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INSECT PESTS OF VEGETABLES

S. Scientific Name Common Name Systematic Habits Nature of Damage to Crop


No Position
1. Aulacophora(=Raphidopalpa) Red Pumpkin O. Coleoptera 1. Host plants include, Pumpkin, Melon, Ash Gourd, Tinda, 1. Both grubs and adults cause damage to all
foveicollis (Lucas) Beetle F. Chrysomelidae Ghia Tori and Cucumber. host plants particularly Cucurbits
2. There are 5 broods in a year. Life cycle is completed in 26 – 2. Grubs cause damage by boring roots and
37 days stems; seedlings wither and die.
3. Female lays 60 – 300 eggs singly or in clusters of 8 – 9 eggs 3. Adults feed on leaves, fruits, flowers,; affected
on the moist soil near host plant. plants exhibit retarded growth; and may die.
4. After 6 – 15 days of incubation eggs hatch in to grubs. 4. Attacked fruits are unfit for consumption.
5.Grubs feed on underground parts – roots; also fruits lying on 5. Loss of crop can be 10 – 20 %.
the soil
6. Grubs moult 4 times; every time entering soil for it.
7. Pupation occurs in the soil in an oval, thick walled, water
proof earthen chamber at the depth of 1 cm.
8. After 7 – 17 days of pupal period adults emerge
7. Adults hibernate in groups in winters among dry leaves or
weeds or in soil crevices.
2. Bactrocera (Dacus ;= Pumpkin fruit Fly O. Diptera 1. Host plants include Muskmelon, Pumpkin, Cucumber, Tori, 1. Maggots completely destroy ripe fruits.
Strumeta) Melon Fruit Fly F. Tephritidae Tomato, Bitter gourd, Papaya. 2. Infested fruits decay due to bacterial infection.
cucurbitae ( Coquillett) 2. Several generations are produced in a year; Life cycle 3. Fruits are rendered unfit for human
completed in 12 – 30 days in June – July and 30 35 days in consumption.
Dec - Jan 4. Pumpkin and muskmelon are severely
3. Adult flies emerge from puparium in the morning, mate at affected.
dusk after 2 weeks; and start laying eggs in the evening. 5. Fruit loss can be up to 50 % in July – August.
4. Female lays 4 - 12 cylindrical eggs (up to 300 eggs in her
life time) under the rind of the fruit in the pulp with the
help of sharp ovipositor; and covers them with resinous
secretion to cement the tissue near puncture and make it
water proof.
5. Maggots emerging from the eggs feed continuously on the
fruit pulp and undergo 3 moults.
6. Full grown larva leaves the fruit and drops to ground and
bores in to the soil 5 – 15 cm deep to undergo pupation.
7. Overwinters as pupa.
3. Epilachna Hadda Beetle O.Coleoptera 1. Host plants include Bitter gourd, Potato, Brinjal, Tomato. 1 Both adults and grubs destroy leaves.
. vigintioctopunctata Fabricius F. Coccinellidae 2. Have a single generation in a year on hills; while 7 – 8 2. Infested leaves skeletonise, turn brownish
generation in plains; Life cycle completed in 12 – 54 days and dry up and finally fall.; leads to complete
3. Adults feed on leaves in semi-circular pattern in rows. defoliation.
4. Female lays eggs in clusters (13 - 50) on the undersurface of 3. Loss is generally 10 – 30 %; sometimes up to
leaves of food plant; 300 eggs in her life time 70 %
5. Grubs emerge in 2 – 3 days(summers); 4 – 9 days (winters)
6. Grubs feed on upper epidermal layer of the leaves; undergo
4 moults to grow fully.
7. Pupation lasts 2 – 9 days; Pupae are attached head
downwards to leaves and stem.
7. Hibernate in heap of dry plants and cracks & crevices in the
soil.
INTRODUCTION TO VEGETABLES

Vegetables are short duration crops; and their production is far below our requirements; increased production can help to improve the diet of the
people. India accounts for 12 % of the world’s total production of vegetables. Plant Families like Solanaceae, Cucurbitacae and Malvaceae are the
major source of vegetables. Vegetables are a good source of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins (A, C, B 1, and B2) and Minerals (Ca, P, and Fe).
Majority vegetables are alkaline in reaction. Portion of the plant serving as a vegetable can be fruit, inflorescence, bud, foliage, stem, tuber, root, etc.
Almost all vegetables are prone to insect pest attacks; therefore, control of the insect pests is of vital importance for increasing vegetable production.
Only three important insect pests of cucurbitaceous crops are discussed. Pumpkin Fruit Fly is discussed in detail

MANAGEMENT OF PUMPKIN FRUIT FLY


Preventive Measures:
1. Sowing of early maturing and fruit fly resistant varieties.
2. Raking (stirring) of the soil under the vines to kill pupae.
3. Ploughing the field after harvesting the crop.
4. Regular picking up of the infested fruits and their destruction.

Control Measures:
I Chemical Control
1. Baiting of flies by mixture of Malathion (5 %) & Gur
2. Use of Chemosterilants like Tepa (0.125 %) which produce 100% sterility
3. Spraying of pesticides like Malathion (0.05%), Formathion (0.03%), Carbaryl (0.05%).
II Biological Control
1. Use of pupal parasites like Opius fletcheri, O. incisus and O. compensans