1.3. Twoby M c l uhan

TheMedium Is the Message
McLuhan Marsha[[
In a culture like ours, long accustomedto splitting and dividing all things as a means of control, it is sometimes a bit of a shockto be remindedthat, in operatronal and practical fact, the medjum is the message. Thls is merely to say that the personaland socialconsequences any me&um-that of is,of any extensionof ourselves-result from the nerv scale that is introduced rnto our affairs by each extension of ourselves, by any new technology.Thus, with automation, or for example, new patterns of human association the tend to eliminate jobs, it is true. That is the negative result. Positively, automation creates rolesfor people, which is to sa1' depth of involvementin their work and human association that our preceding mechanical technologyhad destroyed. Many peoplewould be disposedto say that it was not the machine, but what one did with the machine. that was its meaning or message. terms of the ways in which the machinealtered In our relationsto one another and to ourselves. matterednot it in the least whetier it turned out cornflakes or Ca.iillacs. The restructuring of human work and associationwas shapedby the technique of fragmentation that is the essence of machinetechnology. The essence automation of technology is the opposite. It is integral and decentralist in depth, just as the machrnewas fragmentary. centralist, and superficial in its patterning of human relationships. The instance of the electric light may prove iliuminating in this connection. The electric light is pure information. It is a medium r,vilhout a message, it were, unless it is used to as speil out some verbal ad or name. This fact, characteristrcof a-11 me&a, means that the "content" of any me&um is always just as another me&um. The content of wrlting is speech, the written word is the content of print, and print is the content of the telegraph.If it is asked,"What is the content of speech?," is necessary say,"lt is an actualprocess it to of thought, which is in itself nonverbal."An abstract painting represents&rect manifestation of creative thought processes as they mrght appear in computer designs.What we are considering here,however,are the psychic and social

of consequences the designsor patterns as they amplifii or accelerate existingprocesses. the "message" any For of medium or technologyis the changeof scaleor paceor pattern that it introduces into human affairs. The railway &d not introducemovement or transportation or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated enlarged and the scale of prer,roushuman functions, creating totally new kinds of citiesand new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whether the rail,vay functioned in a tropical or a northern enrironment, and is quite independentof the freight or content of the railway medium. The airplane, on the other hand, by acceleratingthe rate of transportation, tends to dissolvethe railway form of city, politics, and association, quite independentlyof what the airplaneis usedfor. Let us return to the electricIlght. Whether the hght is being usedfor brain surgeryor night baseball a matter of is indifference.It cou.ldbe argued that these actirritiesare in someway the "content"of the electriclight, sincethey could not exist without the electriclight. This fact merely underlinesthe point that "the medium rs the message because is the me&um that shapes it and controlsthe scale and form of human association and action.The content or usesof such media are as &verseas they are ineffectualin shapingthe form of human association. lndeed,it is only too gpical that the "content" of any medium bLindsus to the characterof the medium. It is only today that industries have becomeaware of the various kinds of businessin which they are engaged. When IBM discoveredthat it was not in the businessof making office equipment or businessmachines, but that it was in the businessof processing informatron, tlen it began to