Chapter 23 AD TESTING

Allan L. Baldinger, Solomon & Associates William A. Cook, Advertising Research Foundation

Historical Context
Growing in Use and in Controversy
Advertising research grew dramatically as the budgets for advertising with the birth of television advertising, but declined as a share of research spending in the 1980’s as scanner data turned the attention of marketers to the short-term gains driven by trade promotions. Whether high times or low, Ad Testing has been frequently embroiled in controversy. David Ogilvy and Leo Burnett were great ad men and great advocates of advertising testing. In 1994, David Ogilvy puzzled, “Most creative people today detest research, and I’ve never understood why…. In my day, I used research very often to give me the courage to run campaigns that were risky. My famous eye-patch ads for Hathaway shirts, for example, would not have been created had I not been studying a chart that I saw in Harold Rudolph’s Attention and Interest Factors in Advertising.” Today many creatives would still differ with Ogilvy and take the position of Kevin Roberts, CEO, Saatchi & Saatchi Worldwide, who counters, “…two of the biggest mistakes we make in advertising research involve copy testing and the timing of the research. Despite what our creatives will tell you, not all research kills creativity, but quantitative copy testing certainly does. It does so by attempting to quantify the unquantifiable. Roberts urges creatives to avoid the


“overuse of research as a form of judgment on creative work, and its under use as a source of insight into the mind and mood of the consumer.” The creatives’ hostility towards advertising testing grew particularly heated in the late 1970’s when marketers pushed for simplification and a single-measure on which to make copyselection decisions. The “one-number-fits-all” mentality was a sharp stick in the eye of creatives seeking to tailor their ads to particular groups of consumers and competitive situations. Charles Young (2004) has observed that “there are four general themes woven into the last half-century of copytesting. The first is the quest for a valid single-number statistic to capture the overall performance of the advertising creative. These are the various “report card” measures used to filter commercial executions and help management make the go/no go decision about which ads to air. The second theme is the development of diagnostic copytesting, whose main purpose is optimization, providing insights about and understanding of a commercial’s performance on the report card measures with the hope of identifying creative opportunities to save and improve executions. The third theme is the development of non-verbal measures in response to the belief of many advertising professionals that much of a commercial’s effects — e.g., the emotional impact —may be difficult for respondents to put into words or scale on verbal rating statements and may, in fact, be operating below the level of consciousness. The fourth theme, which is a variation on the previous two, is the development of moment-by-moment measures to describe the internal dynamic structure of the viewer’s experience of the commercial, as a diagnostic counterpoint to the various gestalt measures of commercial performance or predicted impact. The Ad Testing being conducted today has evolved and grown substantially since World War II. There is a direct correlation between advertising expense and the expenditures on Ad


Testing. Since the bulk of advertising expense is now devoted to Television, Ad Testing research in the U.S. is predominantly conducted on Television ads.

Growth of the Media
Advertising Testing followed the development of the Media. As Media spending changed over time, so did the research associated with it. Prior to World War II, the predominant Media in the U.S., was Newspapers, Magazines (or Print), and Radio. But, when Television exploded on the scene in the 50’s, advertising research and testing exploded along with it. Table 23.1 lists some publicly-available figures on the relative importance of the various media, in the U.S., for the first half of 2004. The total spending was almost $68 billion, which would mean that, on an annual basis, Ad spending in the U.S. is roughly $140 billion. Table 23.1 Media Spending Media Television Newspapers Magazines $ Spending ($ bill.) $29.6 $14.4 $13.2 % of Total 44% 21% 20%

Radio Internet Outdoor/billboards TOTALS

$5.3 $3.7 $1.4 $67.6

8% 5% 2% 100%

(Source: TNS Media Intelligence/CMR)


The fastest-growing of these media is Internet advertising, which grew at a + 26% rate vs. the first half of 2003. Still, advertising on the Internet represents only 5% of total ad spending. There are no publicly available figures on how the Ad Testing business itself splits by media. However, it is likely that the proportions differ somewhat from the spending figures shown here. For example, most Newspaper advertising is really retailer-based sales or promotion-related ads. These are rarely tested with consumers by the advertisers who buy them, since they are merely intended to spur a short-term sales boost, not to communicate an enduring or persuasive sales message. Many newspaper ads are sponsored by small local companies, which lack the financial resources to conduct sophisticated Ad Testing. Additionally, many ad campaigns start out as TV campaigns, where the bulk of campaign money is spent, then are spun off into other media as Magazines or Radio ads using the same themes and content as were used in the TV campaign. Consequently, many advertisers test only the TV campaign for its likely effectiveness, and trust that its effectiveness will be easily translatable into other media. This assumption of equivalent effectiveness in other media as in TV has been found wrong in numerous instances. Still, many campaigns are specifically oriented towards, and tested within, the nontelevision media outlets, such as Radio, Print or the Internet, as will be discussed below.

Evolving Research Philosophy
Although a change appears underway today, Ad Testing remains dominated by a model called the AIDA model, originally published as an explanation of how personal selling works by St. Elmo Lewis, in 1898. The AIDA model stands for:



affection and conation. The task of advertising begins with developing “attention”. It is a linear theory.” While the outlines of the AIDA hierarchy are widely visible in most approaches to ad testing today. through the communication of a relevant sales message. The second stage is to generate “interest”. feeling and doing. advertising has its goal at least a shift in “Desire. Smokey the Bear motivated consumers to “prevent forest fires” by being careful with matches in National Parks. The third stage is to create “desire”. the hierarchy has grown in layers. The actual sale takes place once the retail salesman takes over.I D A Interest Desire Action The AIDA model is part of the Hierarchy of Effects theory. or awareness of the brand being advertised. in virtually all cases. meaning that it presumes that consumers must go through a rational and sequential series of steps. the goal is to create sufficient interest to motivate consumers to visit a showroom. It should be noted that sales is not always the ultimate goal of advertising. usually the actual purchase of the brand being advertised. Similarly. Michael Ray (1974) noted that there are three types of behavior exhibited in consumer behavior: cognition. or thinking. For example. And the fourth stage is “action”. which holds that the basic and ultimate objective of all advertising is Sales. while anti-smoking campaigns are intended to reduce the sale of cigarettes. not increase them). Batra and Ray (1986) found that in different 5 . Public Service Advertising often has as its goal a simple shift in consumer attitudes (for example. in automotive advertising. the ability to persuade the consumer that the communication is convincing enough that she is actually motivated to buy the brand. As early as 1974. However. and following a test drive. variations and complexity.

