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Editorial MB

couple of issues back, our editorial focused on the profound impact of

A global capitalism and eco design for sustainable communities, which are
set on a collision path, resulting in conflict and bloodshed. The terror
unleashed on the Nandigram community and subsequent bloodshed, and
unofficial reports of gang rape, proves the point. Should developmental projects
be allowed to sharpen the divides between the haves and the have-nots, between
the rural and urban, between the privileged and less privileged?
If we look at human history, we can see a powerful relationship between the
worldviews that people hold and the kind of society they construct, that is between
the way people believe their world is and the things they do to one another. All
through history, we are now aware; people thought the way they saw the world was
the way the world really was - be it religious, political, or scientific - which resulted
in wars, hot or cold.
The shift from the Paleolithic view of world (co-operative) that treated nature as the
great Mother Goddess to the Hebrew-Christian world view (dominant) of a
patriarchal god who created the world for man, and to the mechanical world view
(exploitative) in the golden age of science that treated the entire universe as
mechanical have had great impact the way societies / communities / nations
responded to a particular challenge.
The theory of evolution through natural selection of the fittest in a great
competition for limited resources was so easily adopted by the industrialists of
Darwin's period. And it has been used as a shield to cover the cruelty in the human
world - the exploitation of resources and labour by the rich was justified on the
grounds that it was natural! The focus was not on cooperation, but on competition
contrary to the evolutionary theories brought out by the Russian scientists that
argued that cooperation in nature produced more fit natural creatures than did
competition. And what an irony, the left government of Bengal that should have
protected the agricultural land, and the communities' right to their livelihood,
subscribe to such a world view, and become an oppressor.
It was heartening to note that even the present budget has given more impetus to
agriculture, underlining the importance of being 'inclusive'. Maybe it is better to
remember what Toffler said: “We stop looking at every ideas in terms of whether it
comes from the left or the right and see instead whether it takes us forward or
backward. And the best way to see is to look at living systems and how they function
when healthy.”To sum it up, as Elisabet Sahtouris, an evolution biologist puts it,
“The sooner we recognize ourselves as being in transition from exploitative and
divisive practices on all fronts to a united and harmonious living system, and the
sooner we recognize that there are natural models to guide us, the sooner will we
complete our healthy evolution by our own choice and efforts.”
The process of development is irreversible, and we need more industry to come up
to further the process. The point is any developmental project has to be inclusive,
and should, instead of sharpening the divide as has been the case earlier, bridge
the divides, that can act as catalyst to our slow march towards sustainability.

Agith G. Antony

MB 6 April 2007
Cover Story
Infrastructure Project
Funding as a Guide to
Steel Capacity Planning 48
TanmayRoy, Deputy General Manager (C&IT)
of Steel Authority of India Limited

Versatility of Steel as
Roofing Material 62 A MAD RUSH?
Alok Baishya, Senior Manager Are the investments to add
(Civil & Structural) Institute for Steel
Development & Growth (INSDAG) Kolkata Steel capacity Justified?

Roofing Trends
Intelligent Buildings 118
Metal Roofing & Cladding
for Modern Industrial Buildings 66 Dr. (Mrs) Samta Jain
Assistant Professor
Akruti City Gold University, Mumbai
Case Study R&D
Beyond the Rainbow
Radiative Property Control Studies on Fly Ash Concrete Role of
in Coil Coating Systems 70 Hydration Promotor Catalyst 88
James Maxted V.K. Ravikumar, Managing Director, Cera Chem Private Limited, Chennai
S. Sen, Technical Advisor, Cera Chem Private Limited, Chennai
Admixtures An Experimental Investigation On Silica Fume Concrete
Containing Combination Of Admixtures 100
Liquid Sand™ -
A Step Forward 78 D.K. Kulkarni, Rajarambapu Institute of Tech.
Upen Patel, Marketing Manager, BASF Dr. K.B. Prakash, K.L.E Society’s, College of Engg &Tech.
Construction Chemicals (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Fire Protection of Steel Structures
Technology Ensuring Integrity Against Fire On
Microstructure Study & Behaviour of HDPE Offshore Installations Part - II 122
Fibre Reinforced Concrete 94
Richard Holliday, Market Manager, International Paint Ltd
K.Manjula Vani, M.Potha Raju, N.Madhu Babu, A.Jaya Prabhakar Reddy

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Sustained Editorial 6

Elevated Temperatures on the Strength Properties of News & Events 10
Fibrous Ferrocement Using GI Fibers 109
N.K.Patil, Assistant Professor, DY Patil College of Engg. & Tech. FaL-G : CDM Project Signed with the World Bank 40
Dr. K B Prakash, Professor of Civil Engg. K.L.E. Society’s College of Engg. & Tech.
Exclusive Showroom for Waterproofing
Ondulit and the Multilayer Protection. Products in Chennai 42
The Advanced Performances of the System 84
SREI and EBRD in Strategic Alliance 44
Coatings Sankalpan Group Unveils National Expansion Plans 46
Excel Coatings Freedom from Heat -
Affordable Way 86 Supershield Technology 116
Cover Courtesy : Arizona Cardinals Stadium Classifieds 127
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MB 8 April 2007
News & Events MB

RIL Signs $4.5 bn Deal DIAL partner Malaysia Airports Wins

for Gas Fields World's Best Airport Award

Reliance Industries Ltd has signed DIAL is the joint venture company
contracts worth $4.5 billion to develop led by GMR Group formed to
its gas fields off India's southeast coast. modernize and restructure the
The spending will be part of $5.2 bn of Indira Gandhi International Airport,
investment the company plans for the Delhi and GHIAL is a GMR led joint
area, according to RIL's president for oil venture developing the new
and gas PMS Prasad. India's current Hyderabad International Airport.
gas supplies of 85 million cubic meters San Diego Airport in the US and
a day, including imported liquefied Zurich Airport in Switzerland were
placed second and third in the
natural gas, falls short of the potential
category at the award presentation
demand of 170mn cubic meters,
Malaysia Airports, a partner in Delhi ceremony, which was held in Dubai
according to estimates by the Oil
International Airport (P) Limited (DIAL) in conjunction with the two-day Airport
Ministry. Gas consumption may rise to Council International (ACI), Airport
and GMR Hyderabad International
400 million cubic meters a day by 2025 Airport Limited (GHIAL) has won the Business and Trinity Forum. KLIA
if the economy grows at the projected World's Best Airport Award in the 15-25 also maintained its third place in
rate of 7 8 % a year. RIL had said last million passengers per annum category both the Best Airport Worldwide and
year that the gas field off the country's by the Airport Council International's Best Airport in Asia/Pacific categories,
east coast will produce twice the Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards behind Incheon Airport, Korea, and
quantity previously estimated. The KG 2006. It was given this award for Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok Airport
DWN 98/3 field, discovered in 2002, will Malaysia's flagship airport, the Kuala while Singapore's Changi Airport
produce 80mn cubic meters a day, Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). was fourth.
compared with the initial estimate of 40
million cubic meters, the company said. first phase CIDC is setting up 6 such high vulnerability profile of the country,
clinics with the initial expense of Government of India has come up
CIDC to Set Up 6 Rs. 6 Crores. State Governments with the Disaster Management Act, 2005
Retrofitting Clinics of Rajasthan, Haryana and Madhya and set up the National Disaster
Pradesh have joined hands with Management Authority, under the
CIDC in setting up these clinics in their chairmanship of Hon'ble Prime
respective states. Several academic Minister. According to a study done
institutions have already agreed to by Sh.T N Gupta, Former Executive
be partners in this effort and being Director, Building Material Technology
designated as 'Identified and Promotion Council (BMTPC) and
Accredited Centers' of CIDC. Sr. Advisor to CIDC, “Nearly 80 percent
Retrofitting clinics enable owners of of our housing stocks which lie in
buildings get health and structural non-engineered category are highly
strength assessed for their houses or vulnerable to natural hazards like
Construction Industry Development buildings. Health of existing housing and earthquakes, cyclone etc, besides
Council (CIDC) in pursuance of buildings are a matter of concern for the a large stock of buildings which have
Government policy for national disaster State and Central Government, as India become aged and lie in disaster prone
mitigation is establishing a National is one of the most disaster prone regions. Large stocks of ageing
Network of Retrofitting Clinics in all the country when it comes to natural buildings in our urban and rural
districts of the country falling in disasters like earthquake, cyclones, settlements add another dimension
earthquake Zones III, IV and V. In the floods, landslides etc. Recognizing the to the vulnerability profile.”

MB 10 April 2007
News & Events MB
to provide a forum for International Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, a firm that specializes
C Congratulations
Partners, and to provide input on in manufacturing state of the art
international issues and relations to construction chemicals.
the Board of Direction as appropriate.
Dr. Manjrekar also happens to be one Reliance Energy to
of the three Indians to be a “Fellow” Develop Namakklal
of the American Concrete Institute, Karur highway
USA since 1999 in recognition for his
outstanding contributions to the ACI
and to Concrete Technology.
Dr. S.K.Manjrekar, a well-known He has already been bestowed upon
material scientist from India, has been with International Chapter Activities
recently given “Board Committee Award at the ACI spring Convention
appointment” on International at Vancouver, Canada in 2003.
Committee of ACI for a 3 year term. This was due to his dedicated service
The mission of this committee is to to the ACI India Chapter and years of
develop and coordinate ways and service to the concrete industry.
means to promote communication He is a member of ACI International
and co-operation between ACI and committee 364 and on certification viz.
international chapters, International 'IC-Cert'. The mission of this committee
Partners, and organizations and is to develop and report information and Reliance Energy (REL) has recently
institutions beyond the U.S. and maintain standards for rehabilitation, bagged a contract under National
Canada that share common interests renovation and preservation of concrete Highways Development Project phase
with ACI. The International Committee and masonry structures.He is the IIIA for developing the Namakklal Karur
is authorized to approve the formation President of India Chapter of ACI highway - a stretch of 80 km in Tamil
of international chapters and the and Chairman and Managing Director Nadu for Rs 516 crore. According to
establishment of their boundaries, of M/s Sunanda Speciality Coatings the sources a Special Purpose Vehicle
will be floated by REL to execute the
Mumbai's 2nd Airport to Cost Rs. 9,000 Crore project which includes the high traffic
density corridor from the Trichy Karur
The cost of Mumbai's second
project and is contiguous to the
international airport at Panvel, which
Namakklal Karur project on NH 7,
will be fully operational by 2009, is to
cost Rs. 9,000 crore. The airport is which is already being developed
likely to get Union Cabinet approval by REL. As per the sources REL
shortly, according to Mr Sanjay Ubale, has already received the letter of
Secretary, Special Projects, acceptance from the National Highways
Government of Maharashtra. Authority of India and will be initiating
CIDCO, the city's planning agency 2009, according to sources. A special work on the project at the earliest.
for Navi Mumbai has already acquired purpose vehicle is being established In 2006, REL had won contracts for
90 per cent of the land required for the for the project. The Maharashtra two road projects in Tamil Nadu and
airport. Soon after Cabinet approval, Government and the Airports Authority invested around Rs 750 crore.
and after environment impact of India will hold 13 per cent stake The first project was a 34 km stretch
assessment which is being done each in the SPV, while the private from Namakkal to Karrur, with another
by IIT Bombay, tenders would be developer will hold 74 per cent.
10 km for maintenance, and the
issued for the project, and the The estimated cost of the airport
second, a stretch of 54km from
airport would be fully operational by is expected to be Rs.9,000 crore.
Dindigual to Samaynallur.

MB 12 April 2007
News & Events MB

India, Japan to Iink Comprehensive Economic Pact

Mr. Katsuhito Asano, Senior Vice rules and regulations for interstate
Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, transactions, said Mr Mikio Sasaki,
Japan mentioned that later this month, Chairman, Mitsubishi Corporation.
the first strategic dialogue on the These challenges could be met by
Economic Partnership Agreement the India - Japan EPA (Economic
(EPA) at the foreign minister level will Partnership Agreement), for which
be held in Japan. The Japan-India negotiations had already been initiated,
EPA should serve as a model of a government initiatives through a
A Comprehensive Economic high quality economic partnership judicious mix of grant aid, Yen credit
Partnership Agreement (CEPA) towards 'open regionalism' in Asia, loan and technical assistance, and
between Japan and India is under he said, expressing the hope that India India - Japan Strategic Global
constructive discussion and Japan will take bold steps to this end. Japan is Partnership, he suggested.
has committed that a special economic a major donor to SAARC countries and The Japan International Cooperation
relationship will be clinched within one considering the regional dynamism in Agency (JICA) would continue to
year, said Mr. Ashwani Kumar, Minister South Asia, the two countries might be support India in the four priority
of State for Industry, Ministry of able to establish new, more efficient sectors of Infrastructure, Environment,
Commerce and Industry at the methods to utilize this assistance for Social Development and Human
Symposium on 'Japan-India regional projects, said Mr. Asano. Resource Development, as agreed
Strategic Partnership in the era The main hurdles facing Japanese upon by the Prime Ministers of both
of Asian Regional Integration', investment in India were inadequate countries in their joint statement last
organized by the Confederation infrastructure, complicated legal December, said Dr Sadako Ogata,
of Indian Industry (CII), recently. and taxation system and insufficient President, JICA.

Work Begins to Facilitate months starting March 16, 2007.

The proposed alternate taxiing route
Aircrafts Movement through the domestic apron for aircraft
at Delhi Airport from International Terminal (Terminal 2)
towards runway 28/27 may lead to an
In an effort to enhance passenger additional taxiing time of a few minutes.
comfort and to ensure more efficient However, the taxiway P would be made
aircraft operations, Delhi International available everyday during the peak
Airport Pvt. Ltd. (DIAL) is carrying out hours of international traffic, i.e. from
work involving two new taxiways 2200 hrs to 0800 hrs.
U and V. This will facilitate faster
runway clearance from Runway 10 side Ispat signs MoU
towards the international terminal. for Integrated Steel Plant managing director, Ispat Industries and
The Runway occupancy time will be K K Khandelwal, secretary department
reduced with increase in its capacity. Ispat Industries has recently signed a of industries in Ranchi. This is the
Since, the holding time for aircraft memorandum of understanding (MoU) third major investment plan announced
awaiting clearance to land at Delhi with the Jharkhand government for by Ispat in the recent past. Earlier Ispat
Airport would reduce further; the setting up an integrated steel plant at signed an MoU with the Chhattisgarh
passengers and airlines will be Manoharpur in West Singhbhum district government for setting up a 600
benefited. The construction work with an estimated cost of Rs 6,750 megawatt power project at an estimated
would require the closure of a portion crore. The initial production will be 2.8 investment of Rs 2,500 crore apart
of taxiway P for aircraft movements million tonne, which will later be scaled from an MoU with the Maharashtra
between 0800hrs to 2200hrs (non-peak up to five million tonne in phases. The for capacity expansion of its integrated
hours) for a period of approximately two MoU was signed between Vinod Mittal, steel plant at Dolvi.

MB 14 April 2007
News & Events MB

6th Greentech leading private sector utility group, products (non-SSI category) for the
with aggregate estimated group year 2003-2004 and the Niryat Shree
Safety Gold Award to revenues of Rs 10,500 crore (US$ 2.3 Silver Trophy for 2004-05. The awards,
REL's Power Plants billion), and total assets of Rs 10,800 instituted by the Federation of Indian
crore (US$ 2.4 billion). The group Export Organisations, were presented
REL's Dahanu and Goa power distributes nearly 21 billion units of by Kamal Nath, honourable minister of
stations have bagged the prestigious power to over 5 million consumers in commerce & industry, government of
Greentech Safety Gold Award for Mumbai, Delhi, Orissa and Goa, India, at New Delhi on December 26,
year 2006 in thermal and gas power across an area covering 1,24,300 sq. 2006. Rahul Kshetrapal from the
category respectively. The award Kms. Reliance Energy generates 941 northern regional office received the
was presented to the company by MW of power, through its power plants award on behalf of Tata BP Solar.
Mr. Tony Smith of the National Safety located in Maharashtra, Andhra
Council, USA in a function held in Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Goa. Mr S. Bhattacharya is
Mumbai recently. Dahanu Thermal SAIL's New Director
Power Station and Goa Power Station Tata BP Solar (Finance)
are ISO 14001 certified andhave also Awarded Niryat Shree
won various prestigious awards that Gold Trophy
include the Greentech Foundation
Award in Environment for year 2005 Tata BP Solar has been awarded
and 2006 respectively. the Niryat Shree Gold Trophy for
Reliance Energy, a part of Reliance - outstanding export performance in the
Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, is India's electronics and computer software

JSPL Plans $2.1 b Investment at the El Mutun Mr. Soiles Bhattacharya has assumed
charge as Director (Finance) of Steel
Jindal Steel and Power Limited Authority of India Limited (SAIL).
(JSPL), part of Rs.20,000 crore Jindal Prior to this he was Executive Director
Organisation, has reached an (Finance & Accounts) in SAIL's
agreement with the Bolivian
Central Marketing Organisation.
Government on the terms of the
planned $2.1 billion investment in After graduating as a Metallurgical
mining and steel-making at the El Engineer from Banaras Hindu
Mutun iron ore mines. El Mutun, University, Mr Bhattacharya joined
believed to contain one of the world's products of steel, and will also have SAIL as Graduate Trainee in 1974.
biggest iron-ore reserves, contains an DRI (Direct Reduced Iron /Sponge Continuing to pursue his academic
estimated 40 billion tonnes of iron ore iron) Plant of capacity 6MTPA and a interests, he completed his ICWA in
of medium-grade quality. Bolivian pellet plant of capacity 10MTPA. The 1989 while in service. Mr Bhattacharya
President Evo Morales and JSPL's company will also be setting up has served in different units of SAIL
Senior Management team led by supporting infrastructure for the
Mr. Vikrant Gujral, Vice Chairman & and has earned accolades for
proposed plant including a 450 MW
CEO and Mr. Sushil Maroo, Director- Power Plant. The project will allow spearheading several key initiatives
Finance agreed on the tax rate and Bolivia to develop a steel-making in the organisation. He has been
natural gas prices for the iron and industry for the first time and is the credited with setting up the cost
steel project. A definitive contract will biggest investment in a single project control department during his stint
be signed with the Government later. in Bolivian history. The investment by at SAIL's Rourkela Steel Plant.
JSPL plans to invest USD 2.1 billion JSPL will create gainful direct jobs in Mr Bhattacharya also had an opportunity
over the next 8 years in creating an the iron ore mine and the steel plant. to serve as a certified Action Leadership
integrated steel plant, which would be The deposit is located southeast of
tutor at SAIL's Management Training
capable of producing 1.7 MTPA of long Bolivia, near the Brazilian border.
Institute located at Ranchi.

MB 16 April 2007
News & Events MB

Anil Kumar Sardana Appointed launch of these training programmes

at other CIDC Centers on agreed terms.
Executive Director of Tata Power The MoU was signed in Delhi by
The Tata Power Company has performance in substantive ways, Sh. P.R.Swarup, Director General
appointed Anil K Sardana as Sardana has demonstrated a track CIDC and Sh. Sanjay Bahl, Finance
Executive Director with effect record of delivery and senior level Director, IGL. The MoU, provides IGL
from March 1, 2007. Prior to this interface. He has received the Asian & accreditation under CIDC-HRD scheme
assignment, Sardana was the South Pacific Utilities Associated for conducting construction workers
Managing Director of North Delhi CEO of the Year Award 2005 and training, testing and certification
Power Limited (NDPL), an associate Asian Power CEO of the year 2006 programmes for their existing training
company of Tata Power for power award announced by the Asian Power centers. “This agreement will help us
distribution in New Delhi. Sardana Journal, Singapore. An electrical to achieve our goal to train each and
will be responsible for strategy and engineer with 27 years of professional every construction worker for their
business development function at Tata experience in the power industry, skill enhancement and ensuring
Power. In addition to transforming Sardana has previously worked with higher construction quality. It is further
NDPL to deliver an improved NTPC and BSES. extension of our work in western part
of the country”, Said CIDC Director
Pavement Engineering For details e-mail: General Sh P.R.Swarup.
Web Page: According to Sanjay Bahl, “Finance
with Geosynthetics
Coordinators Director, IGL “Our company's
Prof. G.Venkatappa Rao philosophy is to upgrade the skills of
Dr. Kalaga Ramachandra Rao construction workers in the area of dry
construction techniques towards false
CIDC Joins Hands with
ceiling, partition / walls, cladding in
IGL for Worker's Training building interiors for meeting specific
standards towards fire safety, sound
insulation and use of green products /
systems in order to improve the quality
of building construction, that is why we
are here. At present, we are running our
A Short term Course on Pavement
programme at Wada, near Mumbai and
Engineering with Geosynthetics will
we wish to run this programme along
be organized under the aegis of FITT, with CIDC in other parts of the country."
IIT Delhi. The course will provide a All successful certified construction
comprehensive idea of all the related workers get 'Skilled Construction
users of use of geosynthetics in Construction Industry Development Workers' Certificates awarded by CIDC
pavement structure and for drainages. Council (CIDC) and India Gypsum (jointly promoted by the Planning
The objectives of the course primarily Limited (IGL) have decided to work Commission and Indian Construction
targeted for engineering college together in collaboration to undertake Industry). CIDC is actively engaged in
teachers and highway engineers are: the task of skill upgradation and training skill upgradation of construction workers
Familiarise with uses of modern of construction workers in the area of for last ten years. Recently, the state
pavement materials and the design application of Gypsum Products for Governments of Haryana, Rajasthan,
methodology & Testing, Ascertain interior finishes. CIDC and IGL agree to Madhya Pradesh and Bihar have
the type of design method required, launch this Project at India Gypsum Ltd allotted 29 Industrial Training Institutes
Use the design methods, Training Centers at Mumbai, which (ITIs) to the Construction Industry
Characterization of geosyntetic materials, would be henceforth become CIDC Development Council (CIDC) for five
Using Geosynthetic in pavements etc Accredited Training Centres. According years for testing skills and imparting
Pavement construction techniques. to the MoU, CIDC will also facilitate training to construction workers CIDC.

MB 18 April 2007
News & Events MB

SAIL Wins SCOPE Gold Trophy

the Prime Minister of India,

Dr Manmohan Singh, to SAIL Chairman
Mr S.K. Roongta at a function held
at the Parliament Library Building in
New Delhi this morning. SAIL, the
largest steel maker of the nation, was
one of the leading PSUs that received
the award on the occasion. Instituted
Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh by the Standing Conference of Public the interiors, hospitality and
presenting the SCOPE Gold Trophy to Enterprises (SCOPE), the apex body construction industry on a common
SAIL Chairman Mr S.K. Roongta. of public sector organisations, the platform. The last edition of the events
award aims to reward, recognise saw participation of 137 companies
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) and encourage the contribution of from 14 countries including 6 country
has been conferred the Gold Trophy of public enterprises as well as of
pavilions. The 2007 edition of the
the 'SCOPE Award for Excellence and outstanding individuals for their vision
Outstanding Contribution to the Public and leadership qualities in creating shows will see participation from 18
Sector Management' in the national wealth. The five-member countries across the globe - Germany,
Institutional Category for the year jury for the awards was headed by Spain, France, Italy, UK, Taiwan,
2004-05. The award was presented by Justice P.N. Bhagwati. Thailand, Philippines, China, Malaysia,
Turkey, UAE, Jordan, Greece, Australia,
profession of Civil Engineering. Lebanon, New Zealand & India.
Tandon Gets The three day exhibition will provide
At the FIB Congress at Naples, Italy,
Structural Engineer he was invited to present a keynote a great sourcing opportunity for trade
of the Year Award paper on 'Elevated Viaducts of Delhi visitors with a wide range of products
Metro' and the project was also on display under one roof. The exhibits
In a glittering National Award nominated for the Outstanding would include an exhaustive range
presentation ceremony recently, Structures Award' in recognition of interiors, construction and hospitality
Prof Mahesh Tandon was accorded of its positive influence and reputation products, services & technology.
the Archidesign Hindware Award and promotion of concrete structures. Apart from the display of best of
for the 'Structural Engineer of the year products, technologies and brands
2006' by the Foundation for Architecture Dubai's Three Best Sellers from across the globe, the events will
& Environmental Awareness. also feature the Annual Day Conference
Now In India
Prof Tandon received the award from of Indian Institute of Interior Designers
Mr R K Somany, Chairman Archidesign Expomedia Events India the Indian (IIID) and important seminars by
Awards. Earlier in the year he was subsidiary of London based Expomedia Federation of Hotel & Restaurants
honoured by the Institution of the Group plc in association with dmg world Association of India (FHRAI), and
Engineers (India) in recognition of media Dubai in a few weeks time are to Indian Association of Structural
his eminence and contributions to the run the third edition of its co-located Engineers (IAStructE) providing an
events Interiors International India (III) opportunity to interact with leading
and India International Construction & national and international personalities.
Contracting Exhibition (ICON) and the For further details contact:
second edition of Hospitality Rajnish Sinha
International India (HII) to be held at Manager- Marketing
India Expo Centre EXPI XXI from 3 rd Expomedia Events India
May - 5th May 2007. The co-located Somdatt Tower, K-2, Sector-18
exclusive B2B exhibitions are aimed at Noida, India
bringing together the entire spectrum of Phone No.0120-2516110, 2516144

MB 20 April 2007
News & Events MB

IDFC PE to Invest 7% Increase in NHDP Allocation

Rs 400 crore
ground work by the National Highways
IDFC Private Equity (IDFC PE) is Authority of India (NHAI) before
planning to invest in the oil and gas inviting bids in different phases.
sector in a big way, especially in city Another welcome initiative by
Chidambaram is the announcement
gas distribution companies.
on declaring the Rs 1,700 crore
The company is investing about $60
road-cum-rail bridge at Bogibeel,
million (Rs 270 crore) in Krishna Assam, over the Brahmaputra, as a
Godavari Gas Network Ltd (KGGNL) A 7% increase in National Highway national project. This is on the lines
a gas distribution company aimed at Development Programme (NHDP) of the road-cum-rail bridge at Munger,
building intra-state transportation grid allocation to Rs 10,667 crore was Bihar, over the Ganga. This move
in Andhra Pradesh. IDFC PE, which announced for the roads sector. In step will ensure central assistance to the
would be the majority stakeholder in with all the hype over development of project given the resource crunch
KGGNL, has roped in Gujarat State roads, Finance Minister P Chidambaram of Assam. The project otherwise
Petroleum Ltd and Andhra Pradesh has hiked the allocation for developing would not have been possible.
Industrial Development Corporation, highways in the Budget for 2007-08 Completion of the project is expected
the investment arm of the Andhra by more than Rs 700 crore. This has to improve connectivity of the north-
government, as equity partners for been viewed many as not sufficient east region both with the rest of the
the project. While announcing IDFC's as the allocation is just sufficient for country and also with neighbouring
conducting feasibility studies and countries like China.
equity participation in Quipo
Infrastructure Equipment Ltd (QIEL),
Satish Mandhana, Executive Vice Greentech Safety
President of IDFC PE, said the total
Gold award 2006 to
corpus of IDFC PE is about Rs 2850
crore, consisting of two funds. "The Noamundi
first fund, which is of Rs 900 crore,
has been exhausted, while 40% of the
second fund has been committed.
We aim to exhaust the second fund
by December 2008."

