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A statue of Gautama Buddha in Bodhgaya, India. Bodhgaya is traditionally considered the place of his awakening
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Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: बौद धमर Buddh Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one"). The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by adherents as an awakened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (or dukkha), achieve nirvana, and escape what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth. Two major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Theravada—the oldest surviving branch—has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and Mahayana is found throughout East Asia and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, Tendai and Shinnyo-en. In some classifications Vajrayana, a subcategory of Mahayana, is recognized as a third branch. While Buddhism remains most popular within Asia, both branches are now found throughout the world. Various sources put the number of Buddhists in the world at between 230 million and 500 million, making it the world's fourth-largest religion. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community). Taking "refuge in the triple gem" has traditionally been a declaration and commitment to being on the Buddhist path and in general distinguishes a Buddhist from a non-Buddhist. Other practices may include following ethical precepts, support of the monastic community, renouncing conventional living and becoming a monastic, meditation (this category includes mindfulness), cultivation of higher wisdom and discernment, study of scriptures, devotional practices, ceremonies, and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas.
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of the northeastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. both geographically and culturally. and it is even possible that the Buddha's mother tongue was not Indo-Aryan. or an oligarchy. This community was not yet likely to have been absorbed into Brahmanical culture (the tradition that would evolve into Hinduism). in which case his father was an oligarch. 1 O n l i n e • 12 Extern al links Life of the Buddha Ascetic Gautama with his five companions. It was either a small republic. in which case his father was an elected chieftain. .d i e s • • • 9 See also 10 Footno tes 11 Refere nces ○ 1 1 . who later comprised the first Sangha. Wall painting in a Laotian temple Main article: Gautama Buddha The evidence of the early texts suggests that the Buddha was born in a community that was on the periphery.
The above narrative draws on the early scriptures. later texts. shortly after the birth of young prince Siddhartha Gautama. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting. the Buddha was born in Lumbini. an ascetic holy man. because we have very little information that can be considered historically sound. maturity. He devoted himself to anapanasati meditation. despite his father's efforts. awakening and liberation. and exposure to pain.According to the Theravada Tipitaka scriptures (from Pali. as the Buddha. death. taught and founded a monastic order but do not consistently accept all of the details contained in his biographies. These experiences prompted Gautama to abandon royal life and take up a spiritual quest. According to author Michael Carrithers. an astrologer visited the young prince's father—King Śuddhodana—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either become a great king or renounce the material world to become a holy man. give different accounts. and had not put an end to suffering. while there are good reasons to doubt the traditional account. In a series of encounters—known in Buddhist literature as the four sights he learned of the suffering of ordinary people. such as the Mahayana Lalitavistara Sutra. and died at the age of 80 (483 BCE) in Kushinagar. He realized that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit. encountering an old man. Now. After many days. apparently content and at peace with the world. a religious culture distinct from the Vedic one. India. and raised in Kapilavastu. he spent the rest of his life teaching the path of awakening he discovered. around the year 563 BCE. depending on whether he saw what life was like outside the palace walls. he attracted a band of followers and instituted a monastic order. thereby liberating himself from the cycle of suffering and rebirth. Soon thereafter. renunciation. both in modern-day Nepal. he famously sat in meditation under a sacred fig tree — known as the Bodhi tree — in the town of Bodh Gaya. and arose as a fully enlightened being. he finally destroyed the fetters of his mind. therefore. He almost starved himself to death in the process. "the outline of the life must be true: birth. through which he discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way ("madhyam path"): a path of moderation between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. which was a religious pursuit common among the Shramanas. According to this narrative. teaching. breath-holding. finally. But he found that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering.. "It is obviously difficult. traveling throughout the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent. However. Most accept that he lived. so he continued his quest. a sick man. to write a biography of the Buddha that will meet modern criteria. India. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and changed his approach. Śuddhodana was determined to see his son become a king so he prevented him from leaving the palace grounds. and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment. Siddhartha ventured beyond the palace several times. Gautama was now determined to complete his spiritual quest.. Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Karen Armstrong noted. a corpse and. He next attempted an extreme asceticism. [but] we can be reasonably confident Siddhatta Gotama did indeed exist and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could" Buddhist concepts Main article: Buddhist terms and concepts Life and the world . At the age of 35. meaning "three baskets")." In writing her biography of Buddha. Gautama first went to study with famous religious teachers of the day. and mastered the meditative attainments they taught. search. But at age 29.
since it is a purely impersonal process that is a part of the makeup of the universe. Some forms of Buddhism (for example. Some Mahayana traditions hold different views. Vajrayana) regard the recitation of mantras as a means for cutting off previous negative karma.Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the "Wheel of Life" with its six realms Karma as the law of cause and effect Main article: Karma in Buddhism Karma (from Sanskrit: "action. Every time a person acts there is some quality of intention at the base of the mind and it is that quality rather than the outward appearance of the action that determines its effect. In Theravada Buddhism there can be no divine salvation or forgiveness for one's karma. The Japanese Pure Land teacher Genshin taught that Amida Buddha has the power to destroy the karma that would otherwise bind one in saṃsāra. and mind) that spring from mental intent ("cetana"). speech. unskillful (Pāli: "akusala") actions produce "seeds" in the mind which come to fruition either in this life or in a subsequent rebirth. and which bring about a consequence (or fruit. The avoidance of unwholesome actions and the cultivation of positive actions is called śīla (from Sanskrit: "ethical conduct"). For example. Rebirth . karma specifically refers to those actions (of body. Good. skillful deeds (Pāli: "kusala") and bad. the Angulimaliya Sutra and the Nirvana Sutra) claim that reciting or merely hearing their texts can expunge great swathes of negative karma. the texts of certain Mahayana sutras (such as the Lotus Sutra. In Buddhism. work") in Buddhism is the force that drives saṃsāra—the cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being. "phala") or result ("vipāka").
can be attained only by skilled Buddhist practitioners known as anāgāmis (non-returners). These are further subdivided into 31 planes of existence: 1. that seem to lend support to the idea that the Buddha taught of an intermediate stage between one life and the next. Human beings: one of the realms of rebirth in which attaining Nirvana is possible 5. or six according to other schools. spirits. Animals: sharing space with humans. demons. According to East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism. angels. known as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds (Pure Abodes). eternal soul. or left Rebirths in some of the higher heavens. Asuras: variously translated as lowly deities. According to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe (the doctrine of anatta). deities. as it is called in Hinduism and Christianity. the highest object of meditation. there is an intermediate state (Tibetan "Bardo") between one life and the next. Naraka beings: those who live in one of many Narakas (Hells) 2. but considered another type of life 4. Each rebirth takes place within one of five realms according to Theravadins. Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu (formless realms) can be attained only by those who can meditate on the arūpajhānas. The cycle of saṃsāra Main article: Saṃsāra (Buddhism) Sentient beings crave pleasure and are averse to pain from birth to death. and produce the causes and conditions of the next rebirth after death. transmigrating or incarnating from one existence to the next. not recognized by Theravāda (Mahavihara) tradition as a separate realm untranslated 6.Two Buddhist monks in traditional clothing. The orthodox Theravada position rejects this. Preta: sometimes sharing some space with humans. however there are passages in the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon (the collection of texts on which the Theravada tradition is based). Devas including Brahmas: variously translated as gods. Each rebirth repeats this . antigods. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a permanent self or an unchanging. ever-changing process of "dependent arising" ("pratītyasamutpāda") determined by the laws of cause and effect (karma) rather than that of one being. Rebirth in subsequent existences must be understood as the continuation of a dynamic. but invisible to most people. titans. Main article: Rebirth (Buddhism) Rebirth refers to a process whereby beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life. they perpetuate the cycle of conditioned existence and suffering (saṃsāra). In being controlled by these attitudes. each running from conception to death. an important variety is the hungry ghost 3.
but are categories or aspects that most worldly phenomena fall into.e. one craves that a certain state of affairs not exist. Thus. to selfhood. grouped in two: 1. According to other interpretations by Buddhist teachers and scholars. lately recognized by some Western non-Buddhist scholars. 3. or to the things or phenomena that we consider the cause of happiness or unhappiness. 2. This is often expressed as a deluded clinging to a certain sense of existence. Reaching this liberated state is achieved by following the path laid out by the Buddha. i. according to the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism they are . Life as we know it ultimately is or leads to suffering/uneasiness (dukkha) in one way or another. Cessation and the paths towards liberation from suffering. Suffering and causes of suffering 2. 4. Suffering's causes and solution The Four Noble Truths Polish Buddhists Main article: Four Noble Truths According to the Pali Tipitaka and the Āgamas of other early Buddhist schools.process in an involuntary cycle. This method is described by early Western scholars. Suffering ends when craving ends. the "truths" do not represent mere statements. thereby reaching a liberated state of Enlightenment (bodhi). This is achieved by eliminating delusion. Suffering is caused by craving. applying the methods laid out by the Buddha and subsequent Buddhists. which Buddhists strive to end by eradicating these causes and conditions. and taught as an introduction to Buddhism by some contemporary Mahayana teachers (for example. the Dalai Lama). the Four Noble Truths were the first teaching of Gautama Buddha after attaining Nirvana. Craving also has its negative aspect. They are sometimes considered to contain the essence of the Buddha's teachings: 1.
"The noble truth that is suffering" 2. "The noble truth that is the end of suffering" 4. It includes: 1. vyāyāma (vāyāma): making an effort to improve . The Noble Eightfold Path—the fourth of the Buddha's Noble Truths—is the way to the cessation of suffering (dukkha). The Noble Eightfold Path Main article: Noble Eightfold Path The Dharmachakra represents the Noble Eightfold Path. and includes: 1. dṛṣṭi (ditthi): viewing reality as it is. It has eight sections. or abstention from unwholesome deeds. "The noble truth that is the arising of suffering" 3. "properly". or "well". They are little known in the Far East. each starting with the word "samyak" (Sanskrit. freedom and harmlessness. This is done through the practice of various contemplative and meditative practices. meaning "correctly". vāc (vāca): speaking in a truthful and non-hurtful way 2. It includes: 1. "The noble truth that is the way leading to the end of suffering" The early teaching and the traditional Theravada understanding is that the Four Noble Truths are an advanced teaching for those who are ready for them. (NB: Pāli transliterations appear in brackets after Sanskrit ones): • Prajñā is the wisdom that purifies the mind. ājīvana (ājīva): a non-harmful livelihood • Samādhi is the mental discipline required to develop mastery over one's own mind. allowing it to attain spiritual insight into the true nature of all things. not just as it appears to be. 2. The East Asian Mahayana position is that they are a preliminary teaching for people not yet ready for the higher and more expansive Mahayana teachings. the Four Noble Truths remain essential to the path. frequently translated into English as "right"). • Śīla is the ethics or morality. saṃkalpa (sankappa): intention of renunciation. and presented in three groups known as the three higher trainings.1. karman (kammanta): acting in a non-harmful way 3. Within the Nalanda/Tibetan tradition of Mahayana Buddhism.
a lack of inherent existence. Middle Way Main article: Middle Way An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way (or Middle Path). which avoids the extremes of permanence and nihilism or inherent existence and nothingness The way things are Debating monks at Sera Monastery. The practice of non-extremism: a path of moderation away from the extremes of selfindulgence and self-mortification 2. the culmination of one leading to the beginning of another.2. The Eightfold Path is little known in the Far East. Tibet Buddhist scholars have produced a remarkable quantity of intellectual theories. the ultimate nature of all phenomena (in the Mahayana branch). An explanation of Nirvana (perfect enlightenment). explained as the first four The practice of the Eightfold Path is understood in two ways. philosophies and world view concepts (see. Abhidharma. which is said to have been discovered by Gautama Buddha prior to his enlightenment. Another term for emptiness. smṛti (sati): awareness to see things for what they are with clear consciousness. without any craving or aversion jhānas 3. or as a progressive series of stages through which the practitioner moves. for example. and some regard it as . as requiring either simultaneous development (all eight items practiced in parallel). Some schools of Buddhism discourage doctrinal study. Buddhist philosophy and Reality in Buddhism). being aware of the present reality within oneself. The middle ground between certain metaphysical views (for example. samādhi (samādhi): correct meditation or concentration. The Middle Way has several definitions: 1. a state wherein it becomes clear that all dualities apparent in the world are delusory (see Seongcheol) 4. that things ultimately either do or do not exist) 3.
Things are constantly coming into being.essential. Anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the notion of "not-self". "dependent co-arising". In the Nikayas anatta is not meant as a metaphysical assertion. Thus in English-language Buddhist literature "dukkha" is often left untranslated. suffering and not-self Main article: Three marks of existence Anicca (Pāli for "inconstancy". and is liberated from suffering (dukkha) and the cycle of incessant rebirths (saṃsāra). By analyzing the constantly changing physical and mental constituents (skandhas) of a person or object. According to the impermanence doctrine. anxiety.'brel. stress. but as an approach for gaining release from suffering. In the earliest Buddhist teachings. but realistic. and its existence is dependent on external conditions. The term expresses the Buddhist notion that all compounded or conditioned phenomena (all things and experiences) are inconstant. Everything is in constant flux. "conditioned genesis". Although dukkha is often translated as "suffering". the Buddha rejected both of the metaphysical assertions "I have a Self" and "I have no Self" as ontological views that bind one to suffering. Since nothing lasts. and ceasing to be. Sanskrit दुःख duḥkha. at least for some persons at some stages in Buddhist practice. unsatisfactoriness. It states that phenomena arise together in a mutually interdependent web of cause and effect. the Buddha refused to answer. anguish. the concept of liberation (Nirvana)—the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to the correct understanding of how the mind causes stress. there is no inherent or fixed nature to any object or experience. dissatisfaction. "interdependent arising". or "contingency". Suffering or dukkha (Pāli दुकख. the practitioner comes to the conclusion that neither the respective parts nor the person as a whole comprise a self. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent. misery. unsteady. Upon careful examination. As such.'byung. . and in any experience of loss. pain. but Buddhism seeks to be neither pessimistic nor optimistic. "suffering" is too narrow a translation with "negative emotional connotations" which can give the impression that the Buddhist view is one of pessimism. Dependent arising Main article: Pratītyasamutpāda The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit. the cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra). It is variously rendered into English as "dependent origination". disquieted") is a central concept in Buddhism. sorrow. The word roughly corresponds to a number of terms in English including suffering.ba. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts. discomfort. When asked if the self was identical with the body. Tibetan: rten. these concepts are in fact constructed by the mind. In fact.cing. the Buddha recommended viewing things as characterized by the three marks of existence. and frustration. Pali: paticcasamuppāda. In awakening to the true nature of clinging. and impermanent. but most regard it as having a place. affliction. human life embodies this flux in the aging process.bar. To this end. its philosophical meaning is more analogous to "disquietude" as in the condition of being disturbed. one develops dispassion for the objects of clinging. Chinese: 緣起) is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering (dukkha). but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of dus-stha "unsteady. one finds that no phenomenon is really "I" or "mine". which according to grammatical tradition derived from dus-kha "uneasy". shared to some extent by all extant schools. and so conditions and the thing itself are constantly changing. so as to encompass its full range of meaning. Impermanence. usually translated as impermanence) is one of the three marks of existence.