navigate with clear rrision.The General ElectricCompanymakesa considerable portion of its profits from electric light buJbsand lighting systems.It has not yet discoveredthat, quite as much as A.T&T, it is in the busrness of moving information. The electriclight escapes attention as a communication me&um just because has no "content." it And this makesit an invaluableinstance of how people fail to study media at all. For it is not till the electric light is used to spell out some brand name that it is noticed as a medium.Then it is not the light but the 'content" (or what is really another medlum) that is noticed. The message the electric light is iike the of message electric power in industry, totally radical, of pervasive,and decentralized.Forelectric light and power are

v an In accepting honorarv degree Notre Dame a "/'.p:. Again.lt"r." its ''Thesmallpo-r it is the virus is in itself neither good nor bad. st14e the medium. l . " ..l.." o h r ..t'as had also&ssemlnatedthe Bibleand the thoughts of seers It and philosophers. f)f snme c.aus In Othello." i . l p c lin tr n n o f n h a L ] h a d o b se r ve d in animals treated rryiththis or that impure. r.r r . has neveroccurredto GeneralSarnoff that any technology could do anything but add itself on to rnrp .ves said . It speals.'Applepie is in ttself neither good Or. L: .el uc s npi thel oood nnr h:d i t . ".' * ' K r o w s a l m o s te v e n g la in o t Dl:r ' .l endj n.'" " " " 5 statement that will bear scrutlny.t'ith t h e t orme n t o f n p o n l e rr :nsfnr m .lue.r n' ..i t msdom r.""b vearsaso. fher e ate (HansSel. sa1-ing true that print causedmuch trash to circulate.rh thino? In ShekesnearesTroiIu-sand Cressida.n ol. in invoh'ement depth..d"'e r c e h :t. rt is the rvay they are used that determines their That is the voice of the current somnambulism. Stress Life') of The As Selvedeaiswith the total enr.th 'c b .^l^^. W Rostow and John Kenneth Galbraith have been explaining for yearshow economics" cannot explainchangeor it is that "classical gron'th.r .noe Enl npr l :ni z atj on bv nr tr r ne th. TV creating A fairly completehandbook for studying the extensionsof man could be made up from seiectionsfrom Shakespeare.yet thev eliminate time and space factors in human associationexactly as do radio. Somemight quibbleabout whether or not he was referring to TV in these familiar lines from Romeoand Juliet: rt But softru'hathght throughy.l " r ''- .h.' .. the w . 1 . technicalform. he looked at me n'ith desperatell'sad e." we to Suppose \^..is concernedr. independentlyof tleir ''content"or programming. n d .t h:d it is the w:v it is usedthat determines value. Twoby McLuhan R tl. medja: Is there not charms By which the propertl' of vouth and maidhood May be abusd? Have you not read Roderigo.n rro \'.--.om pnt:* i nf .-o d s 'i o_ '. for it ignores the nature of quite of the The increasinga!^areness actionof media.onder indoit'breaks? and norhing.(if not in fact) Nr ^. GeneralSarnoff went on that to explain his attitude to the technology of print. va.1. That is. And the paradox of mechanization is that although it is itseif the causeof maximal growth and change. and telephone.*.vhrch Sothat is reckoned Describes scratch not the it..:n. the but that The samekind of total. Shakespearestates his a\darenessthat true social and political navigation depend upon anticipatrng the consequences of innovation: T_ e tn r 'n' v".r liL . of any and a1lmedia.which.1 :lm o .was sLanza. as much as King Lear.HansSelye on hearinsof Selves theorv: "' b ' -\A/henhe saw me thus launched on vet another o n r r n t r r .*NEW M EDIAn$. nl o.but it it r.o m p " e h " n sn d e e p t K " " " .idSarnoff made "'_ few are this statement:"\A/e too prone to make technological for instruments the scapegoats the srnsof thosewho r. if the slugsreach usedthat determinestheir value.the the principle of mechanizationexcludes very possibilityof c 'or r r h. toxic and material. .13.r rous de-<caii-: But Se]i'e. configurational a\. l^^^ .