Road Shows Abroad to

Attract Overseas Funds for
Ambitious Core Projects
govt has invited 50 NRI businessmen of Noamundi Iron Mine has been bestowed
In order to attract overseas funds for Kerala origin for discussions to detail with the 6th Annual Greentech Safety
ambitious core projects, the Kerala the capital-base & operations of InKel Gold Award 2006 in miming and
government has recently floated an Four places in Kerala, including metal sector. The award was presented
infrastructure public-private participation Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi, are on 22nd February 2007 at Bombay
firm - Inkel, and it is understood that identified for setting up parks for Exhibition Centre by Mr. Tony Smith,
The first of the series of overseas enterprises in sunrise industrial Executive Director, National Safety
roadshows for Rs 100-cr InKel will get segments. Roadshows abroad, Council, USA. On behalf of the
going from UAE in April this year. beginning next month, are expected to company Mr. Sachindra Mahato,
Roadshows in Europe and the US are fetch captial for the new company. The President, Noamundi Mazdoor Union
also in the pipeline and expected to dates of the roadshows in Europe, West and Mr. Rajesh Kumar, Sr. Manager
fetch captial for the new firm. The state Asia and the US will be decided. (Safety) received the award.

MB 22 April 2007
News & Events MB
a scheme is that customers can draw
Tata Steel Conferred the "Award for Corporate upon amounts or tranches of loan as
Social Responsibility in Public Health” per their requirement subject to a
maximum limit.
Tata Steel has been conferred "Award The three schemes attracted over 1,500
for Corporate Social Responsibility in customers across the country including
Public Health" by US-India Business over 900 registered bidders resulting in
Council (USIBC), Population Services an aggregated business profile of Rs
International (PSI) and The Center 400 crore in just a single day which
for Strategic and International Studies
underscores SREI's success in event
(CSIS) at an event organized by FICCI
based marketing programmes. The
held at Taj Mahal Palace & Tower
in Mumbai. Mr. B. Muthuraman, and prevention of a life threatening equipment pool for the Delhi show
Managing Director, Tata Steel received disease like HIV/Aids.” ballooned to over a 1,000 numbers
the award from Ms. Ashley Judd, Tata Steel Ltd's involvement towards valued over Rs 400 crore. Eight
acclaimed Hollywood actress and preventing HIV/AIDS dates back to hundred and sixty of the equipment
PSI board member. Tata Steel has early 90s when the organisation pool was attributed to the "Paison Ki
been selected for the award for their realised that the disease had acquired Nilami" event itself, while around 200
outstanding contribution done for epidemic proportions and accepted odd equipment were sought by
combating HIV/AIDS. Receiving that its control or prevention was not the customers through the other schemes
the award, Mr. B Muthuraman, sole responsibility of the government. SREI Lotto and SREI Money Bag.
Managing Director, Tata Steel said, In 1994, the management of Tata Steel K K Mohanty, executive director said,
"As a corporate citizen, for almost a Ltd evolved a Corporate Sector Model to "the entire credit for this success goes
century, Tata Steel Ltd is committed prevent STD/HIV/AIDS and constituted to our valued customers who have,
to improving the quality of the life of a Core Group - AIDS and Nodal over the years, exhibited tremendous
its employees and also the community Centre - AIDS to focus on this disease confidence in our innovative and holistic
that we operate in. We have set some and formulate strategies for its control value-added offerings in partnership
global benchmarks in corporate social and prevention. Since more than a with manufacturers."
responsibility and this award is yet decade, annually approximately 250 Echoing Mr Mohanty's words, the CEO
again recognition the exemplary work AIDS Awareness Programmes are
of asset finance, SREI, D K Vyas said
undertaken by Tata Steel in controlling conducted within the workplace.
that "events like "PKN" provides the
right platform to buyers and sellers
SREI Concludes Rs 400cr for concluding large numbers of
Business in an Evening transactions within a short time.
This is in consonance with our objective
at "Paison Ki Nilami” of working with our customers and
manufacturers as partners, enabling
SREI Infrastructure Finance Limited has them to conclude large business within
raked in business of a whopping Rs 400 the shortest time with least interest."
crore in a single day "Paison Ki Nilami" "PKN", on SREI's calendar for the
event held on February 16th at the last two years has unleashed four
Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. The them to hammer down coupon rates on such editions, the first time being in
enthusiasm exhibited by customers loans sought by them for infrastructure November 2004 in Kolkata. The maiden
bidding for the lowest possible interest equipment purchases. Simultaneously, event attracted nearly 300 bidders
rate on loans availed by them was SREI also ran its other popular schemes and a business of over Rs 100 crore.
phenomenal given the unprecedented such as SREI Lotto, where luck played Traversing through Bhubaneswar,
turnout at the venue itself. On the CII a part in the freezing of the interest rates, Hyderabad and now New Delhi,
platform for the first time, "Paison Ki and SREI Money Bag, a passbook "PKN" has come a long way, the
Nilami" attracted over 700 customers to scheme with pre-determined credit limits business as well as the customer
the 'reverse auction', which allowed to customers. The advantage of such base having grown substantially.

MB 24 April 2007
News & Events MB
planned to set up nine ultra mega
Tata Steel Acquires 8,000 MW from
projects to add capacity in a country
100 per cent Equity in 2 Mega Projects with a total yield of 1,28,182 MW.
Rawmet Industries
13 states will be benefitted from 2 ultra 150 MW Wind Power Project
mega power projects in Tilaiya
Reliance Wind Energy, an arm of
(Jharkhand) and Cheyyur (Tamil Nadu),
Reliance ADA Group has finalised
which is expected to generate 8,000MW
arrangements to set up 150 MW wind
These two ultra mega power projects is power project with Suzlon Energy.
developed by PFC at the cost of Suzlon Energy will set up the Wind
Rs16,000 cr and Rs.20,000 cr. Though Farm in Sangli District in Maharashtra
the process of identifying companies at a cost of Rs 900 crores. This order
that will build the projects involves of 150 MW will make Reliance ADA
competitive bidding, the government has Group as one of the biggest wind energy
Tata Steel Ltd pursuant to the Definitive decided to sign power purchase generators in the country. Reliance
Agreement signed on 15th January agreements even before a developer is has plans to set up 500 MW of wind
2007, has acquired 100 per cent of decided. The government had initially power in over the next 2 - 3 years.
equity stake in Rawmet Industries
Private Limited (Rawmet), a company New Hyderabad Airport Ties up
having its registered office at Kolkata, Rs. 718 crore for Expansion
at an enterprise value of Rs 101 crores.
This is the second 100 per cent
installing additional security
acquisition of Tata Steel Ltd in Orissa.
equipments for meeting the safety
In September 1991, Tata Steel took
standards of BCAS.
over the Ferro Alloy Plant in Bamnipal.
While the rupee term loans of Rs 200
Rawmet has a Ferro Alloy Plant near
crore are being extended by Andhra
Cuttack, consisting of two 16.5 MVA Bank and Vijaya Bank, Abu Dhabi
semi closed electric arc furnace having Commercial Bank would extend the
a capacity of producing around 50,000 remaining Rs 518 crore in US Dollars
tonnes per annum of High Carbon Ferro GMR Hyderabad International Airport in the form of external commercial
Chrome. The Board of Rawmet has Ltd, (GHIAL) which is developing the borrowing (ECB). The ECB has a
been reconstituted with nominees of international Greenfield airport at repayment moratorium of two years
the Company. Its Board now consists Shamshabad, has executed financial from the date of commencement of
of five Directors out of which four are agreements for borrowing Rs. 718 the airport operations, and the
nominees of Tata Steel Ltd. Prior to this, crore from three banks: Abu Dhabi repayment schedule is spread over
Tata Steel had taken over the Ferro- Commercial Bank, Andhra Bank and 14 years thereafter. Speaking on the
alloys plant in Bamnipal in Keonjhar Vijaya Bank recently. This investment occasion, Mr. T. Srinagesh, COO,
district, which was considered as one is for creation of additional facilities, GHIAL, said: “We are happy to have
of the first successful disinvestment. common fuel farm and business hotel Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Vijaya
In September 1991, Tata Steel took in the airport. The extra amenities Bank & Andhra Bank on board for
over the then "sick" unit for Rs. 156 being created include more aircraft funding of additional facilities at the
crores from erstwhile OMC Alloys. parking stands, rapid exit taxiways, full new airport. The money would be
The plant has now surpassed its installed length parallel taxiway and additional used to achieve our business goal
office space for airlines, extra cargo of continuously meeting the demands
capacity of 50,000 TPA of charge
terminal space, additional car parking of services for increased passenger
chrome/ ferro-chrome. The new feather
for passengers and public, extra growth.” He added that the work is
in the Tata Steel's cap is yet another
immigration desks, self-check-in progressing at a rapid pace and the
step to further strength the hundred kiosks and bus gate lounges. The airport would take-off as per schedule
year's relationship between the State money would also be used to finance in March 2008.
and the Company.

MB 26 April 2007
News & Events MB

Tata Steel Acquires Two Steel Rolling Mills in Vietnam L&T Consortium bags
Rs. 1400 crore Order for
As part of the Company's focus on
regional consolidation, Tata Steel
Vizag Steel Plant Expansion
through its wholly-owned subsidiary
NatSteel Asia Pte. Ltd. (NSA), has Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) and its
entered into an agreement to acquire international consortium partners of
controlling equity stake in two rolling Paul Wurth Italia and India have bagged
mills located in Haiphong, Vietnam, an EPC package, valued over Rs. 1400
has entered into a conditional crores, for the expansion of Vizag Steel
agreement with Vietnam Industrial Plant of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
Investments Ltd (VII) to acquire: A (RINL). This is the largest single-value
100% stake held by VII in Structure million, subject to certain closing
EPC order by the client and was
Steel Engineering Pte Ltd (SSE(S)), adjustments on completion.
bagged against stiff international
and also A 70% stake held by VII in The transaction should be completed
Vinausteel Limited. The remaining by June 2007. Mr Oo Soon Hee, competition from Chinese, Korean and
30% share is held by Vietnam Steel President and CEO of NSA, said: Russian firms. In line with the National
Corporation (VSC). By virtue of the “The Vietnamese steel market has been Steel Policy envisaging production of
acquisition of the respective stakes, growing at a healthy rate over the past 110 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) of
NSA will effectively have acquired five years. NSA believes the market for steel in the country by the year 2019-20,
two rolling mills located in Haiphong, steel products in Vietnam will continue RINL has embarked upon a capacity
North Vietnam: A 250k tpy bar/wire to grow at a strong pace as consumption expansion at Vizag. It had invited bids
rod mill operated by SSE Steel Ltd of steel products in Vietnam on a per for installation of a new third blast
(a wholly-owned subsidiary of SSE(S)), capita basis is relatively low. We are
furnace to double its capacity to 6.5
A 180k tpy reinforcing bar mill operated glad to have this opportunity to work
MTPA of hot metal from the present
by Vinausteel Ltd. The enterprise closely with VSC to enhance our
value for the acquisition is USD41 strategic presence in Vietnam.” level of 3.2 MTPA. L&T will construct
this blast furnace - a state-of-the-art
projects in Maharashtra and Jharkhand 3800 cu.m. unit with a capacity of 2.5
Essar Power to invest while it has launched development of million tonnes of hot metal per year.
firms up Rs 13,000 Crore 1,200 MW pit head coal based power This is the second biggest blast furnace
project in Madhya Pradesh. in India. L&T's Construction Division,
The company last week has been ECC, will execute this contract in
allotted a captive coal mine at Chakla, consortium with Paul Wurth Italia within
Jharkhand with the potential coal a stringent time-frame of 30 months.
reserves of 110 million tonne while L&T's scope of work includes complete
Essar Power in joint venture with detailed engineering apart from certain
Hindalco has launched development areas of basic engineering based on the
of captive coal mine allotted in Mahan, process-engineering being supplied by
Madhya Pradesh last year with the coal Paul Wurth. The complete indigenous
reserves of 180 million tonne. In case of manufacturing and supply of equipment
Madhya Pradesh mining venture, Essar lies in the scope of L&T. Apart from
Power and Hindalco would contribute this, complete site services including the
50% equity each in the total 30% equity civil and structural works and erection
Essar Power is planning to investment while raise 70% debt. The entire project of equipment will be undertaken
over Rs 13,000 crore in power and entails an investment of Rs 400 crore by L&T, with specialized supervision
mining projects during 11th plan. and the JV company would be able to being provided by Paul Wurth.
The company proposes to set up start coal production from 2010, L&T's contract-value in this project
1,000 MW each coal based power according to the sources. is around Rs. 810 crores.

MB 28 April 2007
News & Events MB

Electrical Engineers Key hi-tech construction involving

power plants and mega projects.
for Tapping Rs. 10,000cr. The JV, which is a 50:50 partnership,
Energy Saving Potential will bring together world class
competencies in design, construction,
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business safety, speed and post completion
Centre recently organized a national services, making significant investments
level seminar on "Electrical Systems", and creating employment opportunities.
exclusively for Electrical Engineers, DLF Laing O' Rourke will be staffed by
in Hyderabad. The seminar provides the world's leading construction team
a platform for information sharing, comprising of the best of professionals
disseminate information on latest from India and overseas. The JV will
international contracting agency
technologies & networking with experts. undertake execution of a large number
committed to tapping India's long term
While addressing the gathering, of DLF's mega projects across the
potential across the infrastructure sector
Mr. K N Shenoy, Past President,
covering express highways, airports and country as well as other projects.
CII & Chairman, Sobis Software
(India) Pvt Ltd, mentioned about the
technological development in the areas Dutch delegation in Kolkata
of power generation, transmission,
utilization and demand - side Energy Stating that the Dutch ranks third in
the world in terms of infrastructure and
Efficiency. He mentioned that
IT industries, Mr Marten Van Den berg,
improvement in power electronics
Deputy Director General, Foreign
provides increased functionality, Economic Relations, Ministry of
intelligence & compactness to the system. Economic Affairs, Govt of Netherlands
He emphasized the importance of said that the economy of India has
adopting world-class maintenance undergone major changes vis a vis
practice and employee empowerment the India of the 80's. Mr Van Der Berg
on new trends & latest technologies. said that though the Netherlands This was stated by Mr Hemant
Mr. L S Ganapathi, Chairman, Electrical ranks as one of the top investors in Kanoria, Chairman, Infrastructure sub
Systems 2007, in his theme address India, the country is “very choosy” committee, CII Eastern Region in an
highlighted the necessity of proactive about selecting companies to do Interactive Session on Indo Dutch
and systematic approach to meet the business with. He stressed that the Cooperation today. Mr Kanoria said
generation capacity expansion planned, business interests of his country lies that the Dutch investments in India
which requires huge infrastructure facility. in water coinnectivity, infrastructure, have been mainly in the field of
He also highlighted the challenges for cold storage, food processing, agri telecommunications, services sector
providing reliable & quality power at input and horticulture. (financial and non-financial), trading,
stages. The national electrical energy The Netherlands rank 5th in the list of food processing industries and
saving potential is about 2500 MW countries in terms of cumulative FDI chemicals. Over a hundred Dutch
equivalent to Rs. 10,000 Crores. The inflows into India during the period companies have a vibrant presence in
electrical engineers have a major role to August, 1991, till January, 2006. The India and ABN AMRO, Shell, Rabo
play in tapping the energy saving potential. total inflows from the Netherlands Bank, ING Bank and ING Insurance
during this period amounted to US $ are virtually household names in India.
1.991 billion and accounted for 6.51% The Netherlands is already among the
DLF forms JV with of total FDI inflows into India during three largest investors in India, with an
Laing O'Rourke the above period. In terms of increasing interest in offshoring
approvals granted by the Government opportunities on the part of Dutch
DLF and Laing O'Rourke has entered of India, the Netherlands ranked 7th companies. He said that his own
into a strategic alliance in the form of a with cumulative approvals for organisation, SREI Infrastructure has
JV, DLF Laing O' Rourke (I) Pvt. Ltd. investments worth US $ 2.473 billion. 51% Dutch stake in it.
The JV formed will be the first

MB 30 April 2007
News & Events MB
supports the Government's strategy of
West Gujarat Expressway
encouraging private-sector participation
West Gujarat Expressway Limited in infrastructure development in light of
is a Special Purpose Vehicle promoted the large investment requirements and
by IL&FS and group company, IL&FS the limited amount of public-sector
Transportation Networks Limited financing available. The loan will also
(ITNL) for the conversion of the help free up Government resources
68 km Jetput-Gondal-Rajkot and from investments in infrastructure to
Rajkot Bypass section of NH-8B invest in other types of expenditure,
into an access controlled four-lane including social development projects.
highway and improvements to Gondal- existing 4-Lane Gondal-Rajkot The $50 million was offered without a
Rajkot section The project is the first Section (32 km) and widening of the Government guarantee and has a
of its kind being implemented under existing Rajkot bypass from 2-Lane longer tenor than previous US dollar
the Viability Gap Funding Scheme of to 4-Lane (10km) on National Highway borrowings by other Indian financial
NHAI and part of the prestigious No. 8-B in Gujarat on Build-Operate- institutions from the market. As a result,
East-West corridor programme of NHAI. Transfer (BOT) basis. The project the loan will enable the company to
The total project cost is Rs 2402 mn cost is Rs 2402 m IL&FS and IL&FS
offer dollar denominated sub-loans to
financed by a debt equity of 2.25 :1 Transport Networks Limited (ITNL)
eligible subprojects in the infrastructure
IL&FS Investsmart Limited (IIL) was have incorporated West Gujarat
the sole arranger for the senior debt of Expressway as the SPV to implement sector in the country.
Rs 1662 mn financed in the debt the project Financial close has been AMP plans $500 m
equity of 2.25:1 with Punjab National achieved and the construction has
Bank as the Lead alongwith a commenced. The operations are Infrastructure Fund
consortium of 7 banks. The project expected to commence by February
involves the widening of existing 2008. IL&FS and its group companies
Jetpur-Gondal Section from 2-Lane to are sponsoring, developing and acting
4-Lane (26 km), improvement of the as merchant bankers to this project

Tata Steel's Bearing ADB Supporting

Division wins the Infrastructure
Golden Peacock National Development in India AMP Capital Investors, the fund
management unit of Australia's biggest
Quality Award 2006 with $50 Million Loan
life insurer, may raise as much as $500
million to invest in Asian power and port
Tata Steel's bearing division has won ADB and the Infrastructure
projects, with more than half destined
the Golden Peacock National Quality Development Finance Company Limited
for India. The fund management unit of
Award 2006 in the 'large manufacturing of India have signed a $50 million loan
AMP Ltd. will start raising the money
enterprise' category. The award is given to support the development of once it has finished investing $102
every year to organisations for their infrastructure in the country. “India million from an existing fund that
outstanding contribution to the field needs substantial investment in focuses on Indian infrastructure
of business excellence that lead to infrastructure if it is to achieve its projects, according to the sources. AMP
sustenance of business and customer economic growth targets,” said Capital will continue to invest in ports as
delight. This prestigious award has been Seethapathy Chander, Deputy Director container volumes grow, and has also
instituted by the Institute of Directors. General with ADB's Private Sector focuses on power generation, seeking
The jury for the current year's award Department. “The Infrastructure to capitalize on surging demand for
worked under the chairmanship of Development Finance Company electricity, he said. India produces about
justice P N Bhagawati, former chief performs a critical role as the only signifi 8 % less electricity than it needs, cutting
justice of India and member, cant domestic financial institution fully gross domestic product by a 10th,
U N Human Rights Commission. dedicated to infrastructure.” The loan according to the finance ministry.

MB 32 April 2007
News & Events MB

US $ 5 billion in Capital for Infrastructure Projects in India.

Infrastructure Development Finance partner such as IDFC with deep domain

Company Limited (“IDFC”), Citigroup knowledge in infrastructure, foreign
Inc. (“Citi”), India Infrastructure financial institutions with wide reach
Finance Company Limited (“IIFCL”) into global financial markets and the
and Blackstone Group Holdings L.P. Government of India to solve India's
(together with its affiliates, “Blackstone”) infrastructure financing problems”.
announced the launch of “The India Reiterating Citi's commitment to India,
Infrastructure Financing Initiative”, Mr. Charles Prince, Chairman and
a collaborative effort to deploy selected domestic institutional CEO of Citi had, in this context, stated
approximately US $ 5 billion in capital investors including IIFCL. earlier that Citi was excited about this
for infrastructure projects in India. The agreement was signed recently by opportunity to make an impact on the
The plan is to deploy about US$ 2 Dr. Rajiv B. Lall from IDFC, Mr. Sanjay development of infrastructure projects,
billion in equity capital and US$ 3 Nayar from Citi, Mr. S.S. Kohli from which are critical to the country's
billion in long term debt financing IIFCL, and Mr. Robert L. Friedman growth prospects and to be a partner
with maturities exceeding ten years. from Blackstone in the presence of in this important initiative, which
The equity financing program will be Mr. P. Chidambaram, the Finance was born out of a request from the
managed by IDFC and will invest in Minister of the Government of India. Government of India at the Indo-U.S
greenfield, brownfield and operating “This initiative is an important milestone CEO forum held in December 2006.
projects primarily in roads, power, in our search for innovative solutions Mr. Stephen A. Schwarzman of
airports, ports, and industrial and to meet the vast challenge of financing Blackstone had stated that India being
commercial infrastructure. IDFC, the development of India's burgeoning an important part of Blackstone's
Citi and Blackstone will together infrastructure sector”. Mr. Deepak global strategy, this initiative would
invest US$ 250 million. The balance Parekh, Chairman IDFC, added that give them an opportunity to make
is expected to come from reputable “This initiative sets a new benchmark a meaningful contribution to India's
international investors as well as for collaboration between a domestic infrastructure development.

Centre to Set Up Two These two nuclear power projects are

being set up in consonance with the
Nuclear Power Plants Vision 2020 of the nodal department,
according to which the installed nuclear
power capacity is expected to be
ramped up to 20000 MW. As per the
sources the Environment Ministry has
already given clearances based on
recommendations of the Gujarat completed in 66 months at an estimated
Pollution Control Board after conducting cost of about Rs 9,347 crore, according
public hearing to locate the nuclear to the brief project profile submitted
power plant at Kakrapar. to the state government by the Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC).
The proposal of the Department of Chennai Metro Phase-I According to the sources the state
Atomic Energy to set up two major to cost Rs 9,347 Crore government would soon set up a
nuclear power plants, one in Rajasthan 'Metro Rail Project Committee to
and the other in Gujarat has been given The first phase of the proposed implement the project. For the time
a go ahead by the UPA Government. Chennai Metro project which envisages being, the project is treated as a 'special
The two plants with four heavy water corridor-1 from airport to Thiruvotiyur, initiative under the administrative
reactors of 700 Mw capacities each will 31.54 km, and corridor 2 EVR Periyar control of the planning development
add 2800 Mw nuclear capacity. Salai to Fort , 13.54 km, is to be and special initiatives department.

MB 34 April 2007
News & Events MB
largest integrated development is
Unitech to Pump
designed by HOK, the second largest
Rs. 2,250 crore architects in the world. As per the
for 100-acre Township release the project has the capacity to
accommodate 4,000 households and
would have features such as piped gas
lines for each home, sewage treatment
plant, rain water harvesting, electronic
security and surveillance etc. According
to Mr Sanjay Chandra, Managing
Director, Unitech, "Uniworld City is
among Unitech's premier projects which
will redefine the paradigms of residential
development in the country,” power plant equipment. As per the
Unitech Ltd has recently announced reports L&T would hold majority stake in
L&T in Talks with Toshiba the joint venture, which will invest about
that it would be investing about
to Set Up JV in power $173 million to build plants for steam
Rs 2,250 crore for the development
of a 100-acre residential township Larsen & Toubro is in talks with Japan's turbines and power generators. The
called `Uniworld City' in Greater Noida. Toshiba Corporation for setting up a joint venture aims to have an annual
According to a company release this joint venture in India to manufacture turnover of 20 billion yen in five years.
Toshiba, which has been expanding its
Tata Power Signs MoU power business, acquired the US
nuclear power plant maker
Tata Power signed a MoU with the Westinghouse for $5.4 billion last year.
Government of Chhattisgarh for the L&T's entry into this critical segment of
setting up of a 1000 MW coal fired the power sector follows its recent tie
mega power plant in the State. up with Mitsubshi Heavy Industries,
The project is estimated to entail another Japanese major, for
an investment of Rs. 5000 crore and manufacture of boilers for power
is slated to be set up in the Raigarh projects. The joint venture L&T Boilers
district of the State. The Company Ltd plans to invest Rs 450 crore.
is now in the process of carrying out
a detailed feasibility study for the Government to Remove
project. Work on the 250 MW coal
based plant and 100 MW DG Sets generation (thermal, hydro, solar
Stamp Duty
for Mumbai, 120 MW Met Coke Project and wind), transmission and distribution.
in Haldia, 100 MW wind power plants The Company won the bid for Ultra The stamp duty on property
in Maharashtra and 1000 MW Maithon Mega Power Project at Mundra (Gujarat) transactions will soon be removed, and
project is progressing well. and has successful public-private the same would only be imposed on the
The Tata Power Company Limited is partnerships in generation, transmission first transaction of land, as per the 2006
India's largest private sector power and distribution “North Delhi Power National Urban Housing Policy. The
utility with an installed generation Limited” with Delhi Vidyut Board for provision is waiting for the final nod
capacity of over 2300 MW. distribution in North Delhi, 'Powerlinks from Cabinet. As per the sources at
The company has emerged as a Transmission Ltd.' with Power Grid present, stamp duty is being charged
pioneer in the Indian power sector, Corporation of India Ltd. for evacuation on both the land and the apartment,
with a track record of performance, of Power from Tala hydro plant in and moreover, its percentage varies
customer care and sustained growth. Bhutan to Delhi and 'Maithon Power
from state to state, as it's not uniform.
Tata Power has a presence in all the Ltd.' with Damodar Valley Corporation
So the shift, it is expected would bring
segments of the power sector viz for a 1000 MW Mega Power Project.
high profits for property buyers.