) 11.e. specifically discriminative 4. foundation. which feeds the continuing cycle of rebirth 10. Ṣaḍāyatana: the six sense bases: eye. lamentation. Upādāna: clinging or grasping. Vedanā: usually translated feeling: this is the "hedonic tone". tongue. which explain the continuation of the cycle of suffering and rebirth (saṃsāra) in detail. Saṃskāras: literally formations. i. unpleasant or neutral 8. Shanghai. Nāmarūpa: literally name and form. Bhava: literally being (existence) or becoming. each one giving rise to the next: 1. . but life is understood as starting at conception 12. explained as referring to karma 3. whether something is pleasant. ear. Sparśa: variously translated contact. sadness. but in Buddhism nearly always used to mean craving 9. stimulation (by a sense object) 7. Emptiness A monk in the Jade Buddha Temple. until they free themselves from this suffering by attaining Nirvana. Main article: Twelve Nidānas The Twelve Nidānas describe a causal connection between the subsequent characteristics or conditions of cyclic existence. Vijñāna: consciousness. source or origin"). the word also means fuel. (The Theravada explains this as having two meanings: karma. impression. referring to mind and body 5. pain. body and mind-organ 6. nose. Avidyā: ignorance.The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the scheme of Twelve Nidānas (from Pāli "nidāna" meaning "cause. China. Jarāmaraṇa: (old age and death) and also śokaparidevaduḥkhadaurmanasyopāyāsa (sorrow. which produces a new existence. specifically spiritual ignorance of the nature of reality 2. and the existence itself. and misery) Sentient beings always suffer throughout saṃsāra. Tṛṣṇā: literally thirst. Jāti: literally birth. Then the absence of the first Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others.
in opposition or synthesis. which is said to be inherent in all sentient beings and enables them all eventually to reach complete enlightenment. These regarded issues such as whether the universe is eternal or non-eternal (or whether it is finite or infinite). While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or nonexistence of any ultimately real thing was inappropriate. the Buddha revealed the reality of the deathless Buddha-nature. but to be replete with eternal Buddhic virtues. the complete inexistence of a person after Nirvana and death. All accept perception and inference. Mahayana schools often place emphasis on the notions of perfected spiritual insight (prajñāpāramitā) and Buddha-nature (tathāgatagarbha. One .Main article: Śūnyatā Mahayana Buddhism received significant theoretical grounding from Nagarjuna (perhaps c. during his lifetime the Buddha remained silent when asked several metaphysical questions. form the basis of subsequent Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition. meaning "Buddha embryo" or "Buddha-matrix"). i. In the Tathāgatagarbha Sutras the Buddha is portrayed proclaiming that the teaching of the tathāgatagarbha constitutes the "absolutely final culmination" of his Dharma—the highest presentation of truth (other sūtras make similar statements about other teachings) and it has traditionally been regarded as the highest teaching in East Asian Buddhism. thus the heterodox theories of svabhava circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of the doctrines of early Buddhism.e. it is not merely sentient beings that are empty of ātman. the unity or separation of the body and the self. but the very founder of the Mādhyamaka system. all phenomena (dharmas) are without any svabhava (literally "own-nature" or "self-nature"). According to the Tathāgatagarbha Sutras. and thus without any underlying essence. While all schools of Indian logic recognize various sets of valid justifications for knowledge (pramana) Buddhism recognizes a smaller set than do the others. particularly anatta and pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination). These two schools of thought. but his philosophy was argued within the parameters set out by the agamas. in modern China all doctrines are regarded as equally valid. However. Some of the writings attributed to Nagarjuna made explicit references to Mahayana texts. Not all Yogacarins asserted that mind was truly existent. some exponents of Yogacara asserted that the mind and only the mind is ultimately real (a doctrine known as cittamatra). Speculation versus direct experience in Buddhist epistemology Decisive in distinguishing Buddhism from other schools of Indian philosophy is the issue of epistemological justification. Besides emptiness. Buddhahood. The Mahayana can also on occasion communicate a vision of the Buddha or Dharma which amounts to mysticism and gives expression to a form of mentalist panentheism (see God in Buddhism). For Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna's school of thought is known as the Mādhyamaka. Sarvastivada teachings—which were criticized by Nāgārjuna—were reformulated by scholars such as Vasubandhu and Asanga and were adapted into the Yogacara (Sanskrit: yoga practice) school. widely attested in the Prajñāpāramitā sutras which were emergent in his era. Vasubandhu and Asanga in particular did not. and others. arguably the most influential scholar within the Mahayana tradition. Buddha-nature is stated in the Mahayana Angulimaliya Sutra and Mahaparinirvana Sutra to not be śūnya. for example. Nagarjuna's primary contribution to Buddhist philosophy was the systematic exposition of the concept of śūnyatā. According to the scriptures. 150–250 CE). or "emptiness". to refute the metaphysics of Sarvastivada and Sautrantika (extinct non-Mahayana schools). they are "empty" of being independent. The concept of emptiness brings together other key Buddhist doctrines. He may have arrived at his positions from a desire to achieve a consistent exegesis of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the Canon. In the eyes of Nagarjuna the Buddha was not merely a forerunner. but for some schools of Buddhism the received textual tradition is an equally valid epistemological category.
Bodhi is pure universal and immediate knowledge. all doctrinal traditions are regarded as equally valid. In modern Chinese Buddhism. Bodhi is immaculate and non-conceptual.. which extends over all time.." Also later. conditioned and unconditioned. all beings and elements. It has neither beginning. That is.. It is absolute and identical with Reality and thus it is Tathata. Dependent arising provides a framework for analysis of reality that is not based on metaphysical assumptions regarding existence or non-existence. cannot be understood by discursive thought. rather than functioning outside of the system as a whole. but instead on direct cognition of phenomena as they are presented to the mind. Another closely related explanation is that reality is devoid of designations. states there: "The mind of perfect purity . words are inadequate to describe the goal of the Buddhist path. the Buddha's silence does not indicate misology or disdain for philosophy. in the sense that reasoning is a subjectively introduced aspect of the way humans perceive things. It is non-dual (advayam). Mahayana often adopts a pragmatic concept of truth: doctrines are "true" in the sense of being spiritually beneficial. .. Furthermore.. nor middle nor end and it is indivisbile. but concerning the usefulness of words in the path itself. Samantabhadra.. Sebastian describes the nature of enlightenment according to one Mahayana text: Bodhi is the final goal of a Bodhisattva's career and it is indicated by such words as buddhajnana (knowledge of Buddha). Being "beyond reasoning" means in this context penetrating the nature of reasoning from the inside. being not an outer object.. all universes. Another explanation is that both affirmative and negative positions regarding these questions are based on attachment to and misunderstanding of the aggregates and senses. The Buddha of the earliest Buddhists texts describes Dharma (in the sense of "truth") as "beyond reasoning" or "transcending logic". The only possible way to comprehend it is through samadhi by the yogin The early texts. This informs and supports the Buddhist approach to liberation via the Noble Eightfold Path. when one sees these things for what they are. in contrast. and acintyam jnanam (inconceivable knowledge) . schools differ radically. one must then relinquish fixation on words and letters.. the idea of forming positions on such metaphysical questions simply does not occur to one. and therefore language itself is a priori inadequate. mahasiddha Tilopa discouraged any intellectual activity in his six words of advice. Most Buddhists agree that. sarvakarajnata (the quality of knowing things as they are). to a greater or lesser extent. contain explicit repudiations of attributing omniscience to the Buddha. is beyond thinking and inexplicable. In the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra. . as these are utterly divorced from liberation and the Buddha-nature. and removing the causes for experiencing any future stress as a result of it.. and it.. Thus. The Tibetan tantra entitled the "All-Creating King" (Kunjed Gyalpo Tantra) also emphasizes how Buddhist truth lies beyond the range of discursive/verbal thought and is ultimately mysterious. D.explanation for this silence is that such questions distract from activity that is practical to realizing enlightenment and bring about the danger of substituting the experience of liberation by conceptual understanding of the doctrine or by religious faith. sarvjnata (omniscience). the non-duality ascribed to the nature of enlightenment in the early texts is not ontological. the famous Indian Buddhist practitioner and teacher. Professor C. Rather. or empty. rather than a feature of things as they really are. and the conceptual framework which underpins it is a part of the cognitive process. the Buddha insists that while pondering upon Dharma is vital. it indicates that he viewed these questions as not leading to true knowledge.
critical investigation. "extinguished". conduce to well-being and happiness—then do you live acting accordingly. and to put a lower value on the former (Gombrich. implying that delusion was still present in one who attained nirvana. In the later school of Mahayana Buddhism... they merely use different . including the Buddha. bodhi carried a meaning synonymous to nirvana. in devanagari: बॊिध) is a term applied to the experience of Awakening of arahants. coming to refer only to the extinction of greed and hate. the status of nirvana was downgraded in some scriptures. But when you know for yourselves—these things are moral. "extinction" (of craving and ignorance and therefore suffering and the cycle of involuntary rebirths (saṃsāra). As the Buddha said according to the canonical scriptures: Do not accept anything by mere tradition . Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing. "calmed". 1992d).. when performed and undertaken. literally "Teaching of Analysis") to non-Buddhists. Bodhi (Pāli and Sanskrit. which implies the extinction of raga (greed. is arahant. Liberation Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya.Theravada promotes the concept of vibhajjavada (Pāli.. India. but it is more commonly translated into English as "enlightenment".. Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your preconceived notions . aversion) and moha (delusion). these things are blameless. using only some different metaphors to describe the experience. and reasoning instead of by blind faith. these things are praised by the wise. it is also known as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. where Gautama Buddha attained Nirvana under the Bodhi Tree (left) Nirvana Main article: Nirvana Nirvana (Sanskrit. craving). Enlightenment). Bodhi literally means "awakening".. "quieted". and that one needed to attain bodhi to eradicate delusion: An important development in the Mahayana [was] that it came to separate nirvana from bodhi ('awakening' to the truth. Pali: "Nibbana") means "cessation". In Early Buddhism. The term for anybody who has achieved nirvana. Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures . these things. dosa (hate. This doctrine says that insight must come from the aspirant's experience.
He thus attains bodhi and becomes a buddha. the arahant has attained only nirvana. thus still being subject to delusion. such people are called arahants and occasionally buddhas. Enlightenment. who discovers the truth by himself and teaches the path to awakening to others . and this generally refers to the complete nirvana attained by the arhat at the moment of death. no longer reincarnating as human. with the resultant escape from the cycle of rebirth. After numerous lifetimes of spiritual striving.metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred only to the extinction of craving (passion and hatred). delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the early texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis. ghost. according to Mahayana Buddhism. or other being. The commentaries to the Pali Canon classify these awakened beings into three types: • Sammasambuddha. How Buddhism Began Therefore. 1st century CE. Gandhara Main article: Buddhahood Theravada In Theravada doctrine. a person may awaken from the "sleep of ignorance" by directly realizing the true nature of reality. In Theravada Buddhism. animal. while the bodhisattva not only achieves nirvana but full liberation from delusion as well. Gombrich. —Richard F. hate and delusion. usually just called Buddha. The term parinirvana is also encountered in Buddhism. bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning as in the early texts. This interpretation ignores the third fire. they have reached the end of the cycle of rebirth. when the physical body expires. that of being freed from greed. Buddhas Gautama Buddha.
 Thus. the Buddha. the Buddha tends not to be viewed as merely human. and delusion. Dharma and Sangha are viewed essentially as One: all three are seen as the eternal Buddha himself. Bodhi became a higher attainment that eradicates delusion entirely. Pure Land Buddhism is a very widespread and perhaps the most faith-orientated manifestation of Buddhism and centres upon the conviction that faith in Amitabha Buddha and the chanting of homage to his name will liberate one at death into the "happy land" (安樂) or "pure land" (淨土) of Amitabha Buddha.[dubious – discuss] implying that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana.[dubious – discuss] The method of self-exertion or "self-power"—without reliance on an external force or being —stands in contrast to another major form of Buddhism. As a further distinction. while the Buddha attains Bodhi. omnipresent being (see Dharmakaya) beyond the range and reach of thought. This Buddhic realm is variously construed as a foretaste of Nirvana. but who still aid in the enlightenment of all beings. hate. Celestial Buddhas are individuals who no longer exist on the material plane of existence. if only one has faith in the power of that vow or chants his name. in certain Mahayana sutras. thus still being subject to delusion. that of being freed from craving. the Arahant attains Nirvana but not Bodhi. Japan In the Mahayana. who receive the truth directly or indirectly from a Sammasambuddha Bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning. Pure Land. In attaining bodhi. but as the earthly projection of a beginningless and endless. Moreover. is called anagami. which is characterised by utmost trust in the salvific "other-power" of Amitabha Buddha. who discovers the truth by himself but lacks the skill to teach others Savakabuddha. or as essentially Nirvana itself. Nirvana came to refer only to the extinction of greed and hate.• • Paccekabuddha. the arahant has overcome these obstacles. Mahayana The Great Statue of Buddha Amitabha in Kamakura. the extinction of only hatred and greed (in the sensory context) with some residue of delusion. The great vow of Amitabha Buddha to rescue all beings from samsaric suffering is viewed within Pure Land Buddhism as universally efficacious. .