Gerald Zaltman (2003) went so far as to declare that senior managers need to change the way they think about how their customers think: “The most troubling consequence of the existing paradigm has been the artificial disconnection of mind. thinking and doing. “Since the first impressions of advertising may often be more emotional than rational. brain and society… Only by reconnecting the splintered pieces of their thinking about consumers can companies truly grasp and meet consumers’ needs more effectively—and thus survive in today’s competitive and rapidly shifting business environment. body. The great volume of brain research over the last decade has pushed the interest in emotion and affective response to the front stage.situations. One of the participants is John Hallward from Ipsos-ASI. a long-time provider and avid defender of recall testing.” Eight Ad Testing companies are participating along with Zaltman and leading advertisers and agencies in an ARF-AAAA consortium study of the emotional response to advertising. we need to explore beyond the rational to better understand consumers’ emotions towards and impressions of the product or the message. As the constructs of consumer attitudes and emotions were added. the models have become more than frameworks for teaching about advertising and have gained increasing relevance to measurement of advertising. and therefore influence. 6 . the order of occurrence of those behaviors varied – that feelings could precede. Models Models of How Advertising Works The AIDA model described above has been integrated into numerous models in current use today. They are broadly referred to as Hierarchy of Effects models. Hallward (2005) observes.

and can do very well on measures of attentiveness. On the other hand. an ad which is categorized as a drama is a mini-play. ads could be transformational. the creative challenge in these ads is often to ensure that relevant brand benefits are also properly communicated. intellectual stimulation and social approval. it tied together the two constructs. for example. rather than simply being informational. but less well on attentiveness. They added brand awareness in their model and they replaced the Thinking/Feeling distinction with the type of motivation involved in the ad – either informational or transformational. the FCB Grid. For transformational motives they included sensory gratification. Richard Vaughn (1980) developed an attitudinal model. Rossiter and Percy (Rossiter.Bill Wells (1989) observed that ad forms could be described as “lectures” or “dramas” or combinations of the two. 1984). Wells also introduced an important distinction between the motivational routes of the advertising. However. Most demonstrations of a brand’s specific functional benefits are lectures. enhancing the product consumption experience or the esteem one feels when wearing or using the brand (Puto & Wells. An ad of this type can be highly entertaining. A lecture is an ad in which an announcer speaks directly to the viewer through the TV screen. Percy. These ads tend to do well on persuasion. into a simple 2X2 grid. High Involvement/ Low Involvement and Thinking/Feeling. Media Models 7 . & Donavan. Products such as insurance and televisions were place in the thinking/high-involvement quadrant. For the ad agency Foote Cone Belding. 1991) expanded on the FCB grid. while salty snacks and greeting cards went into the feeling/low-involvement quadrant.

TV and radio tuning studies. Measurement techniques include radio and TVpeople ratings. magazine-readership studies. Vehicle Distribution. Both models also include Sales Response as the ultimate and final purpose of advertising. The purpose of the 2002 update was to reflect the changes in the media environment which had occurred between 1961 and 2002. described below.theARF. 2. as key initial stages. while the last 5 describe consumers’ reactions to the media. billboard traffic counts. the first 3 are descriptions of the media and its distribution. This is a count of the people exposed to the media vehicle whose eyes or ears are open. Both models include. 8 .In 2002. Here are the definitions of each of the 8 stages. and the increased emphasis on Sales. Vehicle Exposure and Advertising Exposure. the Advertising Research Foundation published a monograph entitled “Making Better Media Decisions” updating the 1961 version.” These papers described the various stages in which media is communicated and measured. and adds Advertising Persuasion and Advertising 1. etc. Measurement techniques include newspaper and magazine circulation studies. This is a count of physical units through which advertising is distributed. Vehicle Exposure. It too is a pure media effect. online media page-view counts. However. billboard locations.“Toward Better Media Comparisons. the updated model changes Advertising Perception to Advertising Attentiveness. such as the introduction of the Internet as a new media vehicle. It is a pure media effect. Vehicle Distribution. In the 2003 model. taken directly from the 2002 monograph (available from the ARF at www. online-media page requests.

This is the degree to which those exposed to the advertising are focused on it. billboard-traffic counts. print ad page-exposure studies. Measurement techniques include advertising and brand awareness tracking. 6. etc. post-click-through interaction. It is the highest level of measurement that is still a mostly pure media effect. etc. Sales Response. This is a measure of the shift in intentions produced by Advertising Communication. coupon redemption. such responses can be measured directly. Here we are interested in the medium’s ability to frame the message in ways that make it more credible. copy testing/recall. Advertising Response. It is the first measurement level at which the effects of the medium are significantly confounded with the effects of the creative. and hence more persuasive. This is a count of the people exposed to the media vehicle who are also exposed to its advertising. telephone and mail response. 5. advertising recall studies. but the least 9 . Advertising Communication.3. This is a measure of the information retained by the consumer after exposure to the message. 4. recall or campaign tracking studies. This refers to measures of consumer response short of sales. Of all the measures listed. clicking on an online ad. it is the most relevant to the advertiser. willingness to consider. 7. calling a toll-free number. etc. more relevant. This is purchase of the advertised product or service in response to the advertising. lead generation. In direct mail and interactive media. requesting a brochure. etc. Advertising Persuasion. Advertising Attentiveness. etc. Measurements include dedicated attentiveness studies. Advertising Exposure. intent to purchase. Measurement techniques include radio and TV commercial-audience ratings. Examples include visiting a showroom. etc. brainwave research. online ad-view counts. 8. Measurement techniques include click-through. Measurement techniques include advertising tracking. copy testing.

g. and research companies a useful framework to address the research complexities and issues involved in the measurement of advertising effectiveness.2 Types of Research 2002 ARF Media Model 1. Stages 4 through 6 are the areas where Copy Testing techniques are applied.dependent on advertising and media effects. Measurement techniques include sales tracking. Table 23. Advertising Exposure 4. Table 23. e. Vehicle Exposure 3. the media. ad agencies. The ARF Media Model provides advertisers. test markets. Return on Investment (ROI) and Consumer Lifetime Value (CLV) – an estimate of the future profitability of a newly-acquired customer. The industry has long desired the availability of techniques that provide a “single source” method of advertising measurement. Advertising Attentiveness Research Type Media Research Media Research Media Research Ad/ Copy Testing 10 .. a single system that links media or advertising exposure to sales response. and marketing mix modeling. while stages 7 and 8 are those for which Ad Tracking and In-Market Sales Tracking methods are used. Vehicle Distribution 2. single-source panel research. useful measures include profits. Stages 1 through 3 are addressed by media research measures of media delivery and audience exposure. In addition to sales.2 provides the types of research most relevant to the individual stages.