MB 36 April 2007
News & Events MB
the Saudi Kayan Petrochemical
RAK Ceramics JV with Smaltochimica
Company, an affiliate of Saudi Basic
produced & exported for the first time Industries Corporation (SABIC).
in the region's chemical history. The plant, due to start up in the first
The joint venture will have a modern quarter of 2010, is to be built at Saudi
manufacturing set up at Ras Al Kayan's petrochemical complex
Khaimah, close to the RAK group's at Al-Jubail Industrial City, KSA, and
manufacturing complex which is will incorporate technology from Basell
spread over 2,000,000 . The GmbH. The Letter of Intent is on the
new chemical plant will initially basis of a fixed price for Contractor's
produce printing oils for the ceramic
services and a conversion to a lump
industries . Smaltochimica is a world
leader in the production & art of sum Engineering, Procurement,
decoration chemicals products for the Construction (EPC) price, once detailed
R.A.K. CERAMICS , the global leader ceramic industry. The joint venture engineering is sufficiently defined.
in the ceramic & porcelain tiles and will manufacture in its fully automated
sanitaryware business and the environment around 460 Tonnes per GE Finance May Fund
Smaltochimica group of Italy have month (or 5520 Tonnes per year), Mumbai Metro
joined hands to form a new venture assuming 1 shift's working. The
RAK CHIMICA, to manufacture state quantum of production is planned to
of the art chemicals for the ceramic be increased soon. This year RAK
industries. This is the beginning of CHIMICA will implement chemicals for
a new era in the Middle East as such the ceramic body preparation for an
specialised chemicals are to be additional 400 tonnes per month.

and operation office, parking facility

Punj Lloyd to Build for hydrant dispenser vehicles, triturator
Expanded Capacity facility, special fuel system equipment,
Fuel System of NDIA special systems in building / facilities
(BMS/CCTV) etc. The project would
Punj Lloyd Limited (PLL), a global EPC be completed by December 2008.
services provider in energy and Punj Lloyd is at an advanced stage
of completing engineering phase for GE Finance, the investment arm of
infrastructure domains, has received
approval of extension of their existing the fuel system and Client's approval GE, is eyeing to fund the Rs 20,000
contract with New Doha International of extension of the contract reinforces crore Mumbai Metro project and the
Airport (NDIA). The extension will the confidence of project management western freeway between Worli and
enhance the capacity of the fuel system consultant, Overseas Bechtel Inc. Nariman Point sealink as part of its
to take care of phase II expansion of the In Punj Lloyd. push on infrastructure investments in
new airport. The extension order is India. The first phase will be developed
valued at Rs 258 crore. With this by Reliance Energy at a cost of
Punj Lloyd to Build
approval, the contract value for the Rs 3500 crore. The financial closure
300ktpa LDPE Plant for the project is yet to be completed.
extended scope becomes Rs 618
Crores. The new contract with extension The tender for the western freeway is
involves the engineering, procurement Punj Lloyd Limited (PLL), a global EPC yet to be tendered. As per the report
and construction of fuel farm, fuel services provider in energy and $ 8 billion investment target for India
receiving station, jet fuel hydrant infrastructure domains, has through its announced by Jeffery Inmelt the GE
system, ground service equipment fuel subsidiary - Simon Carves Ltd - signed chief on his last visit to India, was
system, ground service equipment a Letter of Intent (LOI) to build a new likely to be met much before the
washing system, portable water station 300 ktpa LDPE plant in Saudi Arabia for 2010 deadline.

MB 38 April 2007
CDM Project

FaL-G : CDM Project Signed

with the World Bank

INSWAREB has been relentlessly pursuing, is
“At the ongoing proliferation of over
ultimately signed recently with The World 200-250 FaL-G units every year, not only the
Bank. Ms Gayathri Ramachandran, Special Chief World Bank but a couple of more proactive
Secretary & Director General-EPTRI, Government of agencies such as JCF, Japan, and KFW,
Andhra Pradesh, and Mr Michael Rathnam, Task Germany, would be tagged with projects very
Manager-Carbon Finance, The World Bank, soon” says INSWAREB.
Washington, addressed and conferred the “Certificate
of Participation” to the Privileged Entrepreneurs of
the FaL-G brick/block Plants, enlisted as Sub-Project contributed to employment to over 30,000 workers
Entities (SPEs) in the project. with a further potential for 6 lakhs workers, when
the 50,000-unit target could be accomplished.
Despite holding a patent on FaL-G technology,
INSWAREB has been disseminating the Contrary to the seasonal employment in clay brick
technology to tiny sector without any royalties, as industry, FaL-G brick plants provide yearlong
employment with handsome wages over clay brick
a service to Ecology. To accelerate the proliferation
through incentive mechanism carbon revenue was units. Such job security would relieve the worker
considered as an opportunity and, INSWAREB from the status of bonded-labour, which is more
approached World Bank way back in the year 2000, prevalent in clay brick industry.
offering carbon credits generated out of FaL-G By not using thermal energy, each million FaL-G
brick/block production. But the proposal did not bricks conserve over 200 tons of coal or equivalent
come through, as India was not a signatory to the fuel. Thus carbon emissions are abated. In view of
Kyoto Protocol at that time. Subsequently, India holistic compliance to the Sustainable Development
became a signatory to the Protocol in 2002. In the indicators and Community Development agenda,
same year The World Bank launched another the World Bank agreed to take up FaL-G as CDM
carbon fund instrument, Community Development project. But as there was no specified approved
Carbon Fund (CDCF). INSWAREB took the methodology for total energy avoidance, it was
opportunity and filed the first project with the opined that a new methodology would be needed,
World Bank highlighting the following features of that took considerable time. Ultimately the project
FaL-G brick/block activity to serve is registered with an approved methodology under
the community: Type II-D. Energy Efficiency and Fuel Switching
FaL-G bricks replace clay bricks, conserving the measures for Industrial facilities.
precious topsoil, otherwise necessary to protect the Promoting a carbon abatement activity as
fertility of agriculture lands. Each FaL-G brick plant CDM project is a laborious exercise, involving a
in tiny sector can absorb 10-15 workers. Thus over lot of effort and record work. Keeping in view the
2500 plants working throughout India have consultancy from high profile experts, the

40 April 2007
CDM Project

transaction costs are very high that deter small entrepreneurs in order to compute Emission
scale and tiny sector units in staking their claims Reductions (ERs) annually. These credits are
for credits, despite virtuous activity to earn them. reported to the World Bank vide ‘Annual Emission
To overcome this stalemate, INSWAREB opted Reduction Report’.
to avail the scope of ‘Bundling’ provided by There upon, the World Bank would get the
UNFCCC in small scale activity, by which, over credits verified by its Designated Verifiers within
108 micro industrial plants producing FaL-G one and half month, based on which ECPL would
bricks, each with a potential to generate over submit a ‘Transfer Form’ to the World Bank for
1000 credits every year, are being tied up into a transfer of ERs. The carbon proceeds are released to
few bundles and offered as CDM projects. ECPL within 60 days of receipt of Transfer Form,
In order to handle the commercial deals and which would, in turn, be transferred to brick units
agreements, a separate corporate outfit by name, Eco based on their earning of credits.
Carbon Pvt. Ltd., has come into existence, “At the ongoing proliferation of over 200-250
committing to transfer to the World Bank 600,000 FaL-G units every year, not only the World Bank
tons of CO2 credits under contractual obligation and but a couple of more proactive agencies such as
200,000 credits under call option. Back to back JCF, Japan, and KFW, Germany, would be
agreements were signed with each FaL-G brick plant tagged with projects very soon”
committing over Rs. 50,000 per each million bricks says INSWAREB.
(equivalent to 1540 cu.m) as the carbon revenue till
2015. In addition to carbon revenue to the
entrepreneurs, this activity provides certain privileges
to the workers under Community Benefit Program, at
a budget of over Rs. 2.80 crores during the project
period. These are:
h Providing self-protection gadgets such as
gumboots, helmets, nose masks and gloves to
the workers.
h Water purifying systems at each FaL-G plant for
serving drinking water to the workers.
h Construction of bathroom cum toilet for workers.
h Health and life insurance to workers every year.
h Health check up once in a year.
h Aids-awareness program.
“Not all FaL-G brick plants can take part in the
project. Those units, came into existence on or
after 1st January 2004, are only eligible to
participate. Diligent production practices in
maintaining quality and adhering to statutory
compliances are additional mandate to enlist the
units for this project,” says INSWAREB, who
monitors the plants all along the project period for
due diligence. Under the ‘Monitoring Plan’, ECPL
audits production records of all the accredited

April 2007 41

Exclusive Show Room

for Waterproofing Products
in Chennai

opened an exclusive showroom for
The main advantage of Crystalline
waterproofing products in the main building waterproofing system is to arrest ,water
materials market at Koyambedu, Chennai. seepage in existing basement by coating the
According to Mr.S.Muthuperumal - Managing
crystalline chemicals from negative side (
Director of M/s M.P Integrated Roofing Pvt. Ltd from inside )the basement.
and promoter of M/s Shree Bhuvaneswari Inc., this
is the first of its kind in the country to have an GREEN SEAL – MALAYSIA.
exclusive showroom for both imported and locally The main advantage of Crystalline
manufactured waterproofing products for various waterproofing system is to arrest ,water seepage in
job specifications such as Roofs, Basement, Water existing basement by coating the crystalline
Tanks, Walls, Toilets, Swimming Pools and for chemicals from negative side ( from inside )the
other applications. We offer you the after sales basement. The technology behind this system is to
technical support by our trained and experienced prevent the movement of water through the
engineers. Our line of products include APP & SBS concrete by plugging or blocking the natural pores
modified bitumen membranes for new and and capillaries found in all concrete.
maintenance jobs. We can also provide turnkey Since this system is now followed in many new
solutions for new basement jobs with our wide upcoming mega IT parks, the crystalline products are
range of imported membranes. available at a affordable prices.
We are also stockiest for leading crystalline Other allied products like Acrylic , Silicone and
waterproofing system like ICS PENETRON- USA, PU sealants are also available from leading
international brands at whole sale price.
It is intended to focus and serve the DO IT
YOURSELF market.
Enquiries related to the water leakage problems in
a building are recorded and solutions are given to the
customer from our vide range of products. If
necessary we are even deputing our technicians at a
reasonable charges.
Moreover, seminar and presentations are to be
organised for Institutions, Architects,
Consultants, Builders, Contractors and end users to
update with the latest products and methods
followed across the globe.

42 April 2007
Joint Ventures

SREI and EBRD in

Strategic Alliance

will shortly enter into a strategic partnership
“EBRD has been a great partner to us in
with the European Bank for Reconstruction and our foreign endeavor. Their understanding
Development (EBRD), one of the world’s leading of the conditions in Russia has enabled us to
international financial institutions. The strategic look at the huge potential that welcomes us
partnership comprises an investment by the EBRD in the Russian infrastructure sector
in the equity of SREI Russia and extension of credit development,” according to Mr Hemant
lines to support the business of the overseas Kanoria, vice chairman and managing
company. While the equity stake will be director of SREI
formalized at the EBRD board meeting later this
month, the multilateral funding agency has agreed
to invest in principle roughly 15 per cent in the business groups but also share risks in the projects
Euro 5 million equity of SREI’s Russian venture. where we facilitate foreign investments”, Mr
Credit lines, however, will be project specific. Lemierre said. Mr Hemant Kanoria, vice chairman
and managing director of SREI, the first Indian
Interacting with newspersons in Mumbai, Mr
company to partner EBRD overseas said, “EBRD
Jean Lemierre, the EBRD president said it is
has been a great partner to us in our foreign
actively pursuing investment models, which will
endeavor. Their understanding of the conditions in
encourage Indian business houses to invest in East
Russia has enabled us to look at the huge potential
Europe and Central Asia. “We do not only invite
that welcomes us in the Russian infrastructure
sector development.”
This will be the first direct project of the
EBRD with an Indian company and it’s
association is likely to pack a punch to the growing
involvement of SREI’s foray into the construction
equipment leasing sector in Russia. SREI’s growth
graph is well known given its strong linkages and
relationships with the multilateral financial
institutions, vendors and its successful experience
in India.
Having set up its operation is Russia in the latter
half of 2005, the company has chalked out plans to
scale up businesses by rapidly entering the strategic
infrastructure space in the region which today is
experiencing a boom.

44 April 2007

Incorporated in 1970 under the leadership of late

Mr. Pramod P. Shah, Steelfab has carved a niche in
designing, engineering, detailing, manufacturing,
erecting & cladding of pre-engineered buildings, apart
from manufacturing trapezoidal profiled colour
coated galvalume sheets, bare galvalume sheets,
PPGO sheets, G.I. sheets, space frame structures and
modern steel scaffolding systems. Steelfab’s team
consists of resourceful which leverages on emerging
trends with effortless ease. Armed with over three
decades of experience and top of the line expertise,
steelfab offers the best in terms of quality and
durability. Ongoing efforts at the research cell results
in sourcing quality materials from all over the world
at the best prices.
Every component is checked time and again before
installation, during installation and after installation
to eliminate even the slightest doubt of error. The
design and research cell takes each suggestion and
opinion from our clients seriously and starts working
on it almost immediately. The competitive pricing is
the result of understanding the value of money. Its
just in time approach has enabled the company to
perform under strict deadlines and three decades of
experience has added value to its commitments. The
quick response is not limited to the delivery of the
structure, but also the after sales service, which is the
company’s forte.
Steelfab is equipped in dealing with turnkey
projects as it has a fully-equipped design department
with latest international design softwares, fully-
equipment production facility for PEB & Sheets.

April 2007 45

Sankalpan Group
Unveils National
Expansion Plans

UMBAI-BASED SANKALPAN GROUP, more than 600 projects across India, Sankalpan is ready
India’s foremost and fastest growing for more and set to unveil innovations. We have recently
integrated realty and premium infrastructure bagged a $ 2 million interior fit-out turnkey project for a
services provider having interests in architectural design leading NASDAQ listed IT major. We will be designing
consultancy, turnkey fit-outs, infrastructure projects and 700 seats facility at one of the SEZ in Chennai that will
commercial real estate development, has recently have the latest imported furniture, fittings and finish, not
unveiled its business expansion plan across the country. to forget an interior design that matches the
Detailing on Sankalpan’s current projects, Mr. Atin international standards with Sankalpan’s touch
Kulkarni, Vice-Chairman said, “Having already executed all across.”
Mr. Ninad Randive, Chairman, Sankalpan
Group said,” There is great potential in India
wherein the IT Parks and Retail infrastructure
requirements are fast escalating. In near future,
single point sourcing for all construction activities
will be the rule of the game. Anticipating this
trend much in advance, we are already providing
integrated services to our clients easing their
complex tasks. Sankalpan is currently looking for
potential partners who would bring in financial
strength while we contribute our expertise in
project management. As of now, we have our
presence felt in all the major metros and several
strategic cities across India. Now we intend to
explore business opportunities in potential
tier -2 cities.
Sankalpan will soon be launching its facility
management services as a new business venture and is
looking for potential partners. With globalization,
there is tremendous pressure to match international
workplace standards. This is where a huge need for
trained facility managers is being felt across the
country and Sankalpan would like to bridge this gap.
Sankalpan is expecting a turn over of around $ 35
million this fiscal.

46 April 2007
Cover Story

Infrastructure Project
Funding as a Guide to
Steel Capacity Planning
Deputy General Manager (C&IT) of Steel
Authority of India Limited

HE INDIAN ECONOMY is on a roll with
GDP galloping at more than 8% per annum
The objective of this paper is to examine
and promising to cross the threshold of double the reliability of the capacity expansion spree
digit growth in near future. There is considerable in the steel sector currently being witnessed
euphoria about everything, be it construction, by the country vis-a.-vis the emerging
manufacturing or service etc. the key sectors of the pattern of funding in the infrastructure
national economy. Both infrastructure and sector of the national economy.
manufacturing sectors are major drivers of domestic
demand of steel as well. The bullish performance of and uncertainties often associated with such projects
the domestic economy is generating huge interest in by generating more incisive information of the same.
the market place, especially among the steel barons Purpose
who are on an unprecedented spree to add capacities
The objective of this paper is to examine the
at breakneck speed. A kind of ‘mad’ rush appears to
reliability of the capacity expansion spree in the steel
have gripped the domestic steel industry giving rise
sector currently being witnessed by the country vis-
to a rather pertinent question, “Are all these
a.-vis the emerging pattern of funding in the
investments justified in the long run?” Let’s explore
infrastructure sector of the national economy. Nearly
and examine.
half of the total volume of steel consumed by the
Issue domestic economy end up in the construction of
Risk & Uncertainty are integral to any investment infrastructure projects in the public and private
decision and steel sector is no exception. It is always domains including the household sector of the
prudent to examine any such investment decision country. The balance portion is consumed by the
from as many diverse and different angles as possible. manufacturing sector of the economy.
More such analyses are carried out, it is better for the So the pattern of investment in the infrastructure
investor as it enables him or her to prejudge the sector holds an important key to the growth and
available options and decide on the best course of performance of the steel sector. And in this context,
action. Such analyses help reduce the element of risks the resource mobilizing ability of the economy,
Source %Share $ billion pa Rs crorepa especially the union government is the most
significant factor having maximum impact on the
Private Sector
demand and consumption level of steel in the
Fund 22% 15.00 67,500
domestic economy.
ODA 11% 8.00 36,500
Public Sector
The approach paper to the eleventh five-year plan
Fund 67% 47.00 2,11,000
prepared and circulated by the Planning Commission
Table 1 in June 2006 targets a GDP growth of 8.5 % p.a. for

48 April 2007
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

the period 2007-08 to 2011-12. The plan document

estimates that investments in infrastructure will have
Given the all out efforts of the
to be raised substantially in order to sustain the government in mobilizing the necessary
projected growth of the economy. It aims to raise the ingredients for growth in the infrastructure,
current level of infrastructure investment from 4.6 % the future of steel sector appears to be
of the GDP to nearly 8 % by the end of the plan bright and bullish. The industry is robust
period. The total requirement of infrastructure enough to take in its stride aberrations if any
investment during the entire plan period has been arising out of normal inflationary pressure
estimated to be $ 350 billion or Rs.15,75,000 crore. or otherwise and still grow at a frenetic pace
This works out to $ 70 billion or Rs. 3,15,000 crore of 15% CAGR.
per annum.
Where from this massive level of investments billion or Rs 22,500 crore would be mobilized
will be mobilized is a big issue. The government through this route per annum.
plans to mobilize resources from three possible
This leaves a balance of $ 10 billion to be raised
sources as in Table 1.
Private Sector Funding
from the domestic capital markets through IPOs,
bonds and commercial borrowings from banks and
Sourcing of capital from private sector covers both
financial institutions. Given the robust corporate
foreign direct investment (FDI) and money received
balance sheets of the financial institutions, the
from the domestic capital market. The FDI inflow in
commercial banks and the surging stock markets, it
the current fiscal is estimated at $ 15 billion or Rs
should be collectively possible to raise the targeted $
6,75,000 crore. The Investment Commission has also
10 billion or Rs.45,000 crore pa.
projected that the level of FD I to domestic economy
would be of the order of $ 15 billion by 2007-08. At ODA Funding
the current rate, the projected FD I by the end of The current level of disbursements of funds by
the plan period, i.e. by 20011-12 would reach $ 20 the World Bank, ADB, DFID and other multi and
billion per year. Assuming 25% of the total FDI bilateral agencies is of the order of $ 5 billion pa.
flow ends up in infrastructure sector, about $ 5 The government views the availability of such funds
from multi lateral agencies is a huge
Type of Material Equip- Labour Finance /\dm Surplus opportunity which needs to be exploited far
Project ment exp more aggressively so that the same can be
Building 60% 4% 12% 8% 10% 6% raised to $ 8 billion or Rs 36,000 crore pa
Roads 44% 21% 11% 8% 10% 6% during the plan period.
Bridges 47% 17% 12% 8% 10% 6% Public Sector Funding
Dams 44% 21% 11% 8% 10% 6% The central and state governments
including the public sector companies need to
Power 43% 22% 11% 8% 10% 6%
mobilize the balance $ 47 billion or Rs
Railway 52% 7% 17% 8% 10% 6% 2,11,000 crore per year which represents 67 %
Mineral of the total annual requirement of fund of $ 70
Plant 42% 21% 13% 8% 10% 6% billion in the infrastructure sector.
Med lnd 51% 8% 17% 8% 10% 6% Presently, the GCFI : GDP ratio is 4.6 %
Trans- which means that in the current year 2006-07,
mission 50% 6% 20& 8% 10% 6% the level of investment in the infrastructure is
to the tune of Rs.161,000 crore across all
Table 2 systems. Making an allowance for the private

April 2007 49
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

and multi lateral agencies which together account for

25 %, the Public Sector is presently pumping in 75 %
Subject to realization of the planned
of the infrastructure capital which comes to targets of raising resources and spending of
Rs.1,21,000 crore. This leaves a gap of Rs.90,000 the same in project construction, the country
crore ( 2,11,000 - 1,21,000) that needs to be is set to witness a massive expansion of steel
organized additionally every year from the current demand exceeding 84 million tones in the
level to meet the resource gap projected in the form of finished steel or 98 million tonne or
eleventh plan period. nearly 100 million tonne in the form of crude
The government is, however, optimistic that it steel by the year 2011-12. This estimate
would be able to mobilize the additional Rs.90,000 surpasses the government’s projected capacity
crore pa for the infrastructure sector by bringing in expansion plan of 80 million tonnes of crude
more innovative ideas and ‘thinking out of the box’. steel by a healthy margin.
Construction Cost
The Planning Commission had commissioned a The intensity of steel indices will however depend
study to determine the costing pattern of various on the unit in which the projects are evaluated and
types infrastructure projects ranging from buildings, measured. Let’s take, for example, the cost of steel
roads, bridges, dams to power plants, railway projects versus cement. Presently, the country consumes about
etc. The study identified that the cost of construction 40 million tones of steel and 140 million tones of
materials alone ranging from 40 to 60 % depending cement which gives the ratio of Steel: Cement as 1
on the nature of the project, dominates the cost of an :3.5, when expressed in quantitative terms or physical
infrastructure project. The project wise distribution ofunits. Given the wide disparities between the unit
major cost components of infrastructure projects is prices of steel and cement, the ratio becomes radically
furnished in the following table 2. different, almost opposite as 7.5:1, when expressed in
Steel: Cement Ratio absolute rupee or value units. However, taking into
In infrastructure project construction, steel and account the current consumption pattern of both the
cement constitute the bulk of the construction materials in the domestic economy, the relative or
materials. Hence the cost of steel and cement weighted average ratio comes to 2:1. This is evident
dominate the overall cost of construction materials. from the following table 3.
Besides steel and cement, materials like sand, stone, This exercise analyses the impact of infrastructure
ballasts, timber, etc. also add to the cost of materials.
funding on the demand of steel in value measure.
Nevertheless, steel and cement, being consumed in Hence, steel intensities are expressed as percentage of
relatively higher volumes dominate the cost of the cost of materials in Re or value unit. From
construction materials as a whole. the above table it is evident that constructional
steel items account for 2/3rd or 67% of the
Quantity Measure Value Measure material cost. This index will be useful for
Consump- Ratio Price Absolute Weighted crosschecking the accuracy of the size of the
tion in Ratio Ratio steel market derived later.
Million Steel : Rs / Tonne Steel : Steel :
Tonne Cement Cement Cement Steel Intensity
Steel 40 --- 30,000 The intensity of steel vis-a.-vis the other
1: 3.5 7.5: 1 2: 1 materials vary widely from one type of project
to another. For example, the infrastructure
Cement 140 4,000
projects of the railways, energy, ports and
Table 3 shipyard sectors which comprise of fabricated

50 April 2007
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

steel structure in a big way have a greater intensity of

usage of steel as compared to those of the irrigation,
aviation, housing where cement in the shape of plain
and reinforced concrete plays a more dominate role.
The steel intensity therefore varies widely from one
type of project to another.
In value terms, depending on the type of
construction involved, it may vary from as high as
90% of the construction materials for the Railway
projects which by design are extremely steel intensive
to as low as 30% for the projects in Roads and vj denotes the investment in the ith type of project,
Highways sector. Energy and Port sectors are the cj denotes the % share of the cost of construction
other steel intensive sectors. Aviation, Irrigation and materials for the ith type of project,
House constructions generally reflect 50 -60% steel Sj denotes the steel intensity expressed as % of the
usages among construction materials expressed in total cost of the construction materials for the ith type
value terms. of project
Market Size in Value Measure Then,
Recognizing the relevance of the differential rates of The demand or the market size of constructional
steel intensities vis-a-vis the type of projects and also steel in value measure for the ith type of project is
keeping in mind the variability, however small may it defIned by
be, in the nature of the cost of the construction
di = vj X cj X Sj for each i = 1, ,n and the
materials explained earlier, it is possible to derive the
overall market size of constructional steel in value
potential market of contraction steels market by measure across all types of infrastructure projects is
evolving a simple empirical relationship as under
given by
n n
Total number of infrastructure projects = nand
Dy = L dj = L Vj X Cj X Sj i i
Infra- Construction Constructional i
structure Material Cost Steel Market The above formula has been applied to the
Project In-
Sectors vestment projected investment figures as set out in the
Steel various documents of the government to arrive
% Intensity at a plausible or most likely size of the
Rs. Crore Share Rs. Crore (%) Rs. Crore constructional steel market in value unit
Highways 2,20,000 44% 96,800 30% 29,040 during the plan period 2007-08 to 2011 -12 as
Railways 3,00,000 52% 1,56,000 90% 1,40,000 shown in table 4.
Energy 5,40,000 43% 2,32,000 80% 1,85,760 Cross-Check
Airports 40,000 51% 20,400 60% 12,240 The above model or the empirical
Ports 50,000 50% 25,000 70% 17,500 relationship based on the type of infrastructure
Irrigation 80,000 44% 35,200 60% 21,200 project wise coefficients of material costs, steel
Others 3,45,000 60% 2,07,000 50% 1,03,500 intensities etc. generates an overall market size
of Rs 5,09,560 crore for the constructional
Total 15,75,000 49% 7,72,600 66% 5,09,560
steel in the country for the Xth plan period.
Table 4 This figure yields an overall or weighted