While Theravada regards it as an option. Mahayana encourages everyone to follow a Bodhisattva path and to take the Bodhisattva vows. Devotional practices include bowing. The idea of the decline and gradual disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. So the Bodhisattva is a person who already has a considerable degree of enlightenment and seeks to use their wisdom to help other sentient beings to become liberated themselves. if any.  but especially in Mahayana Buddhism. given the variant Sanskrit spelling satva rather than sattva. and for as long as living beings remain. and chanting. is the Buddha of this era. Bodhisattva means either "enlightened (bodhi) existence (sattva)" or "enlightenment-being" or. summarizes the Bodhisattva's intention (Bodhicitta) as follows: "For as long as space endures. In Pure Land Buddhism. it mainly refers to a being that compassionately refrains from entering nirvana in order to save others. joyous effort. pilgrimage. The various divisions of Buddhism understand the word Bodhisattva in different ways. A famous saying by the 8th-century Indian Buddhist scholar-saint Shantideva. A Theravada commentary says that Buddhas arise one at a time in this world element. The Gautama Buddha. Mahayana Buddhists believe there are innumerable other Buddhas in other universes. are capable of following the path. evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha have vanished. devotion to the . This belief therefore maintains that many Buddha eras have started and ended throughout the course of human existence.Buddha eras Buddhists believe Gautama Buddha was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is therefore credited with the establishment of Buddhism. so most or all must rely on the power of the Buddha Amitabha. concentration and wisdom. "heroic-minded one (satva) for enlightenment (bodhi)". while other Mahayana sources speak of Bodhisattvas renouncing Buddhahood. until then may I too abide to dispel the misery of the world. Bodhisattvas Main article: Bodhisattvas Mahayana Buddhism puts great emphasis and. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge. which the 14th Dalai Lama often cites as his favourite verse. Theravada and some Mahayana sources consider a Bodhisattva as someone on the path to Buddhahood. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest known Buddha. Pure Land Buddhism holds that it has declined to the point where few. Practice Devotion Main article: Buddhist devotion Devotion is an important part of the practice of most Buddhists. Zen and Nichiren traditionally hold that most are incapable of following the "complicated" paths of some other schools and present what they view as a simple practice instead. Another translation is "Wisdom-Being". one makes the promise to work for the complete enlightenment of all sentient beings. offerings. In addition. encourages anybody to follow the path of a Bodhisattva. and not at all in others. a Bodhisattva practices in the six perfections: giving. who taught directly or indirectly to all other Buddhas in it (see types of Buddhas). With these vows. then. patience. morality. in fact." According to the Mahayana.
It can also. considered the ultimate expression of compassion. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. Eternal. for once one has reached Buddhahood. the Buddha can be viewed as the supreme Refuge: "Buddha is the Unique Absolute Refuge. especially in Mahayana. the person who chooses the bodhisattva path makes a vow or pledge. In Nichiren Buddhism. Indestructible and Absolute Refuge. 1st century CE. In Mahayana. there is no possibility of falling back to suffering. too.Buddha Amitabha is the main practice." The Three Jewels are: • The Buddha. the first step in most Buddhist schools requires taking refuge in the Three Jewels (Sanskrit: tri-ratna. in the lama. Infant baptism). The Buddha could also be represented as a concept instead of a specific person: the perfect wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its true form. In Mahayana Buddhism. The practice of taking refuge on behalf of young or even unborn children is mentioned in the Majjhima Nikaya." The Dharma. Refuge in the Three Jewels Footprint of the Buddha with Dharmachakra and triratna. Main articles: Refuge (Buddhism) and Three Jewels Traditionally. These Three Jewels bring a fruition that is changeless. See also the Tathāgata and Gautama Buddha. devotion to the Lotus Sutra is the main practice. This is a title for those who have attained Nirvana. Just as real jewels never change their faculty and goodness. In Mahayana. whether praised or reviled. Buddha is the Imperishable. so are the Three Jewels (Refuges). the Three Jewels are perceived as possessed of an eternal and unchanging essence and as having an irreversible effect: "The Three Jewels have the quality of excellence. Gandhāra. because they have an eternal and immutable essence. Tibetan Buddhism sometimes adds a fourth refuge. recognized by most scholars as an early text (cf. Pāli: ti-ratana) as the foundation of one's religious practice. connote the ultimate and sustaining Reality which is • .
Śīla is the foundation of Samadhi/Bhāvana (Meditative cultivation) or mind cultivation. which correspond to "basic morality" (five precepts). The Sangha is considered to provide a refuge by preserving the authentic teachings of the Buddha and providing further examples that the truth of the Buddha's teachings is attainable. Further. and panya) and the second pāramitā. quiet. calmness. but also peace in the community. keeping the precepts are meritorious and it acts as causes which would bring about peaceful and happy effects. speech. and involves an intentional effort. Dr. This is especially said to be the case with the Lotus Sutra. According to the Law of Karma. word. from some Mahayana perspectives. or mind. without resorting to a teacher". the Dharma embodied in the form of a great sutra (Buddhic scripture) can replace the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth (Dharma). Keeping these precepts keeps the cultivator from rebirth in the four woeful realms of existence. it is a Dharma-gate whereby one awakens spontaneously. Gautama Buddha presented himself as a model. and deed. Keeping the precepts promotes not only the peace of mind of the cultivator. Hiroshi Kanno writes of this view of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of sudden enlightenment proper to the Great Vehicle. It is one of the three practices (sila. samadhi. and extinguishment. According to the scriptures. Buddhist ethics Japanese Buddhist monk Main article: The Five Precepts Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually translated into English as "virtuous behavior". There are several levels of sila.inseparable from the Buddha. It is an action committed through the body. It refers to moral purity of thought. which is internal. "basic morality with asceticism" (eight . "ethics" or "precept". or simply the congregation of monastic practitioners. The Dharma offers a refuge by providing guidelines for the alleviation of suffering and the attainment of Nirvana. • The Sangha. which is external. Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. The four conditions of śīla are chastity. "morality". Those who have attained to any of the Four stages of enlightenment.
the seventh precept is partitioned into two. To refrain from the use of garlands. the eating of meat is frowned upon and vegetarianism is . the cultivation of dana and ethical conduct will themselves refine consciousness to such a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely. It includes the Patimokkha. music. and becomes a precept of celibacy. and can meditate well: 1. a set of 227 rules for monks in the Theravadin recension. but as training rules that laypeople undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice. the Buddha constantly reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. singing and unseemly shows 8. as one scholar puts it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself. ointments. To refrain from lying (speaking truth always) 5. To refrain from taking food at an unseasonable time. To refrain from sensual (including sexual) misconduct 4. The five precepts are training rules in order to live a better life in which one is happy. attending shows and other performances 8. For the complete list. without worries. To refrain from dancing and playing music. To refrain from eating at the wrong time (only eat from sunrise to noon) 7.precepts). To refrain from accepting gold and silver Monastic life Vinaya is the specific moral code for monks and nuns. which add basic asceticism. Regarding the monastic rules. In the eight precepts. the third precept on sexual misconduct is made more strict. perfumes. and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments. and different schools or subschools set different standards for the degree of adherence to Vinaya. To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (specifically. which are the basic precepts for monastics. the rules themselves are designed to assure a satisfying life. The three additional precepts are: 6. "novice monkhood" (ten precepts) and "monkhood" (Vinaya or Patimokkha). To refrain from dancing. There is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about limiting one's aims to this level of attainment. In this sense. In Buddhist thought. for example. living life as the vinaya prescribes it is. To refrain from taking life (non-violence towards sentient life forms). there is also a distinctive Vinaya and ethics contained within the Mahayana Brahmajala Sutra (not to be confused with the Pali text of that name) for Bodhisattvas. and a tenth added: 6. which are common to all Buddhist schools. that is after the mid-day meal 7. On the other hand. even if there is no further Buddhist practice. drugs and alcohol) The precepts are not formulated as imperatives. Lay people generally undertake to live by the five precepts. If they wish. To refrain from using high or luxurious seats and bedding The complete list of ten precepts may be observed by laypeople for short periods." In Eastern Buddhism. where. and from things that tend to beautify and adorn (the person) 9. or ahimsā 2. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". The precise content of the vinayapitaka (scriptures on Vinaya) differ slightly according to different schools. To refrain from taking that which is not given (not committing theft) 3. To refrain from (using) high and luxurious seats (and beds) 10. they can choose to undertake the eight precepts. Novice-monks use the ten precepts. wearing jewelry and cosmetics.
it is said that while samatha meditation can calm the mind. and luminous. samyaksamādhi is "right concentration". The evidence of the early texts suggests that at the time of the Buddha. which is what leads to knowledge (jñāna. Upon development of samādhi. which is needed to achieve insight. nuns. this has almost completely displaced the monastic vinaya. Once the meditator achieves a strong and powerful concentration (jhāna. samatha meditation (Sanskrit: śamatha) and vipassanā meditation (Sanskrit: vipaśyanā). whenever Buddhism has been healthy. some even to the point of proficiency in all eight jhānas (see the next section regarding these). In Japan. many male and female lay practitioners did practice meditation. Samādhi (meditative cultivation): samatha meditation Main articles: Samādhi (Buddhism) and Dhyāna In the language of the Noble Eightfold Path. not only monks. According to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha taught two types of meditation. but Chan (Zen) meditation is more popular. which is expanded to one's body. According to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism. only vipassanā meditation can reveal how the mind was disturbed to start with. Sanskrit धयान dhyāna). eventually obtaining release from all suffering. mind and entire surroundings. According to Peter Harvey. and allows clergy to marry. in contrast. and thus can . leading to a state of total concentration and tranquility (jhāna) There are many variations in the style of meditation. The most common method of meditation is to concentrate on one's breath (anapanasati). because this practice can lead to both samatha and vipassana'.actively encouraged (see vegetarianism in Buddhism). calm. Pāli ñāṇa) and understanding (prajñā Pāli paññā). In Chinese Buddhism. these exist (translated chih kuan). serious meditation by lay people has been unusual. The primary means of cultivating samādhi is meditation. Samatha meditation starts from being mindful of an object or idea. but also more committed lay people have practiced meditation. Meditation Buddhist monks praying in Thailand Main article: Buddhist meditation Buddhist meditation is fundamentally concerned with two themes: transforming the mind and using it to explore itself and other phenomena. and married lamas. tranquil. In Buddhist practice. his mind is ready to penetrate and gain insight (vipassanā) into the ultimate nature of reality. from sitting crosslegged or kneeling to chanting or walking. one's mind becomes purified of defilement. throughout most of Buddhist history before modern times. The cultivation of mindfulness is essential to mental concentration.
Notably. it is applied to daily life so that each Buddhist can verify the truth of the Buddha's teaching at a practical level. which is equated with the Buddha himself. a meditative riddle or puzzle) as a device for spiritual break-through. a technique which is part of the Noble Eightfold Path. seon in Korean or zen in Japanese (derived from the Sanskrit term dhyāna. in order to loosen the grip of the ego and to facilitate the penetration into the realm of the True Self or Formless Self. we discover the Self that is living universal non-dual life (before the separation into two) that pervades all living creatures and all existence. Prajñā (Wisdom): vipassana meditation Main articles: Prajñā and Vipassana Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) means wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination. In Theravāda Main article: Jhāna in Theravada In Theravāda Buddhism. the cause of human existence and suffering is identified as craving. analyzing. when thoughts and fixation on the little 'I' are transcended. In order to be free from suffering and stress. Zen Buddhism is divided into two main schools: Rinzai (臨済宗) and Soto (曹洞宗). conducting the business of one's daily life. through its revelation of the true nature of all things as dukkha (unsatisfactoriness). Jhanas are also states which Arahants abide in order to rest. These are believed to be deeply rooted afflictions of the mind that create suffering and stress. . Only understanding (prajñā or vipassana) eradicates the defilements completely. studying. It will then lead the meditator to realize the Four Noble Truths. anicca (impermanence) and anatta (not-self).lead to nirvāṇa (Pāli nibbāna). Zen Main article: Zen Zen Buddhism (禅). Once the conceptual understanding is attained. non-dual Self occurs: ' When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is working beyond them. and the latter (while certainly employing koans) focusing more on shikantaza or "just sitting". and understanding of the true nature of those defilements by using jhāna. the former greatly favouring the use in meditation on the koan (公案. Zen places less emphasis on scriptures than some other forms of Buddhism and prefers to focus on direct spiritual breakthroughs to truth. Thinking and thought must therefore not be allowed to confine and bind one. or any other activity. It is spoken of as the principal means of attaining nirvāṇa. an Awakening to a universal. which carries with it the various defilements. experiencing. According to Zen master.'. Prajñā is also listed as the sixth of the six pāramitās of the Mahayana. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring about bodhi. reading. Initially. Kosho Uchiyama. these defilements need to be permanently uprooted through internal investigation. Nibbana is the ultimate goal of Theravadins. Zen Buddhist teaching is often full of paradox. Nevertheless. The Four Noble Truths and the three marks of existence. meaning "meditation") is a form of Buddhism that became popular in China. one could in theory attain Nirvana at any point of practice. Korea and Japan and that lays special emphasis on meditation. prajñā is attained at a conceptual level by means of listening to sermons (dharma talks). Zen does not neglect the scriptures. pronounced chán in Chinese. hatred and delusion. all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Enlightenment and Nibbana. listening to a sermon. whether deep in meditation. When one is in jhana. and sometimes reciting Buddhist texts and engaging in discourse. These various defilements are traditionally summed up as greed.
visualization. but also includes a vast array of spiritual and physical techniques designed to enhance Buddhist practice. and were later adopted by Brahmin orthodoxy. the roots of Buddhism lie in the religious thought of Ancient India during the second half of the first millennium BC. the most important ones in the 5th century BC were the Ajivikas.g. who stressed that the soul must be freed from matter. though only for some very advanced practitioners. moreover.  Scholars have reasons to believe that ideas such as samsara. nirvana ("extinguishing"). These groups. buddha ("awakened one"). or even as little as three years. Using these techniques. whose members were known as shramanas. these practices can include sexual yoga. physical exercises. karma (in the sense of the influence of morality on rebirth).atman ("Self"). dhamma ("rule" or "law"). who emphasized the rule of fate. it is claimed that a practitioner can achieve Buddhahood in one lifetime. The shramanas rejected the Veda. earlier philosophical thought within the Vedic tradition as reflected e. Tantrayāna. and meditation as a means of developing the mind. It accepts all the basic concepts of Mahāyāna. the Ajnanas (agnostics) and the Jains.Vajrayana and Tantra Though based upon Mahayana. various skeptics (such as Sanjaya Belatthiputta). atomists (such as Pakudha Kaccayana). These movements included. samsara ("eternal recurrence") and yoga ("spiritual practice"). Historically. One component of the Vajrayāna is harnessing psycho-physical energy through ritual. materialists (such as Ajita Kesakambali). Tantric Buddhism. were a continuation of a non-Vedic strand of Indian thought distinct from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism. karma ("action"). Tantric Buddhism is largely concerned with ritual and meditative practices. Many of these new movements shared the same conceptual vocabulary . the Lokayata (materialists). antinomians (such as Purana Kassapa). and moksha originated in the shramanas. or esoteric Buddhism). in the Upanishads. and in some respects continued. as there was significant discontent with the sacrifices and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism. and the authority of the brahmans. who claimed to be in possession of revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary human means. At the same time. they . It was challenged by numerous new ascetic religious and philosophical groups and teachings that broke with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas and the Brahmans. That was a period of social and religious turmoil. In the Tibetan tradition. they were influenced by. History Main article: History of Buddhism Philosophical roots The Buddhist "Carpenter's Cave" at Ellora in Maharashtra. India. Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism is one of the schools that practice Vajrayāna or "Diamond Vehicle" (also referred to as Mantrayāna. besides Buddhism.