PR. Sales Response Ad/ Copy Testing Ad/ Copy Testing Ad/ Copy Testing/ In-Market Tracking In-Market Tracking Advertising Effects Models In the context of marketing research. Advertising Persuasion 7. measuring the effectiveness of a particular advertising campaign is not a simple task. to highly technical and sophisticated models employing advanced statistical techniques. and from company to company. sometimes the same research company will employ different modeling approaches depending on whether a given 11 . In order to deal with this complexity.5. Sometimes the same research project or study will provide useful measures of several stages of the ARF Media Model. many of the research companies involved in the measurement of advertising have developed their own models of advertising effectiveness. teasing out the actual ROI of an advertising campaign or expense can be very difficult. However. Indeed. as well as event sponsorships. Advertising Communication 6. Advertising Response 8. a “model” typically refers to an analytic approach to a given dataset. approach and scope. designed for the purpose of adding value to the data. Since a given brand may be spending money on multiple media outlets and advertising campaigns simultaneously. They range from purely descriptive models. Models vary widely in complexity. such as the ARF Media Models just described. These can vary considerably in their complexity. trade and customer promotion.

Research can contribute to advertising at several points of development: • • • • Copy Development stage Rough Commercial stage Final Production stage. However. There is considerable published literature covering the validation efforts by various research companies. sales trends. 1992. as a proprietary asset of the company.. Often. However. prior to air After Airing The Copy Development stage is the initial stage in the development of new advertising of a product or service. Ad Agencies talk about this stage as a Copy Exploratory. A very common research method used at this stage is focus groups. it is estimated that well less than half of the ads in the media each day have been developed through a rigorous process of research. Adams & Blair. the technical details of the various models often remain within the research company. Small 12 . or other forms of qualitative research. 1995).research project is a copy pre-test. These technologies are frequently a key to the company’s differentiation in the crowded Ad Testing marketplace. a survey-based ad tracking project. Lukeman..g. The Stages of Advertising Research Developmental Research and the Qualitative Role Research is performed at the various stages of the advertising process. much of which discusses the general modeling approaches used (e. or an in-market evaluation of long-term spending vs.

The execution is the advertising agency’s creative interpretation of how to most-effectively translate the selected strategy into an actual advertisement. That is because group sessions. based on group sessions alone.” In a typical developmental qualitative project.groups of targeted consumers are recruited. The main purpose of copy development/ exploratory research is to help identify the optimal advertising strategy to employ in the new advertising. relative to (COMPETITIVE FRAME). and are brought into central location facilities. This is the stage at which the client’s ad agency is most-directly involved. and because a variety of possible biases can creep into such sessions. The strategy represents the underlying communication objective of the ad. employ small sample sizes of consumers. A typical Strategy Statement for an ad campaign might look something like this: “The (BRAND) is better at (CLAIM/BENEFIT). In fact.” A completely hypothetical example might be: “Rolaids is better at curing heartburn within 20 minutes. usually by phone. because it contains a new and improved active ingredient. It is usually not advisable to settle in on one final strategy or claim. Insights will be obtained about the relative merits of these benefit statements. because it (SUPPORTING EVIDENCE). relative to Tums. which occurs when the 13 . and/or current brand buyers. It represents a summary of the claim or claims to be communicated about the brand. and potential supporting evidence. by their very nature. product claims. One type of bias of concern to those using focus group research is leadership bias. and/or supporting evidence. and the supporting evidence for that claim. a variety of possible claims. will be shown to possible brand buyers. many copy exploratory research projects are paid for by the ad agency.

to a smaller more-easily-testable number of alternatives. an advertisement may be inexpensively simulated by means of a “rough” version of the advertisement. in which case. the client and ad agency may either test the advertising in “rough” or “finished” form. normative databases become extremely valuable. In these techniques. Many research companies have also created quantitative early stage approaches..”). with the “pre” referring to the testing of advertising prior to actually placing the advertising in the media. Evaluative Pre-Testing Once the copy exploratory developmental phase has been completed. and whether the likely costs of production of the advertising is high or low. using quantitative methods. She knows 14 . This is often called copy pre-testing. rather than their true feelings (e. alternative advertising strategic approaches can be ordered on their predicted effectiveness based on large sample sizes of consumers. In other words. respondents voice opinions based on social norms. “I never buy any brands based on advertising. who are exposed to advertising stimuli in the form of simple statements of claims or as rough print ad style concepts. The Value of Norms Once an advertiser decides which ad-testing measures are likely to be the most predictive of marketplace success for his brands.session’s respondents merely agree with a particular strong or articulate group participant. The general purpose of such qualitative sessions is to reduce the number of possible strategic alternatives.g. Another is social acceptability bias. Depending on whether or not the number of advertising executions is large or small. the marketer will usually move in the direction of testing the advertising.

that some of his ads have been more successful than others in the past. and often believes that ad campaigns must be frequently changed because of "wearout". Photoboards use early or stockbased photos to recreate the intended visuals. the norms which are most predictive are those which are specific at a brand level. gathered consistently over time. Such norms can become key strategic assets for copy-testing companies. Category-specific norms are regarded by client advertisers as being more valuable than the overall normative databases of the company. 2002). and even from brand to brand within the same category. is the best means of separating better ads from weaker ones (Walker. However. But she also knows that advertising success will vary by product category. 15 . norms can also be central to the basic business model of ad testing companies. a database of scores. Because a norms-based system can lead to years of loyal use of a given copy-testing technique by a client. Ad Testing Formats There are a variety of formats of rough advertisements used in testing. but attempt to compromise on the expenditures that would be used to produce the final commercial or commercials. Live-action roughs use live actors and sets. since they are the source of much of their R&D. Some of the morepredominant forms are: • • • Animatics Photoboard/storyboard-based simulations Live action roughs Animatics use cartoons to simulate the visuals of the advertising. and can form the basis for their claims of predictive validity. using the same technique and sample specifications. Therefore.