\otlrlng -lnardoes: a.If the TV tube fires the right ammunition at the right peopleit rs good." the right peoplefirearms aregood. conventlonal of from the Universit. The productsof modern science not in themseh'es good or bad.' -nrLef *__--/ tt" _ *^ \4I as Sucheconomists RobertTheobald.'t . In his Stress colleague tells of the &smay of a research of Life.'ironmentalsituation tn so his "stress theory of disease. the latest approachto media "content" but the me&um and not only the study considers the cultural matrix within which the particular medium of The older unah'areness the psvchicand social operates.g o ld .d ^f . i" .I am not hpi no ner r :er s e T her e i s c i m nl t nor hi np i n r he Sar noff " '" '5l ..ar ther a.hi c r pr l r he r r ndc r . b o rt o n i n t he u n . these Lnes that bespeak Shakespeares intuition of the transforming powers of nern. c dr . n""' "r h . hr f. telegraph.in the true Narcissus hypnotizedby the amputation and extensionof his of one on n being in a nen..ere say. r hpm .' '" " 6 D oe ..f !" enrirp li{c \rrdving "b -'"lhe -' separatefrom their uses.1 rs L^.ve.treld are them. ' th . e F . rrr'e' i n their dum b..l hr illr r sinn.r. .. r^'hich is almost completeiy der. effects of media can be illustrated from almost any of the pronouncements.'areness has occurred revealswhy the medium is socrallythe message in the most recent and radical medical theories. r n a u a tch lir l sr a te i t "' h ' "' . and anonl'mous in&cated the annoyed in In modernthought.o.Af'f you are dorng before it is too latel \bu have now AociApA tn -L. rl ."Firearmsare nrayit is usedthat determinesits value.GeneralDar. .adle. vet.nor . to realizerr-hat tn ' "" J ''.oted to both a psvchic and socral study of communication.

not in illusion. The movie.In America lawsderivein a sense all from .1962.sound wavesbecomevisible on the wings of the p1ane. it was *re 'tontent. nolhing. by giving the inside and outside. cubism sets up an interplay of planes and contradiction or dramatic conflict ofpatterns.He replied: Onewouidhaveto havean unusual degree of philosophical to believe folJy oneself ro iudge able England slt months. Cubism.. especiallythe semaphoretelegraph that gavehim a great advantageover his enemies. it was not obyious that the me&um is the message. Nothing follows from following.'oography." When electricspeedfurther takes over from mechanical movie sequences. the chickenor the egg. He was askedwhy he did not write a book on England. then the lines of force in structures and in media becomeloud and clear. by Gombrich (Art and lllusion)as "the most ra&cal attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture-that of a man-madeconstruction. With instant the causesof tlings began to emergeto awareness speed again. the top. It is the transition that producedthe now quite correctobservation: ''lf it works. In fact. textures that "drives home the message by involvement. knew when tl-rat grammar did not apply.carried us from the world of sequence and connections into the world of creatrveconfiguration and structure. Just beforean airplanebreaksthe sound barrier. The messageof the movie medium is that of transition from lineal connections to configurations." aspeopleusedto ask what a paintin gwas about. This is held by many ro be an exercise painting. Instead of working wrth specialized ''problems'inanthmetic. H. and in communication? Specializedsegmentsof attention have shifted to tota-lfield. The message.Yet they never thought to ask what a melody was about.We return to the inclusive form of the icon. "He understood the grammar of gunpowder. Mechanization was never so vividly fragmented or sequential asin the birth of the movies.as Dar. and it has beendescribed E.64 13"Twoby M c Luhan Yet.instead of asking which came first.ille because had he learned the grammar of print. except change.since he knew and admired England.peopleretainedsomesense the of whole pattern. one is in