52 April 2007
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

average steel intensity level of 66% or 2/3d of the

construction material costs. The fact that this figure
matches closely with the index of steel intensity as
determined from the approach of regressing the same
with the cement consumption index in the country
further substantiates the stability or the accuracy of
the computational method adopted in this exercise.
Market Size in Quantity Measure
From the above table, it is evident that the
constructional steel comprising of Bars & Rods,
Structural, Railway Materials and Plates have a
domestic market to the tune of Rs. 5,09,560 crore for
the entire plan period. Assuming that the projected
investments in the infrastructure sector would for all
practical purposes be taken to be uniform, the average
size of the market comes to Rs 1,01,912 crore per
annum for each of the 5-year period.
In order to translate the above market calculated
in value measure into quantity measure or physical
units, it is necessary to obtain realistic estimates of
the average transaction prices of the constructional
steel proftles consumed by each of the different types
of construction projects. The construction steel as
defined in this exercise comprises of Bars & Rods,
Structural, Railway Materials and Plates. Obviously,
there is no fixed pattern of consumption of these steel However, this is not the total or final demand of the
profiles across different types of steel projects. For constructional steel in the country. This projection
example, Rails and Plates will largely dominate the needs to be suitably modified and augmented because
Correction of the deficiencies of the published statistics on
investment or capital formation of the nation .. The
Thus the infrastructure investment approach yields
GCFI : GDP ratio fails to adequately map the total
a demand of 31.39; say 31.4 million tonnes of
level of consumption of constructional steel in the
construction steel materials by the year 2011-12
domestic market. This will be evident from the
based on the empirical relationship defined earlier.
analysis of the current year’s (2006-07) level of
Demand by 2011-12 in Mill Tonnes investment vis-a-vis domestic consumption furnished
Constructional steel 47.0 here under.
Non-constructional steel 37.0 h Infrastructural investment during 2006-07
Total 84.0 Rs.1,61,000 crore
Long Products 39.0 h Share of constructional materials (49%)
Rs.78,890 crore
Flat Products 45.0
h Share of constructional steel (66%)
Total 84.0
Rs.52,067 crore
Table 5 h Steel market size @ Rs.32,466/ - per tonne

April 2007 53
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

16.0 million tonnes

This estimate falls short of the 24.8 million tonnes
of construction steel market out of a total consumption
of 43.4 million tonnes estimated by the steel experts
for the current year 2006-07. The infrastructure
investment approach, therefore, leaves a gap of 8.8
million tonnes (24.8-16.0), which is roughly one third
or 33 % of the level of domestic consumption.
One may wonder as to the cause of this deficiency.
One reason could be the fact that a part of the real
estate sector is financed by ‘black’ or unaccounted
money, which do not figure in the official books of
accounts of the nation. The other reason could be the
inefficiency of the government machinery to comes to 47.0 million tonnes (31.4 x 1.5).
adequately measure the extent of the economic Currently, constructional steel materials account
activities, especially the capital formation taking for 56 % of the total steel consumed by the economy.
place in the private house hold sector beyond the The balance 44% of steel comprising of sheets, coils
reach of the official data collecting agencies. etc. are primarily consumed by the manufacturing
Thus, the forecast of 31.4 million tonnes derived sector of the economy. Thus, the total projected
on the basis of the projected level of planned demand of steel comprising of both the constructional
investments in the infrastructure projects needs to be and non-constructional materials comes to 84.0
multiplied by a factor of 1/0.67 or 1.5 to arrive at the million tonnes (47.0/0.56) by 2011-12. This implies
likely level of demand by the year 20011-12. Thus, that the manufacturing sector is also likely to
the estimated level of demand of constructional steel experience the same kind of growth envisaged in the
infrastructure sector of the economy so that their
mutual shares continue to remain stable in the years
Demand by 2011-12 in Mill Tonnes to come.
Bars & Rods 29.5 Capacity Projection
Structural 7.4 The above estimate is in terms of finished steel
Rly Materials 2.1 only. Making an allowance of 95 % yield from crude
Total Long Products 39.0 to finished steel and further allowing for 90 %
Plates 8.3 capacity utilization in the domestic steel sector, the
H R Coils & Skelp 19.3 corresponding steel capacity in terms of crude steel
would be of the order of 98.0 million tones (84.0 /
HRSheets 0.9
C R Coils & Sheets 8.4
h Market Size (Rs crore for the plan period) 5,09,560
GP/GC Sheets 3.9
h Market Size (Rs crore per annum)............ 1,01,912
Electrical Steel Sheets 0.6
h Market Size (MT 1 annum) for infrastructure
Tin Plates 0.7 demand ......................................................... 31.4
Pipes 2.9 h Market size after allowing for possible non- plan
Total Flat Products 45.0 consumption @ 30% (31.4/0.67) ................... 47.0
Total Finished Steel 84.0 h Total market including manufacturing demand as
Table 6 well (MT/annum) (47.0/0.56) ......................... 84.0

54 April 2007
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Steel Capacity Planning

h Equivalent capacity in terms Crude Steel (95%

yield) and allowh”lg 90% capacity utilization
(MT/annum) ..................................................98.0
The study has so far estimated the future demand
of steel in the form of ‘constructional steel’ used for
constructional purposes and ‘non-constructional
steel’ consumed by the manufacturing sector.
However, it is more convenient to present the
results of this exercise in the conventional break-up
of long and flat groups of products.
The constructional steel includes all long
products, like bars & rods, structural and railway
products and also steel plates, which normally come Projection Comparison
under the ambit of flat products. Therefore, the The Ministry of Steel is currently working with a
results of the study have been restructured by demand level of 70.34 million tone of finished steel
shifting the quantum of plates from the group of and a capacity estimate of 80.23 million tonne by the
constructional steel to the other group. The revised end of the terminal period of the plan 201-12. The
break-up of the long and flat groups of products of findings of the study for the terminal year of XI plan
the projected demand is as in table 5. are also placed in table 7
Although the objective of the present study is to Thus, the estimated demand potential of the
obtain an aggregated level of demand in the form of domestic steel industry which stands at 84.0 million
long and flat products a glimpse of the likely tones in terms of finished steel and a corresponding
category wise distribution of the same is presented capacity requirement of 98.0 million tonne by the
primarily on academic interest. The total demand year 20011-12 derived from the sector wise projection
has been split category wise on the basis of current of investments in the infrastructure sector and a
domestic consumption trend of the country as shown corresponding growth of the manufacturing sector, as
in table 6. per the eleventh five year plan document is likely to
exceed the demand projected by the Ministry
(Million Tonnes) of Steel for the same period by a substantial
Government Study margin. The extent of increase is 13.66
Projections Results million tonne, the maximum of which is
expected to happen in Long products - 10.0
2007-08 2011-12 201-12
million tonne and the Flat products
Production ( Crude) 50.37 80.23 98.00 accounting for the rest of nearly 4 million
lDemand: 21.88 29.02 39.0 tonne.
Long / Flat 28.40 41.32 45.0 Steel Intensity Norms
Total Demand (Finished) 50.28 70.34 84.00 The results of this macro level study throw
Supply: 21.10 36.10 up some interesting indices, which are of value
Long / Flat 25.60 41.30 to those who are engaged in the areas of
forecasting and assessing the future of the
Total Supply (Finished) 46.70 77.40
metal in the domestic market. Infrastructure
Table 7 Government Projections & Study Results investments being the most important driver

56 April 2007
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Steel Capacity Planning

of domestic demand of constructional steel, table 8

shows the relationship may be of particular interest to
the researchers in this field.
Room for Optimism
The findings of this explorative exercise led to a
set of inferences which may be broadly classified as
optimistic and skeptic. There are enough reasons to
believe that the projected plan investments will result
in a major boost to the domestic steel industry. Some
of these are indicated below.
h There exists a high degree of synergy among the
plans drawn up by the Planning Commission, the surpassed by a healthy margin. It may even exceed
projections made by the Steel Ministry and the 100 million tonne mark much sooner than
policy initiatives adopted by the Finance Ministry. anticipated.
h The government is gearing up to mobilize the Cause of Concern
required amount of resources to the tune of $ 350
Synergy of planned targets among the various
billion or more in order to ensure success of the
Ministries and the Planning Commission do not
eleventh five year plan targets, especially, in the
however eliminate the risk and uncertainties
infrastructure sector.
associated with such a massive endeavor. The possible
h Government is also adopting innovative measures areas which might derail the projected plan of
to bolster the project formulation and execution infrastructural spending and the developmental efforts
capabilities of the nation by leveraging the power of the economy are -
of the private sector in relevant areas of
h Mobilisation
h Projectisation
If the resources are mobilized and spent as per the
plan drawn up, the macro economic analysis of the h Execution
current paper suggests that the demand of crude steel Needless to add that mobilizing the massive level
projected by the Steel Ministry to the tune of 80 of investment is a challenge facing the nation. In spite
million tonnes by 2011-12 will in all likely hoods be of the optimism oozed by the government, the
skeptics may continue to express their concern
Steel Intensity: Tonnes / Crore of whether the same would be achievable, keeping in
Infrastructure Investment view the none-to-happy records of performance in the
past. The estimates are as accurate as the projected
Highways 42
investment levels laid down in official documents.
Railways 135 Any slippage will trigger a chain of adverse reaction
Energy 106 on the demand of steel. The government needs to be
Airports 108 more proactive and play the role of a ‘visionary
Ports 111 entrepreneur’ in the infrastructure sector.
Irrigation 84 The sectoral requirements of funds do not
automatically translate into deployment of funds.
Other Constructions 96
Infrastructure projects typically take about four to
Over all ( Construction Steel) 100
five years from the concept to commissioning. The
Table 8 success of the planned level of investment would

58 April 2007
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Steel Capacity Planning

imply that projects worth Rs.15,7 5,000 crore should

be ready so that the same level of investment can be
absorbed during the course of next five to seven years
by 2011-12.
Nobody really knows how much of the projected
fund has really been projectised. The experts feel that
only about 20 % of the funds can be considered to be
projectised by now. The absence of a systematic
statistical superstructure capable of collecting data on
projects actually happening on the ground levels like
the central, state, municipal and rural across the
public and private domains is standing in the way of
monitoring the project implementation in an
authentic way.
concern. Obviously, the relevant agencies, the central
The story at the rural, urban, municipal and state and state governments, need to substantially improve
levels is also not very encouraging. their project planning and execution machinery so
Barring exceptions, the pace of project that funds once made available can be translated into
implementation continues to be a cause of serious actions without any loss of time. The country needs

April 2007 59
Cover Story
Steel Capacity Planning

to increase its project structuring and execution investment projects.

capacity by a minimum factor of three immediately. h Launching and encouraging Viability Gap Funding
Though the major builders are fast emerging as through Special Purpose Vehicles to make non-
project developers with self-financing models commercially viable projects attractive to the
shedding their age-old image of contactors, the private developers and commercially feasible.
project execution capability of the country’s h Raising caps of external commercial borrowings so
construction sector is not fully known. The major as to enable the major domestic players to raise
builders are already having their capacities fund earned abroad.
overbooked with orders. The country’s construction h Persuading private wealth managers to finance
segment is likely to be stretched beyond its limit India’s infrastructure projects by putting in place
unless new players come forward and shore up the necessary safeguards.
capacity in a big way.
h Raising the domestic rate of savings and creating
Innovative Measures long term savings instruments so as to enable
Responding to the urgency of the nation’s banks and financial institutions to raise funds for
infrastructure building effort, the government is busy investment in infra structural projects.
innovating new measures to counter the negative In the project formulation and execution areas the
effect of the underlying risk and uncertainties as government is innovating too. The following deserve
discussed above. special mention among the slew of measures initiated
In resource mobilization area, the government is by it to propel the country into a higher and faster
really thinking out of the box .. Among the various orbit of growth
measures the government is contemplating the h Evolving the concept of Private-Public-Partnership
following deserve special mention or PPP model in major nation building projects in
h Canalizing a part of the massive foreign areas of power, highways, aviation, railways etc so
exchange reserve to the tune of $ 177 billion for as ensu5re success through synergizing the
funding the infrastructure projects. This is expertise and capital between the public and the
proposed to be done by the Special Purpose private sector.
Vehicle (SPV) like India Investment Company h Introduction of various project execution models
with a capital of $ 10 billion. This would enable like Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT), Build-Own-
RBI to earn more instead of parking the fund in Operate-Transfer (BOOT, Annuity models,
the treasuries abroad. Negative Grant etc. so as to encourage the private
h Utilizing a part of the pension fund for funding builders participate in a big way, not necessarily as
constructors, but very often as builder-partners
with necessary capital as well.
h To mlt1gate the likely shortfall in the availability
of skilled manpower, government is taking steps
to revive 500 Industrial Training Institutes in the
country in terms of curriculum and technical
revamping. About 100 such ITls would be
promoted and run by private bodies.
From the foregoing analysis, it can be safely
concluded that subject to realization of the planned
targets of raising resources and spending of the same

60 April 2007
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Steel Capacity Planning

the all out efforts of the government in mobilizing

the necessary ingredients for growth in the
infrastructure, the future of steel sector appears to
be bright and bullish. The industry is robust
enough to take in its stride aberrations if any
arising out of normal inflationary pressure or
otherwise and still grow at a frenetic pace of 15%
CAGR. The faith bestowed by the investor
community transcending national and international
barriers appears, therefore to be fully justified.
The author, while offering his quantitative
approach to the issue of assessing the impact of the
infrastructure investments to the demand of steel in
the XIth plan period, wishes to acknowledge in
collective to those who provided the basic input
materials to this paper through their individual
contributions in the major economic dailies of the
in project construction, the country is set to witness a country in the recent past.
massive expansion of steel demand exceeding 84
million tones in the form of finished steel or 98
million tonne or nearly 100 million tonne in the form
of crude steel by the year 2011-12. This estimate
surpasses the government’s projected capacity
expansion plan of 80 million tonnes of crude steel by
a healthy margin.
However, the above estimate is based on the fact
that the projected spending in infrastructure sector
will bee achieved during the plan period from 2007-
08 to 2011-12. Any failure or laxity on the part of the
government either on mobilization of resources,
projectisation or execution will lead to adverse
implications in so far as the demand and consumption
of steel in the domestic economy is concerned.
The other factor, which may dampen this rather
euphoric growth, is the inflationary pressure on the
economy. Unless inflation is contained and kept
within a manageable limit, the projections are likely
to take a beating. An annual inflation of 4-5% may
result in a downward revision of as high as 20-25
million tones of demand by the same time frame.
The Indian economy, which is already orbiting
in a higher trajectory of growth, is radiating
optimism and exudes confidence all around. Given

April 2007 61

Versatility of Steel as
Roofing Material Alok Baishya
Senior Manager (Civil & Structural)
Institute for Steel Development &
Growth (INSDAG) Kolkata

RE-ENGINEERED STEEL buildings (Fig.1 &
Fig.2) or building systems with steel roofing
During the past half decade or so the
are gaining popularity very fast for its several scenario has changed a great deal in favour of
advantages. Though, the concept is quite old with steel roofing due to a number of advantages
proven technology in advanced countries, the concept in its favour such as: long life, improved
is still considered almost new in Indian context. paint systems, fast track construction, life
Elegant aesthetic views of the pre-engineered cycle costs, advanced paint systems,
buildings with numerous profiles of steel roofing and aesthetics, wide variety of profiled shape
least construction time are the reasons for quick options, availability of acoustics and heat
popularity. The steel metal buildings are finding its insulation materials, choice of different
suitability in warehouses, sport-complexes, factories, colour shades, etc. has impressed upon the
workshops, distr ibution centres, cold storages,
users, architects, consultants and designers to
supermarkets, aircraft hangers etc.
opt for steel roof sheeting.
Steel Roof
Steel roofing is known for its strength and long- also for mansards, vertical panels and other highly
term durability to most designers and builders. In visible applications.
advanced countries architects, designers and owners
While institutional buildings feature innovative
are going for steel roofing for aesthetic reasons, as
applications of standing seam steel roofing, many of
well (Fig.3). Several recent applications help showcase
today’s residential installations utilize steel to
the versatility of steel roofing, which has come into
faithfully replicate the look of conventional roofing
its own as a design element, not only for roofs but
materials, such as wood shakes, tile and slate and at
the same time return the obvious long-term
environmental, safety and durability benefits of steel.
Steel’s appeal is based on more than aesthetics alone,
of course. Steel has long been the material of choice
for those who demand strength and long life, and in
recent years alloy coatings have further extended the
life of steel roofing systems. From a structural point
of view, there’s the added appeal of steel’s lightweight,
fire resistance, and 100 percent recyclables.
Finally, durability makes steel the most cost-
effective choice, both long-term and short-term.
Moreover, steel’s long life typically adds significantly
to a building’s resale value.

62 April 2007
Versatility of Steel Roofing

Roofing Types around. One can expect steel roofing to last at

Overseas, apart from steel roofing, tiles of mud or least 2 to 3 times longer than a regular roof in
concrete and asphalt roof are also in use. proper maintenance and care is taken.
The average life span of an asphalt roof is 12 to 20 When installed with solid sheathing (polyurethane
years. This lifespan can be shorter depending on the foam, glass wool etc.), steel roofing will silence noise
pitch of the roof and the climate in the location. from rain, hail and bad weather as well, if not better
Made of oil impregnated paper or fiberglass, asphalt than any other roofing material.
begins to deteriorate as soon it is exposed to normal A metal roof can withstand decades of abuse from
weather. Steel roofing, however, never decomposes. extreme weather like high winds, heavy snow,
Other roofing materials like wood shingle and tile hailstorms, and even wildfires. Steel roofing can
have varying degrees of weather-related problems that withstand wind gusts up to 120 miles per hour. Under
will lead to breakdown. Wood shingle often needs high wind conditions steel roofing systems have more
replacement before twenty years. Concrete tile roofs wind and uplift resistance than comparable materials
can crack and warp in the freeze/thaw cycle in and it gives a sense of relief in that one can use the
extreme climates. All of the above roofing materials best material to meet those criteria.
are well-outlasted by steel roofing, which retains its In locations, where there are heavy snowfalls,
good looks and durability decade after decade. metal roofing has been the choice of building owners
No matter what kind of steel roofing style is for years. It sheds snow fast, which protects the
chosen, one has never to worry about the roof again. structural integrity of the roof. And it can eliminate
Most come with a true 30 to 50 year warranty, plus, ice damming at the eves, so water can’t back up and
new steel roof will add to the resale value of the collect under the roof then leak into the building.
building, save money on the energy bills, and will The recycled content of the steel in a metal roof is
give a piece of mind that the owner is never likely to about 56% from production to installation to reuse -
have to re-roof again. far superior to asphalt.
Today’s steel roofing available profiles is made A metal roof on an average is 50% lighter than an
to look exactly like common roofing material - asphalt shingle roof, and 75% lighter than concrete
such as asphalt shingle, clay tile or slate roofing - tile, fiber cement shakes. With metal roofing, weight
only stronger and more durable, there’s certain to on a structure is never an issue.
be a style and finish to match any building in and Types of Roof
If the roof is made by using roof panel without
insulation, there are following two types of roof
Standing Seam Roof: The standing seam steel
roof is one of the most exciting breakthroughs in
roofing technology in the last 25 years. It fulfills the
building owner’s need for durable, puncture-resistant
protection against the weather, while working in
concert with the forces of nature.
The roofing system has established track record in
new construction where it has been used in some 50%
of all low-rise commercial, industrial and institutional
buildings erected in the last several years. Standing
seam metal roofing can now be seen on virtually

April 2007 63
Versatility of Steel Roofing

every type of building, from shopping centers to barrier. The raised seam assists drainage. Organic
schools, churches to libraries, skyscrapers to residential sealants are factory applied inside the seams.
buildings. The system currently accounts for well over Automatic field seaming machines produce
one billion square feet of roofing in US, with potential weatherproof connections between metal roof panels.
to capture a much larger share of the commercial and Energy Efficient: Systems accommodate up to
residential building market. The standing seam roof 300 mm of heat and cold and minimizing
made of steel is the most durable building material. condensation under roof panels. The roof expands and
And yet, the lightweight metal roof panels weigh a contract independent of insulation, giving the roof
relatively modest about 6-7 kg per square meter. surface a “float” action.
The standing seam metal roof assures adequate Durable: Concealed sliding clips handle thermal
drainage from rain and snow effectively, ponded water shock for permitting movement without damage.
problems, leaks and other related troubles commonly
Cost Effective: Life expectancy is longer, less
associated with flat built-up roofs. Unlike flat built- maintenance is required and life cycle costs are lower
up roofs, which require frequent maintenance, the
than for any other type of roof. Twenty year material
standing seam metal roof offers 20 years and beyond
warranties are customary for metal roofing systems,
of trouble-free performance with little or no
considerably longer than the standard protection for
maintenance expenses. The panel fastening systems is
built up single ply systems.
uniquely designed to handle the potentially damaging
effects of thermal movement. Precisely formed, Coluor-coated and Corrosion Resistant:
factory-made metal panels are locked in place by clips Offering a wide range of colors and textures, along
inside a raised seam standing 50 – 75 mm above the with the concealed clip system, the standing seam roof
roof surface. The clips have a moveable feature is one of the most attractive roofing system for almost
any building. Metal roof panels resist corrosion with
allowing the panel to expand and contract with
the help of a zinc, aluminum, or aluminum-zinc alloy
temperature changes. The concealed clip system
means fewer through roof fasteners, reducing the metallic coating applied to the base steel.
chances of leaks. Environmentally Responsible: In most retrofit
Standing seam metal roof system has nearly projects, the standing seam metal roof can be
installed over an existing flat roof, eliminating costly,
become the most preferred roofing system for a
growing number of commercial, industrial and disruptive and potentially hazardous tear-offs. In
institutional buildings because of the following reasons. addition, the metal roofing is completely recyclable.
Weather-proof Joints: It is designed as a water Design Flexibility: Steep slope, low slope and flat
roof profiles can all be designed with the standing seam
metal roof. The structural roof is the industry’s
alternative to flat built-up and singly ply systems. The
architectural standing roof is used for visually exposed
roofs, mansards, fascia, and similar applications.
Tile Design Roof
Pre-painted steel panels are formed to create the
appearance of clay or concrete tiles (Fig.5). Wide sheet
widths and long lengths eliminate many joints found in
clay and concrete tile roofs. As heating and cooling is
one of the important operating expenses in a building, it
is desirable to have proper insulation in the roof systems.
The building with insulation exhibits low thermal

64 April 2007
Versatility of Steel Roofing

conductivity with the environment. The cost efficiency resisting decay, discoloration and mildew.
achieved makes it viable to adopt single skin insulated h Steel roofs have excellent performance in wind
(Fig.6) or double skin insulated (Fig.7) building roofs. resistance, water, snow, and ice shedding.
Single Skin Insulated Roof h Steel roofs provide an excellent method for re-
Single skin insulated roof construction comprises roofing of existing roofs.
roof insulation underneath the cladding as underdeck h Steel roofs increase building’s resale value.
insulation. The insulation is rolled over the purlins or h Steel roofs may be used in re-roofing and steep or
girts and then roof panels are fixed to the secondary low-sloped roof applications.
framing through insulation.
h Reduces burden to landfill areas by eliminating
Double Skin Insulated Roof
the requirement for the disposal of the existing
Double skin insulated roof construction comprises roof made of other materials.
of internal liner panels directly screwed to the
h Light colors reflect heat in warm climates and
secondary framing, sub-girts screwed through spacer
save energy.
blocks and liner sheet to the purlin below, roll-
insulation with vapour barrier is laid over the sub- h Many re-roofing applications permit added
insulation between the old and new roof,
girts and finally the outer panel is screwed to the
subgirts through the insulation. resulting in an environmentally friendly system
that can reduce building’s energy consumption.
Cost Aspect
Residential steel roofing offers the owner a premium
product with a long life expectancy. Residential steel
roofs are competitively priced in a stable market. When
examining steel roofs through a “Life-Cycle Costing”
perspective, in addition to installation cost, one considers
factors such as the length of life of the system,
maintenance, repair requirements, ease of replacement,
resale value and environmental considerations such as re-
cyclability and the cost of disposal.
Benefits of Steel Roofing
Advantages of steel roofing are not limited to
those indicated below:
h Steel roofs are attractive in appearance coming in
a broad spectrum of colors, designs, thicknesses
and accessories such as trim, flashing and
formed accessories.
h Steel roofs are easy to work with and lightweight.
h The strength of steel allows for increased design
h Steel roofs allow for fast installation and quick
building occupancy.
h Steel roofing is non-combustible and therefore
provides fire resistance.
h Steel roofs are low maintenance and long lasting,

April 2007 65
Metal Roofing & Cladding

Metal Roofing & Cladding for

Modern Industrial Buildings

HE AUTHOR DISCUSSES the features and Coating density is either 150gsm or 200gsm. The
application of colour coated metal roofing & Zinc – aluminium alloy coating provides excellent
wall cladding sheet systems, scientifically corrosion resistance coupled with sacrificial protection
engineered roofing for industrial and institutional provided by the zinc in the alloy.
buildings, resorts, houses etc. Organic Coatings: Organic coatings provide
Metal Roofing And Cladding aesthetic finish to galvanized / zinclalume coil stock.
Base Metal: The basic material is cold rolled steel Choice of coating depends on the environmental
sheets in thickness ranging from 0.45mm to 0.8mm. conditions at the point of the use. Architectural
This steel is available with an yield strength of 240 polyester coating is provided by indigenous
MPa for roofing and cladding applications from manufacturers and modified polyester, PVF2 Coatings
manufacturers in India. High yield strength sheets of etc., are available with sheets made available from
300 MPa / 550 MPa are available from abroad in abroad. Protective coatings are available in
thicknesses ranging from 0.42mm to 0.8mm. aewthetically appealing shades whose durability
without chalking or fading can be guaranteed for
Base Metal Protection: The steel sheets used for
building applications are corrosion protected with known exposure conditions.
Metallurgical coating having a density of 180 gsm. To
275 gsm galvanizing. Zincalume / galvalume sheets Profiles: Different types of profiled sheets are
have metallurgical protection of 55% hot dipped available from various manufacturers using roll
coated aluminium, 43.5% zinc and 1.5 silcon. The forming technique., However trapezoidal, hi-rib
profile with anti siphoning flute which drains the
water entering through the capillary action, are being
widely used in the industrial buildings. Aesthetically
appealing profiles like ‘Mangalore Tile’ profiles etc.,
are also available for resorts and other buildings.
Profiled sheets are available in lengths upto 12 metres
(limited only by transportation considerations)
Types of Roofing And Cladding Systems:
Roofing and cladding systems are broadly
classified into pierced and fastened system and
concealed fixing system.
Pierced and Fastened Systems: In the pierced
and fastened systems the profiled sheets are fixed to the
purlins /girts with carefully engineered self drilling &

