society that it benefits.has been extremely resourceful in order to minimize costs associated with food production and building. Overall. ownership. this does not mean that the culture is sustainable or values the importance of a self reliant community and therefore is flawed upon analysis. while creating energy to power a percentage of the gym. or responsibility for the machines. traditionally 16 . the food is sustainably grown by the villagers and members build with low cost and recycled materials. Although the machines do not have the capacity to expand with society. For example. Although this can be viewed as appropriate in the sense that it fits with the individualistic culture. resulting in a complete disconnect between the users and the technology. For example. whereby contrasting preferable characteristics of collective societies. The exercise machines are a multi-purpose technology as they contribute to the well-being of users through exercising. since the raw materials and components are sourced from overseas. However. there is no shared learning.

and maintenance were consistently important pillars for AT in the South.html (accessed November 10. M. This decision making. and maintenance know-how was not as strongly present in the case of Green Microgym. technology transfer. which is needed in order for community members to embrace and use the pumps. Community participation. have been able to use the energy produced from dancing to power a portion of their operations. knowledge and the sense of ownership is lost. The ZBP is an excellent example of community buy-in. 2009). significant contrasts were noticed when comparing appropriate technology used in the south versus the north.power/index. The gym’s customers have no sense of ownership attached to the machines.huge consumers of power.19 Our Findings In examining the cases above. and teaching. local participation ensures the technologies will be better suited to the needs of those using it. gender issues. Are We Heading for a Human Powered Future? CNN. and adaptability. it is obvious that the technology varies greatly between the north and south. However due to high turnover of people. and they were not directly involved with the technology’s implementation. Furthermore. This is partly because they have no incentive or inclination to assemble and maintain them. 17 . 19 Steere. As appropriate technology is extremely context specific. ownership. This section will explore the differences of the AT with respect to community interaction. farming. Eco-Village falls between ZBP and Green Microgym because those present in the community continuously participate in all aspects of the building. implementation.com/2008/TECH/science/08/01/Human.cnn. http://edition.

its success will be considerably limited. if a treadmill breaks. Gender issues were surprisingly important in regards to water sanitation technology in the south and virtually nonexistent in the north. comparable to the Wicklein measurement of the evolutionary capacity of technology. Although the pumps were the same in size and functionality.. and maintenance were all decided and organized by and for the 20 Murphy. Parts must be sourced locally and replaced without external aid. otherwise it will become dysfunctional or deteriorate. Conversely.20 Finally. An example is the solar cooker which did not take into account women’s preference to cook their main meal at night. or need their husband’s consent to learn about the technology. Khosrow Farahbakhsh. If the women are not able to leave their homes. the location. Although the customers have a general idea of how the machines operate and the environmental benefits obtained. they must be suitable to meet women’s needs. was the necessity for the ZBP to be flexible and adaptable to each unique community it served. Edward McBean. are affected by newly introduced technologies. The locals must be taught skills to operate and repair the technology. such as water collection. rendering the AT unused. assembly of the base. are less educated. "Appropriate Technology: A Comprehensive Approach for Water and Sanitation in the Developing World. the exercise machines at Green Microgym do not require knowledge transfer and are heavily dependent on external sourcing. H." Technology in Science 31 (2009): 162. the customers would not be able to perform maintenance repairs. the technology transfer in the south is more important than the technology itself. Overall.The knowledge transfer of technology to the community is fundamental in the south. 18 . Because many of the activities performed by women.

and heavy reliance on non-renewable resources. but will allow the technology to evolve with the society. the south can learn something from the north. From this stems unparallel cooperation and care for one another that is sometimes forgotten in the north’s individualistic and closed society. disconnect from the natural environmental. Secondly. This vision of wholeness will not only better meet the needs of those using the technology. the north can learn about the benefits stemming from a community-focused approach to technology. the north can learn more about the importance of community with respect to community ownership and responsibility. which mainly focuses on economic and environmental appropriateness. participation. Listed below are some learning points that can be transferred from the south to the north. further strengthening interdependence among them. A positive 19 . In a broader context. where habitants are more engaged and have a sense of belonging to others and the community. and cultural fit which are learning points flowing from the south.community. we presumed the bilateral learning from north to south would starkly outweigh the learning from south to north. development does not have to mirror the north through hyper-consumption. this type of quantitative development can lead to more harm than good. From this lens. Our original assumption was consistent with the northern definition of appropriate technology. we neglected to see the importance of community social structures. the latter proved to hold more teachings than the former. What We Can Learn from Each Other Originally. Firstly. Eco-Village also thrives on its flexibility and adaptability to ideas and new abundant resources. Examples like EcoVillage capture this essence. After conducting a thorough analysis of the case studies. Furthermore.