the world of the structure and of configuration? Is that not what has happened physics in painting.as they had not done with things in sequence and in concatenationaccordingly. lights. suddenlyannouncedthatthe medium the message.lNer^. back." Alexrs de Tocquevillewas the first to master the grammar of print and tr.drops the illusion of perspective favor of in instant sensoryal.there is no principleof causalityin a That one thing follows another accountsfor mere sequence. in two &mensions. But in the electric agethis integral idea of structure and confrguration has becomeso prevalent that educational theory has taken up the matter. To a highly Literateand mechanizedculture the moyie appearedas a world of triumphant illusions and dreams that money could buy."The medium is the message quite naturally. The sudden visibility of sound just as sound endsis an apt instanceof that great pattern of being that revealsnew and opposite forms just as the earlierforms reachtheir peakperformance. the nineteenth century in Franceand in Amenca was just suchan open book to de Tocquer. Instead of the specializedillusion of the third &mension on canvas. :t is mucheasier atquire and ro clear and precise notionsaboutthe Amerlcan Unionthan about GreatBritain. nor what a houseor a dresswas about. a1so.a coloredcanvas. So he. For cubism substitutes all facets of an object slmultaneously for the "point of rriew" or facet of perspectiveillusion. Before the electric speedand total field. seizing of by on instant total awareness. cubism.He rs on record for saying that "Three hostrle newspapersare more to be fearedthan a thousandbayonets. was thus able to read off the He message comrng changein Franceand America as if he of were reading aloud from a text that had been handed to him. the structuralapproachnow follows the linea of force in the field of number and has small childrenme&tating about number theory and "sets. of form and function as a unity.man said of Napoleon. the eighteenthcentury.So the greatest of aii reversalsoccurred with electricity." Cardina.rdHume showedin fragmentedparts in a series. It was at this moment of the movie that cubismoccurred.it suddeniyseemed that a chjckenwas an eggs ideafor getting more eggs.the moment that translatedus beyond mechanism into the world of growth and organrc interrela[ion. sheerspeeding the bv up mechanical. in as poerry.In suchmatters. that by endedsequence making things instant.vareness the whole. yearalways in A seemed metoo to short a time in which to appreciate UnitedStates the properly. seemed." Napoleonhad paid someattention to other me&a as well. and we can now say.ls not errLdent is it that the moment that sequence yieldsto the simultaneous. in In other words. bottom.its obsolete. and front and the rest.

is to sayr that soundsdid not echonor thought Everything seemedcut off at its root and therefore der-elop. however.as in the first bars of a melod1.has for the West long meant "uniform and continuous and sequential. the \Vritten Word.d the grammarof h. and and betweenr."of rationa.r.r backedby the medieval institution of Parliament. can moderatethe stops of fierceness this conflict b1. ' r . That is rrhl he aloneunder*to. namel. earlier work on the French Revolution. Submerging natrrres with floods of conceptsfor r.But r.l it i< nnh ht travelling down eachoneof them that onecanbuild up a picture then'hole.' " from any structure or medium.One exampleis the Bedouinlr. that its principles and Linesof For forcecan be discerned.. it is eiectric speedthat has revealedthe lines of force technologyin the remotestareasof operatingfrom \.rl ' b' .]n Forster'snovel tie moment of truth and dislocation from the tlpographic trance of the 1A/est comesm tle Marabar Caves. Forsteris a dramaticstudy of the to inability of orai and intuitir.scribble.as properly classifiedas barbarian by Matthew Arnold becauseits polr'er and status had nothing to do lt'ith Lteracv or with the cuitural forms of tlpographyr