66 April 2007
Metal Roofing & Cladding

self tapping screws provided with EPDM washer and attractive roofs in single storey units in an industrial
matching colour coated UV stabilized caps. These site to break the monotony. Decking sheets having
systems are widely used in our country and offer the high rib profile are used in industrial buildings as
best solutions to most of the industrial roofs. permanent shuttering / insulated built up roofing,
Concealed Fixing Systems: This systems features featuring an external metal skin on the weathering
a patented concealed clop which is fixed to the purlins side and insulation material sandwiched between the
with special fasteners and the profiled sheet are two sheets.
clipped on the concealed clips. Provisions are Ancillary Materials for Roofing and Cladding
available in this systems to make it water tight. This Systems
system was basically developed to cater to the Fastened system utilizes a large quantity of self
buildings having shallow slopes (as low as 20). An drilling self tapping fasteners and there are many
extra – ordinary feature of this systems is that it is types of screws available from various manufacturers.
possible to roll form at site to any length and make it Carefull selection of screws is very important for
possible to rollform at site to any lengh and make it fastened system. Profiled HDPE end closures,
possible to have a single sheet from eave to ridge flashing with poly carbonate/ FRP sheets etc have to
without any end laps. It is also possible to provide an be carefully designed and applied to make the
“end to end” continuous length of joint-free roofing building water tight.
where shallow curved roofs are involved. Thermal insulation is an important element in
Insulated Roofing and Cladding Systems
Built up Roofing & Cladding systems: Roofing &
Cladding can be built up layer by layer, with insulation
to meet the requirements of thermal comfort as well as
noise control. Combination of fastened and concealed
fixing systems are effectively utilized today in many
building roofs. Double skin fastened insulated roofing
and cladding systems are commonly used economical
building envelopes these days.
Composite Roofing & Cladding System:
Prefabricated sandwich panels with PUF / rockwool or
combination of PUF & Rockwool as core are also
available today for insulated cladding for cold rooms,
D.G. set rooms to reduce the heat ingress and noise
transmissions respectively. These composite panels
comprises of two metal skins with PUF/ rockwool
core. Prefabricated sandwich panels with PUF core
and with profiled sheet on the weathering side and
slightly ribbed plain sheets on the inner side are also
commonly used for insulated roofings / claddings in
many industrial and commercial buildings.
Special Roofing Systems: Mangalore tile type
profiled sheets are available for resort and other
buildings where importance is given to aesthetics. It
is common to see designers featuring these very

April 2007 67
Metal Roofing & Cladding

building design which imparts thermal comfort to Installation of Metal Roofing & Wall Claddings
occupants and drastic reduction in power required Roofing: The roof sheet of the given dimension
when the space is cooled or heated to maintain with the overhang at the eave is placed first. The
desired temperatures. Insulation for a building is an roofing work would proceed from the eave upwards
important step from the point of view of acoustic / towards the ridge. All end laps should have suitable
noise reduction requirements of the building as well. sealant mastics correctly placed without any gaps.
With new multi-national and trans-national Insulation if may is to be placed first over a weldmesh
companies setting up projects in our country, comfort retention prior to fixing the roofing sheets in single
to personel working in the factory sheds has assumed skin insulated roofings.
major importance in non-air –conditioned industrial Wall Cladding: Wall cladding work is commenced
buildings. Insulation products are specified and and progressed from the end which is away from the
demanded as manufactured in India or from overseas prevailing wind or the most viewed direction so that
sources. Two products – rockwool /glasswool in the the sheet overlaps are not visible. Foam closures
form of rolls and slabs with lamination of either should be installed on the base angles prior to fixing
aluminium foil / vinayl are being used for both roof the wall sheeting. Wall insulation shall be clamped to
and wall insulation. Thicknesses of thses materials the eave strut or secured with double faced tape and
specified are 25 mm. Or 50 mm with rockwool at a pulled tight before fastening the wall sheeting.
density of 48 kgs/cu.m./ glasswool at a density of 24
General Notes: Bundles of roof and wall cladding
kgs/cu.m as per design requirement. sheets should be stored in such a way that one end is a
Buildings enclosing gas turbines / D.G. Sets for higher elevation than the other end to allow speedy
power production are to be noise insulated to bring drainage of water. Sheets should be kept covered with
down the noise level outside the building. Specially tarpaulin during the times of rain. Usage of
made rockwool panels with a core of rockwool polythene sheet cover should be avoided as it can
sandwiched between two metal sheets are being used cause vapour retention within the bundle and
for walls of such buildings. These panels bring down subsequent condensation. The use of chalk line is
the noise level substantially ( by about 25 to 28 db) always recommended for accurate drilling and
In-situ built-up triple skin/ double skin insulation screwing of sheets to the support structure. This
systems can be designed to offer much higher noise gives better appearance and less risk of leakage due to
level reduction where desired. misdrilling. Roofing sheets should always be crest
Buildings are used for cold stores and in these fixed to eliminate chances of water leakage while wall
projects, closed cell rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) cladding sheets could be valley fixed. While walking
sandwich panels comprising of CFC-free PUF, on the roof, always walk on the low ribs and
sandwiched between two metal facings are featured to preferably along the purlin line. Standing on the hi-
maintain storage temperatures as required in such ribs can cause severe damage, which could lead to
buildings. These storage temperatures can be from possible leakage of water. Do not walk on skylights.
plus temperatures to all the way down to -40 deg. C. Maintenance: Steel roofing/ cladding systems
Auditoriums / conference halls require a certain require minimum maintenance. The roof should be
optimum “reverberation time”, depending upon the inspected immediately after installation to check if the
kind of performances for which the halls are designed. clearing of the roof has been carried out fully preferable
These conditions are achieved through a Proper design on day to day basis. It is very often seen that the
of walls and roof with absorptive insulation. Mineral drilled out metal and debris are not swept away. These
wool products are commonly used in these can act as initiators of corrosion and lead to premature
applications, finished with a variety of commonly failures. Installed roofing must be inspected at least
available facing materials. once in a year. Any exposed metal that can rust or has

68 April 2007
Metal Roofing & Cladding

rusted should be painted. Leaves, branches and trash the suspected leak area with tar or asphalt or use
should be removed from, gutters, at ridge caps and in repair tape. Water can collect under the repair
corners. Also a watch should be kept on discharge from material causing corrosion. Instead, have an
industrial stacks and particulate matter which could get experienced roofing foreman locate the leak,
piled up and overload the roof and choke the rain water identify its cause and properly repair the roof.
drainage system. Conclusions
Roof top ancillaries and air-conditioner Metal roofing and cladding concepts have carved
supports, drains and housing should be checked for themselves an enviable position in the
periodically. Particular attention should be paid to construction industry in view of their being ideally
add-On roof ancillaries that create new roof suited to the situation and needs of the modern
penetrations. Roof top air-conditioner and Engineering Industry. It would be very difficult to
extractors should be installed on kerbs designed to imagine how we could have met requirements for
avoid ponding of water. Condensate from air- large enclosures with thermal and acoustical
conditioning and refrigeration equipment should features demanded by the users of today without
never be allowed to drain directly on the roof these concepts. The major advantage of the high
sheets. Drained water may contain ions from speeds of design and construction afforded by metal
condenser coils that accelerate corrosion in the roofing and cladding has contributed to their
event of roof leak, do not indiscriminately Plaster premier position in the industrial building sector.

April 2007 69
Case Study

Beyond the Rainbow

Radiative Property
Property Control
in Coil
Coil Coating
Coating Systems
James Maxted

the formulator with a continuous series of
In effect the low emissivity coating acts as
challenges. Efficient application is just the a thermal energy barrier - blocking a
starting point. Long term appearance must be very significant proportion of the thermal energy
stable, demanding increasingly durable topcoats transfer across the coating by inhibiting
incorporating systems to minimize dirt pick-up and radiative energy transfer. And it works
improve dirt shedding properties. Metallic finishes, equally well on heating degree days as
special effects and high-chroma colours are required cooling degree days.
and now they must be free of heavy metals. Then
there is corrosion to contend with, demanding high- clear that coatings could have a useful role to play in
build and flexible primers to maximise protection, energy control, Beckers went back to first principles.
again free of heavy metals. Graph 1 shows the typical irradiance spectrum of
In all these areas it is Beckers’ policy, not just to sunlight (taken from ASTM E159-98). The wavelengths
develop coatings from raw materials available, but to from the sun falling on the earth’s surface range
undertake fundamental research into such areas as the between 0.3 to 2.5µm with differing intensity at each
mechanisms of topcoat degradation and corrosion wavelength. Only about 5% of this energy is in the
inhibition. This work is often done in association with invisible ultra violet at ground level. This is a small but
universities around the world. So when it became deadly portion causing coating degradation and other
malign effects such as skin melanomas. In
the visible range we can actually see and feel
a significant proportion of the sun’s energy.
But over 50% of the solar energy is in the
invisible, infra red region. On a hot day that
is a lot of energy that potentially can be
absorbed by a coating and then transferred
into the interior of a building by conductive
and radiative processes.
On cold days, the sun is not the only
important source of energy. When the heating
inside the building is turned up and it is then
warmer inside than out, the net heat flow
moves in the opposite direction. Under these
circumstances every object in the building acts
like a ‘little sun’ (a black body) as it radiates
Graph 1 Terrestrial Solar Irradiation low energy heat. This time, however, the

70 April 2007
Case Study
Coil Coating Systems

energy is radiated not in the UV, visible or near

infrared like the sun, but in the mid infrared - in
the region of 2.5 to 25µm wavelength.
Thermal control coatings need to control
electromagnetic radiation from UV
wavelengths at 0.3 microns right through to
those in the mid infrared at 25 µm wavelength.
What properties are required of thermal control
coatings as theyinteract with this
electromagnetic radiation?
Figure 1 shows what is happening on a hot
day which generates a net heat flux into the
cooler room area. Graphic 2 Spectral Reflectance of Different Pigments
The main source of heating is the sun’s energy,
acting upon the coated surface of the metal roof. A infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Wind
portion of the sun’s energy will be reflected or and air flow on the surface of the coating will also
scattered in the visible (giving the colour and gloss of reduce the surface temperature by convection.
the coating). In the near infra red some of this energy However considerable energy will remain in the
may also be reflected. With a conventional dark coating that can then be conducted through the metal
coating much of the energy will be absorbed, towards the cooler inside of the building.
resulting in heat build up in the coating to The interior organic coating will behave like the
temperatures as high as 80°C. Some of this absorbed exterior coating when the conducted energy from
solar energy will then be re-emitted by the coating outside meets it. The coating will first absorb the
back out into the environment, now as higher energy and then re-emit it into the inside of the room
wavelength, lower energy radiation in the mid as energy in the thermal or mid infra red region.
Convection and conduction again play a part
in energy transfer into the room causing the
temperature to climb and the air
conditioning to be switched on.
It is clear from this that not only is energy
reflection important in designing coatings for
thermal control, but so too are emittance (or
absorption) properties.
Considering first the exterior coating:
what properties are required for
thermal control?
h To minimize degradation the coating
needs to be transparent or have minimal
absorbance in the UV (from 0.25 -
0.3µm). This should apply to all elements
in the formulation, not just the binder.
h In the visible (from 0.4 to 0.7µm) the
Figure 1 – Heat transfer mechanisms on a hot day coating needs to reflect certain

April 2007 71
Case Study
Coil Coating Systems

wavelengths depending upon the colour

required. It will also scatter some of the
visible light depending on the gloss level,
but elsewhere the solar energy will be
h In the near infra red (from 0.7 to 2.5 µm)
the coating system needs to be as
reflective as possible. The solar energy is
invisible here and only heats up the
coating if the energy is absorbed.
h The coating will inevitably absorb some
energy, so it is important that it is also an efficient Graph 4 Specular Reflectance of Leaves and Paint
re-radiator of this absorbed thermal energy. The to black (70% and 5% respectively) – indeed it is
coating needs to exhibit high emittance in the
comparable to white as Graph 3 shows. The problem
thermal or mid infra red.
is that the thermal emittance of absorbed energy is
And of course, the coating still has to provide very much lower for unpainted metal compared to
long-lived aesthetic properties – it has to be both UV black (10% and 90% re-emittance respectively).
durable and corrosion resistant! Unpainted metal simply can not get rid of the
A bright white coating would be the most thermal energy it has absorbed and hence is hotter to
reflective and thus the coolest option. It reflects 60 - touch. Emittance properties cannot be ignored.
70% of all the solar energy right across the visible and Neither does the above pattern explain why a dark
near infra red as Graph 2 shows. By contrast, a green leaf is apparently cool to touch whereas a
conventional black coating absorbs all but 5% of the painted steel panel of the same colour is much hotter.
total solar energy across the same spectrum. It is easy In this case, the reflectance spectrum of the leaf is a
to understand why white coatings are cool and blacks very different pattern to the green coating. You can
hot. But architects don’t always want white roofs! see the step change in solar reflectance at 0.7 µm.
Reflectance alone fails to explain why unpainted The leaf has the right colour in the visible to enable it
metal is often hotter to touch than black-painted to photosynthesize, but it also has the ability to
metal. As might be expected, the total solar appear white in the near infrared and thus be cool
reflection of unpainted metal is very high compared enough to avoid cooking! In effect this is what we
want from a cool coating – and as ever nature
has got there first!
If we consider the interior coating of
the system it is apparent that we need
quite different properties to those of the
exterior coating.
For the source of energy is not now
radiative, from the sun, but thermal – from
the heated metal core of the coil coated
material. The paint system therefore needs to
be able to reflect this thermal energy back in
the direction it came from rather than absorb
Graph 3 Reflectance of Unpainted and White Coated Subnstrates and then re-emit it in the mid infrared. To

74 April 2007
Case Study
Coil Coating Systems

put it another way the coating has to have a low

rather than a high emittance in the thermal infrared.
When the net heat flow is reversed, as in the case of
a cold day with higher temperatures inside than out,
the interior coating has to function in the same
manner, only of course this time the source of thermal
energy is in the room interior. Under these
circumstances the coating needs to reflect the radiated
thermal energy back into the room rather the allowing
this precious heat energy to be absorbed into the wall
or roof and thus be conducted and lost to the outside.
In effect the low emissivity coating acts as a thermal
energy barrier - blocking a significant proportion of the Figure 2 – BeckryTherm test sheds in Shanghai
thermal energy transfer across the coating by inhibiting
radiative energy transfer. And it works equally well on early days are being resolved with the adoption of a
heating degree days as cooling degree days. number of internationally recognized standard
methods within the cool roof community – the Cool
The challenge for Beckers was been to formulate an
Metal Roofing Coalition website
organic coating to behave as a low emitter, since most
( lists the standard ASTM
organic coatings are by their very nature high emitters. procedures.
How does the performance of this composite coating Developing the BeckryTherm range has required
system behave and how can we quantify performance? immense amounts of data-gathering from around the
Fortunately, most of the confusions of world. But Graph 5 shows, in a useful snapshot, the
measurement and some of the spurious claims of the benefits of BeckryTherm, based on real-time data
measured in South Africa.
The chart shows how the interior surface
of the panel is cooled as a result of using both
the exterior solar reflective and the interior
thermal reflective coating together. In this
set of measurements, for a range of typical
roofing colours which are identical to the eye,
the average reduction was nearly 8°C. This is
typical of the temperature differences seen in
this location.
8°C may not sound a big reduction but it
can often be the difference between a room
that is comfortable to work in and one that is
very uncomfortable, requiring air
Beckers has also constructed a series of
test sheds in Shanghai (Figure 2) which
evaluates BeckryTherm’s performance day
Graph 5 - Outdoor Testing: Evaluations in Republic of South Africa and night, summer and winter. Internal

76 April 2007
Case Study
Coil Coating Systems

After construction BeckryTherm will

benefit the building owner through:
h Reduced air conditioning usage and costs
h Reduced heating fuel consumption & costs
h Improved thermal comfort
h In some jurisdictions, tax credits and rebates
h Longer life of the roof
BeckryTherm will benefit the
environment through
h Lower peak loads on energy producers
h Reduced ‘heat island’ effect and
Graph 6 – Exterior Durability Performance: Gloss Retention global warming
h Reduced consumption of fossil fuels
temperatures, heating and air conditioning loads are
continually monitored. h Improved durability & product lifetimes
Cool? Sure!
This sort of practical testing, at sites around the
world, forms a key part of Beckers’ product For details: visit
development. Real time testing is vital to assess the
ability of the coating to control aesthetics and corrosion.
In addition to the usual Florida test stations, Beckers
runs its own world wide weathering and thermal control
programmes at various sites around the globe.
One result of this programme has been to show the
extent to which BeckryTherm’s lower surface
temperatures slow down the degradation of the coating.
Graph 6 shows that after 2 years’ Florida exposure, all
BeckryTherm versions of each colour show significantly
lower gloss reduction than their standard equivalents –
and in three cases show no loss of gloss at all!
Beckers can therefore be confident that BeckryTherm
will benefit building owners and the environment
whenever there are large temperature differentials
between the interior and exterior of a building. These
benefits are over and above the environmental benefits of
building with coil coated metal, such as low mass, long
life, recycled content and recyclability.
Benefits start at the point of construction.
Contractors cannot work on or with roofing panels
that are 60°C or more. With BeckryTherm there is
less down-time because of overheating and
construction crews have noticed that the panels are
more comfortable to handle and work on.

April 2007 77

Liquid Sand ™ -
A Step Forward
Upen Patel, Marketing Manager, BASF
Construction Chemicals (India) Pvt. Ltd.

HE TERM “LIQUID SAND” describes the The Liquid Sand program offers concrete
effects of adding Rheomac viscosity modifying
manufacturers the option of using less-than
admixture (VMA) to significantly enhance
concrete workability and rheology. The Liquid Sand
optimal fine aggregate materials (gap-graded or
program is the application of innovative BASF manufactured sands) while maintaining excellent
Admixtures, Inc. technologies to improve the workability characteristics in the pumping,
consistency and workability of concrete using the most placing and finishing operations important to
cost-effective fine aggregates available to the producer. contractors and customers. This article
The Liquid Sand program offers concrete manufacturers introduces Liquid Sand program as popularized
the option of using less-than optimal fine aggregate by BASF Construction Chemicals.
materials (gap-graded or manufactured sands) while
maintaining excellent workability characteristics in the concrete, however, it can be very expensive, and/or in
pumping, placing and finishing operations important to limited supply. As circumstances have forced producers
contractors and customers. This article introduces to use less-than-ideal fine aggregate sources, such as
Liquid Sand program as popularized by BASF manufactured sand and poorly or less-than-optimally
Construction Chemicals. graded sand, the result is a concrete mixture that is
Why focus on fine aggregate? difficult to pump, place, and finish and is potentially
Natural sand is ideal for producing workable prone to excessive bleeding. Even when using a less than
ideal fine aggregate source, concrete producers can still
market a value-added, easy-to-place mix that increases
profitability and maintains satisfied customers by
instituting a Liquid Sand program. For example, in
Northern California, there is a shortage of natural sand.
To extend the natural sand supply and reduce material
costs, producers incorporate manufactured sand into
concrete mixtures. The down side to this is that it makes
the concrete more difficult to pump and finish and elicits
complaints from contractors. Incorporating a Rheomac
VMA admixture into the concrete produces a
completely different and highly enhanced workable
mixture. Rheomac VMA admixtures not only make a
concrete mixture more cost effective but also maintain
the workability characteristics preferred by contractors.
Concrete mixtures containing a Rheomac VMA
Fig. 1: The Effect of Liquid SandTM admixture by BASF Construction Chemicals produce a

78 April 2007
Liquid Sand - A Step Forward

much more manageable mixture to place, speeding the same level of workability and finishability.
production by lowering the effort required to place the h Add Value: Offer a branded “pump and finishing
concrete. Contractors have reported that mixtures mixture” to contractors.
containing a Rheomac VMA admixture pump extremely
h Improve Aesthetics: Increasing the coarse
well-noting that “pump pressures have dropped between
aggregate content and decreasing the fine
10 and 15%.” In addition, “pump trucks no longer shake
aggregate content can reduce concrete shrinkage,
during the positive pump stroke while placing the
yet maintain good finishing qualities.
concrete.” The result is less wear and tear on capital
equipment. The concrete finishes dramatically better as h Improve Durability: Easier finishing results and
well. Finishers report that the concrete “closes better and less potential for over-finishing which can drive
easier resulting in fewer surface defects.” The potential entrained air out of an air-entrained concrete slab
for over-finishing concrete flatwork is also reduced as surface making it susceptible to scaling in areas
Rheomac VMA admixtures in the mixture allows for that experience cycles of freezing and thawing.
fewer passes of the trowel or float. Properly finished Uses for Rheomac Viscosity Modifying Admixtures
concrete enhances durability. Rheomac VMAs can be used in virtually every
Liquid Sand™ Program Benefits concrete application. Concrete contractors can benefit
h Reduce Costs: Optimize the use of natural sand from using concrete containing Rheomac VMA at low
and manufactured sand content while maintaining dosages to provide “more body” to facilitate pumping

April 2007 79
Liquid Sand ™ - A Step Forward

and finishing procedures. At higher dosages in The Technologies behind Rheomac VMA
Rheodynamic ® Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), Products
Rheomac viscosity-modifying admixtures provide VMAs can be categorized under two main
stability and serve as an insurance policy against groupings based on the mechanism by which they
segregation. The use of a VMA also increases the function; thickening-type or binding-type.
number of applications for SCC because more Thickening-Type VMA
mixtures can be proportioned for a wider range of
Viscosity-modifying admixtures in this group
applications. Variations in aggregate moisture
function by thickening the concrete, making it very
content, in particular that of the fine aggregate and
cohesive without significantly affecting the fluidity of the
mixture ingredient batching can lead to segregation,
mix. By modifying the viscosity of a very fluid concrete
excessive bleeding and SCC performance
mixture such as SCC, it becomes more stable and less
inconsistency. The use of a VMA in an SCC mixture
prone to segregation during and after placement.
can improve consistency and control segregation and
bleeding in mixtures with excessive water contents, Binding-Type VMA
depending on VMA type. Rheomac VMAs are also These VMAs function by binding water within the
recommended for use in concrete containing “gap- concrete mixture. This mechanism results in an
graded” aggregates, lean concrete mixtures, and increase in the viscosity of the mixture, while reducing
concrete containing coarse, manufactured sand as or eliminating concrete bleeding. This type of VMA is
bleeding is controlled and rheological properties are more potent in modifying the viscosity of a SCC
improved to facilitate pumping and finishing, and mixture compared to a thickening-type VMA.
improve surface appearance. Rheomac VMAs are also Concrete treated with a binding-type VMA also takes
ideal for use in concretes containing high coarse on a thixotropic characteristic, which means that fresh
aggregate contents. An architectural exposed- concrete may gel up if left in a mixing vessel, truck, or
aggregate precast panel is difficult to produce using form without agitation. Simply re-mixing the concrete
conventional SCC because a high loading of coarse can restore workability. This characteristic in the
aggregate will have a tendency to segregate. This can plastic state will be apparent until the concrete begins
cause a non-uniform appearance in the final product. to gain rigidity due to hydration.
The stabilizing effect of a VMA provides cohesiveness Rheomac Viscosity-Modifying Admixture Products
to the mixture and facilitates the use of higher coarse Rheomac products are formulated to provide
aggregate contents [>1000 kg/m3] in this type of enhanced performance attributes in concrete. The
application. The net effect is a uniform exposed- Rheomac family of viscosity-modifying admixtures is
aggregate finish.
comprised of three products. As a concrete producer
or contractor, you have your choice of Rheomac VMA
to meet your specific needs.
Rheomac VMA 358
h Thickening-type viscosity modifier
h Easy-to-dispense
h Controls bleeding
Rheomac VMA 362
h Thickening-type viscosity modifier
h Easy-to-dispense
h Controls bleeding
Fig. 2 : Test apparatus – to determine the effectiveness of Rheomac VMA h Imparts thixotropic characteristics

80 April 2007
Liquid Sand - A Step Forward

Rheomac VMA 450 h Enhanced pumpability

h Binding-type viscosity modifier h Enhanced finishability
h Controls bleeding h Controlled bleeding
h Imparts thixotropic characteristic to The unique features of Rheomac viscosity-
concrete mixture. modifying admixtures provide the following benefits
Rheomac VMA Features and Benefits for the entire construction team:
h Provides flexibility in mixture proportioning and
Whether you are meeting a daily concrete
production schedule or developing high-performance batching
concrete for a specific application, the premier line of h Provides superior and predictable in-place concrete
Rheomac viscosity-modifying admixtures provides properties
you with the additional flexibility and confidence to h Reduces sagging helping plastic concrete maintain
meet industry demands and challenges for quality its shape on slopes and arches
concrete. With Rheomac VMA admixtures, concrete h Facilitates production of highly-fluid concrete
producers and contractors can achieve desirable mixtures such as Rheodynamic® Self-Compacting
performance characteristics such as: Concrete
h Enhanced concrete viscosity h Enhances surface appearance
h Thixotropic properties Overall, a VMA can provide flexibility in mixture
h Improved stability during transport and placement proportioning, enable the use of more normal mixture

April 2007 81
Liquid Sand ™ - A Step Forward

proportions without the need to increase fines content wedge. See Figure 2.
in SCC mixtures, and assure stability with varying h Allow to sit for 5 - 8 minutes
mixture ingredients. h Apply petri dish lid (with paper) on top of each
Products for Liquid Sand petri dish
BASF Admixtures offers two products specifically h Carefully remove lid after 30 seconds
for Liquid Sand programs: h Observe water stain pattern
h Rheomac VMA 358 admixture Mix1 - Natural Sand : Contains natural sand , Mix2 -
h Rheomac VMA 362 admixture Manufactured Sand 1: Contains manufactured sand,
Mix3 - Liquid Sand Program (Manufactured):
As a result of the many positive attributes offered
Same as Mixes 1 & 2 except
by a Rheomac VMA admixture producers can now
proportion their mixtures in several advantageous h Prior to Step 3 (Placing mixture in petri dish), add
ways using either Rheomac VMA 362 or Rheomac 5 drops of VMA (358 or 362) with pipette
VMA 358 admixture as a “liquid sand”. h Mix thoroughly
Liquid Sand – An local evaluation report h Continue with steps 3 through 10
The Purpose was to compare the workability and h Compare water stain pattern vs. previous mixes
finishability characteristics of natural sand vs. Mix 4 - Manufactured Sand 2
manufactured sand, to demonstrate the effect of adding Same as Mixes 1 & 2 except:
a Rheomac Viscosity-Modifying Admixture (VMA) to h Prior to Step 1, add 130 g of locally sourced
a mixture that incorporates manufactured sand. Four manufactured sand to mixing cup
diffrent mixes were studied and compared as under:
h Prior to Step 3 (Placing mixture in petri dish), add
Test Apparatus 5 drops of VMA (358 or 362) with pipette
3 – Paper cups with sand + cement, 1 - Rheomac h Mix thoroughly
VMA 358, 1 - cup with cement only (for use in mix
#4), 1 - Rheomac VMA 362, 4 - petri dishes w/ lids h Continue with steps 3 through 10
+ paper insert, 4 - water vials (25 ml), 2 - plastic h Compare water stain pattern vs. previous mixes
pipettes, 4 - mixing sticks Results of the testing
Mix design During mixing, compared texture differences of
The following mix design was used as the basis for mixtures with natural and manufactured sand. The
the experimental mixes included in this test. angular surface of the manufactured sand leads to the
tendency to bleed. The manufactured sand
Cement : 300 kg/m3
mixture(Mix 2) without the VMA has a higher bleed
w/c : 0.4
rate then Mixtures(Mix 3 & 4) containing a VMA
water : 120 litre
tend to bleed much less.
Air : 1%
VMA : 0.25 % by wt of cement
BASF Construction Chemical’s Liquid Sand program
using Rheomac viscosity-modifying admixtures can save
h Add 25 ml of water to dry ingredients in each cup money and improve finished product aesthetics.
h Mix thoroughly (approx. 100 revolutions/strokes) For additional information on the Liquid Sand™,
h Place mixture in petri dish contact author at BASF Construction Chemicals
h Screed with narrow edge of mixing stick (India) Pvt. Ltd., C-68, TTC Industrial Area, MIDC
h Finish with wide edge of mixing stick Turbhe, Navi Mumbai-400613, Phone +91 22
h Set petri dish at an angle, using mixing stick as 27619992, Fax 022-27619242,