All of these tests. the intent is to screen a larger number of commercial alternatives down to a smaller number of commercials. Objectives of Pre-Tests The basic purposes of ad pre-tests are three-fold: • • to select the optimal commercial for actual media placement to determine whether or not there are specific components of the ads that need to be altered or improved. (NOTE: This last objective is obviously not relevant in the case of pre-tests being conducted for new products. An unknown question is the proportion of advertising campaigns which are receiving air time/ significant media. ads are often tested after they have already begun to run on air. inasmuch as all such tests are still conducted prior to going on air. but have not been exposed to consumers for test purposes prior to running on air. If this trend were to continue. Post On-Air Ad Tracking 16 . when advertising is quantitatively tested in rough form. and • to determine whether or not the optimal advertisement is likely to perform in a superior manner to advertising that is currently on air.) However. Once this screening test is conducted. because of severe time pressures in today’s ad-testing environment. or are not tested at all. the winning commercial or commercials will typically be produced in final production. which have not as yet received any live advertising exposure. the advertising research industry will receive increasing levels of justifiable criticism for a lack of standards of accountability. qualify as ad pre-tests.Usually. at both stages. and then re-tested.

whether the campaign should consist of one execution alone or multiple versions or poolouts. Projects may be conducted using a variety of data collection methods. and whether the versions of the advertising campaign to be placed in alternate media vehicles should also be tested. Pre tests are individual research projects conducted at a given point in time. and retested. and the campaign is aired. However. Each of these media alternatives require slightly different Ad Testing techniques. Decisions are simultaneously being made by the client with respect to how much money will be spent on the ad campaign. another research project may be undertaken. or mail interviews. or if an ad tracking project has not already been set up to monitor the advertising in the client’s category. In a wave-based project. mall intercept. it might be the intent of a given campaign to be aired with a certain proportion of the budget allocated towards a TV campaign. it is placed in the media. online. A typical ad tracking project is an annual contract. For example. called Post On-Air Ad tracking. and possibly refined. say 60%. how the budget should be spent across time periods. whether the poolouts themselves should also be tested. the project may include both “pre” and “post” interviews. Once these decisions are made. In the case of an ad tracker for a new product. Over the past 20 years or so. Radio Ads. to be discussed below. Ad Tracking projects attempt to measure the effectiveness of the Ad campaign over the course of time. there has been a shift between periodic or wave-based interviews for such projects. such as telephone. but that the other 40% be spent on a mix of Print Ads. calling for interviews to be conducted over the course of a year. how the advertising campaign budget should be allocated across the media alternatives. conducted both before and after the ad begins to run on air. and/or Online banner ads. perhaps 17 . towards continuous interviewing. a set of interviews might be conducted prior to the onset of advertising.Once the final advertising execution has been tested.

and the extent to which it is evenly spread over the months of the campaign. and that the actual peaks or valleys in the campaign’s effectiveness could easily occur during the periods in which the interviews are not being conducted. The seasonality of the category and brand is another factor affecting the research design. perhaps at 3 months following the campaign’s onset. Additional interviews would then be conducted at periodic intervals following the campaign’s onset. again depending on such issues as anticipated media weight and likely competitive activity. or strategies. The design of the project would depend on a variety of factors including the expected media weight. conducted the month prior to the beginning of the ad campaign. and accumulated in the form of moving totals on the key metrics. Continuous ad trackers include an interviewing design that calls for a steady stream of interviews being conducted throughout the 52 weeks of the years. 6 months.consisting of 300 to 800 category users. The typical sample size in an Ad Tracking project might be an annual sample of 1000 to 3000 interviews. such that the peaks and valleys of the campaign’s effectiveness can be matched to the actual points in time of spending. monthly data. or will be front-loaded towards the early months. 9 months. In this way. and 12 months following the campaign’s airing. The potential problems with wave-based ad tracking projects are that it is impossible to predict how or when competitors may be simultaneously changing their media spending. The Key Quantitative Metrics Attention 18 . the data can be shown in the form of weekly. or backloaded towards the end of the year.

1 There are interactions between the media and the message communicated. and to connect the commercial to the brand being advertised. i. such as buyers of the given product category.Because it is transient. Experimental data suggests that ads 19 . many methods of measuring brand recall have been developed.. connect the advertising with the brand.e. (Weinblatt. 1999) Recall of Brands and Sales Points In order for a given advertisement to be effective. need to not only have their televisions tuned to the station airing a given commercial. in the consumer’s mind of the brand being advertised. But if there is no registration. advertisers have been interested in determining the extent to which the consumer is able to accurately recall the brand. When measures of eye movement are combined with specific questions of consumers on the more-traditional measures. And several companies have emerged with varying approaches to this measurement. and the sequence in which an ad’s elements are viewed. an effective and insightful analysis can result. A simpler means is that of passively observing where a consumer’s eyes are directed when she is exposed to advertising by tracking with a video camera and a reflected light beam. Over the years. millions of dollars of the client’s advertising budget can be wasted. The visuals in a commercial may easily register with consumers. The measure of attention involves both how much time is devoted to a particular element of an ad. but they need to see the commercial. Because of this fact. To measure attention by recognition requires a system for selection of the ad content and a means of interpreting the pattern of responses obtained. attention is difficult to measure. consumers in the target audience. Attention can be inferred by asking the consumer to indicate which visual elements from an ad he recognizes after the ad is removed from view. For example. a series of ads all run concurrently on television are called a pod. and can sometimes even entertain consumers.

the questions used to measure brand name registration vary from company to company. such as a mall. One of the central issues with respect to the measurement of recall involves the approaches used by the research companies to simulate the experience in which consumers are actually exposed to advertising in their homes. once she says “yes” to a question about having seen any advertising for a brand in a given product category. and from media to media. Others may show advertising to consumers with the brand name omitted.” 20 . other data suggest that radio commercials may benefit from placements towards the beginning of a pod. Others may provide a list of brands to consumers and ask them to name the advertised brand. and ask for the consumer to name the advertised brand. including a series of test and non-test commercials. And still others may ask consumers to look at downloaded advertising over the Internet. Some companies may expose consumers to a “clutter reel” of commercials. In addition. However. or in a hotel ballroom. some companies use methods of unaided ad “recall”. Some companies may also embed commercials in an actual pilot program. while others prefer methods more-closely related to ad ”recognition. while others may not feel that this level of simulation is necessary.placed towards the end of a pod of commercials may generate higher brand and sales message recall. and ask consumers to identify the brand. Some companies may recruit consumers and then expose them to the test advertising in a central location. Put another way. Some companies may ask the consumer to name the brand advertised. Others may send videotapes to consumers at home. And still others may prepare a paragraph describing the advertising’s visuals.