As with any ancient Indian tradition. was in fact non-existent. Upāli. Early Mahayana Buddhism. Later Mahayana Buddhism. He declared that the primary goal of Upanishadic thought. a cousin of the Buddha and his personal attendant. Nikaya Buddhism or Sectarian Buddhism: The period of the Early Buddhist schools. so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must have taught something similar to the Three marks of existence. According to most scholars. and.  At the same time. In the first council. Its main scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka and the four principal Nikayas or Agamas. they started immediately after the Second Council. meeting the new ideas with adaptations of their doctrines". According to the Dipavamsa of the Pāli tradition. Ānanda.declared that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging exorbitant fees for the performance of bogus rites and the giving of futile advice. according to some sources. another disciple.  Their leaders. According to him. the Sarvastivada tradition of Vasumitra says it was in the time of Asoka and the Mahasanghika tradition places it much later. recognized by nearly all scholars. Dependent origination. . the Puggalavada tradition places it in 137 AN. were often known as śramaṇas. The primary purpose of the assembly was to collectively recite the teachings to ensure that no errors occurred in oral transmission. the Five aggregates. and Nirvana. Some scholars disagree. the first Buddhist council was held. In particular. Karma and Rebirth. Certain basic teachings appear in many places throughout the early texts. soon after the parinirvāṇa (from Sanskrit: "highest extinguishment") of Gautama Buddha. The various accounts differ as to when the actual schisms occurred. the Atman. and have proposed many other theories. Pāli suttas) of the Buddha. The Buddha declared that priests reciting the Vedas were like blind leading the blind. those priests who had memorized the Vedas really knew nothing. nearly 100 BCE. Scholars regard the traditional accounts of the council as greatly exaggerated if not entirely fictitious. the traditional Brahminical religion itself gradually underwent profound changes. He also mocked the Vedic "hymn of the cosmic man". proposed his new idea of liberation in life. Indian Buddhism Main article: History of Buddhism in India The history of Indian Buddhism may be divided into five periods: Early Buddhism (occasionally called Pre-sectarian Buddhism). including Buddha. Pre-sectarian Buddhism Main article: Pre-sectarian Buddhism Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the earliest phase of Buddhism. the abhidhamma. the Four Noble Truths. Early Buddhist schools Main article: Early Buddhist schools Main article: Buddhist councils According to the scriptures. the Noble Eightfold Path. at some period after the Second Council the Sangha began to break into separate factions. the brahmans thus developed "philosophical systems of their own. was called upon to recite the discourses (sūtras. transmission of teaching was done orally. and Esoteric Buddhism (also called Vajrayana Buddhism). transforming it into what is recognized as early Hinduism. having explained that Brahminical attempts to achieve liberation at death were futile. recited the monastic rules (vinaya). and. A particular criticism of the Buddha's was Vedic animal sacrifice.
These views have been largely dismissed in modern times in light of a much broader range of early texts that are now available. by about 100 CE if not earlier. 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha. Originally. Scholars generally date these texts to around the 3rd century BCE. each Saṅgha started to accumulate an Abhidharma. The Sthavira group offers two quite distinct reasons for the schism. The old views of . with different theories and different texts. but those of disciples and great scholars. Mahāyāna was often interpreted as a more devotional. Every school had its own version of the Adhidharma. therefore. winning side. Following (or leading up to) the schisms. Early Mahayana Buddhism Statue of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. appealed to tradition. The fortunate survival of accounts from both sides of the dispute reveals disparate traditions. Singapore. one of which was the Theravāda school. a detailed scholastic reworking of doctrinal material appearing in the Suttas. Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas. with supposed origins in stūpa veneration. Scholars disagree on whether the Mahasanghika school had an Abhidhamma Pitaka or not. This contradicts the Mahasanghikas' own vinaya. but eventually. or by making parallels with the history of the European Protestant Reformation. schisms were being caused by doctrinal disagreements too. lay-inspired form of Buddhism. The Dipavamsa of the Theravāda says that the losing party in the Second Council dispute broke away in protest and formed the Mahasanghika. The earliest views of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the West assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna" schools. Therefore the seven Abhidharma works are generally claimed not to represent the words of the Buddha himself. these schisms were caused by disputes over vinaya. These Abhidharma texts do not contain systematic philosophical treatises. The different Adhidharmas of the various schools did not agree with each other. Both parties. and monks following different schools of thought seem to have lived happily together in the same monasteries. The Sthaviras gave rise to several schools. Main article: Mahāyāna The origins of Mahāyāna are still not completely understood. but summaries or numerical lists. according to schematic classifications.The root schism was between the Sthaviras and the Mahāsāṅghikas. The Mahāsāṅghikas argued that the Sthaviras were trying to expand the vinaya and may also have challenged what they perceived to be excessive claims or inhumanly high criteria for arhatship. with Sanskrit in the Siddham script. which shows them as on the same.
Tathagatagarbha. Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. Ritual has to be examined as well. and the Mūlasarvāstivāda ordination lineage in Tibetan Buddhism. along with texts concerning Akṣobhya Buddha.  Late Mahayana Buddhism During the period of Late Mahayana Buddhism. Yogacara. and the commonality stems from early Buddhism. but rather that it existed as a certain set of ideals. while those who do not perform these are called the Hīnayānists. Those who venerate the bodhisattvas and read the Mahāyāna sūtras are called the Mahāyānists. and therefore the research has to include research on Hinduism as well. for bodhisattvas. Paul Williams has also noted that the Mahāyāna never had nor ever attempted to have a separate Vinaya or ordination lineage from the early schools of Buddhism. The early development of Buddhism Main article: Timeline of Buddhism . four major types of thought developed: Madhyamaka. 3. Vajrayana Buddhism was influenced by Hinduism. we now know that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks in India often lived in the same monasteries side by side. and Buddhist Logic as the last and most recent. Some scholars have traditionally considered the earliest Mahāyāna sūtras to include the very first versions of the Prajñāpāramitā series. which were probably composed in the 1st century BCE in the south of India. In India. There is no evidence that Mahāyāna ever referred to a separate formal school or sect of Buddhism. distinguishes Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows: Both adopt one and the same Vinaya.Mahāyāna as a separate lay-inspired and devotional sect are now largely dismissed as misguided and wrong on all counts. Madhyamaka and Yogacara have a great deal in common. and they have in common the prohibitions of the five offences. 2. These Mahāyāna teachings were first propagated into China by Lokakṣema. According to Dan Lusthaus. not just doctrine. From Chinese monks visiting India. the first translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into Chinese during the 2nd century CE. Vajrayana (Esoteric Buddhism) Scholarly research concerning Esoteric Buddhism is still in its early stages and has a number of problems which make research difficult: 1. the two main philosophical schools of the Mahayana were the Madhyamaka and the later Yogacara. This continues today with the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage in East Asia. and later doctrines. The Chinese monk Yijing who visited India in the 7th century CE. Therefore Mahāyāna was never a separate rival sect of the early schools. The scriptures of Vajrayana have not yet been put in any kind of order. There were no great Indian teachers associated with tathagatagarbha thought. and therefore each bhikṣu or bhikṣuṇī adhering to the Mahāyāna formally belonged to an early school. and also the practice of the Four Noble Truths.
These two missions.Buddhist proselytism at the time of emperor Ashoka (260–218 BCE). to the emergence of Theravāda Buddhism and its spread from Sri Lanka to the coastal lands of Southeast Asia. and to the island of Sri Lanka south of India. and in the second case. who was a public supporter of the religion. emissaries were sent to various countries west of India in order to spread Buddhism (Dharma). The support of Aśoka and his descendants led to the construction of more stūpas (Buddhist religious memorials) and to efforts to spread Buddhism throughout the enlarged Maurya empire and even into neighboring lands—particularly to the Iranian-speaking regions of Afghanistan and Central Asia. The Dharmagupta school spread (also in 3rd century BC) north to Kashmir. According to the edicts of Aśoka. a century later. in the first case to the spread of Buddhism into China. beyond the Mauryas' northwest border. It is a matter of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries were accompanied by Buddhist missionaries. This period marks the first known spread of Buddhism beyond India. This led. Buddhism may have spread only slowly in India until the time of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. and then to Korea and Japan. and . from Persian and Greek civilization. Gandhara and Bactria (Afghanistan). In the 2nd century AD. and to the development of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra. to the emergence of Greek-speaking Buddhist monarchs in the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Theravada school spread south from India in the 3rd century BC. Buddhist tradition records in the Milinda Panha that the 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek king Menander converted to the Buddhist faith and became an arhat. During this period Buddhism was exposed to a variety of influences. and from changing trends in non-Buddhist Indian religions—themselves influenced by Buddhism. would ultimately lead. Mahayana Sutras spread from that general area to China. in opposite directions. to Sri Lanka and Thailand and Burma and later also Indonesia. and even farther to Hellenistic kingdoms of the Mediterranean. particularly in eastern provinces of the neighboring Seleucid Empire.
were translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism (from 8th century onwards), Buddhism spread from India to Tibet and Mongolia.
Main article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era By the late Middle Ages, Buddhism had become virtually extinct in India, and although it continued to exist in surrounding countries, its influence was no longer expanding. It is now again gaining strength in India and elsewhere. Estimates of the number of Buddhist followers by scholars range from 230 million to 500 million, with most around 350 million. Most scholars classify similar numbers of people under a category they call "Chinese folk" or "traditional" religion, an amalgam of various traditions that includes Buddhism.
Typical interior of a temple in Korea Formal membership varies between communities, but basic lay adherence is often defined in terms of a traditional formula in which the practitioner takes refuge in The Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings of the Buddha), and the Sangha (the Buddhist community). Estimates are uncertain for several reasons: •
difficulties in defining who counts as a Buddhist; syncretism among the Eastern religions. Buddhism is practiced by adherents alongside many other religious traditions- including Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto, traditional religions, shamanism, and animism- throughout East and Southeast Asia.
difficulties in estimating the number of Buddhists who do not have congregational memberships and often do not participate in public ceremonies; official policies on religion in several historically Buddhist countries that make accurate assessments of religious adherence more difficult; most notably China, Vietnam and North Korea. In many current and former Communist governments in Asia, government policies may discourage adherents from reporting their religious identity, or may encourage official counts to underestimate religious adherence.
Buddhism is most prevalent in the Far East. According to one analysis, Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion in the world behind Christianity, Islam and Hinduism. The monks' order (Sangha), which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the oldest organizations on earth.
Theravāda Buddhism, using Pāli as its scriptural language, is the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Burma. The Dalit Buddhist movement in India (inspired by B. R. Ambedkar) also practices Theravada. Approximately 124 million adherents. East Asian forms of Mahayana Buddhism that use Chinese scriptures are dominant in most of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam as well as such communities within Indochina, Southeast Asia and the West. Approximately 185 million adherents. Tibetan Buddhism is found in Tibet, Bhutan, Mongolia, surrounding areas in India, China, Nepal, and the Russian Federation. Approximately 20 million adherents.
Most Buddhist groups in the West are at least nominally affiliated with one of these three traditions. At the present time, the teachings of all three branches of Buddhism have spread throughout the world, and Buddhist texts are increasingly translated into local languages. While in the West Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive, in the East it is regarded as familiar and traditional. Buddhists in Asia are frequently well organized and well funded. In a number of countries, it is recognized as an official religion and receives state support. Modern influences increasingly lead to new forms of Buddhism that significantly depart from traditional beliefs and practices. Overall there is an overwhelming diversity of recent forms of Buddhism.
Schools and traditions
Main article: Schools of Buddhism Buddhists generally classify themselves as either Theravada or Mahayana. This classification is also used by some scholars[page needed] and is the one ordinarily used in the English language. An alternative scheme used by some scholars divides Buddhism into the following three traditions or geographical or cultural areas: Theravada, East Asian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. Some scholars use other schemes. Buddhists themselves have a variety of other schemes. Hinayana (literally "lesser vehicle") is used by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical schools and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as this term is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory, a variety
of other terms are increasingly used instead, including Śrāvakayāna, Nikaya Buddhism, early Buddhist schools, sectarian Buddhism, conservative Buddhism, mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism. Not all traditions of Buddhism share the same philosophical outlook, or treat the same concepts as central. Each tradition, however, does have its own core concepts, and some comparisons can be drawn between them. Mahayana Buddhism shows a great deal of doctrinal variation and development over time, and even more variation in terms of practice. While there is much agreement on general principles, there is disagreement over which texts are more authoritative. Despite differences among the Theravada and Mahayana schools there are, for example according to one Buddhist ecumenical organization, several concepts common to both major Buddhist branches:
Both accept the Buddha as their teacher. Both accept the Middle way, Dependent origination, the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Three marks of existence, in theory, though in practice these have little or no importance in some traditions. Both accept that members of the laity and of the sangha can pursue the path toward enlightenment (bodhi). Both consider buddhahood to be the highest attainment; however Theravadins consider the nirvana (nibbana to the Theravadins) attained by arahants as identical to that attained by the Buddha himself, as there is only one type of nirvana. According to Theravadins, a buddha is someone who has discovered the path all by himself and taught it to others.