82 April 2007

Ondulit and the

Multilayer Protection
The advanced performances of the system

Resistance to corrosion
In the Ondulit protected system the steel
The lasting of metal roofing is conditioned by its
is encapsulated in various protective layers
capability to resist to corrosion. The action of the
chemically aggressive substances, mostly if combined
which make it virtually unassailable from
with elevated levels of relative humidity, may aggressive agents, thus offering superior
produce a fast deterioration of the standard metal performances and high reliability over time
roofing, particularly in presence of sharp angles, holes, even in the most severe corrosive
scratches or cuts. atmospheres (marine, industrial, urban)
In the Ondulit protected system the steel is
encapsulated in various protective layers which make protective coating absorbs precipitation impact on
it virtually unassailable from aggressive agents, thus metal and avoids its vibration, the origin of roaring
offering superior performances and high reliability noise. Roofing is therefore aphonous and may
over time even in the most severe corrosive therefore be used in buildings with any destination of
atmospheres (marine, industrial, urban). use.
In fact the specific characteristics of the various Thermal Reflecting Power
components of the protective system, perfectly Metal or cement based roofing highly overheat
integrated one to another, offer a global protection of under the sun action, radiating the most of the heat in
the steel sheet virtually unlimited over time, even in the underlying ambient, creating the so called “grill
the most difficult environmental conditions. effect”. Ondulit system thanks to the reflecting
Sound Deadening Power power of the upper aluminium coating (over 90% of
Any normal metal cladding, subject to rain or hail the thermal load), and the thermal inertia of the thick
beating, causes serious noise problems both in protective layers, dramatically reduces this
underlying and surrounding areas, which constitutes a
limit in their utilization. Ondulit multilayer Material Breaking load Thermal
protected system is unique in having a thick antinoise expansion
protection layer on the external side of sheets. This Coefficient
Rm=N/mm2 min. (mm/m°C)
Steel type
Fe E 250 330 0,011
type 3103 95 - 180 0,024
Copper 250 0,017
Result of the comparative test : “The average sound deadening capability of an
Ondulit roofing is 4,37 times higher than a usual metal sheet of the same profile” Mechanical Resistance

84 April 2007
Ondulit and the Multilayer Protection

inconvenience. By highly reducing the thermal load of

Material Breaking load Thermal
the roofing, the natural consequence is that the use of
additional insulation is often unnecessary. Ondulit
roofing offer the best thermal comfort in comparison
to any other steel roofing. Rm=N/mm2 min. (mm/m°C)
The following diagram shows the results of a Steel type
comparative thermal insulation test between Fe E 250 330 0,011
different types of roofing under the action of a solar Aluminium
spectrum lamp. The test consists of measuring the type 3103 95 - 180 0,024
temperatures achieved inside a testing chamber Copper 250 0,017
having the sample in examination on its upper part,
exposed to the radiations. Thermal Expansion
Thermal Expansion
Mechanical Resistance
The improper use in roofing of products with high
The theoretical condition of use of any roofing,
coefficient of thermal expansion may cause serious
calculated in hypothesis of even distributed loads, are
technical problems. The differential thermal
not enough to guarantee any absence of deformation of
expansion between the roofing (mainly if made of
the roofing. In the event of incautious over stepping or
elements particularly long) and the support structure
excessive tightening of the fastners, or for special
may generate process of degradation of the roofing
circumstances, it may be possible that there could be
itself. In the Ondulit multilayer system the special
local stress exceeding the limit of resistance of some
embossed finishing of the external metal foils and the
materials. In the Ondulit multilayer system the
soft characteristics of the interposed layers have the
mechanical resistance value is that specific of the steel
capability to make absolutely compatible the effects
which constitutes its internal support. This makes the
of the thermal expansion of the various components.
roofing unbreakable, with no risk of damages and offers
In this way the thermal expansion coefficient of the
adequate resistance to over stepping and overloads. In
system is that proper of the steel. In this way there
the next table sheet are reported the values of tensile
are not limitations in the use of single and long
strength and thermal expansion coefficients of the
sheets. In the following table sheet there are reported
metals more commonly used for roofing purpose.
the values of tensile strength and thermal
expansion of the metals more commonly used
for roofing purpose.
Aesthetic Values
In modern projects roofing is often used as
distinctive element qualifying the entire
building. For their characteristic of absolute
reliability and pleasant aesthetic aspect,
Ondulit roofing systems are always more used
for any kind of building typology. In fact the
special embossed finish of the external foils
eliminates the cold aspect of the metal roofing.
Furthermore the wide choice of pre-painted
colours available and the valuable alternative
copper finish allow their harmonic use in any
Thermal Reflecting Power architectonic and environmental context.

April 2007 85

Excel Coatings
Freedom from Heat -
Affordable Way

HIS IS THE RIGHT TIME to think about of productivity.
your industry’s summer management. The h Your humidification and air conditioning costs
biggest problem ahead you is ‘HEAT’. Now a cut drastically.
greatest opportunity to beat the heat off. Just don’t think
EXCEL CoolCoat reduces internal temperature by
our product is just a ‘coat of paint’. Think of our coatings
up to 45% and cuts cooling cost up to 70%. Further,
h Reduction of roof heat up to 45% (8º C to EXCEL CoolCoat eliminates the necessity for
15º C) sprinklers, which consume precious and scarce water
h Blocks 90% of solar infrared rays and 85% of and power. 100% of this expenses is saved.
ultra violet rays. In the buildings with asbestos roofing or metal
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h EXCEL CoolCoat blocks 90% of solar infrared rays
and 85% of ultraviolet rays, keeping your roof cool,

86 April 2007
Excel Coatings

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April 2007 87

Studies on Fly Ash

Concrete Role of
Hydration Promotor Catalyst V.K. Ravikumar, Managing Director
Cera Chem Private Limited, Chennai
S. Sen, Technical Advisor
Cera Chem Private Limited, Chennai

Hydration promoter catalyst plays pivotal
Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) have certain
distinct advantages over ordinary Portland
role in developing mechanical strength in Fly
Cement (OPC) in respect of low heat of hydration, ash concrete at rapid pace, particularly during
superior resistivity against carbonation, chloride and early curing. PFA, an environmental pollutant,
sulphate penetration, improved permeability thus can be conveniently transformed into a
resistance, increased resistance to Alkali-Silica concrete, superior than OPC, by use of
Reaction (ASR) etc. But PFA has the inherent chemical energy of activation instead of
problem of slow gain of early mechanical strength conventional and costlier thermal curing.
compared to OPC. In the present study, a chemical
activator, (hydration promoter catalyst) composed of activation instead of conventional and costlier
oxides and salts of alkaline earth metals called thermal curing.
“CERAPROOF PXL” was used as admixture and Introduction
incorporated at a dose of 5% on weight of Fly ash into Chemical Activators which increase the speed of
a M-30 concrete mix containing 30 : 70 ratio of PFA : hydration reactions of secondary cementitious
OPC. An identical concrete mix was made using OPC materials like PFA (Pulverized Fuel Ash), GGBS
as sole binder. A reference Fly ash mix of same (Granulated ground blast furnace slag), SF (Silica
stoichiometry was prepared without addition of any Fume) in admixture with hydrated lime, Portland
chemical activator. cement etc. can be broadly divided into four types;
The rheological properties and compressive h Caustic Alkali (Na, K or Lithium Hydroxide)
strength of all the three concrete mixes were
h Non-Silicate Salts of Acid (R2 CO3, R2 SO3, R2 S or
evaluated. It was observed that the concrete with 30
: 70 ratio of PFA : OPC admixed with RF (R= Na, K or Li)
“CERAPROOF PXL” developed higher strengths h Silicate salts of type M (R2O) N (Si O2 ) and
viz., 29.5%, 33.9% and 6.5% at 3, 7 and 28 days h Alkali metal chloride, Nitrate, Lime, Gypsum,
respectively over the reference concrete. It was also etc. [1]
observed that at 28 days age, the chemically There are many patents on those activators or
activated PFA concrete developed 3.5% more hydration promoter, apart from a few branded
strength than its OPC counterpart. products of manufacturer in Europe, Canada and
It is revealed, therefore, that hydration promoter USA. Alkali and silicate activators, although boost up
catalyst plays pivotal role in developing mechanical early strength of concrete (for example sprayed
strength in Fly ash concrete at rapid pace, particularly concrete or shotcrete), they suffer retrogression of
during early curing. PFA, an environmental pollutant, strength sharply. Moreover, with reactive silicious
thus can be conveniently transformed into a concrete, aggregates, use of such admixture may cause
superior than OPC, by use of chemical energy of expansive disruption of concrete. For this reason, the

88 April 2007
Fly Ash Concrete Role of Hydration Promotor Catalyst

demand for alkali-free accelerator is on increase in MIX DESIGN FOR M-30 GRADE CONCRETE
Hydel Power Projects, dams etc. Design stipulation
While investigating on hydration promoter which h Specific minimum characteristic N/mm2
can impart early strength to PFA concrete. The Compressive strength at 28 days 30
authors made studies with “CERAPROOF PXL”
h Maximum size of aggregate 20 mm (angular)
stated to be a powder composed of oxides and salts of
alkaline earth metals, non-chloride, bulk density 1350 h Degree of workability 0.9 compacting factor
kg/m 3, aqueous solution is neutral to litmus (pH h Degree of Q.C. Good
value 7). It is therefore, neither alkali nor silicate type
h Type of exposure Moderate
composition. Test data for materials
h Cement h Cement Used OPC 53
OPC 53 Grade h Specific gravity of cement 3.15
h Fly-Ash
h Specific gravity of course aggregate
Source Kalaghat Thermal Power Station WB State 2.85, water absorption 1.2%
Electricity Board, Field 3, ESP
h Specific gravity of fine aggregate (River sand
Physical Characteristics conforming to Zone II, IS:383 1970, FA – 2.93)
h Specific Gravity - 2.27 2.68, water absorption 0.5%
h Wet Sieve Analysis - 8.6 Target mean strength
(Percent retained on 325 BS Sieve) 30 + (6x1.65) = 39.90
h Specific Surface (cm2/g, Blaine) - 4016 Water-cement ratio
h Lime Reactivity (kg/cm ) 2
- 78.5 0.46
Chemical Analysis % Following ACI method on absolute volume basis
h SiO2 - 59.3 the following quantity of ingredients were required
h Al2O3 -
18.8 per cubic meter of concrete;
h Fe2O3 -
8.6 Cement - 398.45 kg Water - 189.29 ltr
h CaO - 5.7 Fine Aggregate - 860.64 kg Extra Water - 4.30 ltr
h MgO - 3.2 CA 20mm - 631.14 kg or absorption
h Loss on Ignition (LOI) - 5.2 CA 10mm - 420.76 kg of F.A (0.5%)
h Fine aggregate, River sand, sieve analysis is given Extra water - 12.62 ltr
in Table 1. Needed for CA (1.2%)
h Course aggregate, 10mm and 20mm as given in Total extra water for FA and CA - (4.30 + 12.62)
Table 2 respectively. = 16.92 ltr
Concrete W/C Cement Fly Slump Admixture Experiment
Mark Ratio OPC 53 Ash Ceraproof 3 sets of concrete were prepared in the
(Kg) (Kg) (mm) PXL (Kg) laboratory as per standard practice marked
[A] 0.46 398.45 - 30 - as [A], [B] and [C]. The workability,
setting, and strength development of each
[B] 0.46 278.91 119.53 60 -
set were measured following IS:456.2000
[C] 0.46 278.91 119.53 55 5.98 (Code of practice for plain and reinforced
Table 1 concrete, third revision). Quantity of

90 April 2007
Fly Ash Concrete Role of Hydration Promotor Catalyst

concrete prepared was 0.025 cubic meter in

each case. It is interesting to observe that at 28 days
h [A] represents a concrete mix of M-30 grade using
the catalytically activated fly ash concrete
only ordinary Portland cement, 53 grade has developed 3.5% more strength than its
OPC counterpart.
h [B] represents the same mix but 30% of the OPC
is substituted by PFA collected from Kolaghat
Thermal Power Station, Field 3, ESP faster. However the catalyst remains unchanged in
h [C] represents mix [B] in which 5% of CERAPROOF chemical composition at the end of reaction. The
PXL, on the weight of PFA was admixed amounting chemical energy therefore, enhances the speed of C-S-
to 398.45 x 0.3 x 0.5 = 5.98 kg H formation in such case, unlike heat energy required
as curing of concrete.
The results of workability and compressive
strength are given in table 1 & 2. Discussion of Results
Chemistry of Fly Ash Hydration As seen from experimental results, concrete [C]
develops 29.5%, 33.9% and 6.5% mere strength
The hydration chemistry of cementitious products
than concrete [B] at 3,7 and 28 days respectively
is a reaction between acidic and basic constituents,
which clearly reflects the efficacy of catalyst in
which manifests through their courses of dissociation
imparting high early strength to fly ash concrete.
and/or association to give rise mineralogical phases,
It is interesting to observe that at 28 days the
which render strength, hardness and impermeability
catalytically activated fly ash concrete has
to the matrix.
developed 3.5% more strength than its
When OPC hydrates, Tricalcium silicates (C3S) OPC counterpart.
and dicalcium silicates (C2 S) upon reaction with
water, produce C3 S2H3 and CH (Calcium hydroxide or
hydrated lime). Fly ash reacts with it to produce h Use of hydration promoter catalyst imparts high
further phases of C-S-H. But this reaction is slow early strength to fly ash concrete
Slow h Fly ash (a patent environmental pollutant) in blend
Pozzolana + CH + H ----------- C-S-H with OPC can be gainfully converted into concrete
having superior strength and durability than OPC
(Hydrated Lime) (Water)
by use of catalyst.
h Fruitful utilization of chemical energy through
Strength development is slow [2] catalytic process – saving of thermal energy
A hydration promoter catalyst makes the rate of References
formation of C-S-H faster. The role of catalyst is to
h K.C. Jha and S. Sen - Blended cements and early
imbibe activation energy (Free energy, in
strength enhancing phosphate based additive for
thermodynamic terminology) to make the reaction
Portland slag cement.
Concrete Mark 3 Days 7 Days 28 Days h NCB International Seminar, New Delhi 21 – 24
November 2000
[A] 19.6 30.1 42.4
[B] 14.2 21.2 41.2 h Mehta P K & Paulo J M Monterio – Concrete-
Microstructure, Properties and materials, the
[C] 18.7 28.4 43.9
Megraw-Hill companies, Inc, New York; 1993 PP
(+29.5%) (+33.9% (+6.5%) 190-216
Table 2 Courtesy: “Special Concretes” conducted by Indian
Figures within bracket indicate percentage increase of mix [C] over [B] Concrete Institute, Chennai Chapter

92 April 2007

Mechanical Resistance

Microstructure Study &

Behaviour of HDPE
Fibre Reinforced Concrete K.Manjula Vani,
M.Potha Raju,
N.Madhu Babu,
A.Jaya Prabhakar Reddy

the disposal of non-biodegradable waste generated
The present study on HDPE fibre
from construction field to reduce the reinforced concrete has shown an
environmental pollution. Huge number of empty improvement in the concrete properties. The
cement bags available in construction field are made compressive, tensile, flexural strengths and
of jute plastic i.e. High Density Ploy Ethylene durability of the concrete were compared
(HDPE). An attempt has been made to make use of with normal concrete As a part of study
these bags as fibres in the concrete to form HDPE Microstructure of M20 HDPE fibre
fibre reinforced concrete. The compressive, tensile, reinforced concrete using the scanning
flexural strengths and durability of the concrete were electronic microscope was studied. The scope
compared with normal concrete. The present study of this study is to minimize the
on HDPE fibre reinforced concrete has shown an
environmental pollution, improve strength
improvement in the concrete properties. As a part of
properties of concrete, increase crack
study Microstructure of M20 HDPE fibre reinforced
concrete using the scanning electronic microscope
resistance of concrete, increase ductility of
was studied. concrete, to reduce cost of construction by
Non Bio- Degradable materials have become a
using HDPE fibres as building material.
serious problem due to the large usage of polymers
syringes, jute plastics, fiber reinforced plastic
and other hydrocarbon constituent products like
sheets and other petro-chemicals products in
polythene sheets, covers, disposable plastic glasses,
day-today activities.
Plain concrete possess a very low tensile strength,
limited ductility and little resistance to cracking.
Internal micro cracks are inherently present in the
concrete. To resist these cracks attempts have been
made to impart improvements in tensile properties
by using reinforced steel bars. These methods provide
tensile strengths to the concrete members but they
however do not increase the inherent tensile strength
of concrete itself.
When loaded the micro cracks in content
propagate and open up owing to the effect of stress
Acc.V Spot Magn Det WD |--------------------------------| 20 mm concentration. The development of such cracks is the
20.0 kV 4.0 1600x SE 10.2 M20-Conventional main cause of deformation in concrete. It has been
Sample No.1 Conventional HDPE fibre reinforced concrete recognized that the addition of small, closely spaced

94 April 2007
HDPE Fibre Reinforced Concrete

and uniformly dispersed fibres to concrete would act

as crack arrester and would substantially improve its
Microstructure photographs proved that
static and dynamic properties. This type of concrete is the porosity has been controlled to the
known as “Fibre Reinforced Concrete”. maximum extent by the addition of HDPE
Recycling is found to be the best way by means of fibres to concrete. Adding HDPE fibres in
segregating NBD’s from solid waste and reusing them concrete upto 3.5% decreases voids ratio.
in some other form. Using NBD’s as an alternate HDPE concrete with 3.5% fibres has shown
material contain further spread of these materials into improvement in all properties when
the environment. The used up NBD material can be compared with the conventional concrete.
used as an additive to the cement concrete. This will
not only relieve the threat to environment from compressive strength, split tensile strength and
NBD’s but also result in reducing the cost of compressive stress-strain behavior of high fly ash
construction. To use the NBD waste as building concrete were studied. Cement has been replaced by
material it should be made into small pieces with mass with 40% , 45% and 50% of fly ash content,
fixed aspect ratio. NBD waste pieces are then mixed and three percentages of san fibres (0.25%.0.5% and
with other constituents to prepare the concrete of 0.75%) of 25 mm in length have been used in this
appropriate mix. investigation. The test results indicated that
The scope of this study is to minimize the replacement of cement with fly ash increased the
environmental pollution, improve strength properties workability (slump and veebe time ) and decreases
of concrete, increase crack resistance of concrete, compressive strength, split tensile strength and
increase ductility of concrete, to reduce cost of static modulus of plain concrete. Addition of san
construction by using HDPE fibres as building fibres reduced the workability, and it does not
material. significantly effect the compressive strength. Split
tensile strength of high fly ash concrete increased
Literature Review
with increase in percentage of fibres. San fibres
R. Siddique and C.B. Kukreja (1999)1 carried reported not to have significant effect on the static
out investigation on san fibre reinforced high fly ash modulus of high fly ash concrete. However, ductility
concrete. In this investigation the effects of
of high fly ash concrete was found to increase with
replacement of cement (by mass) with three an increase in fibre percentage.
percentage of high fly ash content, and the effect of
G. Appa Rao and B.K. Raghu Prasad (March,
addition of san fibres on the slump, veebe time,
2005)2 conducted some experimental investigations
on the fracture energy and tension softening behavior
of high strength concrete. With a small fraction of
steel fibre, 0.62% by volume, the mode of failure
changes from catastrophic to gradual. Further with
the addition of steel fibres, the energy absorption
capacity of concrete increased very significantly. The
compressive strength of fiber reinforced concrete was
70 N/mm2 where as tensile strength was 4.0 N/
Mosel (1961)3 conducted tests to study the
internal conductivity of the fibre-reinforced mortars
and concluded that the thermal conductivity of the
Fig.1 Compaction Factor of HDPE Fibre reinforced Concrete fibre reinforced mortar is increased.

96 April 2007
HDPE Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Experimental Programme
Microstructure study of HDPE fibre reinforced
was carried out by using scanning electron
microscope (SEM). SEM is an incredible tool,
which shows very detailed 3- dimensional images
at much higher magnifications. SEM samples are
coated with a very thin layer of gold by a machine
called splitter coater to conduct electricity. After
wards the HDPE fibre reinforced concrete
specimens are tested for compressive strength,
tensile strength, flexural strength, durability, crack
width. The HDPE fibre content varied from 1 to Acc.V Spot Magn Det WD |--------------------------------| 20 mm
5.5% in the increments of 0.5%. 20.0 kV 4.0 1600x SE 12.2 M20-3.5 jute
Sample No.2. 3.50% HDPE fibre reinforced concrete
Analysis and Discussion
General: SEM images have been used to display with the lightest shades of grey. These regions are
the different phases within hydrated/hydrating generally well defined. The hydrated phases of the
cement concrete samples. For a given SEM image, cement reside in the middle shades of grey between
materials with differing molecular weight appear in the extreme shades of the voids and the un-
different shades of grey. The greater is the hydrated cement. Within this region there will be a
molecular weight the lighter the shade. This range of hydrated products. Unfortunately the
characteristic will be used to identify the location distinction between the hydrated phases is not as
of the various materials within the sample. The well defined as for the voids and
output from the electron microscope will be a un-hydrated cement.
standard grey-scale image stored in a standard file Microstructure of HDPE fibre reinforced
format such as tiff. concrete
The porosity of the sample will be depicted by It was observed from sample 1(Micro structure of
black along with the darkest shades of grey while conventional concrete) that the voids percentage is
the un-hydrated cement shows up as white along 3.31%, unhydrated cement percentage is 13.81 %.
Sample 2 consisting of 3.5% fibre illustrates that
the voids percentage is 0.98%, unhydrated cement
percentage is 3.25 %. It has been also observed that
compaction of the constituent materials was more
and the porosity was less.
It was observed from sample 3 consisting of 5%
fibre that the voids percentage is 8.71% and
unhydrated cement percentage is 28.69 %. The
percentage of voids in conventional concrete are
increased with the increase of percentage of fibres.
Strength of HDPE Fibre Concrete
It was observed that with the addition of fibers the
compaction factor decreased (Fig.1). The compaction
factor of concrete is decreased by 12% with the
Fig.2 7 Days Compressive Strength of HDPE Fibre reinforced Concrete addition of 1% of HDPE fibers and reduced by 9%

April 2007 97
HDPE Fibre Reinforced Concrete

with addition of 3.5% of HDPE fibers. Compression

strength of concrete increased with addition of HDPE
fibers up to 3.5% volume and decreased later.
Optimum value of percentage of HDPE fibers was
found to be 3.5 % with the increase in compressive
strength being 5.12% (Fig.2). HDPE fiber concrete
exhibited improved tensile strength of 4.39% (Fig.3)
and increased flexural strength of 13.14% compared
with conventional concrete9 (Fig.4).
h Microstructure photographs proved that the
porosity has been controlled to the maximum Acc.V Spot Magn Det WD |--------------------------------| 20 mm
20.0 kV 4.0 1600x SE 14.2 M20-5.5 jute
extent by the addition of HDPE fibres to concrete.
Adding HDPE fibres in concrete upto 3.5% Sample No.3. 5.50% HDPE fibre reinforced concrete
decreases voids ratio.
bags making the entire construction site free
h HDPE concrete with 3.5% fibres has shown from its own non-biodegradable waste. For one
improvement in all properties when compared cubic meter of HDPE fibre reinforced concrete
with the conventional concrete. 50 bags at 3.5% of fibres by volume
h The compaction faction of concrete is decreased by are required..
12% with the addition of 1% of HDPE fibers and h HDPE fibres can be used in sewerage pipes,
regains to 9% with addition of 3.5% of HDPE manhole covers, compound walls, retaining walls
fibers. etc as fibres to exhibit enhanced tensile properties.
h The Compressive strength of concrete increased by h The brittle failure in plain concrete has been
5.12% with the addition of 3.5% fibres. changed to ductile failure in HDPE fibre
h The Split tensile strength of concrete increased by reinforced concrete.
4.39% with the addition of 3.5% fibres. References
h The Flexural strength of concrete increased by h R. Siddique & C.B. Kukreja, Properties of San
13.14% with the addition of 3.5% fibres fibres Reinforced High Fly Ash concrete, Journal
h HDPE fibres are mainly drawn from cement of Ferro cement, Vol. 29, No. 3, July 1999, PP.
197 – 206.
h G. Appa Rao and B.K. Raghu Prasad, Fracture
energy of Fiber reinforced high strength concrete ,
Journal of Structural Engineering , Jan-March,
2005, PP- 249-255.
h Mosel.K.C, The thermal conductivity of steel fibre
reinforced Portland cement mortar, M.S. thesis
Clarkson college of Technology, Potsdam, N.Y.,
Sept. 1961.
h Ashour S.A and Wafa, F.F, Flexural behavior of
high strength fiber reinforced concrete beams”.
ACI Structural Journal, May-Jun 1993, vol.90,
Fig 3. Split Tensile Strength of HDPE Fibre reinforced concrete No.3, PP- 279-287.