For example. Message recall is also measured using a variety of questions. The creation of an emotional connection between the consumer and the brand may be the objective. along with brand name recall. of its measurement. there is general agreement that the campaign which does a better job of communicating relevant sales messages is more likely to achieve its sales objectives. other campaigns may have as their objectives the communication of more subtle or purely imagery-related communication. Persuasion Persuasion refers to the ad campaign’s ability to increase the likelihood of the advertising to motivate target consumers to actually purchase the brand being advertised. Sales might be maximized by a more-rational ad campaign for one brand. and when a rational approach is deemed appropriate. It is often regarded as the other most-important measure of advertising effectiveness. The communication of advertising content. however. while a different brand might well be better-served by an emotional campaign. 21 . while many advertising campaigns have as their objectives the communication of specific and rational claims or content. Still. there is general agreement that forging a connection between the advertising and the consumer’s ability to connect the advertising with the brand being advertised is a critical component to effective advertising. there is less industry agreement about the necessity. when 2 campaigns are equivalent to one another on other metrics. or even feasibility.The industry does not have an agreed-upon point of view about which method or methods of measuring brand name recall is superior. or “sales points. containing little if any real product claims or supporting evidence. rather than the communication of specifically-delineated claims. Nevertheless. Here.” is another common area of measurement. and no industry consensus exists with respect to the proper questions to ask.

After ad exposure. vs. they are again asked to 22 . And recall is more likely to be a relevant measure for emotional campaigns. in other words. As a general rule. and considerable controversy. if no one is interested in buying the brand. even when they remember your ad? Some research companies believe that persuasion is a far more important measure of ad effectiveness. for those brands at the earlier stages of the AIDA model. The methods by which Persuasion is measured also cover a fairly wide gamut of alternatives. consumers are asked. while others place more weight on recall-based measures. recall is more likely to be important for new products and smaller brands. They are told that they will then receive a package of that brand in a basket of incentives for their participation. In this method. which originated with the Schwerin technique. An oversimplified summary of the long-standing philosophical debate on the relative merits of recall vs. or what brand was being advertised?. or those brands which are less dependent on the communication of rational sales benefits. prior to their exposure to any advertising. One popular method is the pre/post lottery. Persuasion is perhaps more likely to be a critical measure than recall for larger brands. • What good is recall. to select a brand from a list of alternatives within the product category. and for those brands more dependent on clear and easily communicated rational benefits and claims. persuasion goes something like this: • What good is persuasion if no one can remember your commercial.Although most copy testing research companies measure persuasion in one way or another. this is an area of intensive R&D.

and because the measures are made immediately 23 . Researchers measuring the effects of advertising through physiological measures believe that they are obtaining a more valid measure because the measurement is totally passive – that is it requires no conscious activity of the respondent. since an increase in purchasing for the test brand will be matched by a corresponding decrease in the purchase of another brand. in which consumers are asked to “divide your next 5 purchases” in this category across the brands in the category (NOTE: Another variant is the “next 10 purchase” Constant Sum. The pre to post shift in preferences to ward the advertised brand is the persuasion measure. to “probably will not buy. again administered before and after ad exposure. Other methods include a 5 point purchase Interest question across brands. the use of verbal questioning to study emotional responses introduces task-oriented thought processes. In this case. A third alternative is a pre and post Constant Sum Question. to “might or might not buy”. not both pre and post exposure. the Purchase Interest question ranges from whether the respondent will “definitely buy” the brand. or at a conscious level. or seeking to have things described that may not be accessible. to “probably will buy”.select a brand from the same list. In the case of a new product. Emotional Response Measures As noted in the first section. and that has been criticized by creatives and researchers as interfering with the feelings being measured. Purchase Interest might only be administered following ad exposure.) One advantage of the Constant Sum question is the information it provides about brand switching.” to “definitely will not buy” the brand.

or brain wave patterns fMRI. They then compare the 24 . These measures are often made after the ad exposure.and continuously throughout the course of the ad exposure. feelings. some part of the ad. thus selected. is better or worse than the advertising already being run. in order to optimize its effectiveness. to decide which of multiple advertising executions is superior. prior to airing. and can be inquired with regard to the ad. Some use standardized batteries of diagnostic questions. concurrently with the ad exposure include rotating a dial or moving a computer mouse along a prescribed line to register the magnitude of the selected feeling state under study. Content Analysis and Integration The basic purposes of quantitative advertising tests. are threefold: 1. Physiological measurements which are currently being applied to advertising include: • • • • • GSR or Galvanic Skin Response Heart rate and/or blood pressure changes EEG. Diagnostics. Researchers seeking to avoid verbal interference have employed pictorial scales such as happy and sad faces. prior to its airing In order to address the third objective. to determine whether or not the advertising. to make any necessary improvements in the advertising. or the brand itself. 2.. functional magnetic resonance imaging Facial EMG. research companies employ a variety of methods and measures. etc. and 3. measures of the muscles used in smiling and frowning Non-physiological measures which are used to measure attention.

to be watched by the viewer • • • • • The inclusion of a demonstration of product superiority The inclusion of music Type of music Inclusion of a jingle Presence of children/babies 25 .responses. which can then be turned into specific recommendations on areas in the ad which could be improved. against their own. for a given ad. These comparisons then provide insights into the ad’s strengths and weaknesses. such as: • • The number of brand name mentions The length of time between the beginning of the commercial and the first brand name mention • • • • • • The number of visual package shots of the brand The inclusion of a brand logo or symbol The number of times such a logo or symbol is shown The number of scenes included The number of characters Whether the ad is in the style of a “lecture”. Another approach is to analyze the content of the advertising vis-a-vis its component elements. via voiceover or character. in which the message is communicated directly. in which case the commercial is a mini-vignette. to the viewer. or a “drama”. normative databases of the answers to these diagnostic questions. or even client-specific.