This is a rough timeline of the development of the different schools/traditions:
Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)
450 BCE 1200  CE
700 CE 800 CE
Early Buddhist schools
Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia
Silk Road Buddhism
Chán, Tendai, Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren
700 CE 800 CE
= Theravada tradition
= Mahayana traditions
= Vajrayana traditions
Main article: Theravada Theravāda ("Doctrine of the Elders", or "Ancient Doctrine") is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism. This school is derived from the Vibhajjavāda grouping which emerged amongst the older Sthavira group at the time of the Third Buddhist Council (c. 250 BCE). This school gradually declined on the Indian subcontinent, but its branch in Sri Lanka and South East Asia continues to survive. The Theravada school bases its practice and doctrine exclusively on the Pāli Canon and its commentaries. After being orally transmitted for a few centuries, its scriptures, the Pali Canon, were finally committed to writing in the last century BCE, in Sri Lanka, at what the Theravada usually reckon as the fourth council. It is also one of the first Buddhist schools to commit the complete set of its canon into writing. The Sutta collections and Vinaya texts of the Pāli Canon (and the corresponding texts in other versions of the Tripitaka), are generally considered by modern scholars to be the earliest Buddhist literature, and they are accepted as authentic in every branch of Buddhism. Theravāda is primarily practiced today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia as well as small portions of China, Vietnam, Malaysia and Bangladesh. It has a growing presence in Europe and America.
Main article: Mahayana
Chinese Ming dynasty porcelain figure of Guanyin, "Goddess of Mercy." Mahayana Buddhism flourished in India from the 5th century CE onwards, during the dynasty of the Guptas. Mahāyāna centres of learning were established, the most important one being the Nālandā University in north-eastern India.
they are fused into a single unified form of Buddhism. Tang Dynasty. Pure Land. of which "the Pure Land school of Mahayana is the most widely practised today. Mahayana schools recognize all or part of the Mahayana Sutras. the Himalayan regions.Chinese seated Buddha. but will be discussed below under the heading of Vajrayana (also commonly referred to as "Northern Buddhism".". In Korea. There are a variety of strands in Eastern Buddhism. and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin. and Chan/Zen. the Lotus Sutra and the Mahaparinirvana Sutra) to lay the foundations for the later attainment of Buddhahood itself. which is officially Son (Zen). Tendai. nearly all Buddhists belong to the Chogye school. Korea. and faith in and veneration of those texts are stated in some sutras (e. parts of Russia and most of Vietnam (also commonly referred to as "Eastern Buddhism"). Singapore. Vajrayana school Main article: Vajrayana Bodhnath Stupa. Native Mahayana Buddhism is practiced today in China. Nepal . but with substantial elements from other traditions. peculiar to Japan. with popular schools today being Pure Land and Zen. The Buddhism practiced in Tibet. Kathmandu.g. they form separate denominations with the five major ones being: Nichiren. a form of Vajrayana. In Japan in particular. Japan. Some of these sutras became for Mahayanists a manifestation of the Buddha himself. In most of this area however. Chinese Buddhism is of the Mahayana tradition. Shingon.
and versions of a few even in the Pali Canon. Chinese. In Tibet. condensed 'study texts' were created that combined popular or influential scriptures into single volumes . various attempts have been made to synthesize a single Buddhist text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. Vajrayana Buddhism became extinct in China but survived in elements of Japan's Shingon and Tendai sects. are known to the other schools as the āgamas. along with other. Unlike many religions. There are differing views as to just when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice started. and the folk movement led by siddhas became more prominent. The Pāli sutras. Different schools of Buddhism place varying levels of value on learning the various texts. In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures. while a vast amount of what is considered to be Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayāna) stems from the late (9th–12th century) Nālandā tradition. while others take a more scholastic approach. along with some texts that still exist in Sanskrit and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. while the followers of Mahāyāna Buddhism base their faith and philosophy primarily on the Mahāyāna sūtras and their own vinaya. Some schools venerate certain texts as religious objects in themselves. but as these are esoteric teachings. However. In the Tibetan tradition. After perhaps two hundred years. Vajrayana has always been a main component of Tibetan Buddhism. However. Tibet. as Mahāyāna considers these merely a preliminary. The followers of Theravāda Buddhism take the scriptures known as the Pāli Canon as definitive and authoritative.The Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to China.[page needed] Vajrayana combined and developed a variety of elements. Nālandā University became a center for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the source of leading-edge Vajrayāna practices up through the 11th century. this could be considered misleading. These practices. it had begun to get integrated into the monastic establishment. In one of the first major contemporary academic treatises on the subject. institutional Buddhism had difficulty attracting patronage. the Tibetan Buddhists have not even translated most of the āgamas. Buddhist texts Main article: Buddhist texts Buddhist scriptures and other texts exist in great variety. closely related scriptures. Davidson argues that the rise of Vajrayana was in part a reaction to the changing political climate in India at the time. scriptures and theories were transmitted to China. Vajrayāna Buddhists recognise a large body of Buddhist Tantras. Buddhist scriptures are written in these languages: Pāli. teaching. in an increasingly fractious political environment. In the Theravada tradition. it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra. With the fall of the Gupta dynasty. Mongolian. some scholars have referred to the Vinaya Pitaka and the first four Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka as the common core of all Buddhist traditions. Mongolia. However. The size and complexity of the Buddhist canons have been seen by some (including Buddhist social reformer Babasaheb Ambedkar) as presenting barriers to the wider understanding of Buddhist philosophy. a number of which had already existed for centuries. Buddhism has no single central text that is universally referred to by all traditions. China generally received Indian transmission up to the 11th century including tantric practice. and not a core. though theoretically they recognize them. some of which are also included in Chinese and Japanese collections of Buddhist literature. Fairfield University professor Ronald M. Indochina and Southeast Asia. Over the years. and Tibet. Other scholars say there is no universally accepted common core. and they play no part in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan. they were passed on orally first and only written down long after the Buddha's other teachings. while in China it formed a separate sect. Tibetan.
Kāśyapīya. with the emphasis on Zen. Kvu. most of which survive in Chinese translation only. Upāli recited the vinaya. such as the Tao Te Ching. and various other subjects. Vbh. Ānanda. and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. view • talk • edit Patthana The Pāli Tipitaka. Dr. Yam. The Pāli Tipitaka is the only early Tipitaka (Sanskrit: Tripiṭaka) to survive intact in its original language. The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains material often described as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings. but a number of early schools had their own recensions of the Tipitaka featuring much of the same material. Pug. Mahāsaṅghika. the Dhammapada was championed as a unifying scripture. The Sutta Pitaka contains discourses ascribed to Gautama Buddha. supporting material. was called upon to recite the dhamma. stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives. soon after the death of the Buddha. as well as explanations of why and how these rules were instituted. and was committed to text in the last century BCE. which means "three baskets".that could be studied by novice monks. According to the scriptures. Sammitya. Dwight Goddard collected a sample of Buddhist scriptures. The Vinaya Pitaka contains disciplinary rules for the Buddhist monks and nuns. this record was initially transmitted orally in form of chanting. commentaries on other teachings. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements including discourses on the Dharma. combined document of Buddhist principles in "The Buddha and His Dhamma". . Dhk. and doctrinal clarification. and Mahīśāsaka schools. Dharmaguptaka. some early schools of Buddhism had five or seven pitakas. into his 'Buddhist Bible' in the 1920s. Sutta Pitaka DN MN SN AN KN Khandhaka Vin V Abhidhamma Pitaka Dhs. the Buddha's personal attendant. but currently there is no single text that represents all Buddhist traditions. along with other classics of Eastern philosophy. a monk named Mahākāśyapa (Pāli: Mahākassapa) presided. Pāli Tipitaka Main article: Pāli Canon Pali Canon Vinaya Pitaka SV. the first Buddhist council was held. refers to the Vinaya Pitaka. Babasaheb Ambedkar attempted to create a single. The goal of the council was to record the Buddha's teachings. According to some sources. the Sutta Pitaka. Other such efforts have persisted to present day. We have portions of the Tipitakas of the Sārvāstivāda. Later in Sri Lanka. More recently. cosmological and cosmogonical texts.
Hence the name Mahāyāna (lit. but they were taught to various supernatural beings and then preserved in such places as the Dragon World. 'Great Vehicle'. but they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from an earlier period. According to Mahayana tradition. and hence were not given them to remember. which was criticized by Nagarjuna and is in fact opposed to early Buddhist thought) and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha." Mahayana Sutras Main article: Mahayana Sutras Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur. The adherents of Mahayana accept both the early teachings (including in this the Sarvastivada Abhidharma. However. He states: "The Theravadins. reserved for those who follow the bodhisattva path. they had all been promulgated by the Buddha.. non-sectarian body of teachings. the sravakas ('pupils'). [The Buddha's] followers on earth. may have added texts to the Canon for some time. The Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that the Mahayana Buddhist tradition holds are original teachings of the Buddha. had not been sufficiently advanced to understand them. or were preserved in non-human worlds because human beings at the time couldn't understand them: Some of our sources maintain the authenticity of certain other texts not found in the canons of these schools (the early schools). That path is explained as being built upon the motivation to liberate all living beings from unhappiness. which arrogated to itself the title of Mahayana. more advanced doctrines. but is instead the collection of teachings that this school preserved from the early. and claim they were designed for different types of persons and different levels of spiritual understanding. then. According to Peter Harvey.Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically "Theravadin". not one of the eighteen. the Great Vehicle). the Mahayana sutras were transmitted in secret. The Mahayana sutras often claim to articulate the Buddha's deeper. . According to the Mahayana historians these texts were admittedly unknown to the early schools of Buddhists. it contains material which is at odds with later Theravadin orthodoxy. came from other Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. These texts are those held genuine by the later school.
customs and institutions in countries in which it has resided throughout its history. dependent origination can be considered one of Buddhism's contributions to metaphysics. mysticism. the pejorative label hinayana was applied by Mahayana supporters to those who rejected the Mahayana sutras. For example. Only the Theravada school does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. at least in India. As the modern Theravada school is descended from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts. scholars conclude that the Mahayana scriptures were composed from the 1st century CE onwards: "Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century". Generally. Some of these had their roots in other scriptures composed in the 1st century BCE. very different—in fact seemingly older—ideas and aspirations appear to be motivating actual behavior. and old and established Hinnayana groups appear to be the only ones that are patronized and supported. five centuries after the historical Gautama Buddha. and monotheism) Buddhism and Eastern teaching (Buddhism and East Asian teaching) Buddhism and psychology Buddhism and science Buddhist ethics (Buddhism and ethics) Buddhist philosophy (Buddhism and Western philosophy) Buddhism and Thelema See also Book:Buddhism Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded . Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way not only provides a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coexist with various differing beliefs. Comparative studies Buddhism provides many opportunities for comparative study with a diverse range of subjects. in the modern era. at exactly the same period. Additionally.Approximately six hundred Mahayana sutras have survived in Sanskrit or in Chinese or Tibetan translations. East Asian Buddhism recognizes some sutras regarded by scholars to be of Chinese rather than Indian origin. Its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought— for example. and is generally avoided. this label is seen as derogatory. debate exists as to whether the Theravada were historically included in the hinayana designation. with various tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of close study." These texts were apparently not universally accepted among Indian Buddhists when they appeared. List of Buddhism related topics in comparative studies • • • • • • • • • • Buddhism and Jainism Buddhism and Hinduism Buddhism and Christianity God in Buddhism (Buddhism. It was not until after the 5th century CE that the Mahayana sutras started to influence the behavior of mainstream Buddhists in India: "But outside of texts. Also. In addition.