Said the Duke of Gloucester EdwardGibbon upon the publicationof his to Decline Fall 'Anotler damned fat book. in had explainedhow it was tJreprinted word that.Ardrr . t]-ratno uniformity or continuity of the new '.The Revolution was carried out by the new-literati and ]arwers. savs. Psychiarly. everr.e held that the American Presidency becomever). apart from monarchy AnC manl'har. rtho sarn to AmericaheadedEastward)is a parableof \{estern man in the electric age.r.isualprint cu-lturecould take completehold The resu-ltllrasthat the most important event in English historl' has nevertaken place. 1953). Twoby Mcluhan th*N EWMEDIAR[P" $Eg t h e s a m el i n eo f th o u g h t.rng culturalsaturationin the eighteenthcentury'.rryitten oral kinds of perceptron is organizationof existence upon us.One could compareAmerica to a forest piercedby a multitude of straight roadsall converging on the same point.much more personaland monarhas chicalthan any Europeanmonarch ever couldbe. r dir . .r^<< r. suchwas the power of the ancient oral traditions of common 1ar.so lo speak.Mr.'ars Detribaiization by literacy and its traumatic effects on tribal man is the theme of a book by the ps1'c[i21yi51g."Rational. Gibbon? and Scribble.Much of his material appearedin an article in Psychiatrymagazine. arencrrnore l\le thp nei h< rrrn rri<c-."]n other words.understandingthe media that wrthin and r. l\4r.l. The tlpographic principles of uniformiq'.. M.ith bush.ithoutus. : l.laction of all of our technology. In England. 1959: The Culture. extend us and raise these r. achier.r'hichnothing has prepared them is the norma. 3. hrs battery ra&o on board the camel. Adela Questedsreasoningpowers cannot copewith the total inclusive field of resonancethat is India. any medium has the power of imposing its own assumption on the unl^/ary Prediction and control consist in avoiding this subliminal state of Narcissus trance. The grammar of print cannot help to construethe message oral and of nonwrltten cultureand instrtutions. continuitl. infected with i-llusion. we have confusedreasonn itlr literacy.'thingsprings from a simpleprinciple.November. But the greatest aid to this end is slmpl. One has only to find the renter and eveDthing is retealedat a glance But in Fnole. and Linealir.vin knorn'ing that the spellcan occurimmediatelyupon contact. and Again. A Passage Indiaby E. of De Tocqueville.Vestern man himself experiences electricmed. ..v had overlaid the complexitiesof ancient feudal and oral society.and rationalism n'ith a single technology.isual Europeanpatterns of erperience.as r C .13.savannah. The ultimate conflict betweensight and sound.T h e wh o le o f so cie tl.eh. n orra oh r. basedon the fact of qpographv and of print culture creatinguniformity and continuit)'. . The American Revolutionhad no medievallegalinstitutions to discardor to root out.TheAflican lt4indin Heakh and Disease Health Organization.as Nietzscheobserved. he has rejectedthis principle and clung to the d1'namicor oral commonlaw tradjtion.howas quite ableto be detached from the valuesand assumptionsof tlpographr'..is founded upon a single fact.Vestern and desert. had no After the Caves: but consequences. Hence t}re &scontinuity and unpre&ctable guality of English culture.scribble.rrth \. Gibbon?" De Tocquel'ille was a highly literatearistocrattr.v the sameinundationasthe remotenatiye. eh.Thus in the electric ageman seemsto the conventional\A/estto become irrationa. EnghshRevolutionon the the lines of the FrenchRevolution." A Passage lndia (the phrase is from \{hitman.Geneva.The Englisharistocracy \^. Sinceunderstanding rve action.ia exactl.and is onlv incidentally related to Europe or the Orient. had homogenized Frenchnation. ' n] r ' on lho. De TocquevrJle's contrastbetween Englandand Americars clearly. course.'eoriental culture to meet with the r..England. Frenchmen the were tle same kind of peoplefrom north to south.v.l. "Life went on as usua-l. r b'"r'" . e r e: . (World Carothers.