Intent to purchase measures were created to simulate purchase behavior. tone. by their very nature. or scenes. and/or likeability (Baldinger. survey-based copy tests. the literature suggests that there is a systematic relationship between the number of brand name mentions. For example. 1991. and even that the mention of the brand in the first several seconds of the commercial will tend to aid recall. challenge in Ad Testing is the measurement of the sales effects generated by advertising. and then match these photos to either the brand or specific advertising. Consumers can for example. but there is no statistical 26 . persuasion. evidence exists of the connection between the ad’s scores on key measures. When this “interest trace” then turns above or below a steady state line. In this way. Insights can thus be gained about whether or not a specific piece of advertising copy is properly communicating the desired imagery. and the ability of consumers to recall the brand’s name.Based on research company-sponsored R&D. and advertising content. Haley & Baldinger. be asked to react to the commercial while simultaneously moving an electronic dial or down. and simultaneously the most important. including specific actors. 1990). There are many reasons for the fact that this phase of measurement is difficult. insights can be gained on the specific elements of an ad. cannot include a direct measure of actual sales effects. For example. signifying the consumer’s specific positive or negative reactions to the particular scene or components of an ad. Another approach is to use a group of photos of various people of a variety of lifestyles. an analysis of the ad content can aid in diagnosing the ad’s ability to generate high scores on recall. A third area of diagnosis is that of second-by-second measurement of the content of an ad. Sales Effects The most difficult.

Inc. in one of the cable systems in the test market. under ideal conditions. Similarly. there are many intervening factors that cause these percentages to shift upwards or downwards. and actual purchase rates. and the actual sale of the brand. there are many factors. without significant demographic skews in the subscriber base of either cable system. Wisconsin. that intervene between the exposure of the consumer to advertising. when advertising effectiveness is the test’s objective. if they become aware of the brand. beyond advertising alone. A brand will run Campaign A.) In addition. purchase cycles. One system for doing this is the use of in-market split-cables The best-known existing split cable system is Behaviorscan. except the advertising execution itself. which is a service of Information Resources. In this system. But. and competitive activity. Media from multiple outlets complicates measurement. (NOTE: The literature suggests a rule of thumb that roughly 75% to 85% of those who say “definitely will buy” will actually buy the brand. Massachusetts. 27 . promotional activities such as coupons. pricing changes. somewhere between 10% and 40% of those who say that they will “probably buy” the brand will actually buy it. run for 6 months or more. Small markets are part of the Behaviorscan system. and Campaign B through the second cable system These markets were originally chosen based on the fact that the towns had 2 separate and roughly equivalent cable systems. such as Eau Claire. as do product quality changes. and the retailers’ own influences on a brand’s sales. and if the brand is adequately available where consumers shop. or Pittsfield. every attempt is made to eliminate all test variables. A typical test might consist of a 2 market test. Consequently. while most experimental measurements of the sales effects of advertising involve a real-world exposure of advertising. such as category dynamics.evidence of a direct correspondence between “definitely will buy” intentions. it is still not a simple task to identify a definitive ad effect.

since households exposed to both campaigns will shop in a given retail outlet. from 8 to 11 pm. Another system used to measure ad effects is simply to run the advertising campaigns on air.Advertising sales effects are measured predominantly using a diary panels in a Behaviorscan test. dayparts. the number of tests which are evaluated via such systems today represents a small minority of all ad campaigns run on air. and actual media spending is used for each campaign in the test. Interested readers should contact either IRI or the ARF for the published findings of these analyses). Sales are also measured via the scanning data. with one panel being exposed to Campaign A. such as Prime Time. (Note: A “daypart” refers to the time of day in which the advertising time has been purchased. using a combination of national 28 . This was called the “How Advertising Works” project. However. Consequently. daytime. using hundreds of Behaviorscan tests as the database. In each market. the “early fringe” or early evening newscast period. as well as the fact that there is a loss of confidentiality in this approach. competitors may be able to read and react to a new campaign. (NOTE: IRI did an extensive analysis of the effectiveness of advertising. while the other sees Campaign B. and then use modeling approaches to disentangle their sales effects. The same pattern of actual programs. thousands of respondents have been asked to fill out diaries which track their purchases across multiple Packaged Goods product categories. prior to its ability to gain its full nation al effect. That is. provided by the retail outlets in each market to Behaviorscan. late night. by observing the activities in these well-known test market cities. The major drawbacks of using this kind of system for measuring the sales effectiveness of a given ad campaign are the time and expense of performing these tests. it is not possible to disentangle and separate the scanning data by Campaign. in the early 1990’s. Two sub-panels are demographically matched to each other.). etc.

of this Handbook. then repeated in another concentrated period weeks later. individual market “spot buys”) • Whether the pattern of spending should be flighted or continuous (i. time of year. the responsibility to measure and test the effectiveness of advertising rests with the company who is paying for it. the Marketing Director/VP. Roles and Responsibilities The Client Ultimately. and Marketing Mix modeling. and/or Corporate Top Management. or simply spread evenly over the course of the year) • • • • Which Ad Agency to retain for each media type Whether or not to shift ad agencies Whether or not to change the advertising currently running Which new ad to run 29 . In most companies. the people within the advertiser most-involved with this process include the Brand/Product Manager. and geography (e. the Advertising Director.e.scanning data. The decisions that these management people must make include: • • • Whether or not to advertise the brand How much to spend on the advertising How the budget should be allocated by media type. nationally. whether the spending should be concentrated within a given period. vs. These approaches are covered in depth in Dr. if such a function exists.g. and who has the strongest vested interest in its success: the Client. Tellis’ modeling chapter. Chapter 24... national electronic diary panel data. time of day.

many ad agency research functions are housed within a Planning Department. its role in the creation and evaluation of advertising has shifted substantially over the course of the last 20 years. The evaluative phase is. many of today’s Ad Agencies are much more focused on the creation of advertising. often turned over to the Client. as approved and adjusted by those in upper management. Its role is to create successful advertising for the Client. than on its evaluation as to effectiveness. As covered above. However. The Ad Agency The successful Ad Agency serves in a strategic partnership role for the Client corporation. The term reinforces the Agency’s role in the upfront creation and planning of advertising. rather than Marketing Research. 30 . While many ad agencies serve a strong role in both the creation AND evaluation of advertising. prepared by the Brand Manager. how to adjust all of the above over time Most of these decisions are made as part of a Marketing Plan. and will often conduct qualitative or other creatively-oriented research projects designed to generate the most productive avenues for further study. however.• • • Whether or not to test and/or track the advertising How to test the advertising And. Partly as a consequence if this trend. many Ad Agencies also believe that they must serve a broader and more strategic role for their clients than simply the creation of revenue-producing advertising. However. many Ad Agencies serve a central role in the earliest stages of a Copy Exploratory.