Buddhanet. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 8. 10..vridhamma. page 49. ^ "Buddhism". 1983. Books. 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-25. http://www. Retrieved 201008-25. "Buddha Rising". Lumbini is the birthplace of the Lord Buddha. 2004-05-18. http://www. 2009. Perry. sage of the Śākyas (Śākyamuni). Vridhamma.google. Gethin Foundations. Garfinkel. 6. Early Buddhism: A New Approach: The I of the Beholder. Williams. the son of a local chieftain—a rājan—in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now the Indian–Nepalese . 19.. this is where the Buddha.google. 3. p. Philosophy East and West.net/elearning/buddhistworld/bodgaya. vol 54. ps 269f.com/?id=qjbBKG06To0C&pg=PA111#v=onepage&q=. 266) 5. p.^ UNESCO. Mahayana Buddhism. pp. ^ Major Religions Ranked by Size. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 1988.htm. http://www. Books.google.com. page 47. 2. http://books. 14.or ordered in print. p. U. 7. ^ Light of Wisdom . ^ Sue Hamilton. ^ Buddhist faith and sudden enlightenment . page xx. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. http://books. 1989.buddhanet. 9. 2005: 88–109. (2009). from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Routledge 2000. which states that in the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor Ashoka determined that Lumbini was the Buddha's birthplace and thus installed a pillar there with the inscription: ". ^ "Info on Bodhgaya".net.Google Books. Buddhist Religions... was born.org. Retrieved 2010-08-25.The World Factbook 4. states: "The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama). 275f (2nd ed. ISBN 9789627341376.state..^ For instance.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/ Accessed 20 September 2008. National Geographic Dec. ^ a b c Richard Gombrich. ^ "Principal Vipassana Teacher S N Goenka". Retrieved November 26.google.Google Books. ^ Robinson et al. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2004. Gethin Foundations.com/? id=_A2QS03MP5EC&pg=PA85#v=onepage&q=. Buddhism portal • • • • • • • • • • Outline of Buddhism Index of Buddhism-related articles List of books related to Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Vajrayana Buddhism List of Buddhist temples Buddhism by country Buddhism by region Criticism of Buddhism Footnotes 1. In Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 9780873956734.aspx." 11. CIA .. Routledge.S.org/Teachers-4.com. 1st ed.
which was given to the five ascetics with whom he had practiced austerities. Introduction to Buddhism. p.. Buddha. 1996. Les Sectes bouddhiques du Petit Véhicule. Dictionary of Buddhism. p. 223 "Il n'y a que cinq (pañca) destinées (gati) .^ The Connected Discourses of the Buddha.^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism.^ Harvey. "Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta". Buddhism. 16. In what is said in Theravāda to be the Buddha's first sermon. Foundations. http://www. the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. "The Buddha"." ("There are only five destinies . p.011.. same foods. The Book of Protection.^ Harvey. même durée de vie que les Dieux. T.^ Dr. Princeton University Press. xii.. As for the Vepacittiparisa. ils ont même couleur. 239 22.. Wisdom Publications. 212 says "Voici les thèses des Theravâdin du Mahâvihâra:" ("Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara").^ Lopez.^ André Bareau. Quant aux Vepacittiparisa. 12. Story of Buddhism.^ Armstrong. 2006. Introduction to Buddhism. 107 24. 31. École Française d'ExtrêmeOrient. 16. they marry. same nourishment.^ Skilton. Richard K. Saigon. mêmes aliments. les Asura Kâlakañjika ont même couleur (samânavanna). Piyadassi (1999). Michael. Oxford University Press. 32." However.^ Carrithers. 74 21.^ Journal of Buddhist Ethics: "Zen as a Social Ethics of Responsiveness" (PDF). p. Ohio State University 19. then begins a numbered list of doctrines over the following pages. mêmes aliments (samânâhâra). p. 17. Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Life of the Buddha. 248 23. Suvanno Mahathera 27. p.^ Lopez (1995). Buddhist Publication Society. avec lesquels ils se marient.. 60 . 1. 352 15. Buddhism in Practice.^ Thera. même nourriture (samânabhoga). A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. même nourriture.piya. p. p. 1955. they have the same colour. with whom . same foods. Concise. Payne (ed. Ven. same lifespan as the gods.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56. Tantric Buddhism in East Asia. Wisdom Publications. including on p. 1986. ils se marient (âvâhavivâham gacchanti). p.^ Keown. 25 14. p. in the Oxford University paperback Founders of Faith.") 29. Introduction to Buddhism.^ See for example: The Four Noble Truths 33. 711 26. Kasulis. 377 30. 267 13.. Buddhism.^ Gethin. p.^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume Two).^ Lopez. ISBN 0143034367. ISBN 0691044422. Translator. Penguin Press.^ Keown. p. p.^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol. 1) and the old but specialized study by Edward Thomas. même durée de vie (samânâyuka) que les Peta avec lesquels . same lifespan as the petas. p.. 2004). with whom they marry. 18. He talks about the Middle Way. Vol. Professor Gombrich (Theravāda Buddhism. same nourishment.. 33 28. the kalakanjika asuras have the same colour. 34 25. the noble eightfold path and the Four Noble Truths.accesstoinsight. Boston.^ Harvey. p. P. p.). 10. 212–223: the top of p. Karen (September 28.border.^ The 31 Planes of Existence (PDF).html. 1. 40 20. pp. ascribe the name Siattha/fitta to later sources. p.
^ Harvey. For further discussion of the context in which these statements was made. p. 296 35. Volume One. quarrels. The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions. see SN 12. 1997a). 60 53. see Thanissaro (2004). the path most elaborated in early Buddhism. "What is and isn't Yogacara" 55.^ Harvey. Dharma Publishing 1997. p. 57 50. Introduction to Buddhism. divisive speech. 58 51. Master of Wisdom.^ Eliot. The doctrine on the other hand was kept low. So-called "transcendental dependent origination" (also involving twelve nidanas) is described in Samyutta Nikaya 12. the essential ingredients of Buddhist practice becomes unintelligible. London.^ The Theravada commentary on the Nettipakarana. 1935. In addition. Introduction to Buddhism. 393f. p. Grove Press.65 (e. The Buddha avoided doctrinal formulations concerning the final reality as much as possible in order to prevent his followers from resting content with minor . The Scarecrow Press. 1997).^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu. 58. ascribed to Dhammapala. 60 39.^ "Once we reject the Four Noble Truths. and lies"). ISBN 08108-2698-4.^ Kohn. 143 42. Introduction to Buddhism. ISBN 0140514805.^ Eliot.^ Harvey.^ Harvey.^ This twelve nidana scheme can be found. 324. "Chapter 2".g. Thanissaro. p.^ Harvey. 37. Practice of Chinese Buddhism. Shambhala.^ Harvey. Introduction. Harvard.^ Hinnels. Introduction to Buddhism. 92 38.^ (2004). Walpola (1959). 54. Other "applications" of what might be termed "mundane dependent origination" include the ninenidana scheme of Digha Nikaya 15 (e.. p. 1997c)..g.23 (e.^ Rahula. Oxford University Press. Introduction to Buddhism.. in multiple discourses in chapter 12 of the Samyutta Nikaya—Nidana Vagga (e. 1935. Digha Nikaya 15 describes an eleven-nidana scheme (starting with "feeling") that leads to interpersonal suffering ("the taking up of sticks and knives. xi 57. pp. Edward Arnold. p. Edward Arnold. 1902. 46. London. says (Pali "pamāṇa" is equivalent to Sanskrit "-pramāṇa"): "na hi pāḷito aññaṃ pamāṇataraṃ atthi" (quoted in Pali Text Society edition of the Nettipakarana.g. 1995). 47. xi) which Nanamoli translates as: "for there is no other criterion beyond a text" (The Guide. Dictionary of Buddhism..^ "Experience is . p. Damien (2003). pages 59f 41. 1967. p. 1997b) and the ten-nidana scheme of Samyutta Nikaya 12. Thanissaro. 47 36.. pp. Historical Dictionary of Buddhism. Charles (1993). p. and disputes. Pali Text Society. Introduction to Buddhism. 1962. Japanese Buddhism. ISBN 08021-3031-3. page 56 49. Japanese Buddhism. for instance.^ Prebish. p.^ Dan Lusthaus.^ Harvey. p. 45. (1998). "Is Buddhism a Pessimistic Way of Life?" 43. ISBN 0-19860560-9.^ MN 72 (Thanissaro.^ a b Welch.2. Thanissaro. See Point 3 – The Canon quote Thanissaro Bhikkhu draws attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta.^ Jeffrey Po. p. accusations. The Not-Self Strategy.^ Keown.. 44. John R. ISBN 0-19-509336-4 p294 40. 59 52.^ Christian Lindtner.34. 48. What the Buddha Taught. 395 56." –Jay Garfield 1995. London: Penguin Books. conflicts. see Bodhi.g. 131.
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2008. but has been covered over by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly.. 91. 2005. Columbia University Press. 89. 2002.^ Kosho Uchiyama. 103.. p. Buddhism.. 99. Cambridge University Press.^ Prebish comments (op. 98 100. 1967. New York. 88.). zazen) is an expression of Buddha nature.^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2001. consulted 5 February 2010 87. Huisi's Perspective on the Lotus Sutra as Seen Through the Meaning of the Course of Ease and Bliss in the Lotus Sutra. 94. 2007. p. Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are addressed to "bhikkhave". practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism: The cultural context. Penguin Books. 185 102.jp/0414/kanno2. Delhi. the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature. p. 92. passim) Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder. 81. Sebastian. editors. Alan Wallace. Peggy. Lawton. Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time. that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature possessed by each sentient being . An Introduction to Buddhism. Charles S Prebish. p.pdf. Sri Satguru Publications... He is quoting Carrithers.^ Professor C. p. 2002. Harvard. Prebish (in his Historical Dictionary of Buddhism. Clive A. .^ According to Charles S. Continuum.". Buddhism doesn't really need scriptures. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. page 13.^ Gethin. 97. but a state that can occur instantly when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations. 46). Hisamatsu Shin'ichi.^ Hiroshi Kanno. Linji. Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions (2nd ed.^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey. p. 244): "It presumes that sitting in meditation itself (i. Delhi. Routledge and Kegan Paul. p. p. Introduction. It is just our direct awakening to Self . xv 104. ed. Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes (Zen Masterclass. 1st ed.. Opening the Hand of Thought: Approach to Zen. 1993. they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that does not depend on sacred texts. Oxford University Press. 90. 2007. p. page 89." 98. 781 . It is independent of words or letters and transmitted apart from scriptural teaching. http://www. pp. 287): "Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan. 1993. 2001.85.^ Morgan. 1990.^ Damien Keown. 1989.^ Welch..D.. Contemplative Science. Palgrave Macmillan. 62–63.^ Peter Harvey. Routledge. op. Routledge. According to this view. that provides the potential for direct realization.e. ed. p. 502 95. 2006. p.. page 187. Retrieved 19-07-2009.iop. Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our true way of being in such direct expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. Encyclopedia of Buddhism.^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Sayings of the Buddha." (Hisamatsu. page 144. cit..^ Richard Gombrich. 82 86. 396 93.^ B. Continuum. 1988.^ Sarah Shaw. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Speaking of Zen in general. 147. but that in this context the terms is more generic than simply (male) "monks" and refers to all practitioners. ISBN 9780748623303. cit. 96.^ (Critical Sermons on the Zen Tradition.^ Williams. is our natural state. Mahayana Buddhism. pages 195-196. Buddhism.^ Harvey. Practice of Chinese Buddhism. p.. Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pāli Canon. pp. 165f 101. Routledge.. 12–13): ". and that this is confirmed by Buddhaghosa. pp. New York. eds (2007).^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey. Godsfield Press.or. Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism.
^ Warder. "Rahurkar speaks of them as belonging to two distinct 'cultural strands' . of non-brahmanical origin. 106. It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period (2nd millennium . Philosophy East and West (1972): "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times.. Retrieved 19-07-2009.33 118. P. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ed. Cambridge University — Press : UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0 .^ Govind Chandra Pande. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions. Karel Werner. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices. it is highly probable that it was derived from them.33 .^ Warder. 2000. In view of the fact that this doctrine is emblazoned on almost every page of sramana scriptures. Jaini 2001 "Collected Paper on Buddhist Studies" Motilal Banarsidass Publ 576 pages ISBN 81-208-1776-1: "Yajnavalkya's reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka (a reluctance not shown on any other occasion) can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was. ISBN 81-208-0815-0 Page 18.K.^ Y. Flood (1996).html 119.com/vol4/kamma_in_context.^ Karel Werner. A. Indian Buddhism. A. Curzon Press." Kashi Nath Upadhyaya.^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed at http://www.105.. as already pointed out.. review of L. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times. Indian Buddhism.^ S. (1994) Life and Thought of Sankaracarya.^ Warder.K.westernbuddhistreview.4th century CE). page 76. 114. like that of the transmigration of soul. Western Buddhist Review. 113.. 2000." 111. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas. and Jainism and Buddhism developed specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. Early Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita. and in some later literature. P." Page 86. to an impact of the wandering muni-and-shramana-cult.] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as supreme postulate or article of faith. Jainism and Buddhism. 1989.' He traces them particularly in the older Upanishads. M. The Indo-aryans have borrowed the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Early Hinduism (2nd century BCE . A.^ Dharmacarini Manishini.^ Padmanabh S. Indian Buddhism."The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. Joshi. Wayman also found evidence for two distinct approaches to the spiritual dimension in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.K.K. The Longhaired Sage in The Yogi and the Mystic. P. in early Buddhism." Page 51. coming down from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time. Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi. 110.^ Warder. Buddhism and Hinduism. An Introduction to Hinduism." 108. 112.7th century BCE. Cromwell Crawford..32 107. page 37. A.39 117. vedic deities or caste.^ Warder. Brahmanism. 2000. page 34." 109. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics [. P. A. Challenges to Brahmanism (6th . Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81-208-1104-6 : Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic thinking and tried to incorporate these ideals of Karma." Masih. Indian Buddhism. Indian Buddhism. 2000.^ Gavin D. 1998.K. Page 135.^ "The sudden appearance of this theory [of karma] in a full-fledged form is likely to be due.^ "This confirms that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was accepted by nonvedics like Ajivikism. P. Samsara and Moksa into the vedic thought implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal.2nd century BCE. 115.30-32 116.
sv Councils. 237–272 135. "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 193-194 143. 271 140. Mahāsāṅghika Origins: the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism in History of Religions. Macmillan. Williams. 16. page 85. Indian Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhism 141. Buddhism.. page 21. Introduction to Buddhism. pp. pp. Heritage. Hirakawa (1993). Vol.^ Akira.^ see also the book Bones. is that it was a lay-influenced. Oxford University Press. A. A few good men: the Bodhisattva path according to the Inquiry of Ugra: p. 7 129.35 128.^ Janice J. part 1. vol I. Buddhist 133. Paul (2000) Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition: p. 260 139. pages 9-10. 121. The Buddha.^ Akira. the teacher of the Veda. 4-5 144. Found in Founders of Faith. What the Buddha Taught. Delhi/SOAS.^ Encyclopedia of Buddhism. volume XVI. Vedic religion.^ Williams. This. 11 131. P.^ Richard Francis Gombrich. now appears to be wrong on all counts. University of Hawai'i Press. Paul (2008) Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations: p. 494 142.^ Nattier. and scholastic character of monastic Buddhism. is (jokingly) etymologized as the 'non-meditator' (ajhāyaka). vol 21 (1998)." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004): p. Routledge.^ Skorupski. 137. 2008. 74 136. movement that arose in response to the increasingly closed. Delhi.^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The Origin of Buddhist Meditation.^ "The brahmin by caste alone. 1983. p. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Jan (2003). 4. p. 485. 127.^ Alexander Wynne. and Buddhist Monks. How Buddhism began: the conditioned genesis of the early teachings Continuum International Publishing Group.^ "One of the most frequent assertions about the Mahayana .^ Michael Carrithers. p.K. Oxford University Press. 138. page 120. p.^ Williams. Buddhist Forum. 126.^ Mitchell. A History of Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass: p. Gombrich in Paul Williams. 1993. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge 2007. p. 5.F. London.^ Journal of the Pāli Text Society. New York.^ Encyclopedia of Religion. cold. 1990. by Dr Gregory Schopen 132.^ Warder. Hirakawa (translated and edited by Paul Groner) (1993. pages 41-42." Taylor and Francis 2006. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana: p. or even lay-inspired and dominated. Brahmins who have memorized the three Vedas (tevijja) really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of that night — which constitutes the true 'three knowledges. 1988.^ Walpola Rahula. Nattier and Charles S. 34 & table of contents 130. Prebish. 105) 134.^ A History of Indian Buddhism — Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.^ Harvey.. 97 .^ Richard Gombrich. Retrieved 19-07-2009.'" R. however.^ e. 1986. 2000.g.. 1977.^ a b "Abhidhamma Pitaka. Ultimate Reference Suite. 1996. p." Encyclopædia Britannica. Stones. 2002. 123.120. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 125. ed. 122. pages 38-39 124.