there is no uniform correspon&ng tendency. alter sense of but ratios or patterns of perception stea&ly and urithout any resistance. L.Q' weremuchhigher than usualamong political bosses.namelv that it is how they are usedthat counts.v 1962. and the coloredperson appearin a world of rrisualand typographictechnologvas victims of injustice.On the other hand. Why were they such a djsaster?"The view of Rowse. the cripple. "How terrible it must be to feeiLikethat. The threat of Stahnor Hitler was external. The effect of the m e d i u mi s m a d es t r o n ! a n d i n t e n s eu 5 rb e c a u s ie is g i ve n i t "content.the nonliterate with semfiterate and the postliterate. If the criminal appearsas a nonconformlst who is unable to meet the demand of technologythat we behavein uniform and continuous patterns. and social Lifeis totally threatened by the electrictechnology. It is in our I. Especiallythe child. reviewing a book of A. and mute about its encounterwith the Gutenberg technology. we are losing all confidencein our right to assignguilt. C. the readeris almost entirely unaware but e i t h e ro Fp r i n t o r o f s p e e c h .Consider the phrase"lt's a mans world." (Somervell. describesthe top ievel of British brains . Syngetook up this idea very J. The effects of technology do not occurat the 1evel opinlons or concepts. Unaware of our typographic cultura-l bias.64 1. December 24.1961")onAppeasement and the road to Munich. thus eliminating the ear man and the tactile man.I am in the position of Louis Pasteur telling doctors that their greatestenemywas quite invisible. however.a: repeatableniche that is not their size anyway.3.such as the Workers Educational Associationin Brttain. Rowse (Theltlew York Times BookReview. Beinganti-Redmade it impossible them to read the for message Hitler." they say. I. concerned is precisely with accelerated media changeas a kind of massacreof the innocents. pay I no attention to ads.The Childermass. The electric technology is within the gates.is the numb stanceof the technological idiot.is a usefi. The serlous artist is the onlv oerson able to i v . to government. effectively ilrhis Playboyof the WesternWorld. For the "content'' a of me&um is like the juicy pieceof meat carriedbv the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind. 'Their l.this nhr."The spiritual and cultural reservations that the oriental peoplesmay have toward our technology will avail them not at all. They are not expected fit into some uniform and to in anCexperience the I930s.Snow approves:"They would not listen to warningsbecause they &d not wish to hear.Toynbee considersthat altiough al-lof the oriental socleties havein our time accepted industrial the "On technologyand its poLitical consequences: the cultural plane.on and through which the American way of life was formed.Q testing that we haveproducedthe greatestflood of misbegotten standards. industry. NI. But their failure was as nothing compared of to our presentone. funold Toynbeeis innocent of anv understandingof mediaas they haveshaped history but he is frr1J examples of that the student of media can use. The killer is regardedas we do a cancerrrictim. deaf blind.romwithin a homogenizedculture.The American stakein literacyas a technology or uniformity appLied every level of education." another medium as The content of a movie is a novel or a play or an opera. and quite unrecognized them. floundering in a milieu of ads. the woman. Twoby M c Luhan preparedto encounterradio and TV in our literatemilieu than the native of Ghana is able to cope with the literacy that takes him out of his collectivetribal world and beaches him in individual isolation.rl counterforce to the popular press.and we are numb."Personally. Electricspeedminglesthe culturesof prehistorywith the dregs of industrial marketeers.literate man is quite inclined to seeothers who cannot conform as somewhat pathetic.The "content"of writing or print is speech. P Snow. In our own world as we become more aware of the effects of technology on psychic formation and manifestation. We are as numb in our nerv electric world as the native lnvolved in our literate and mechanica-l culture. Our conventionalresponse all by to media.however." As a quantitative observatron endlessly repeatedf.no tlme to suggest strategies when the threat has not evenbeenacknowledged to exist. rn a culture that assigns rolesinsteadofjobs to people-the dwarl the skew the child createtheir own spaces. 267) This is 1&ethe voiceof the literateman.The effect of the movie form rs not relatedto its program content.At one moment he can seriously suggestthat adult education. Mental breakdown of varytngdegreesis the very common resuJtof uprooting and inundation with new information and endlessnew patterns of information. Ancient prehistoric societiesregard violent crime as patletic.The first of these. It is. Wlrrdham Lewis made this a theme of his group of novels calledThe HumanAge.who boasts.se refersto the men in such a cu]turewho have to be homogenizedDagwoodsin order to belong at all.our testersassumethat uniform and continuoushabits are a sign of intelligence.