across networks. Some research companies will also take an active role in the building and maintenance of client-specific normative databases of tests and scores. time of year. some Ad Agencies serve a helpful and strategic role in the measurement of Brand Equity. which help to describe the distinguishing features of more successful brands. Often. a given research company will attempt to serve as a long-term strategic partner to the Client organization. to either the Client. all of which serve to aid their clients in arriving at an improved understanding of their Brands.Some have generated their own databases and theoretical models. In other words. the agency’s Media Planning Department will offer detailed recommendations to the Client. Invariably. Such databases also can assist the research company in 31 . concerning how the specific media budget for a given brand should be allocated. Many Ad Agencies also include Media Planning as an active function. or the Ad Agency. Many of the larger Ad Agencies have developed proprietary models and approaches. evaluation and tracking. this means that the Research Company will introduce multiple services covering the testing of advertising at multiple stages of its development. specific program types and programs. In other words. geographies. or Brand Asset Valuator model. which serves the role of intermediary between the Client and the Media itself. is one of many such approaches to the issue of arriving at an improved understanding of brands. in a similar manner to that of the Ad Agency. they serve as subcontractors. so that each new ad test can be usefully compared to historical scores. This has been one way in which Ad Agencies have historically distinguished themselves from other agencies. In some cases. time of day. The Research Company Many research companies specialize in various aspects of advertising research. in contrast to those which are likely to be less successful. Young and Rubicam’s BAV.

or Radio Networks. the media rarely take an active role at the earlier stages of the advertising development and testing process. Technique Variations by Media Type The central questions in designing and analyzing an effective experimental test of advertising are as follows: • How to simulate the environment in which consumers are actually exposed to advertising in a given media • • • How many exposures to the ad best relate to the real world Whether or not multiple test ads can be evaluated within the same test session. On the other hand. such as TV Networks. and how to improve it. which drive the prices the Media can obtain for their programming. they have an intense interest in the various Media Research projects which generate the Ratings or circulation figures. via such technology as remote controls. vs. Since advertising revenue is the primary source of revenue for Media Companies. and • The relative analytic weight to place on measures of recall.searching for generalizable truths connected to advertising’s likely effectiveness. persuasion. needs to be included in the test. and/or TIVO. Publishing Companies. and diagnostic areas of inquiry 32 . Some media concentrate on a given media type. Whether or not real-world commercial avoidance. The Media The Media are the link between the Client’s advertising and the consumer.

Since there is considerable variation in the methods used. A method to accomplish this is to send VCR tapes to members of pre-recruited mail panels. In this way. persuasion and diagnostic batteries are often administered after a second exposure to the test ad or ads. Other research companies recruit respondents into a central location. such as in a mall location or a hotel ballroom. For example. some research companies believe that in-home exposure is important. and often for multiple clients. These techniques often include a process of embedding the test ads within pilot programs. Then the consumer is asked to continue watching the tape. and since no single research company has come to dominate Ad Testing . which includes a pilot TV program. and is asked pre/post persuasion and diagnostics after the second test ad exposure. and attempt to simulate real world exposure to the ads by implying that the pilot is the central stimulus for research. always from n on-competing categories. a questionnaire which includes recall questions is administered. and in which test ads have been embedded. Most such test systems include multiple test ads within the same test sessions. 33 . it is safe to suggest that no single method of simulating exposure has emerged as being demonstrably superior to another. rather than the ads placed within the program Again.TV Commercial Testing Research companies involved in the testing of television advertising use a variety of techniques to simulate the real-world exposure to television and its advertising. the expense for running the session is spread across multiple clients. which keeps per project costs down. within the same tape. and/or increases the profitability of sessions for the research company. After the consumer watches the tape. Many of these methods have been kept the same for decades by the individual research company. perhaps 24 hours after the tape is viewed.

In some cases. the test ads are contained in all programs. Radio Ad Testing An interesting way to simulate the exposure to Radio ads is to recruit respondents into a central location. Consumers are pre-recruited in a central location or mall. a test ad is inserted. In this variation. As in other areas of Ad Testing . which is called “roadblocking” the ads. A radio plays in the background. this providing a measure of the radio ad’s likeability. Print Ad Testing Many of the research companies with businesses in TV–oriented copy testing and tracking also offer services in print testing. This can provide useful diagnostic insights concerning the likeability and probability of generating recall for an ad.Another variation is the use of a remote control device. The consumer is the asked about recall of the radio ads. since the exposure of a print ad on a computer screen offers a natural alternative to traditional methods. or “tipped in” to a normal magazine issue. and are asked to read the 34 . This is also an area which seems to be shifting rapidly in the direction of Internet-based data collection. and then invite them to watch a video simulating a driving experience. to allow the consumer to switch channels during the session. A variation is to allow the changing of the radio stations. which are often slower to administer. which contains the test ads. there are a variety of methods by which consumers are exposed to print advertising. and far more expensive than might be the case using the Internet. followed by a re-exposure and diagnostic questionnaire.

which can provide valuable insights into an ad’s performance. and the order in which the ad’s elements are likely to be viewed. Consumers are then re-exposed to the test ad and are asked diagnostic questions. Noted Reader – the extent to which consumers noticed the ad but did not read the copy Scores in each area are then compared to Starch’s normative database. Another approach is the Starch Readership Starch. and specific body copy. black and white. They are then asked for ad recall. in which the test ads have been inserted. Starch was one of the originators of large scale studies of ad readership and effectiveness. A variation on this method is to recruit respondents by telephone. and then complete the diagnostic interview. and 3. the relative length of time that will be spent on various elements. and still conducts large numbers of print ad test a year. including a pre/post persuasion measure. photos used. Starch measures 3 levels print ad attentiveness and readership: 1. then mail a magazine to respondents. Consumers are then called by telephone the day following the magazine’s receipt. 35 . color vs. are asked to look at the test ad or ads again. The service is also able to provide insights into the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ad’s headline. Read Most – the extent to which consumers read half or more of the ad’s body copy 2. Print Ad Testing is another area in which eye movement measures can prove valuable. They are then asked to name the ads recalled. inasmuch as insights can be gained about which particular visuals or word are the most likely to grab the consumer’s attention. Associated Reader – the extent to which consumers noticed the ad and read enough to recall the brand name.magazine in as normal a manner as possible.