253 150. Travelchinaguide. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass: p.com/intro/religion." 154. Greenwood Publishing Group.^ "Index-China Chinese Philosophies and religions".^ Windows on Asia . page 113. page 95.html.9 151.^ Williams.cuny.^ "Buddhism in China". Paul (2008) Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations: p.org/curriculum/china/bessay1. 1993.^ Carol E. 335.html. 5 146.K. Hirakawa (translated and edited by Paul Groner) (1993. Department of States .^ Gombrich. Rowman Altamira.^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology. Tamney in William H.net .cuny. 8. 2nd ed.^ "Chinese Cultural Studies: The Spirits of Chinese Religion". 166.indexchina.edu. http://www.^ "The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for situating the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all. Academic. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-08-25.^ "Buddhism And Its Spread Along The Silk Road". http://www.Chinese Religions[dead link] 160. 159. whose Indian name has been reconstructed as Lokaksema.org. Sacu. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Culture and Customs of India. Retrieved 201008-25.^ "Religions and Beliefs in China". Delhi. 1993. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass: p. Delhi. http://www. 268 148. "An Introduction to Buddhism.globaled.^ "U.edu/core9/phalsall/texts/lopez.org/religion. http://www. page 42. "An Introduction to Buddhism. 1993. 157. A. 1998.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25. but came from China. The Atlas of Religion.^ Peter Harvey.org. 2002.brooklyn. (3rd edn.^ A History of Indian Buddhism — Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. http://www. Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. pages 236-237. 153. Encyclopedia of Religion and Society.com/index-english/people-religions-s.International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Tibet. Index-china. 9 155.htm. 492 147." Cambridge University Press. page 68. 162. 263. Indian Buddhism: p.^ Joseph B.brooklyn. there was a small. openDemocracy. p. Hirakawa (translated and edited by Paul Groner) (1993.^ Peter Harvey.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338. Routledge. http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 149. 1999). 1993. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE. 152. p.com.sacu.145.htm.^ "The south (of India) was then vigorously creative in producing Mahayana Sutras" – Warder. Hong Kong.travelchinaguide. 164." Cambridge University Press. 158.askasia. 163. http://academic. Routledge. State.^ State Attitudes to Religion (PDF). Swatos. "There were no great Indian teachers associated with this strand of thought.^ Akira. page 135 156.php?no=16.gov. seemingly idiosyncratic collection of substantial Mahayana sutras translated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian.^ Akira. AskAsia. 165.org/teachers/essays/essay. A History of Indian Buddhism.html.^ "SACU Religion in China". editor. 161. Globaled. Theravada Buddhism. Retrieved 2010-08-25. and Macau)"." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004): p.state. 2006. 2002.^ A History of Indian Buddhism — Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.S. Henderson. A History of Indian Buddhism.
175. The World's Religions. Robinson & Johnson (1982) divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" (which pertains to Early Buddhism in India).^ Clarke & Beyer. retrieved on 2008-01-15 171. Warder. 435 183. Perry (December 2005). 13940.Survey Files".^ Gethin. pp.org/articledocs/TheRangeofReligiousFreedom. (3) "The Tibetan tradition. and Vietnam. p. Penguin handbook of Living Religions. Vol. page 1 181. Routledge. Buswell (2003). "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area". page 12 173. and. Gethin (1998). Macmillan. 1.^ Davidson. I. http://crf. (Gombrich. L.^ (Harvey. Oxford Handbook. 107. Sayings of the Buddha. 169. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.doc. and. pp. 2006 176. Buddhism. Buddhism. Ronald M. Juergensmeyer. Journal of Buddhist Ethics.com/browse/tibetan%20buddhism. Foundations. 1984. New York: Columbia University Press. Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982).g. (1996). volume 2. xxix: "c. printed ed. volume XVI. "Chronology. Gombrich (1988/2002). Keown & Prebish (2004). "East Asian Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West. London.com.^ "The Range of Religious Freedom". Japan. and Southeast Asia.^ Philosophy East and West. Retrieved 2007-07-07. See also. page 270 172. pages 440ff 177. page 86 182. 1990).^ A.^ Peter Harvey. page 89 185. ISBN 0231126190. Adherents. Houghton Mifflin Company.hudson. volume 54.^ A Comparative Study of the Schools. pp." Embree et al.^ See e. (2) "The East Asian tradition of China. 2008. http://dictionary. 1935. Edward Arnold. Tan Swee Eng 178. page 9. "Buddha Rising". and. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. 100-1. New York. Oxford University Press. more likely later rather than earlier. Harvey (1990/2007).org/index. 2004.hudson. Prebish & Keown. 168. 180. 1996. and.^ a b c Major Branches of Buddhism. Japan." 179.^ "Center for Religious Freedom . 1995. 2009. Introducing Buddhism. pages 430. Retrieved 2010-08-25. page 114 189. Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism Outside of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia". identifies "three broad traditions" as: (1) "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia.S.^ Keown.^ Smith. pp.^ Gethin. also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism. Indian Buddhism. Harper. ebook. Introducing Buddhism.hudson. p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450. although by that time it had spread to Tibet. Crf.". 1–2.^ Prebish & Keown.^ Journal of the Pali Text Society. China. 108 Fig. also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism".^ Eliot.^ Williams (2000. (2003). 3rd edition (2000) 186. p. page 16 187. page 279." p.reference. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India. National Geographic: 88–109.^ Cousins.1984). 174. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 2005. Japanese Buddhism.org. Curzon Press.167. . also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism". http://crf.cfm?fuseaction=survey_files." See also.^ Garfinkel. Korea. The Selfless Mind. 1987.^ "Tibetan Buddhism".^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One). 170. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion.K. Oxford University Press. 184. page xiv 188. (1958/1988). 82. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE.
• • • • • • • • • • • ." University of Ceylon Review 24 1966. US ed. de Give. Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology. pp. 18-32 References • • • • • Armstrong.) (2003). Donath. ISBN 978-0195137989. V. Encyclopedia of Buddhism.. Buddhism. ISBN 0-14-303436-7. Dorothy C. NY: Columbia U. "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article". Les rapports de l'Inde et de l'Occident des origines au règne d'Asoka. Wisdom Publications. Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna. Penguin Books. 2nd ed. 1.. Stephen N. S. Bechert." insert "Akira Hirakawa defends the short chronology and Heinz Bechert himself sets a range from 400 B. Royal Weiler. ISBN 0-52-131333-3. (1988. Peter Hardy. Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. No. J. 187. (1971). Retrieved 2007-07-11.C. (2003). Oxford University Press. Tharpa Publications (2nd. Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life. Press. The World of Buddhism. ISBN 0-231-06651-1. http://indology. ISBN 2846540365. ISBN 0-19289223-1. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3 (6.^ David Kalupahana. 2004. (ed. ISBN 978-0028657189. p. Foundations of Buddhism. Harrison. Harvey. 1. Delhi. Rupert (1998). page 4 192. ISBN 0-07-017533-0. Bibliotheca Indo Buddhica Series. Mindfulness in Plain English. A. New York: Columbia University Press. (1996). Embree. Theodore de Bary (ed.com urbandharma. Heinz & Richard Gombrich (ed.^ Thelema & Buddhism (PDF) in Journal of Thelemic Studies. Raghavan. Wm. and Andrew Yarrow (1958. Coogan. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings. philosophy. Oxford University Press. Cousins. 191. Buddha. Ainslie T. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-415-07585-8. History and Practices.N.) (1984). page 494 193. The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. ed.1): 57–63.info/papers/cousins/.L. "Sarvastivada and its theory of sarvam asti. MacMillan Reference Books.^ Indian Buddhism.)." and "to 350 B.B. Mark (2006). Buddhism for the West: Theravāda.). a comprehensive review of Buddhist history.C.com Gyatso. Ronald M. L.C. Vol. 2001. none of the other contributions in this section envisage a date before 420 B. Juergensmeyer. Also available on this websites: saigon. ISBN 0231126190. Autumn 2007. Robert E. Dandekar. Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). Oxford University Press. Michael D.190.^ a b MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Bashram. volume I. (ed. Les Indes savants. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. NB in the online transcript a little text has been accidentally omitted: in section 4.) (2003). R. . 2008) ISBN 978-0-9789067-7-1 Indian Books Centre. Karen (2001). 94-105.org vipassana. and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Hay (ed. 1). Bernard (2006)." Davidson. between ". Julian Press. 2002). Richard F. Gethin. 3rd edition. ISBN 1-84483-125-6. reprinted in Williams. (ed.. Geshe Kelsang. 1988). Cambridge University Press. 6th reprint. Gombrich. Peter (1990).). Bhante Henepola (2002). ISBN 0-86171-321-4. Gunaratana. The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Buswell.
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http://www. http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-06. • • External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Buddhism Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Buddhism Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Buddhism.uk/collections/asia/asia_features/buddhism/index. Alexander (November 2001).ac. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. Wei Wu (1960).buddhanet.Notes on Budhism Buddhism in various languages The Future of Buddhism series. http://www. K. Buddhist texts at Sacred Texts.• Berzin. Berzin Archives.berzinarchives.php.vam. Asia. London.com/islam/history_afghanistan_buddhism. • • • Orange Tip Editions Buddhism in everyday life Religion and Spirituality: Buddhism at Open Directory Project "Buddhism — objects.com Ethical Democracy Journal .com/catalog/lazarus.net/pdf_file/whatbelieve. "What Buddhists Believe" (PDF). http://www. Wei. Buddhist Missionary Society of Malaysia. Sri (2002).. from Patheos [show] • • • • v•d•e Buddhism in Africa S o v e r e i g n s t Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) · Djibouti · Egypt1 · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Zambia · Zimbabwe . Sentient Publications.sentientpublications.html.html. art and history". Dhammananda. "Historical Sketch of Buddhism and Islam in Afghanistan". "Why Lazarus Laughed: The Essential Doctrine Zen-AdvaitaTantra".pdf. Victoria and Albert Museum.
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Adolf Hitler Führer of Germany In office 2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945 Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg (as President) Karl Dönitz (as President) Succeeded by Chancellor of Nazi Germany In office 30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945 Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels Born 20 April 1889 .
20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei.Braunau am Inn. . abbreviated NSDAP). commonly known as the Nazi Party. artist. soldier. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and. Austria–Hungary Died 30 April 1945 (aged 56) Berlin. Germany Austrian citizen until 7 April 1925 German citizen after 1932 National Socialist German Workers' Party (1921–1945) Nationality Political party Other political German Workers' Party (1920–1921) affiliations Spouse(s) Occupation Religion Eva Braun (29–30 April 1945) Politician. writer See Adolf Hitler's religious views Signature Military service Allegiance German Empire Reichsheer Service/branch Years of service 1914–1918 Rank Unit Battles/wars Awards Gefreiter 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment World War I Iron Cross First and Second Class Wound Badge Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ].
 Within three years. East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun and. ruling the country as an absolute dictator. Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideals of national socialism. A decorated veteran of World War I. the two committed suicide on 30 April 1945. during the Battle of Berlin in 1945. Hitler joined the precursor of the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919 and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. 1 A n c e s t r y ○ 1 .000 Roma.500. the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. including an estimated six million Jews targeted in the Holocaust and between 500. 2 . for which he was imprisoned. However. Contents [show] • 1 Early years ○ 1 . He attempted a failed coup called the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in 1923. also head of state as Führer und Reichskanzler. In the final days of the war. the United Kingdom and France declared war against Germany. leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe. people with disabilities. antisemitism. Jehovah's Witnesses. He was appointed chancellor in 1933. in which he wrote Mein Kampf. Soviet civilians.000 and 1. Soviet prisoners of war. homosexuals. which culminated in 1939 when the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. and most of Northern Africa. To achieve this. directing the resources of the state towards this goal. to avoid capture by Soviet forces less than two days later. and quickly transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich. By 1945. and other political and religious opponents. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war. Poles. Germany and the Axis powers had occupied most of Europe. he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people. Following his imprisonment. including the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians.after 1934. and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and propaganda. anti-capitalism. he gained support by promoting German nationalism. In response. Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. This included the rearmament of Germany.
C h i l d h o o d ○ 1 . 3 E a r l y a d u l t h o o d i n V i e n n a a n d M u n i c h ○ 1 .
. 4 W o r l d W a r I • 2 Entry into politics ○ 2 . 1 B e e r H a l l P u t s c h ○ 2 . 2 M e i n K a m p
f ○ 2 . 3 R e b u i l d i n g o f t h e p a r t y • 3 Rise to power ○ 3 . 1 B r ü n i n g A d m i n i s
t r a t i o n ○ 3 . 2 A p p o i n t m e n t a s C h a n c e l l o r ○ 3 . 3 R e i c h s t a g f
i r e a n d t h e M a r c h e l e c t i o n s ○ 3 . 4 " D a y o f P o t s d a m " a n d
t h e E n a b l i n g A c t ○ 3 . 5 R e m o v a l o f r e m a i n i n g l i m i t s • 4 Third Reich .
○ 4 . 2 R e a r m a m e n t a n d n e w a l l i a . 1 E c o n o m y a n d c u l t u r e ○ 4 .