98 April 2007
HDPE Fibre Reinforced Concrete

microstructure of the glass fiber-cement paste

interfacial zone in long-term durability of
gfrc composites,
h Durability of Concrete; Second International
Conference Montreal, Canada; Ed. by V. M.
Malhotra; American Concrete Institute,
Detroit, MI, 1991, Vol. 2, PP- 799-819.
(ACI SP-126)
h Khajuria, A., Bohra, K., and Balaguru, P, Long-
term durability of synthetic fibers in concrete,
in Durability of Concrete; Second International
Fig 4. Flexural Strength of HDPE Fibre reinforced concrete Conference Montreal, Canada; Ed. by V. M.
Malhotra; American Concrete Institute,
h Bayasi, Z. and Zeng, J.”properties of Detroit, MI, 1991, Vol. 2, PP- 851-868.
polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete”ACI (ACI SP-126)
Materials Journal, Nov-Dec 1993, Vol. 90, No. 6, M.S. Shetty, “Concrete Technology”, Theory
pp 605-610. and Practice S. Chand & Co. Ltd. Ram Nagar,
h Kawamura, M. and Igarashi, Significance of New Delhi, 2001

Excel Coatings

April 2007 99

An Experimental Investigation On
Silica Fume Concrete Containing
Combination Of Admixtures D.K. Kulkarni
Rajarambapu Institute of Tech.
Dr. K.B. Prakash
K.L.E Society’s, College of Engg &Tech.

relicts of Mohenjo-DorO and Harappan that the
The main aim of this experimentation is to
use of lime pozzolana mixture for hydraulic find out the effect of addition of combinations
cement in India was started in prehistoric times, but of admixtures on the properties of concrete
it may not be common knowledge that after the produced by replacing cement by silica fume in
adoption of the western portland cement concrete various proportions. The combination of
technology in India in the early part of twentieth admixtures used is superplasticiser + air
century, the usage pattern of cement substitute entraining agent + waterproofing compound.
materials had followed a distinctive pattern leading to
early popularization of blended cements.
technologists throughout the world are carrying out
Manufacturing of Portland cement is one of the most
research work to use some supplementary
energy intensive processes of any industrial
cementatious materials (SCM) which can partially
manufacturing process. The extreme heat required to
replace the cement. Some of the industrial wastes/ by
operate kilns creates a significant demand for energy.
products possessing pozzolanic properties like fly ash,
Thus, the production of cement is highly energy
silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice
intensive and it will create the atmospheric pollution.
husk ash, etc., show excellent pozzolanic reaction and
Besides this, it causes the depletion of natural
can act as supplementary cementatious materials.
resources like limestone and shale.
Many situations including ready mix concrete demand
Thus to save the nature from pollution and to save the use of more than two admixtures. Therefore, it is
the natural resources, researchers and concrete essential to study the properties of concrete
containing more than two admixtures.
The main aim of this experimentation is to find
out the effect of addition of combinations of
admixtures on the properties of concrete produced by
replacing cement by silica fume in various
proportions. The combination of admixtures used is
(Superplasticiser +Air entraining agent + Water
proofing compound).
In today’s environment conscious world a more
responsible approach to a healthy environment is to
use the waste of one industry. Recently trend has
Fig 1 Variation of compressive strength of concrete with different percentage developed to use GGBS, silica fume, fly ash in the
replacement of cement by SF construction industry1. Silica fume is a pozzolanic

100 April 2007

Silica Fume Concrete

material widely used in concrete mixtures. It

increases paste strength due to its pozzolanic activity
“EBRD has been a great partner to us in
and leads to a refinement of the pore structure and to our foreign endeavor. Their understanding of
a better bond at the aggregate paste interface. It is a the conditions in Russia has enabled us to look
finally ground material and, as such, generally at the huge potential that welcomes us in the
increases the water required for a given degree of Russian infrastructure sector development,”
workability at low water-cement ratio. Thus, a high according to Mr Hemant Kanoria, vice
range water-reducing admixture is often introduced to chairman and managing director of SREI
promote the workability of silica fume mixture2.
From waste to wealth is the concept with which mixed concrete, which was limited to large mass
concrete technologists, civil engineers and researchers concreting project sites only4 .
are constantly working in this direction in exploring The use of pozzolanic and cementatious materials
the properties of almost all the materials available in the cement and concrete industry has risen sharply
both as natural and artificial resources, which can during the last fifty years as a mineral admixture. The
partially replace cement. Research work has shown reasons behind it are many. Cement requires high
that certain materials in nature possess pozzolanic energy during its manufacturing process whereas fly
property. Pozzolanic materials possess little or no ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume are the
cementatious value within themselves but when come industrial by-products that are easily available and
in contact with moisture and calcium hydroxide require little or no much of processing having
exhibit cementatious properties3. With the advent of inherent cementitious properties5 . One of the major
the portland cement concrete cult in India in the early effects of adding silica fume to concrete is
part of the twentieth century, there was close modification of the transition zone. In general, the
adoption of the technological practices of the west; presence of silica fume results in a denser, less porous
however the local materials had to be adopted to the and more homogeneous microstructure in the
local market conditions and the native sentiments had interfacial region as compared to ordinary Portland
to be fully respected. This led to preferred cement concrete6. Recently, mixes incorporating silica
development of blended cements over the alternative fume have been used to produce low permeability
practice of using cement substitute materials in site- concrete. It is well known that silica fume has a large
specific surface, so it is very active in reacting with
the hydrates of cement, but its price is very high.
Therefore, the combination of utilization of silica
fume and fly ash should be a good choice in reducing
the cost of concretes7.
Research Significance
Sometimes, it becomes very essential to use
combinations of admixtures in concrete. In some
constructions where waterproofing is essential, a
combination of admixtures like (Superplasticiser
+Air entraining agent + Water proofing compound)
may be required to be used. In such situations the
knowledge of behaviour of concrete containing three
admixtures is essential.
Experimental Programme
Fig 2 Variation of tensile strength of concrete with different percentage
replacement of cement by SF The main aim of this experimentation is to find

April 2007 101

Silica Fume Concrete

out the effect of Admixture Abbreviationsused Chemical Dosage used

addition of used content (by weight of cement)
combinations of percent
admixtures on the
properties of concrete Superplasticiser S MLS + SNF 1.1
produced by Air entraining agent AEA Vinsol resin 0.1
replacing cement by Water proofing W SNF + Stereate 0.4
silica fume in various compound
proportions. The
combination of Table 1: Details of admixtures used
admixtures used is (Superplasticiser +Air entraining
agent + Water proofing compound). 43 grade strength test specimens were of dimensions 100mm
cement and locally available sand and aggregates were dia. and 200mm.height cylinders. The flexural
used in the experimentation. The specific gravity of strength test specimens were of dimensions
fine and coarse aggregate were 2.66 and 2.85 100x100x500 mm. Two point loading was adopted
respectively. The different percentage replacement of over an effective span of 400 mm while testing these
cement by silica fume adopted in the experimental specimens after 28days of curing. Impact strength test
programme are 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and specimens were of dimensions 250x250x30 mm. The
15%. The experiments were conducted on a mix specimens were given impact blows with a ball of
proportion of 1:1.26:2.51 with a w/c ratio of 0.41 13.03 N with height of fall 1 mt. The impact energy
which corresponds to M20 grade of concrete. The was calculated by the equation
admixtures, their chemical content and dosages used Impact energy = whN (N-m)
in the experimentation are shown in table 1. Where w = weight of ball = 13.03N
The compressive strength test specimens were of h = height of fall = 1m
dimensions 150x150x150 mm. The specimens were N=average number of blows to cause first crack
tested on compressive testing m/c of 2000KN or final failure as the case may be
capacity after 28 days of curing. The splitting tensile
Test Results
Table 2 gives the test results of concrete without
any admixtures. It also gives percentage increase or
decrease of compressive, tensile, flexural, and impact
strength w.r.t. reference mix.
Table 3 gives the test results of concrete with
combinations of admixtures (S+AEA+W). It also
gives percentage increase or decrease of compressive,
tensile, flexural, and impact strength w.r.t. reference
mix. The variation of these strengths are depicted in
the form of graphs as shown in fig.1, 2, 3 and 4.
Discussion of Test Results
1. It has been observed that the compressive
strength of concrete with replacement of cement by
silica fume (SF) goes on increasing up to 10%
Fig 3 Variation of flexural strength of concrete with different percentage replacement. Afterwards the compressive strength
replacement of cement by SF starts decreasing. i.e. the maximum compressive

102 April 2007

Silica Fume Concrete

strength can be obtained by replacing 10% cement by the maximum impact strength can be obtained by
silica fume without using any admixtures. The replacing 10% cement by blast furnace slag without
percentage increase in the compressive strength at using any admixtures. The percentage increase in the
10% replacement of cement by silica fume is found to impact strength at 10% replacement of cement by
be 23.37%. silica fume is found to be 79.97%.
It has been observed that the tensile strength of This may be due to the fact that 10% replacement
concrete with replacement of cement by silica fume of cement by silica fume may show the optimum
goes on increasing up to 10% replacement. pozzolanic reaction with optimum filler capacity.
Afterwards the tensile strength starts decreasing. i.e. Thus it can be concluded that 10% replacement of
the maximum tensile strength can be obtained by cement by silica fume will yield the maximum
replacing 10% cement by silica fume without using strengths for concrete without any admixtures.
any admixtures. The percentage increase in the tensile 2. It has been observed that the compressive
strength at 10% replacement of cement by silica fume strength of concrete with replacement of cement by
is found to be 18.30%. silica fume goes on increasing up to 4% replacement,
It has been observed that the flexural strength of when the combination of admixture such as
concrete with replacement of cement by silica fume (S+AEA+W) is used. Afterwards the compressive
goes on increasing up to 10% replacement. strength starts decreasing. i.e. the maximum
Afterwards the flexural strength starts decreasing. i.e. compressive strength can be obtained by replacing 4%
the maximum flexural strength can be obtained by cement by silica fume using (S+AEA+W)
replacing 15% cement by silica fume without using combination of admixtures. The percentage increase
any admixtures. The percentage increase in the in the compressive strength at 4% replacement of
flexural strength at 10% replacement of cement by cement by silica fume is found to be 37.60%.
silica fume is found to be 119.90%. It has been observed that the tensile strength of
It has been observed that the impact strength of concrete with replacement of cement by silica
concrete with replacement of cement by silica fume fume goes on increasing up to 4% replacement,
goes on increasing up to 10% replacement. when the combination of admixtures such as
Afterwards the impact strength starts decreasing. i.e. (S+AEA+W) is used. Afterwards the tensile
strength starts decreasing. i.e. the maximum
tensile strength can be obtained by replacing 4%
cement by silica fume using (S+AEA+W)
combination of admixture. The percentage increase
in the tensile strength at 4% replacement of
cement by silica fume is found to be 25.66%.
It has been observed that the flexural strength
of concrete with replacement of cement by silica
fume goes on increasing up to 4% replacement
when the combination of admixture such as
(S+AEA+W) is used. Afterwards the flexural
strength starts decreasing. i.e. the maximum
flexural strength can be obtained by replacing 4%
cement by silica fume using (S+AEA+W)
combination of admixture. The percentage increase
Fig 4 Variation of impact strength of concrete with different percentage in the flexural strength at 4% replacement of
replacement of cement by SF cement by silica fume is found to be 13.90%.

April 2007 105

Silica Fume Concrete

It has been observed that the impact strength of

concrete with replacement of cement by silica It can be concluded that the use of
fume goes on increasing up to 4% replacement combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) will
when the combination of admixture such as yield good strength properties to the concrete
(S+AEA+W) is used. Afterwards the impact without posing any problems of compatibility.
strength starts decreasing. i.e. the maximum
impact strength can be obtained by replacing 4% shows more strengths as compared to the concrete
cement by silica fume using (S+AEA+W) produced without any admixtures. This is
combination of admixture. The percentage increase obviously due to the fact that the added admixtures
in the impact strength at 4% replacement of will aid in compacting the concrete to the fullest
cement by silica fume is found to be 133.35%. extent which ultimately increase the strength
properties of concrete. Thus it can be concluded that
This may be due to the fact that 4% replacement
the use of combination of admixtures (S+AEA+W)
of cement by silica fume may show optimum
will yield good strength properties to the concrete.
pozzolanic reaction and optimum filler capacity.
Along with this the use of combination of Conclusions
admixtures (S+AEA+W) may induce more h It can be concluded that 10% replacement of
workability so that the maximum compaction can cement by silica fume will yield the maximum
be achieved which enhances the strengths further. strengths for concrete without any admixtures.
Thus it can be concluded that 4% replacement of h It can be concluded that 4% replacement of
cement by silica fume with combination of cement by silica fume with combination of
admixtures (S+AEA+W) will yield maximum admixtures (S+AEA+W) will yield maximum
strengths for concrete. strengths for concrete.
4. It has been observed that the concrete produced h It can be concluded that the use of combination of
by using combination of admixtures (S+AEA+W) admixture (S+AEA+W) will yield good strength

Percent- Compres- Percentage Tensile Percentage Flexural Percentage Impact Percent-

age sive increase of strength increase or strength increase of strength age
replace- strength compres- MPa decrease of MPa flexural N-m increase
ment of MPa sive tensile strength of impact
cement strength strength w.r.t strength
by SF w.r.t w.r.t reference w.r.t.
reference reference mix reference
mix mix mix
0(Ref) 31.70 - 3.77 - 2.06 - 21.67 -
2 34.81 9.81 3.82 1.33 3.81 84.95 26.00 19.98
4 35.41 11.70 3.92 3.98 3.87 87.86 30.33 39.96
6 37.33 17.76 3.94 4.51 4.24 105.82 32.50 49.98
8 38.07 20.09 4.11 9.02 4.33 110.19 34.67 59.99
10 39.11 23.37 4.46 18.30 4.53 119.90 39.00 79.97
12 38.37 22.08 3.37 -10.61 3.87 87.86 32.50 49.98
15 37.33 17.76 3.13 -16.98 3.83 85.92 26.00 19.98

Table 2: Test results of concrete without combination of admixtures

106 April 2007

Silica Fume Concrete

Percent- Compres- Percentage Tensile Percentage Flexural Percentage Impact Percent-

age sive increase of strength increase or strength increase of strength age
replace- strength compres- MPa decrease of MPa flexural N-m increase
ment of MPa sive tensile strength of impact
cement strength strength w.r.t strength
by SF w.r.t w.r.t reference w.r.t.
reference reference mix reference
mix mix mix
0(Ref) 35.85 - 4.56 - 4.46 - 26.00 -
2 36.74 2.48 4.90 7.50 4.81 7.85 52.00 100.00
4 49.33 37.60 5.73 25.66 5.08 13.90 60.67 133.35
6 44.89 25.22 5.46 19.74 4.84 8.52 56.33 116.65
8 41.19 14.89 5.41 18.64 4.75 6.50 52.00 100.00
10 40.74 13.64 4.54 -0.44 4.63 3.81 47.67 83.35
12 39.56 10.35 3.82 -16.23 4.57 2.47 43.33 66.65
15 38.37 7.03 3.76 -17.54 4.51 1.12 30.33 16.65
Table 3: Test results of concrete with combination of admixtures (S+AEA+W)

properties to the concrete without posing any on heat of hydration of mortar mixtures with low
problems of compatibility. Hence the concrete water-cementitious materials ratio”, ACI Material
containing the combination of admixtures Journal, Sept-Oct 1999, pp.600-604.
(S+AEA+W) and silica fume can be h Prakash K.B, Krishnamurthy B.S, “An
recommended for construction works. experimental investigation on the properties of
Acknowledgements concrete containing tertiary blends”, Proceedings
The authors would like to thank Dr.(Mrs) S. S. of INCRAC & CT, pp.113-121.
Kulkarni, Principal, RIT, Sakharale and h Chatterjee A.K, “Performance of blended cements
Dr.S.C.Pilli, Principal, KLE Society’s College of – An Indian perspective”, The Indian Concrete
Engg. & Technology, Belgaum for giving all the Journal, July 2000, pp.383-392.
encouragement needed which kept our enthusiasm h Tiwari Ashok, Momin Illyas, “Improving early age
alive. Thanks are also due to the management strength of PSC with indigenous silica fume”, The
authorities and others who constantly boosted our Indian Concrete Journal, Oct-2000, pp.595-598.
morale by giving us all the help required. Thanks
h Dale P, Bentz and Edward J. Garboczi,
are also due to authorities of MBT Pvt.Ltd.
“Simulation studies of the effects of mineral
(Degussa) Mumbai India for supplying the
admixtures on the cement paste aggregate
required admixtures.
interfacial zone”, ACI Materials Journal, Sept-Oct
References 1991,pp.518-529.
h Pandagale S.B, Magarpatil H.R, Walvekar P.P, Zongjin Li, Jun Peng, and baoguo Ma,
“Use of pozzolanic material for superior concrete”, “Investigation of chloride diffusion for high
Proceedings of INCRAC & CT 2005, pp.97-104. performance concretecontaining fly ash, microsilica
h Roberto C.A, pinto and Kenneth C. Hover, and chemical admixtures”, ACI Materials Journal,
“Superplasticiser and silica fume addition effects May-June 1999,pp.391-396.

108 April 2007


An Experimental Study on the Effect of

Sustained Elevated Temperatures on the
Strength Properties of Fibrous N.K.Patil, Assistant Professor

Ferrocement Using GI Fibers DY Patil College of Engg. & Tech.

Dr. K B Prakash, Professor of Civil Engg.
K.L.E. Society’s College of Engg. & Tech.

sections of ferrocement elements, the
In this paper an attempt has been made
applications of ferrocement are vast to study the effect of different sustained
increasing. Ferrocement does not require any special temperatures on the strength characteristic
construction technique and skilled labour. of fibrous ferrocement such as
Ferrocement has its cracking resistance, ductility and compressive strength, flexural strength
fatigue resistance higher than those of concrete. In and impact strength.
addition impermeability of ferrocement elements is
far superior to that of ordinary concrete. Similarly entire matrix surface provides a very high resistance
fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) has also wide against cracking. Moreover engineering properties
applications. FRC possesses higher compressive such as toughness, fatigue resistance, impermeability,
strength and toughness, increased resistance to wear etc are considerably improved. Sometimes,
and tear, and higher post cracking strength. But these conventional reinforcing bars in the skeleton form are
two materials have limitations also. These two added to thin wire meshes in order to achieve a stiff
materials cannot be employed where high vibrations, reinforcing cage.1
high tensile forces and high impact are to be resisted. Ferrocement is a particular type of reinforced
Fibrous ferrocement, which is a combination of concrete although the extent of investment is
ferrocement and fiber reinforced concrete, shows relatively less in case of ferrocement construction.
better improvement in some of mechanical Because of similarity in the nature of the ingredients
properties, such as toughness, impact resistance. This of conventional concrete and ferrocement, the
new composite also shows higher compressive durability characteristics are expected to be similar,
strength, higher tensile and impact strength. even though the mechanical characteristics may be
In this paper an attempt has been made to study quite different. But ferrocement cannot be employed
the effect of different sustained temperatures on the where high impact, high wear and tear, high
strength characteristic of fibrous ferrocement such as vibrations and high loads are expected.2
compressive strength, flexural strength and impact FRC is a composite material consisting of cement,
strength. The percentages of GI fibers were varied as sand, metal, water and fibers. In this composite
0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%and 2.0%. The different material, short discrete fibers are randomly
temperatures that are adopted in the experimentation distributed throughout the concrete mass. The
are 200 oC, 400 oC and 600 oC. behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far
In terms of structural behavior, ferrocement superior to that of plain concrete and many other
exhibits very high tensile strength-to-weight ratio and construction materials of same cost. Due to this
superior cracking performance. The distribution of benefit, the use of FRC has steadily increased during
small diameter wire mesh reinforcement over the last two decades and its current field of application

April 2007 109

Fibrous Ferrocement Using GI Fibers

includes, airport and highway pavements, earthquake overcome most of the limitations of the FRC and
resistant and explosive resistant structures, mines and ferrocement. And it can be used with assurance where
tunnel linigs, bridge deck overlays, hydraulic high impact, high vibration and high wear and tear
structures, rock slope stabilization. Extensive research are expected. In this new material advantages of both
work on FRC has established that the addition of FRC and ferrocement are combined.9
various types of fibers such as steel, glass, synthetic Research Significance
and carbon, in plain concrete improves strength, The promise of stronger and thinner elements,
toughness, ductility, and post cracking resistance, etc.3
reduced weight, and controlled cracking by simply
The major advantages of fiber reinforced concrete adding a small amount of fibers is an attractive
are resistance to microcraking, impact resistance, feature of FRC. Even though performance of fiber
resistance to fatigue, reduced permeability, improved reinforced concrete in airfield, pavements, industrial
strength in shear, tension, flexure and floors and machine foundations is satisfactory, it
compression. 4Fibers influence the mechanical suffers from some limitations. It cannot be employed
properties of concrete or mortar in all modes of where high impact, high vibrations and high wear and
failure, especially those that induce fatigue and tensile tear are expected. Similar to fiber reinforced concrete
stress. The strengthening mechanism of fibers the ferrocement also have many advantages and its
involves transfer of stress from matrix to the fiber by applications are rapidly increasing. The major
interfacial shear or by interlock between the fibers and limitation in ferrocement is that the percentage of
the matrix.5 Addition of steel fibers in concrete mix reinforcement cannot be increased beyond certain
significantly improves the cracking behavior and limit. This limitation affects the strength of
ultimate strength of deep beams. Addition of steel ferrocement and it cannot be employed where high
fibers in concrete results in an increase of beam impact or high load are expected.
stiffness. 6 In addition to increase in flexural strength, a
The fibrous ferrocement, which is combination of
considerable increase in toughness is also imparted by
ferrocement and fiber reinforced concrete, can overcome
the fibers.7 The fiber reinforced concrete is also
to some extent the limitations offered by ferrocement
gaining more importance these days especially in the
and fiber reinforced concrete and even improve some of
earthquake resistant structures, where ductility plays
the mechanical and strength properties of ferrocement.
an important role. 8
Thus in crucial situations fibrous ferrocement can be
In spite of many advantages of FRC, it has some effectively used as versatile material.
limitations also. It cannot be employed where high
Experimental Programme
impact, high vibration and high wear and tear is
expected. Many problems have to be faced during The main aim of this experimentation is to study
construction of FRC, especially when quantity of fiber the effect of sustained elevated temperatures on the
used is more. The fibers if put in bulk along with strength properties of fibrous ferrocement. Both the
other ingredients do not disperse but nest together. fiber percentage and the reinforcement percentage
This phenomenon is called balling effect. The balling were varied in the study. The different temperatures
effect may be reduced to some extent by mixing the that are adopted in the experimentation are 200 oC,
fibers and other ingredients in dry foam and then 400 oC and 600 oC.
adding water. The fibers placed in concrete, may Ordinary portland cement of 53 grade and locally
block the discharge port. Since the flow of FRC is low, available sand with specific gravity 2.64 and fineness
the FRC has to be placed near to the place where it is modulus 2.91 was used in experimentation. To impart
to be used finally.9 additional workability a superplasicizer
The fibrous ferrocement, which is a combination (Algisuperplast – N), 0.5 % by weight of cement was
of fiber reinforced concrete and ferrocement, can used. The GI fibers were obtained by cutting GI wires

110 April 2007

Fibrous Ferrocement Using GI Fibers

of 1 mm diameter. The aspect ratio adopted for fiber kept on the table vibrator and sufficient vibration was
was 40.The different percentage of GI fibers used in given to compact the mortar. The specimens were
the experimentation were 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and finished smooth after vibration. The specimens were
2.0% by volume fraction. demoulded after twenty-four hours of casting and
The welded mesh (WM) used in the were transferred to curing tank where in they were
experimentation was having square opening of 25 mm allowed to cure for 28 days.
with 2.5 mm diameter. The chicken mesh (CM) used After 28 days of curing, they were taken out of
was having a hexagonal opening with 0.5 mm water and were kept in the oven at different
diameter. The cement mortar with a proportion of temperatures such as
1:1 was used with a water cement ratio of 0.4. 200 oC, 400 o C and 600 oC for 24 hours each.
To study the effect of different temperatures on the The specimens were cooled down to room
strength properties of fibrous ferrocement, the temperature. Then specimens were tested for their
compressive strength specimens, flexural strength respective strengths.
specimens and impact strength specimens were cast. Test Results
For compressive strength test, specimens of dimensions
Tables 1,2 and 3 give the compressive strength test
150x150x150 mm were cast. For flexural strength test,
results, flexural strength test results and impact
specimens of dimensions 100x100x500mm were cast.
strength test results for fibrous ferrocement made
These flexural strength specimens were tested under
from (1WM+1CM), (1WM+2CM) and
two point loading over an effective span of 400 mm. 10
(2WM+2CM), using GI fibers after subjecting to
The impact strength test specimens consisted of plates
different temperatures like 200 oC, 400 oC and 600 oC.
of dimension 250x250x35 mm. Four different methods
of impact test are described in the literature.11 Out of The tables also indicate the percentage decrease in
these methods drop weight method was used owing to the strengths of fibrous ferrocement after subjecting
its simplicity. A steel ball weighing 20 N was dropped to different temperatures. In tables WM represents
from the height of 1.5 m over the specimen, which was welded mesh and CM represents chicken mesh.
kept on floor. The number of blows required for The figures 1 to 9 indicate the variation of
complete failure was noted. The impact energy was strength properties of fibrous ferrocement using GI
calculated as follows. fibers, after subjecting to different temperatures.
Impact energy = w x h x n, (N-m). where Discussions on Test Results
w = weight of the ball = 20 N h It has been observed that the compressive, flexural
h = height of fall = 1.5 m and impact strengths of fibrous ferrocement go on
n = number of blows required for complete failure. increasing as the percentage of GI fibers in it goes
The required size of welded mesh and chicken on increasing. This is true for all the fibrous
mesh were first cut according to the mould sizes for ferrocement specimens produced from
compression test, flexural test and impact test. The (1WM+1CM), (1WM+2CM) and (2WM+2CM).
chicken mesh was tied to the welded mesh using GI It has been also observed that all these strengths of
wires at regular intervals. This formed cage of fibrous ferrocement go on increasing as the
(1WM+1CM). In the similar fashion the cages of amount of welded mesh and chicken mesh in it
(1WM+2CM) and (2WM+2WM) were prepared. goes on increasing.
Now the fibrous mortar was prepared by mixing This is obviously due to the fact of more
the required percentage of GI fibers into the cement percentage of fibers or more percentage of welded
mortar. This cement mortar was placed inside the mesh and chicken mesh which enhance all the
mould in which cages were kept. All moulds were strength properties of fibrous ferrocement.

