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In-Building Wireless Solutions & Cellular

Capacity Offload in LTE Networks

Dec 07, 2010

Scheinert Telecom
www.scheinerttelecom.com
Enterprise options
“Single antenna” enterprises
• repeater
• femto/pico
• WiFi AP

“Multiple antennae” enterprises


• repeater- DAS
• femto/pico - DAS
• BTS-RRHs
• multiple femto/pico
• multiple femto/pico w. controller
• WiFi APs

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DAS Example 1

Source: ADC Communication

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DAS Example 2

Highlights:
• self-installable
• overlay
• RJ-45/Ethernet
compatible

Head-End Element

RF Coverage Element

Source: mobileaccess

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Radio Remote Head Example

Micro Radio Server


Remote Radio Head

Source: NEC

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Example Femtos with Controller
Centralized RF system auto-
Internet tuning and zero touch
optimization
Centralized soft-handover
management and anchoring

SmartCloud Services Node

SmartCloud Radio Nodes

Source: SpiderCloud Wireless

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Option Matrix
System Local Macro Data rate Reduced Cost Integrating
capacity offload Tariff/ rates IT
Rep- no marginal low no Medium/ Not
DAS high possible
Femto- yes yes high possible Low to possible
DAS high *
BTS- yes yes high possible Medium/ possible
RRH high
Femtos yes yes Medium/ possible low Possible
high **
Femtos/ yes yes high possible Low/ Possible
controller medium
APs yes yes high n/a Low Possible

* depends on self-installation
** depends on configuration and SON features
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Option Matrix II
System Indoor- Self- Handover Handover Multi- Unli-
Inter- installation needed risk operator censed
ference within (internal/
enterprise external)
Rep- no Possible/ no no Possible no
DAS difficult

Femto- no Possible/ no low Possible no


DAS medium
BTS- no Difficult* no low Very no
RRH difficult
Femtos yes Possible/ yes Medium/ Difficult no
easy high
Femtos/ yes Possible/ yes Low/ Difficult no
controller medium medium
APs yes Possible/ yes Medium/ Yes and yes
easy high no**

• Fiber cable
**requires access to multiple gateways
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Wireless Solutions for Enterprises
60% 18% 11% 8.9% 1.5% 0.3%
Current DAS
FAP Products

Multiple FAP

Low cost DAS

RRH

US Census Bureau: Statistics of U.S. Businesses: 2003

One antenna enterprise multiple antennae enterprise

90% of the 4.8m enterprise buildings are less than 50,000 sqft
source: Unstrung Insider Vol. 5, No. 4, April 2006

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Roadmap

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Roadmap Consequences
• SON features
• improved interference handling between
• macro – FAP
• FAP – FAP
•  improved handover handling between
• macro – FAP
• FAP – FAP
• Local breakout
• Outlook, Intranet, PABX integration
• simultaneous ringing, transfer of calls
• caller-id (e.g. office number)
• Repeater
• LTE L1-repeaters will compete with DAS and multiple femto
solutions
• LTE voice
• Rel. 10 will provide HD-voice

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Femtocell interfaces

Source: Airvana

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Interference
Femtocells need to address the two scenarios:
• FAP – macro interference
•  Minimize interference into macro cell
• FAP – FAP interference
•  Reduce interference to get:
•  Enough throughput
•  Minimum guaranteed data rate
 Requires a clear spectrum strategy
(shared or separate frequencies)

 Requires sophisticated SON features


 Requires optimization on a per UE basis
 Requires short term configurations
(monthsweeksdayshoursminutescalls)

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Femto and WiFi Handover
Femtocells need to address the three scenarios:
• FAP –> macro handover
Less of a problem
• macro –> FAP handover
Macro may have many neighbors
• FAP –> FAP handover
May need some knowledge about enterprise subnets

WiFi AP need to be supported by operators!


• otherwise no handover to/from macro
• requires secured links to HnB Gateways
 risky; especially when multi-operator configurations
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Backhaul for femtocells
Wireless Max data DSL (max) Cable (max)
Standard rate (typical) (typical)
HSPA 14 Mb/s 24 Mb/s 42 Mb/s – 171 Mb/s
downlink 1.5 Mb/s - 6Mb/s 1.5 Mb/s
HSPA uplink 5.8 Mb/s 3.3 Mb/s 30 Mb/s – 122 Mb/s
384 kb/s – 768kb/s 256 kb/s
HSPA+ 42 Mb/s 24 Mb/s 42 Mb/s – 171 Mb/s
downlink 1.5 Mb/s - 6Mb/s 1.5 Mb/s
HSPA+ uplink 11 Mb/s 3.3 Mb/s 30 Mb/s – 122 Mb/s
384 kb/s – 768kb/s 256 kb/s
LTE downlink 150 Mb/s 24 Mb/s 42 Mb/s – 171 Mb/s
(20 MHz, 2x2) 1.5 Mb/s - 6Mb/s 1.5 Mb/s
LTE uplink 75 Mb/s 3.3 Mb/s 30 Mb/s – 122 Mb/s
(20 MHz, 2x2) 384 kb/s – 768kb/s 256 kb/s
Standard ADSL2+ DOCSIS 2.0/3.0

For most of the DSL and cable modems up- and downlink are the bottlenecks!