it not been felt.'r' modernso.. rhe strengthof the re. Just to be in the presence those soundsat 7 Rtt'.This changedoesnot depend extension our sense upon approval or disapprovalof those iir.ial ur ^. Twoby McLuhan theNEW M EDIAKiAPER he encountertechnologywrth impunitl'.ier.to discover in the effectsof the nrinted book in the lir.o n c e r n e dh a t t h e r eb e r e r i o u s X ' r study ofthe media today On Februarl'17 1950 he said: Ir iq nnr rn pr:ooplrtinn to <:v thrr thp ftrr'rre of stehi ri "' i t.1 n 6 . a man is not free if he cannot see r.valls for their human users.of communicationand tbe capacitvof the in&iidual.r.r'n culture.-'-..l to all * b _ '_ * . just because ts an in expertawareof the changes sense perception...o.he couldhave r ' .13.."r. P n n eP i r r < l l w : c d e e n l rr.ense.i etvand the "'_"_"/ tvof '_" """' l i fe oenend '/ * ' of rn l argepart on i he mai ntenance an equi l i brirm beruee. The operationof the money me&um in seventeenthcentury Japan had effects not unLikethe operation of typography in the \A/estThe penetration of the money (in Presr.'. Cressel economy.r:efi.areness that of the Psalmist. or a historical period in rn".esof children or adults.' "r . or that we becomerthat r.J .rnthout r.-t'hereas that conducesto nourishment is reLishable.. r o l u C t r .r.l t :r :ie d individualism and nationalism in the sixteenth centur\r offer no cluesto the magicof Programand "content"analysis these me&a or to their subliminal charge.ing in the sociefir funold Toynbeemade one approach to the transforming rvhich he power of media in his conceptof 'etherialization. tl.'nner ' .hich rnras Professorl\rilbur Schramm made such a tactical mot'e in He studf ing Television the Livesof Our Children.". r.Sansom Japan. Had his methods he beenemnlorred 1500 e n. atis 'nlainlut he ' .r'e behold. r ' .' m t\? o .A Discoursecannot be are nleasanrlo the Hearer thar is not easiero rbe Soeak. because yictua. r..albeitunconsciouslv Consequentlv had nothing to report.rvote B. The resul t i s that the D resentaqe has been " r''""'-b' one of multinle riril rry.. a London. In the seventeenthcentury our ancestorsstill shared this native'sattitude to the forms of media. C.. f.ar C.as day rn. even if he has a gun to help him get there.picalh'.Srnce he had made no study of the peculiarnature of the T\r time..as ours to melody-the resonantintonation rtas meaning enough. Today n'hen \{'e h'ant to get our bearings in our or. ' " noinr result of the typographicspell.his tests l^rereof "content" preferences. is ignoring the effectof the challengeof these forms upon the recnonce orir.( .rl hisronversat thaL i: to ion (wavoflife) is asreeable him . as is plain in the following sentiment of the Frenchman Bernard Lam ] in explessed TheArt of Speaking. He acquiresthe i-llusionof the third &mension and the "privatepornt of uen' ' as part of his Narcissusfi-ration. ' r^-.hni que.' holds to be the principle of progressivesirnplification and he efficiency in any organization or technology. rrhateier .In I4tarand H uman Progress. As A. r''*"*-.ing image." it the life reorganized sense ofpeoplesjust because is an of lives. His attitude to speechr.L [3pq.rsit a society r. "caused slow but irresistiblerevolution. of like important for him. 1931) culminating in the breakdon n of feudal government and the u-ith foreign countriesafter more resumption of intercourse Monev has than two hundred vearsof seclusion. ... Sublimlnal and docile acceptance of media impact has made them prisons i. other thrngs that cannot be assimulatedand be turned ' _ ^ ' -' -' -' _ -b " into our substance insipid.London 690): 'Tls an effectof the Wisdomof God. For each of the media is also a porn'erfu1 \^reapon'"vith n'hich to clobber other media pi ''rand other b ouos.L- . and have need to stand asidefrom the bias and form ofhuman expression pressure