The two other examples. As the southern cases have shown. as we have discovered. rather than considering the AT as the sole solution. Limitations Although this paper was carefully researched and cited specific examples relevant to understanding appropriate technology. Our final analysis proved opposite to our original hypothesis as it was discovered the north could benefit greatly by incorporating key values the south holds around technology. Providing knowledge and hope to our common future. environmental and spiritual values. Finally. were not scrutinized first hand and relied on the use of secondary data. economic. however. Conclusion This paper introduced appropriate technology and the importance of its holistic approach in encompassing cultural. the technology is only one piece of this puzzle. An altered framework to measure case studies in the north and south was used. Green Microgym and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. although relevant and intensely researched. EcoVillage was the only example where the authors were able to do primary research by visiting the site and participating in an active tour first hand. technology is consistently seen as a solution to creating sustainable communities in the north. and the results produced notable differences. Firstly. it was incorporated as a means to an end – a sustainable community. Secondary research methods were utilized simply because of the lack of time and resources on behalf of the 20 . appropriate technology plays a vital role in building sustainable communities world-wide.multiplier effect is a further benefit of this combination of social sciences and engineering which is not possible with a solely high technology perspective. it is important to recognize that there were some limitations.

Finally. and vice versa.authors to travel to these places and engage in a participative evaluation. Keeping this in mind. the authors hope the reader can achieve understanding into the overall purpose that these examples serve which provides a diversion from theory into practicality. 21 . it is important to acknowledge that similar cases to examples cited from the north in this paper are happening in the south.

22 .

APPENDIX Figure 1 Figure 2 23 .

Figure 3 24 .

2009).villageearth. 1973. 2009). 2009). 2009). Morag & Richard Franceys. http://www.php>.ssf/2008/08/portland_gym_will_run_on_ pedal." Soc. D.sciencedirect. Steere. Our Green Advantage. H. no.com/2008/TECH/science/08/01/Human. Med. 3 (1998): 371 ." Technology in Science 31 (2009): 158-167. Citizen Duty or Customer Choice.html (accessed November 10. 2009) Wood. 2009) Bell.com/science>.oregonlive. 2007." Technology in Society Journal 20. Robert. "The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. Portal Gym Will Run on Peddle Power: Oregon Environmental News (2008).S. "Appropriate Technology: A Comprehensive Approach for Water and Sanitation in the Developing World. http://thegreenmicrogym. Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered. de Laet." Welcome to Village Earth: The Consortium for Sustainable Village .Bibliography "Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. Web. Edward McBean. Sci. Silverberg.pdf.cnn.power/index.digitaljournal.com/about-2/our-greenadvantage/ (accessed November 15. Khosrow Farahbakhsh. 25 . Green Microgym. Available from: http://www. <www.un. Wicklein. The United Nations (UN) 2007. http://edition. Schumacher. "Improving Human Welfare through Appropriate Technology: Government Responsibility. Gym to Convert Human Energy to Electricity (2008).org/millenniungoals/pdf/mdg2007. Murphy. Marianne & Anne-Marie Mol. <http://www. M. (accessed October 20. Portland Fitness Center First U. Are We Heading for a Human Powered Future? CNN.com/environment/index.org/pages/Appropriate_ Technology/ ATSourcebook/Introduction. S. 40/9 (1995): 1169-1177." Social Studies of Science 30 (April 2000): 225-253. "Designing for appropriate technology in developing countries.375. (accessed November 2. The millennium development goals report 2007. E.com/article/259787 (accessed November 13.F. http://www. London: Dlond & Briggs Ltd.html (accessed November 12..Based Development.

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