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What will change with LTE?
• LTE is IP based – easier transition
• no more soft handoff – voice as VOIP
• new applications (HD-voice, video calling)
• potentially more users per femto
• flat architecture  less interfaces
• more SON features  dynamic configuration
• need to implement voice (release 10)
• multi-mode femtos (LTE&UMTS)
• MIMO (what MIMO is needed for what indoors?)
• IPV6 will be needed
• more frequency bands;
• bands no more technology specific (2G, 3G, 4G)

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Capacity issues in DAS Systems
assumption: 100% traffic increase per year

• in 5 years traffic will be 32 fold!


if one BTS has 10 antennae; in 5 years each antenna
has to carry 3x the capacity as of today’s 10 antennae
BTS.

 Cells will have a lower number of antennas


(capacity limited)
 more carriers per cell needed
 at some point multiple antennae may not make
sense anymore (if a cell has 2 antennae or less)

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Cost Comparison for Enterprises
Example: 8 antennae enterprise
System Equipment Installation BTS Core Network total
Rep-DAS $23,000 $25,000 $0 no $48,000

Femto- $18,000 $20,000 $3,000 $1,000 $42,000


DAS-1
Femto- $8,000 $0 $3,000 $1,000 $12,000
DAS-2
BTS- $1,000 $10,000 $13,000 $1,000 $25,000
RRH
Femtos $0 $0 $24,000 $1,000 $25,000

Femtos/ $5,000 $0 $24,000 $1,000 $30,000


controller
APs $5,000 $0 $4,800 no $9,800

Assumptions: femto: $3,000; AP: $600; RRH: $1,000 single operator; controller: $5,000

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Cost Comparison for Enterprises
Example: 8 antennae enterprise
System Equipment Installation BTS Core Network total
Rep-DAS $23,000 $25,000 $0 no $48,000

Femto- $18,000 $20,000 $3,000 $1,000 $42,000


DAS-1
Femto- $8,000 $0 $3,000 $1,000 $12,000
DAS-2
BTS- $1,000 $10,000 $13,000 $1,000 $25,000
RRH
Femtos $0 $0 $24,000 $1,000 $25,000

Femtos/ $5,000 $0 $24,000 $1,000 $30,000


controller
APs $5,000 $0 $4,800 no $9,800

Assumptions: femto: $3,000; AP: $600; RRH: $1,000 single operator; controller: $5,000

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Cost Comparison for Enterprises II
Example: 8 antennae enterprise
System Equipment Installation BTS Core Network total
Rep-DAS $23,000 $25,000 $0 no $48,000

Femto- $18,000 $20,000 $500 $1,000 $39,500


DAS-1
Femto- $8,000 $0 $500 $1,000 $9,500
DAS-2
BTS- $1,000 $10,000 $9,000 $1,000 $21,000
RRH
Femtos $0 $0 $4,000 $1,000 $5,000

Femtos/ $5,000 $0 $4,000 $1,000 $10,000


controller
APs $5,000 $0 $4,800 no $9,800

Assumptions: femto: $500; AP: $600; RRH: $500 single operator; controller: $5,000

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Cost Comparison for Enterprises II
Example: 8 antennae enterprise
System Equipment Installation BTS Core Network total
Rep-DAS $23,000 $25,000 $0 no $48,000

Femto- $18,000 $20,000 $500 $1,000 $39,500


DAS-1
Femto- $8,000 $0 $500 $1,000 $9,500
DAS-2
BTS- $1,000 $10,000 $9,000 $1,000 $21,000
RRH
Femtos $0 $0 $4,000 $1,000 $5,000

Femtos/ $5,000 $0 $4,000 $1,000 $10,000


controller
APs $5,000 $0 $4,800 no $9,800

Assumptions: femto: $500; AP: $600; RRH: $500 single operator; controller: $5,000

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Outlook

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Some additional thoughts:

• Femto owned by enterprise –no cost for operator

• One femto serving multiple operators


• simplifies indoor coverage (1 femto for coverage)
• aggregates traffic of multiple operators

• Operators may pay femtocell owners for traffic


• public femtos (e.g. bars, restaurants)
• if quality requirements are met (e.g. QoS backhaul)

The future is waiting…..


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Future for DAS in SME?
Other aspects:

• LTE L1-repeater will compete with DAS systems,


eliminating even the cabling.

• RRH are competing with DAS solutions; will be even


more attractive once fiber is common in enterprises.

• Multiple femto configurations will compete with DAS


solutions; especially when capacity might be an issue.

• Capacity of DAS solutions are dependent on availability


of:
• high capacity femtos (32 users or more)
• multiple carrier femto cells (2 or more femtos per cell)
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Future for DAS in public venues?
DAS for Public venues & large enterprises:

• full band support


• multiple bands (400 MHz – 3.5 GHz)
• wireless standard agnostic
• multi-operator configurations
• support for > 20 BTS per DAS
• support MIMO configurations

 Going back to passive DAS?


 one band from 400 MHz – 3.5 GHz

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…and enterprise femtos?
Multiple femtocells may or may not be the solution for
an enterprise:

• Need to minimize interference between femtocell


and macrocell (other frequencies, SON-features)

• Need to minimize interference between femtocells


(Controller, other frequencies, SON features)
• Optimize handover between cells

• Need for multi-carrier configuration per cell

 Femtos need to be more intelligent (SON features) and/or a


controller for interference and handover management may be needed
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Larger Enterprises & Public hotspots
DAS requirements for larger enterprises & public hotspots:

• Multi-operator requirements (3 – 4 operators)


• Multiband requirements (2 – 4 bands; trend going up)
• Full band support
• support of multiple wireless standards (2G, 3G, 4G)

Example: 20 BTS per DAS area


 A multiple femto configuration would mean
20 femtos per antenna point!!!!
 very difficult to install so many femtos at one location!!

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Thank you

Scheinert Telecom
www.scheinerttelecom.com

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