a simulation of an exposure to a test billboard can take the place of a video. The content-oriented newspaper advertising follows the same basic elements as a print ad. prior to being placed. Such tests are normally conducted within a central location. many of these ads are run on a transitory basis are changed constantly.Newspaper Ads There are 2 kinds of newspaper ads: ads that contain ad content. or when the billboard campaign is being integrated thematically with a simultaneous campaign being run in other media. would follow many of the same procedures as are employed in print tests. and the test billboard ad can be inserted into the videotape. billboard ads are not always tested for their effectiveness. newspaper advertising is not evaluated with the same frequency as is the case with the other forms of media already mentioned. and are run only on a local or regional basis. consumers are again asked for ad recall. Billboard Ads For many of the same reasons as were just covered in newspaper ads. and/or mall environment. However. After viewing the ads. and ads that are simply alerting respondents to a weekly special price of a given brand or item in a local retail outlet. and some of which may be test ads. In this case. and when tested. when a national campaign is contemplated. However. and large amounts of media are being expended. For many of these reasons. A 36 . but may be evaluated as part of a larger promotional campaign taking place between the manufacturer and the retailer. some of which are standard “control” ads. in which the view outside a moving car can be simulated. The second kind of ad is rarely tested in advance for its effectiveness. The video may contain several ads. the wise advertiser will do a pre-test of his billboard campaign.

Innovation and Future Challenges The Internet 37 . and an interview can then take place. since such ads are often met with annoyance by consumers. However. technology is rapidly emerging to prevent pop-up ads. with average click-through running at one half of one percent of consumers exposed the web page. on diagnostic measures and persuasion. or to the advertising can then take place. Pop-up ads are one way in which online ads can increase their intrusiveness and clickthrough rates. and no single Ad Testing service has yet emerged with a dominant place in the spectrum of testing systems. many banner ads were so short and fleeting that little in the way of traditional ad content could be realistically included. However. Also. Online advertising is the youngest of the media. the early literature on click-through rates indicated that many banner ads were generating low levels of response. via click-through rates. Online Ad Testing Online advertising is still changing rapidly and evolving. In this case direct measures of effectiveness can sometimes become available. This is another media in which eye movement can provide useful insights into ad content exposure. Many dollars are spent by advertisers on banner ads.

using the Internet as an exposure mechanism. The time and expense necessary to prepare advertising stimuli. using such technologies as cable or DSL lines. and perhaps even more-important.S. evaluated and tracked for effectiveness over time. But another. Current estimates are that somewhat less than half of all Internet-capable households have as of yet moved into broadband connections. In fact. are areas in which the electronic transfer of ad stimuli. Large amounts of costs can be saved by removing the interviewer from the process of performing ad tests. The question of whether or not the demographic weighting of household would solve all of the possible bias problems is as yet not-completely resolved. Many of the research companies involved in Ad Testing are either rapidly adapting their systems to the Internet as a replacement for traditional methods of performing advertising-related research (Spielman & Klein. send them to facilities around the country. there are still questions about the demographic differences between internet-enabled households and those not yet online. for example risen to the range of 60% to 70% of all U. can all save large amounts of time and money.The exposure of most forms of advertising to consumers. question is the extent to which consumers are not only internet-capable. but have fast broadband connections to the Internet. questionnaires and data. The reasons for this are reasonably clear. One of the only remaining obstacles to this transfer of methods is the extent to which online samples are representative of the population being measured. It is very likely that internet-based ad research will be both faster and less-expensive than performing such experiments using traditional methods. 38 . or to mail paper questionnaires. is likely to revolutionize the current methods by which ads are created. 2001). most of this technological transformation has already taken place. households. While Online Penetration has. and by simply replacing the interviewer with a self-administered interview in-home.

in an online environment. and internet Web sites • TIVO and other time shifting technologies As a result. Many companies have huge databases of scores on critical measures. it is becoming easier and easier for consumers to avoid exposure to commercials. as might even radio ads. Print ads might easily be testable in an online environment. 39 . is to do other things. there are growing needs for methods which incorporate the consumer’s reduced attention. These include: • • • • • Televisions with remote controls Cable and satellite TV systems A dramatic increase in the number of broadcast and cable networks An explosion in the number of TV channels available A dramatic increase in the number of radio networks and channels available. all based on methods developed years ago. or billboards. One solution which research companies are experimenting with. while the downloads are taking place. as well as video advertising. Technology and Commercial Avoidance Several technological factors have made the testing and evaluation of effective advertising far more difficult.This is an important issue because of the time that it takes to download video. this is an issue largely restricted to television ads. Nevertheless. Still. This has put increasing pressure on the ability of advertising testing systems to adequately replicate a real-world exposure environment. such as administering preliminary parts of the questionnaire. as well as magazines. which may make the companies resistant to making any dramatic changes in their testing systems. over the past decade.

and even separate research companies. using observational approaches to measure actual instore behavior. But this will likely be an area of considerable innovation in the years to come. which attempt to reproduce the consumer’s tendencies to shift away from a commercial. The advertiser has a strong interest in an integrated marketing and advertising approach. Because research companies tend to develop specific specialties in a given media or research technique. He would very much like to see his television campaign work in a synergistic fashion with his spending. how to find a single multi-phase and integrated approach to the measurement of advertising. testing and tracking may well involve dozens of separate projects. Yet the process of development. is a completely separate research domain than the experimental survey-based school. either in the middle of the commercial. using the same campaign theme across TV. and online. An Integrated Research Approach As we have seen. where Ad Testing and evaluation reside. there is a dramatic difference between the way media is spent in support of a brand. 40 . print.Some companies are now experimenting with new methodological approaches. which remains the ultimate future challenge. It is this unresolved question. The measurement of sales. it is extremely difficult to find a research approach that measures the totality of the advertiser’s spending in support of the brand. radio. tested and tracked for effectiveness over time. or upon repeated exposures. and the methods by which advertising is developed. This is compounded by the fact that the testing process must stop well short of the ad’s true objective: sales. all using separate methodological approaches.

Millward Brown. Research Systems Corporation. However. The PreTesting Company. Bruzzone Research. GfK Custom Research. Diagnostic Research. Several companies specialize in the measurement of advertising in Television. McCollum Spielman Worldwide. and/or both Ad Testing and Ad Tracking. Communicus. but are not limited to: Ameritest. several have multiple services. or Radio. Mapes and Ross. covering different media. and Ad Tracking. Ipsos-ASI. include. The major companies involved in Ad Testing . while others specialize in Print. and Taylor Nelson Sofres . 41 .ENDNOTE 1 It is not the purpose of this Handbook to endorse the services of any given company. Gallup and Robinson. or Billboards.

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