exerted anv technical bl that particular form has we have only to r. Failure in this respect has for centuries been tlpical and total for mankind.For the man in a literateand homogenized socletyceases be sensitiveto the diverseand to discontinuous life of forms. nor can it be easilvnronouncedunlessrt be heard u'ith delight H erc i s an enrri l i hri urn theorr of human di et and "a*-"'*"-' suchas evennow lve are only striving to work expression out againfor media after centuriesof fragmentation and specialism.r ] r i r C I r.rs that are not lirnited to tl-ie r'r'orld of al t an d entertai nment . and is quite shut off fuom Blakes a1^.. his approach to the so problemwasa Literary one..'.*.s orn'n reactron. ln a rt'ord. in LeonardDoob. s r. J Liebling remarked in his book The Press.tdTs of one African who took great pains to hsten eachevening to the BBCnews.T1.". He imapines of of that ir is the resnonse ''''_ b " '" " " '" I our opinions that is relerrantto the effect of me&a and t echro lno ' in cnrie tr': v "' ' " nf r ieu t h.eventhough he could understandnothrng of each it.r.rvhocreated Man to behaoor.o.. and vocabularrrcounts.here unknorn'n. ^f rr r L 1.g< in hum ar ..L :.C' d n h ' .r'herehe is going.in his report Communication Af ica. l ofessor P J LI Nef declaled: :l .t. found areas in where TV had not penetratedat all and ran sometests.' ".

Background" TheM odern ge (The in A and IntettectuaI 8. of That our human senses. may be perceived in another connection mentioned by the psychologist C. or lumber. or grain. like ra&o and TV become"fixed charges"on the entire psychiclife of the community. Stresson a few major staplescreatesextreme instability in the economy but great endurancein the popuJation.36. . 47. infl uence (Contributionsto Analytical Psychology. In SeLected fssays. 67-85. 7.It pays through the nose and a. Jung: Every Roman was surrounded by slaves. are a-lso also configure the awarenessand experienceof eachone of us. 145.llits other sensesfor eachstaple that shapesits life.. Peti can Gui deto E ngl i shLi terature). Modern Pai nters. be mentloned here. "Joyce. . 1954. p." ew anee 5. and every Roman his psychologyr becameinwardly. Cultureand Society. Citicol Essays the and Picturesque pp. vol 4.and of courseunwitLingly. The Ga Laxy Re nfi gured -Notes co L. 6. WiLLiams. C.v 7962.The slaveand flooded ancient Italy. 96.l of mistakes. Review.No one can shield himself from such an London. Becauseliving constantly in the atmosphere of slaves. If the formative power in the media are the me&a that raisesa host of large matters that can only themselves. p.he with rheir becameinfectedthrough fhe unconscious psychology. p. or cattle is going to have some obrrioussocial patterns of organization as a resu]t.1780-1850. although they deservevolumes. And this pervasivefact createsthe unique cultural flavor of any society. "Tenny s on theme'i s devel oped mysel fapropos by 3. Cited by Raymond 38. and that they fixed chargeson our personal energies. III. on ed. Twoby Mcl-uhan the of The totalr'vars our time have of been resu-lt a . pp. M. III. John R uski n.38-55. or fish. a society configured by reliance on a few commo&ties accepts them as a socialbond quite as much as the metropolis does the press. 2.a slave.Mal l arm6 S and the Pres s . "The S ocj aL p. series intellectua. 11. l vl cl uhan.Cotton and oil.74. Thi s N ew toni an Poetry"in John KiLtham. Anybody will concede that society whose economy is dependent upon one or two major stapleslike cotton. . Poetryof Tennyson.64 13. The pathos and humor of the AmericanSouth are For in embedded suchan economyof limited staples. 7928)..S ee H . Jerusalem. Ibi d. which all me&a are extensions. exacdy as are coal and cotton and oil. Namely. that technological media are staplesor natura-lresources.. winter.

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