112 April 2007

Fibrous Ferrocement Using GI Fibers

h It has been observed that percentage decrease in the percentage decrease in the flexural strength when
compressive strength of fibrous ferrocement subjected to 400 oCand 600 oC are 28.42%, 27.32%,
produced with (1WM+1CM) is 6.53%, 5.73%, 25.61%, 24.64%, 21.55% and 52.61%, 51.23%,
4.55%, 3.45%, 1.66% for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% 49.31%, 50.74%, 45.42% respectively.
and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively, when it is The percentage decrease in the flexural strength of
subjected to 200 oC temperature. And percentage fibrous ferrocement produced with (2WM+2CM) is
decrease in compressive strength when subjected to 5.54%, 4.44%, 3.55%, 2.98%, 1.02% for 0%, 0.5%,
400 oC and 600 oC are 27.52%, 25.63%, 23.65%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively,
21.56%, 19.56% and 47.83%, 45.23%, 43.66%, when it is subjected to 200 oC temperature. And
41.45%, 39.52% respectively. percentage decrease in the flexural strength when
The percentage decrease in the compressive strength subjected to 400 oCand 600 oC are 26.21%, 24.62%,
of fibrous ferrocement produced with (1WM+2CM) 22.42%, 21.12%, 18.32% and 50.32%, 48.64%,
is 5.65%, 4.45%, 3.35%, 2.64%, 1.24% for 0%, 47.63%, 46.36%, 45.32% respectively.
0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively, h It has been observed that percentage decrease in
when it is subjected to 200 oC temperature. And the impact strength of fibrous ferrocement
percentage decrease in compressive strength when produced with (1WM+1CM) is 7.85%, 6.97%,
subjected to 400 oC and 600 oC are 26.62%, 5.62%, 2.81%, 1.05% for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%
24.32%, 21.41%, 19.87%, 17.44% and 45.73%, and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively, when it is
43.45%, 41.52%, 39.65%, 38.53% respectively. subjected to 200 oC temperature. And percentage
The percentage decrease in the compressive decrease in the impact strength when subjected to
strength of fibrous ferrocement produced with 400 oC and 600 oC are 29.84%, 28.63%, 26.66%,
(2WM+2CM) is 4.89%, 3.54%, 3.01%, 2.52%, 24.52%, 23.06% and 54.67%, 52.16%, 50.63%,
1.06% for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of GI 49.11%, 47.17% respectively.
fibers in it respectively, when it is subjected to 200 The percentage decrease in the impact strength of
C temperature. And percentage decrease in fibrous ferrocement produced with (1WM+2CM) is
compressive strength when subjected to 400 oC and 6.50%, 5.21%, 4.62%, 3.12%, 0.88% for 0%, 0.5%,
600 oC are 24.32%, 22.65%, 19.46%, 17.65%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively,
16.22% and 43.65%, 41.52%, 38.65%, 37.32%, when it is subjected to 200 oC temperature. And
36.62% respectively. percentage decrease in the impact strength when
h It has been observed that percentage decrease in subjected to 400 oCand 600 oC are 27.22%, 26.12%,
the flexural strength of fibrous ferrocement 25.43%, 23.63%, 22.12% and 52.33%, 50.26%,
produced with (1WM+1CM) is 7.33%, 6.63%, 48.25%, 47.86%, 45.63% respectively.
5.44%, 2.62%, 1.15% for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% The percentage decrease in the impact strength
and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively, when it is of fibrous ferrocement produced with
subjected to 200 oC temperature. And percentage (2WM+2CM) is 5.82%, 4.31%, 3.97%, 3.04%,
decrease in the flexural strength when subjected to 0.81% for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of
400 oC and 600 oC are 29.32%, 28.12%, 27.45%, GI fibers in it respectively, when it is subjected
25.32%, 22.44% and 53.53%, 52.65%, 51.52%, to 200 o C temperature. And percentage decrease
49.66%, 47.62% respectively. in the impact strength when subjected to 400 oC
The percentage decrease in the flexural strength of and 600 oC are 26.10%, 24.31%, 23.51%,
fibrous ferrocement produced with (1WM+2CM) is 21.69%, 20.52% and 49.13%, 48.63%, 46.25%,
6.74%, 5.65%, 4.52%, 3.21%, 1.09% for 0%, 0.5%, 45.13%, 43.14% respectively.
1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of GI fibers in it respectively, The decrease in the strength properties of fibrous
when it is subjected to 200 oC temperature. And ferrocement subjected to different temperatures such as

114 April 2007

Fibrous Ferrocement Using GI Fibers

200 o C, 400 o C and 600 o C may be due to fact of welded mesh and chicken mesh. And there will be
setting up of a temperature gradient across the reduction in strength properties of fibrous
thickness of the fibrous ferrocement. The fibers, welded ferrocement when subjected to different temperatures
mesh and chicken mesh present in the fibrous such as 200 o C, 400 o C and 600 o C. The percentage
ferrocement when heated up tend to expand which decrease is very high at 400 o C and 600 o C. But
ultimately affect the bond and hence delamination may compared to ferrocement, fibrous ferrocement shows
take place. These effects may bring down the strength better fire/heat resisting capacity.
properties of fibrous ferrocement when subjected to Acknowledgement
different temperatures such as 200 o C, 400 o C and
The authors would like to thank Dr.S. C. Pilli and
600 o C. However it has also been observed that
Dr. A. N. Chapgaon, Principals of KLE’s College of
percentage reduction shows descending trend with
Engineering and Technology, Belgaum and D.Y.Patil
increase in percentage of GI fibers and also increase in
College of Engineering and Technology, Kolhapur for
percentage of welded mesh and chicken mesh.
their encouragement throughout the work. Authors
Conclusions are also indebted to management authorities of both
It can be concluded that the compressive strength, the colleges for their wholehearted support, which
flexural strength and impact strength of fibrous boosted the moral of the authors. Thanks are also due
ferrocement can be enhanced either by increasing to HODs of the civil engineering department and
percentage of GI fibers or by increasing percentage of other staff for their kind cooperation.

April 2007 115



UPERRSHIELD DPC (Deep Penetrating
capillary) waterproofing systems improves the
SUPERRSHIELD DPC (Deep Penetrating
waterproofing and durability of concrete by capillary) waterproofing technology
filling and plugging pores, capillaries, micro- improves the waterproofing and durability
cracks, and other voids with a non-soluble, highly of concrete by filling and plugging pores,
resistant crystalline formation. capillaries, micro-cracks, and other voids
The waterproofing effect is based on two simple with a non-soluble, highly resistant
reactions, one chemical and one physical. Concrete crystalline formation
is chemical in nature. When a cement particle
hydrates, the reaction between water and the is saturated with water prior to applying
cement causes it to become a hard, solid mass. SUPERRSHIELD DPC system, a solution of low
The reaction also generates chemical by-products chemical density is also being applied. When
that lie dormant in the concrete. SUPERRSHIELD DPC system is applied to the
SUPERRSHIELD DPC system adds another set of concrete, a solution of high chemical density is
chemicals to the mixture. When these two created at the surface, triggering the process of
chemical groups, the by products of cement chemical diffusion.
hydration and the SUPERRSHIELD DPC system The SUPERRSHIELD DPC system chemicals
chemicals, are brought together in the presence of will migrate through the water (the solution of low
moisture, a chemical reaction occurs. The end density) until the two
product of this reaction is a non soluble crystalline solutions equalize.
structure. The SUPERRSHIELD DPC system chemicals
This crystalline structure can only occur where spread through the concrete and become available
moisture is present, and thus will form in the to the by products of cement hydration, allowing
pores, capillary tracts, and shrinkage cracks in the chemical reaction to take place. A crystalline
concrete. Wherever water goes, SUPERRSHIELD structure is formed, and as the chemicals continue
DPC system will form filling the pore, voids to migrate through the water, this crystalline
and cracks. growth will form behind this advancing front of
When SUPERRSHIELD DPC system is applied chemicals. The reaction will continue until the
to the surface, either as a coating or as a dry SUPERRSHIELD DPC system chemicals are either
sprinkle application to a fresh concrete slab, a depleted or run out of water.
process called chemical diffusion takes place. The Chemical diffusion will take these chemicals
theory behind diffusion is that a solution of high about 12 inches minimum into the concrete. If
density will migrate through a solution of lower water has only soaked two inches into the surface,
density until the two equalize. Thus, when concrete then the SUPERRSHIELD DPC system chemicals

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will only travel two inches and stop but, they still tolerate temperatures between -25 degrees
have the potential to travel 10 inches further, if Fahrenheit (-32 degrees Centigrade) and 265
water reenters the concrete at some point in the degrees Fahrenheit (130 degrees Centigrade) in a
future and reactivates the chemicals. constant state. Humidity, ultraviolet light, and
Instead of reducing the porosity of concrete, oxygen levels have no impact on the products
like water reducers, plasticizers, and ability to perform. In a nutshell SUPERSHIELD
superplasticizers, the SUPERRSHIELD DPC DPC system waterproofs, protects and enhances the
system engages the material filling and plugging durability of the concrete.
the voids in concrete to become an integral and Basic Use
permanent part of the structure. Recommended for use in any concrete or block
Because these crystalline formations are within structure where it is required to keep water in or
the concrete and are not exposed at the surface, out. SUPERSHIELD DPC system waterproofs,
they cannot be punctured or otherwise damaged protects concrete from chemical attacks and
like membranes or surface coatings. enhances the durability of the concrete.
SUPERRSHIELD DPC system is highly resistant SUPERSHIELD DPC system are available in
to chemicals where the pH range is between three various forms to treat cold joints, faulty and
and 11 under constant contact, and two to 12 under leaking substrate, cracks, voids and to meet the
periodic contact. Crystalline waterproofing will requirement of green, new and old concrete.

April 2007 117


Intelligent Buildings
Dr. (Mrs) Samta Jain
Assistant Professor
Akruti City Gold University, Mumbai

RITING THIS PIECE of article, I am
In the light of the fact that vulnerability
reminded of my visit to an intelligent
profile of India makes the Indian Continent, one
building and I am trying correlating the
of the most disaster prone regions of the world
same to the 57th year of republican Journey of our
with nearly 60% area prone to earthquakes, 8 %
country. My vision is to have our country go further
cyclones and 5% to floods, we must try to
to the speculation of Goldman Saachs; to have
reduce this cost by investing high in technology
something which might be called as Brain- drain to
and going further a long way by demolishing the
India by the foreign nations; to celebrate the success
large stock of our ageing building and
of India poised and much more to create intelligent
restructure intelligent buildings to spell the
India by touching faith in the power of technology to
socio-economic success of the country.
change the society. Let us all try and become the
Master Builders. the most disaster prone regions of the world with
“Intelligent Buildings”- There are definitely two nearly 60% area prone to earthquakes, 8 %
parts of this inaugural stance. The first is cyclones and 5% to floods, we must try to reduce
considering the blend of business and technology as this cost by investing high in technology and going
a force of change, a force that needed to be tracked further a long way by demolishing the large stock
and analyzed for the development of the country. of our ageing building and restructure intelligent
The second part is the S 3 as I will call which stands buildings to spell the socio-economic success
for the scientific-socio-survival. Intelligent of the country.
Buildings can make wonder by reducing the impact With the models of architecture adopted by the
of natural hazards, increase the living standards and many private organizations, I will be reluctant now
social status and give scientific leverage to the to enter into the musty offices with a chaotic
country. In the light of the fact that vulnerability environment and tables stacked with dog-earned
profile of India makes the Indian Continent, one of files. The latest green glass- elevated structures are
sure to drive us all crazy to work in them and for
them. When you enter in buildings of this kind,
you will be extolling the innovation and growth
but I was more struck memorizing the Garden’s
Psychological Paradigm of Human Intelligence and
the very idea of building the kinaesthetics ruled my
thought process. Can an intelligent building against
the contemporary ones help us change everything-
was the thought that came to my mind; can these
features really help and assist in high business
performance and I became keen on writing an

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Intelligent Buildings

article on this, thinking that definitely we can have

The intelligent buildings as a part of the
intelligent business through intelligent buildings.
complex system can be really helpful in the
Under the business umbrella, there are lumps of
constructions of houses that are socially and
deficiencies and inefficiencies and I thought that
environmentally friendly. Whether they are
the HR has always been making the headlines and
houses for the mentally and physically
meeting the deadlines crushing between the time
handicapped or they are constructions to
and energy crisis. Frankly speaking it is not the
reduce the vulnerability due to natural
headlines of Property Plus or other magazines that
disasters, I firmly believe that synergy and
grabbed my attention but rather the footnotes
economic advantage can be achieved through
made me captive and I started giving the an integrated implementation.
meaningful business descriptions in my own
semantic words.
population and erecting intelligent buildings, which
A Mastered Change integrate all sensor systems, computation, materials,
India, the world’s largest democracy has 10 of the biometrics, energy management and security
world’s 30 fastest growing cities and is also workouts can help us. We must not forget that the
witnessing the rapid urbanization with 140 m rural icy plains of artic which were fit for no-man once
population moving to the urban areas by 2020. The have been converted into one of the wind –power
land has squeezed to the proportion of the growing suppliers and the arid dunes of the desert has been

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Intelligent Buildings

band strategies and the internet based building

Intelligent Buildings can create a
operations to come out with the next generations
differentiation in property matters and the
buildings to work more smarter. I am just glazing
business players must appreciate these as an
the experiences of working at Capital Tower,
asset rather then a liability. They must realize
Suntec City Singapore, Cyber port, Hong Kong or
that they need to be more upfront to get a
to say Sanghai China against the experience of
bigger-bang in the long run.
working in the normal, old buildings that do not
adequately meet the hygiene factors defined
converted into green energy. The credit goes all to by Herzberg.
techno-engineering innovations. We are in the Business age when information
The intelligent buildings as a part of the happens to be the fourth utility after water, electricity
complex system can be really helpful in the and gas. And technology and information are making
constructions of houses that are socially and the buildings SMARTER than before.
environmentally friendly. Whether they are houses
Intelligent Buildings can be customized and given
for the mentally and physically handicapped or
a wider perspective in terms of the selection of proper
they are constructions to reduce the vulnerability
structured system. The advances made in the civil
due to natural disasters, I firmly believe that
engineering technology can be speculated to reduce
synergy and economic advantage can be achieved
the disaster from earthquakes, floods and other
through an integrated implementation.
natural disasters.
We can install the fiber-optic systems to send
Boon to Business: An Intelligent Initiative
alerts to the managers for handling the immediate
requirements of the products and services when Speculative, as they are, the businessmen must
they run out of stock, we can have sweeping of think of working in a professional environment
security cards, retina color checking, lightening with sophistication and energy conservations.
and cooling of our chambers and have a pay time Because 50 years from now, picture a radical
with the games and surfing on the plasma screens. change in the mindsets, systems and strategies and
The carbon-di-oxide sensors can detect the number we won’t be able to resist the tall-old-non-
of people inside and do adjustments with the intelligent-structures (TONS). Intelligent
temperature and climate control. These smart Buildings can create a differentiation in property
building networks can help the institutional matters and the business players must appreciate
owners, industrialist play smart business and work these as an asset rather then a liability. They must
well with the strategies of just in time (JIT), realize that they need to be more upfront to get a
Kaizen and Six Sigma. bigger-bang in the long run.
In all the sense the provision of these utilities It can provide the security standards through the IP
can increase the net operating income through based security systems and make the place a “high-end
operation savings and new revenue streams. We workplace.” Definitely, to say these intelligent smart
must not forget that technology is the buzzword buildings have at least a cost covering ROI associated
and is not an afterthought but a critical function of to them, with demonstrable cost saving and capital
the real estate planning. We are with ample cost avoidance element as well. Further more they
innovations, permutations and combinations, provide the stimulating environments to work. By
thinking every time, What Next? providing a single point control of information and
The Business Zone must be willing to utilize its communication network, energy management, security
infrastructure to its benefit by using the digital and critical systems, it reduces the operational
signage strategies, integrated comprehensive broad- management cost and adds to the complete life

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Intelligent Buildings

performance benefits of integrated services. trendy. A hypothesis that the coming decade will
The businessmen investing for their location of witness a dramatic increase in the quality and
work must also see to the life cycle cost which is quantity of intelligent buildings due to the emerging
important aspect of the building economics. It is filed of pervasive buildings. IT will soon become an
defined as entire cost incurred over the entire life of integrated part of business environment with
the building. In these intelligent buildings this cost is processors, sensors and actuators connected via high-
reduced by the way of periodic maintenance cost and, speed networks and combined with new visualization
cost due to inappropriate construction and cost of devices from projections directly into the eye to
damage. In addition the cost of the process and large panorama displays.
operations are also reduced giving not only efficiency IT as I see, in the intelligent buildings will
but also effectiveness. They also tend to reduce the change from being proprietary, specialized offering
overall operation cost. The security factor is also as to niche segment, to be a part of mainstream mass
important to the companies in terms of the buildings market in the years to come and it is here that the
having SMART EYES to scan the offenders. Security Real Estate Manager have a major role to play. The
monitoring through cameras can have a triggered back counting seems to be started. The Traditional
alarm directed connected to police and then the will soon disappear and integrations will follow.
security videos can help police apprehend the suspects The good news is that now we have no choice
quickly. Energy conservation- physical, mental and but to deliver.
psychological can pave way for innovations, creativity
and dexterity on the employees’ behalf.
These structures if diligently designed can be light
and flexible enough to significant overloads of wind,
earthquakes and explosions thus giving life-security to
the employees. Human comfort and sense of pride
can’t be forgone when considering the structures of
the building. Working in an interactive workplace can
be a high-quality experience for the employees. The
technology called “roomwares” can support and
collaborate with the people at work. The people can
have the ideal thermal comfort with the walls of
insulation performance. The employees working for
these business houses can coordinate multiple
activities in the office hours without a loss of valuable
time-to-revenue and can receive capabilities then
ever. These buildings can simply be add-on to the
human factor working for the organization and
survive with the same cost of functioning with low
maintenance and higher degree of efficiency.
Forecasting the Future
Ever since early 1980’s, when the trade
magazines became the carrier of the stories on
Intelligent Buildings, more demand has grown for
them and they seem to be both economic and

April 2007 121

Fire Protection of Steel Structures

Ensuring Integrity
Against Fire On Offshore
Installations Part - II
Richard Holliday
Market Manager, International Paint Ltd

Design & Selection Criteria Design of fire protection is not only about
Design of fire protection is not only about meeting the required fire rating. The system
meeting the required fire rating. The system should should be considered early in the design
be considered early in the design process to ensure
process to ensure that full understanding of
that full understanding of all the factors involved is
understood. Typically the requirements of PFP can be
all the factors involved is understood.
identified from the decision tree shown in Figure 2.
“… it was noted that a major misconception in
Fire testing
the performance of fire protection is the belief that a
Fire testing provides a method of evaluating the fire rating indicates the time the assembly will
performance of PFP systems against a standard set of survive in an actual fire …”
criteria, allowing 3rd Party classification societies such as
“… it is accepted that the (standard) time versus
Lloyd’ Register or Det Norske Veritas to issue Type
temperature curve method of fire testing is far from
Approval Certification against recognised standards. For
satisfactory …”
Hydrocarbon fire testing, standard test methods have
developed from crude pit burn tests to well controlled, “… it is clearly desirable that any (fire) test used
furnace burn tests to internationally recognised standards be realistic. The essential problem is not that of a test
such as ISO834, BS476: parts 20, 21 and 22 Appendix per se, but of the information which the test provides
D, or UL1709. Following the Piper Alpha disaster of to the designer about the probable behaviour of the
1998 in the United kingdom North Sea, the report into fire barrier in real hydrocarbon fire conditions …”
the incident stated the following [2]: In his report, Lord Cullen, identified that not only
was the old cellulosic fire test not applicable
for offshore oil and gas installations, but that
an even more onerous test regime was required
to simulate the highly erosive jet fires.
Following this, the United Kingdom
Offshore Operators Association (UKOOA)
and the United Kingdom Health and Safety
Executive (HSE) developed a test program
that tested both at full scale and medium
scale against the effects of jet fire.
These tests resulted in a quasi-standard
test method known as OTI-95-634 [4].
This will shortly be published as a full ISO
standard for the classification of PFP

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Fire Protection of Steel Structures
Ensuring Integrity Against Fire On Offshore Installations

materials and systems exposed to jet fires. The United Kingdom Offshore Operators
When considering jet fire testing it is essential to Association (UKOOA) and the United Kingdom
consider the following factors: Health and Safety Executive (HSE) developed a
h jet fire duration and possible combination with test program that tested both at full scale and
other fire types medium scale against the effects of jet fire.
h configuration of jet fire test – essential that
appropriate test arrangement is used: of a large number of interacting factors; these can be
h Structural Steel (Web) – for I sections and open modelled using sophisticated computer simulations
sections of structural steel packages. Typical loads can be in the region of 0.3 to 1.5
bar but could, in theory, reach as high as 4.0 bar,
h Planar for fire divisions and large diameter
although at these levels little of the original steel
items such as vessels and supports
structure would remain intact. Test against explosion
h Tubular for smaller diameter items such as resistance is carried out on an ad-hoc basis as there is no
Pipework, vales and flanges internationally recognised standard for explosion testing.
h Assemblies – for testing special case systems When considering explosion testing it is essential to look
such as penetration seals. at the peak level of overpressure expected, the duration
h Certification – system should be independently of the blast pulse, positive and negative pressure effects
certified by a recognised classification society such (drag loads can be significant on PFP systems) and
as Lloyd’s Register. ensuring that the PFP system is capable of withstanding
Explosion Testing any resultant deflection without damage or impairment.
Following the ignition of a gas or vapour cloud, Critical Core Temperature
significant blast pressures can be experiences particularly Steel loses it strength rapidly in the event of a fire.
in confined or congested areas. Blast loads are the result Without fire protection temperatures within the steel

Cement Based Systems

System Description Composition of system is generally a cement binder and inorganic insulant (typically
vermiculite). Application methods include spray or trowel applied with mesh retention
system. General no longer used offshore or in costal marine environments, but was
extensively used for structural steel firewalls and underdecks. Still occasionally used
in interior locations.
Typical Uses Strengths Structural steel, divisions, pipe work & process vessels. When new system has good
fire performance, with low smoke and toxicity
Shortcomings System is prone to degradation with time due to damage from weathering, thermal
expansion and contraction and general wear and tear. System requires routine
maintenance to maintain its integrity. Common to experience corrosion of both
mesh retention system and underlying substrate.
Certification & Testing Generally well tested in as new condition, but performance falls quickly as system
becomes damaged or weathered. Performance
Performance Operating Temperature Limits D Environment Resistance D-E
Space Restriction C Corrosion Protection D
Inspection Access C Mechanical Damage D
Removability C Life Cycle D

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Fire Protection of Steel Structures
Ensuring Integrity Against Fire On Offshore Installations

can rise to over 500°C within a few minutes causing When considering explosion testing it is
the steel buckle and collapse. Fire protection is used to
essential to look at the peak level of
ensure the structure remains within its design factors
for sufficient period to allow the fire to be brought
overpressure expected, the duration of the
under control or the installation safely abandoned. blast pulse, positive and negative pressure
Structural steel work is normally limited to 400°C for effects (drag loads can be significant on PFP
offshore design, although higher temperatures are systems) and ensuring that the PFP system is
permissible on lightly loaded steelwork. Figure 3 shows capable of withstanding any resultant
typical strength of steel verses steel temperature. For deflection without damage or impairment.
aluminium structures a lower critical core temperature
be expected to limit valves to between 200°C &
is used, typically 200°C, due to its lower melting
300°C for the specified fire period. Actuators are
point. Fire impact on pipework, fittings and vessels can
be even more devastating causing events such as normally limited to between 70°C & 100°C for the
active closure period. Vessels will generally be limited
BLEVE’s . A BLEVE is a Boiling Liquid Evaporating
Vapour Explosion, a well know hazard to fire fighters to between 200°C & 400 °C for the full fire duration
in order to reduce possibility of BLEVE events.
when tackling fires. Without fire protection, the vessel
body rapidly heats up to a point where it can no longer Section Factors
contain the pressures, the vessel shell ruptures with The rate of heating of steel is dependant on the
catastrophic effects producing a massive fire ball and amount of heat input in proportion to the mass of steel
firing burning and molten pieces for great distances. To available to absorb the heat. This ratio is generally
prevent such events it is essential that the temperature described as the section factor (or massivity) of the
of the steel is keep below the critical failure steelwork. It is defined as the surface area exposed to
temperature to ensure pressure containment for the fire divided by the volume (or mass) of steel. Terms
pipework and vessels, prevent failure of the ESD valve such as Hp/A (Heated perimeter/cross sectional area),
to inhibit flow of inventory on the installation or to A/V (heated area/volume) and W/D (weight/heated
ensure blow-down systems function. Typically it may perimeter) are used to describe this ratio.
Wet Applied Intumescent Epoxy Systems
System Description A spray or trowel applied two pack epoxy coating material that is applied directly
onto a clean, prepared steel surface. Once cured the system is ridged and firmly
bonded on place.
Typical Uses Strengths Structural steel, divisions, pipe work & process vessels. Strengths Very long
life, maintenance free, excellent corrosion resistance, capable of taking heavy
mechanical knocks
Shortcomings Once applied are very difficult to remove, no inspection access available, cannot be
applied to hot plant and equipment. Not suitable for internal normally manned
areas. Certain systems appear vulnerable to environmental exposure and are reliant
on topcoat to ensure integrity.
Certification & Testing Extensively tested against fire and blast. The best systems hold extensive test data
and type approval certification for jet fire protection to recognised standards.
Performance Operating Temperature Limits C Environment Resistance A
Space Restriction A Corrosion Protection A
Inspection Access E Mechanical Damage A
Removability E Life Cycle A

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Fire Protection of Steel Structures
Ensuring Integrity Against Fire On Offshore Installations

To enable the correct thickness of PFP to be specified

it is necessary to establish from fire tests tables of
required thickness against section factor for a given fire
type and duration. Appendix 1 shows a typical table.
Corrosion & Durability Testing
The systems shall be designed so that constituent
parts & the final assembly are capable of
withstanding the effects of an offshore environment,
high humidity, saltwater environment, deluge
testing & thermal cycling.
The system should minimise the risk of corrosion The Strengths of Steel
to the underlying substrate/equipment. This
requirement should be inherent to the design of the as well as offering resistance to damage from
system. The system should be capable of personnel traffic in congested areas. The system has
been independently tested with realistic loads &
demonstrating such durability by passing industry
impact velocities.
recognised standards such as NORSOK M-501 [7]
For demountable systems corrosion protection The system shall be designed using materials &
coatings below the system will be required to ensue the construction that will maintain its performance
throughout the design life of the installation or
risks are minimised after routine inspections or
facility. This is typically in the region of 20 to 30
complete removal/replacement of the system
years for new build projects. Again this should be
The system should be designed to withstand a
demonstrated by both appropriate testing and track
high degree of mechanical impact from items such
record in similar environmental conditions.
as dropped objects (hand tools, scaffold clips, etc.) to be contined
Pre-formed Intumescent Epoxy Systems
System Description A pre-formed cast version of the two-pack epoxy coating material that is reinforced
with a structural steel mesh. Components are bolted in place around object using
the object as the support. The system is ridged and applied over a painted surface.
Typical Uses Strengths Flanges, valves & actuators, pipe work & process vessels Long life, maintenance free,
excellent corrosion resistance, capable of taking heavy mechanical knocks, easy access
for routine inspections. Excellent access to weld and bend inspections and flange covers.
Systems retain the inherent weatherability of the epoxy intumescent system and hence
are far more resistant than fibre based systems, with subsequently less risk of corrosion.
Shortcomings Complete removal of system when used on large or complex shapes can be time
consuming, requires additional insulation for use on hot plant and equipment. System
does not provide inherentcorrosion protection, but relies on underlying corrosion
protection system.
Certification & Testing Only certain systems and designs have been extensively tested against fire and blast.
Performance Operating Temperature Limits C Environment Resistance A
Space Restriction B Corrosion Protection B
Inspection Access A Mechanical Damage B
Removability B Life Cycle B

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