1 E a r l y d i p l o m a t i c t r i u m .n c e s ○ 4 . 3 T h e H o l o c a u s t • 5 World War II ○ 5 .
p h s .
3 P a t h t o d e f e .○ 5 . 2 S t a r t o f W o r l d W a r I I ○ 5 .
4 A t t e m p t e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n ○ 5 . 5 D e f e a t a n d d e a t h • 6 .a t ○ 5 .
Legacy • 7 Religio us views 8 Attitud e to occulti sm 9 Health ○ 9 . 1 S y p h i l i s ○ 9 . 2 M o n o r c h i s m ○ 9 . 3 P a r k i n s
o n ' s d i s e a s e ○ 9 . 4 O t h e r c o m p l a i n t s ○ 9 . 5 M e n t a l h e a l t h ○ 9
. 6 A d d i c t i o n t o a m p h e t a m i n e ○ 9 . 7 H i s t o r i a n s ' v i e w s • 10 Sexuali
ty • • 11 Family 12 Hitler in media ○ 1 2 . 1 O r a t o r y a n d r a l l i e s ○ 1 2 . 2 R e c o r d e d i n p r
3 P a t r i a p i c t u r e d i s c ○ 1 2 . 4 D o c u .i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n ○ 1 2 .
6 . 5 T e l e v i s i o n ○ 1 2 .m e n t a r i e s d u r i n g t h e T h i r d R e i c h ○ 1 2 .
7 F i l m s • • • • 13 See also 14 Footno tes 15 Refere nces 16 .D o c u m e n t a r i e s p o s t T h i r d R e i c h ○ 1 2 .
. ever been produced to support Frank's claim. The origin of the name is either "one who lives in a hut" (Standard German Hütte). English heed). Despite this testimony. noting that all Jews had been expelled from Graz in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until well after Alois was born. the fourth of Alois and Klara Hitler's six children. and. and was probably regularized to Hitler by a clerk. were generally doubted by historians. he bore his mother's surname. in his memoirs. This surname was variously spelled Hiedler. so his paternity was not listed on his birth certificate. or is from the Slavic word Hidlar and Hidlarcek. claimed to have uncovered letters revealing that Alois' mother was employed as a housekeeper for a Jewish family in Graz and that the family's 19-year-old son. Alois took the surname Hitler.Further reading ○ 1 6 . "shepherd" (Standard German hüten "to guard". After receiving a "blackmail letter" from Hitler's nephew William Patrick Hitler threatening to reveal embarrassing information about Hitler's family tree. Leopold Frankenberger. Austria–Hungary. Alois' paternity has been the subject of controversy. Ian Kershaw dismissed the Frankenberger story as a "smear" by Hitler's enemies. Frank's claims were widely believed in the 1950s. but by the 1990s. fathered Alois. No evidence had. an inn in Braunau am Inn. at that time. 1 M e d i c a l b o o k s • 17 Extern al links Early years Ancestry Hitler's father. Childhood Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at half-past six in the evening at the Gasthof zum Pommer. In 1842. At age 39. and Frank himself said Hitler's full Aryan blood was obvious. Nazi Party lawyer Hans Frank investigated. Alois Hitler. Hüttler. was an illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. Huettler and Hitler. Johann Georg Hiedler married Maria and in 1876 Alois testified before a notary and three witnesses that Johann was his father.
In defiance of the Austrian monarchy. but Hitler expressed loyalty only to Germany. In 1894. and Hitler became even more bitter and rebellious. Hitler rebelled. His younger brother Edmund died of measles on 2 February 1900. to a morose. his family moved to Kapuzinerstrasse 5 in Passau. outgoing boy who found school easy. It was in Lambach that the eight year-old Hitler sang in the church choir. detached. Hitler attended a Catholic school located in an 11th-century Benedictine cloister whose walls were engraved in a number of places with crests containing the symbol of the swastika. and in Mein Kampf confessed to failing his first year in hopes that once his father saw "what little progress I was making at the technical school he would let me devote myself to the happiness I dreamed of. Despite his son's pleas to go to classical high school and become an artist. but had a troubled relationship with his authoritarian father. There. In 1898. and a way to rebel against his father. however. causing permanent changes in Hitler. he played "Cowboys and Indians" and. Hitler and his young friends liked to use the German . by his own account. the family returned permanently to Leonding. where he tried his hand at farming and beekeeping. Germany where the young Hitler would acquire Lower Bavarian rather than Austrian as his lifelong native dialect. and this became a huge source of conflict between them. He went from a confident. German Nationalism quickly became an obsession for Hitler. the family moved to Leonding near Linz. During this time. His father's efforts at Hafeld ended in failure and the family moved to Lambach in 1897. As a child. became fixated on war after finding a picture book about the Franco-Prussian War in his father's things. and his father who continually expressed loyalty to it.Adolf Hitler as an infant At the age of three. Hitler was close to his mother." Alois never relented. then in June 1895. who frequently beat him. took singing lessons. a technical high school of about 300 students. in September 1900. Most people who lived along the German-Austrian border considered themselves German-Austrians. and even entertained the fantasy of one day becoming a priest. especially in the years after Alois' retirement and disappointing farming efforts. who proudly served the Austrian government. Alois wanted his son to follow in his footsteps as an Austrian customs official. sullen boy who constantly battled his father and his teachers. the young Hitler attended school in nearby Fischlham. Alois retired to a small landholding at Hafeld near Lambach. his father sent him to the Realschule in Linz.
 Vienna at that time was a hotbed of traditional religious prejudice and 19th century racism.. and the latter required a high-school degree. and an intoxicated Hitler tore his school certificate into four pieces and used it as toilet paper. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (1907–1908). Reinhold Hanisch. His sponsor was Emanuel Lugert. After Alois' sudden death on 3 January 1903. Following the school rector's recommendation. He enrolled at the Realschule in Steyr in 1904." Hitler was expelled. 1914 On 21 December 1907. Hitler took part in his First Holy Communion on Whitsunday. Hitler's behaviour at the technical school became even more disruptive. however. Early adulthood in Vienna and Munich From 1905 on. Another resident of the house. which had a large Jewish community. The fulfilment of my artistic dream seemed physically impossible. he and his friends went out for a night of celebration and drinking. By 1910. The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich. but upon completing his second year. It was probably the most painful and humiliating experience of his life. yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school: In a few days I myself knew that I should some day become an architect. for the studies I had neglected out of spite at the Realschule were sorely needed. he lived in a shelter for the homeless. and sing the German anthem "Deutschland Über Alles" instead of the Austrian Imperial anthem. he had settled into a house for poor working men on Meldemannstraße. and was told his abilities lay instead in the field of architecture. After being rejected a second time by the Academy of Arts. it was an incredibly hard road. When he was 21. he ". He struggled as a painter in Vienna. he too became convinced this was his path to pursue. copying scenes from postcards and selling his paintings to merchants and tourists. Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna on an orphan's pension and support from his mother. In 1909. At age 15. Hitler ran out of money. To be sure. including Orthodox Jews who had fled the pogroms in Russia.greeting "Heil". Hitler said he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna. Hitler gave his share of the orphans' benefits to his sister Paula. at the Linz Cathedral. One could not attend the Academy's architectural school without having attended the building school at the Technic. he inherited money from an aunt. Hitler may have been influenced by the writings of the ideologist and anti-Semite Lanz von . Ordered by a court in Linz. never to return to school again. and he was asked to leave. by Adolf Hitler. Hitler's mother died of breast cancer at age 47. When someone turned the stained certificate in to the school's director. sold Hitler's paintings until the two men had a bitter falling-out. I had none of all this. According to childhood friend August Kubizek. citing "unfitness for painting". gave him such a dressing-down that the boy was reduced to shivering jelly.. 22 May 1904. a friend of his late father. Hitler was a "confirmed anti-Semite" before he left Linz.
and Georg Ritter von Schönerer. Hitler apparently did not act on his new belief. can be described only as fateful. founder of the Christian Social Party and Mayor of Vienna. spiritual and social history of Germany in a way that. Wilhelm Röpke. as Jewish movements. he became more interested in architecture and. However. the composer Richard Wagner. . alongside Richard Wagner and Frederick the Great. but the Munich police (acting in cooperation with the Austrian authorities) eventually arrested him. I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing black side-locks. he was deemed unfit for service and allowed to return to Munich. After a physical exam and a contrite plea. Hitler claims in Mein Kampf that his transition from opposing antisemitism on religious grounds to supporting it on racial grounds came from having seen an Orthodox Jew. Moving to Munich also helped him escape military service in Austria for a time. He often was a guest for dinner in a noble Jewish house. Hitler refers to Martin Luther as a great warrior. He wrote in Mein Kampf that he had always longed to live in a "real" German city. and a great reformer. Once. his one-time roommate. Generalising from tumultuous scenes in the parliament of the multi-national Austrian monarchy. Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich. concluded that "without any question. he says. blaming Germany's military defeat in World War I on the 1918 revolutions. Later. leader of the pan-Germanic Away from Rome! movement. and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army. He also identified certain forms of socialism and Bolshevism. after careful consideration of everything. he petitioned King Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment. merging his antisemitism with anti-Marxism." Hitler claimed that Jews were enemies of the Aryan race. There were very few Jews in Linz. Lutheranism influenced the political. which had many Jewish leaders. he was more interested in Wagner's operas than in his politics. As I thought that they were persecuted on account of their faith my aversion to hearing remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. He held them responsible for Austria's crisis. In Mein Kampf. My first thought was: Is this a Jew? They certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. when Germany entered World War I in August 1914. he considered Jews the culprits of Imperial Germany's downfall and subsequent economic problems as well. Hitler may also have been influenced by Martin Luther's On the Jews and their Lies. when passing through the inner City.Liebenfels and polemics from politicians such as Karl Lueger. In Munich. The reason why I did not then perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. I carefully watched the man stealthily and cautiously but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by feature. This request was granted. writing after the Holocaust. according to August Kubizek. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there had become Europeanised in external appearance and were so much like other human beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. a true statesman. the writings of Houston Stewart Chamberlain. he decided that the democratic parliamentary system was unworkable. the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German? If this account is true. and he interacted well with Jewish merchants who tried to sell his paintings. I did not in the least suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic antisemitism. However.
an honour rarely given to a Gefreiter. The English psychologist David Lewis and Bernhard Horstmann suggest the blindness may have been the result of a conversion disorder (then known as "hysteria"). the Battle of Arras and the Battle of Passchendaele. He received the Wound Badge later that year. In 1916. Hitler in the German Army. First Class. Hitler said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to "save Germany. He received the relatively common Iron Cross. In fact. in 1914 and Iron Cross. including the First Battle of Ypres. Hitler's First Class Iron Cross was recommended by Hugo Gutmann. German historian and author. though . who had more contact with more senior officers than combat soldiers. sitting at right Hitler was twice decorated for bravery. referring to Hitler's experience at the front. and this rarer award was commonly awarded to those posted to regimental headquarters. temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack. 1914. Second Class. he was never promoted to Unteroffizier (equivalent to a British corporal). in 1918. argue that an intention to exterminate Europe's Jews was fully formed in Hitler's mind at this time. He was present at a number of major battles on the Western Front. the Battle of the Somme. Hitler was admitted to a field hospital. Hitler's duties at regimental headquarters gave him time to pursue his artwork. Sebastian Haffner. he was wounded in either the groin area or the left thigh during the Battle of the Somme. a Jewish List adjutant.A young Hitler (left) posing with other German soldiers World War I Main article: Military career of Adolf Hitler Hitler served in France and Belgium in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He drew cartoons and instructional drawings for an army newspaper. on the Western Front as a regimental runner. suggests that he had at least some understanding of the military. notably Lucy Dawidowicz." Some scholars. Yet because the regimental staff thought Hitler lacked leadership skills. On 15 October 1918. According to Weber. but returned to the front in March 1917. such as Hitler.
Hitler found the war to be "the greatest of all experiences" and afterwards he was praised by a number of his commanding officers for his bravery. Entry into politics Main article: Adolf Hitler's political views A copy of Adolf Hitler's German Workers' Party (DAP) membership card. Like many other German nationalists. as a humiliation. no submarines. most European nations in the run-up to World War I had become increasingly militarised and were eager to fight. Germany in turn perceived the treaty." had been "stabbed in the back" by civilian leaders and Marxists back on the home front. and politicians across the party spectrum. Hitler had long admired Germany. The treaty was an important factor in both the social and political conditions encountered by Hitler and his Nazis as they sought power. and during the war he had become a passionate German patriot. After the suppression of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. these politicians had had very little choice in the matter. For example. The treaty re-created Poland.000 without conscription and no armoured vehicles. and some think it came as late as 1942. no air force. something which major historians such as John Keegan now consider at least in part to be victor's justice. The Treaty of Versailles deprived Germany of various territories. After World War I. Hitler and his party used the signing of the treaty by the "November Criminals" as a reason to build up Germany so that it could never happen again. although at the Paris peace conference. These politicians were later dubbed the November Criminals. The treaty also blamed Germany for all the horrors of the war. he took part in "national thinking" courses organized by the Education and Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) of the Bavarian Reichswehr Group. Scapegoats were found in "international Jewry". "undefeated in the field. Most historians think the decision was made in 1941. He was shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918 even while the German army still held enemy territory. an army of 100. demilitarised the Rhineland and imposed other economically damaging sanctions. Headquarters 4 under Captain Karl Mayr. Hitler remained in the army and returned to Munich. especially the parties of the Weimar Coalition. there was a nearly total demilitarisation of the armed forces. . especially Article 231 on the German responsibility for the war.he probably had not thought through how it could be done. and the Hoover Moratorium). although he did not become a German citizen until 1932. allowing Germany only six battleships. where he – in contrast to his later declarations – attended the funeral march for the murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner. Hitler believed in the Dolchstoßlegende ("dagger-stab legend") which claimed that the army. the Young Plan. which even moderate Germans regarded as an outrage. He also used the "November Criminals" as scapegoats. communists. The culpability of Germany was used as a basis to impose reparations on Germany (the amount was repeatedly revised under the Dawes Plan.
Hitler traveled to Berlin to visit nationalist groups during the summer of 1921. The party was run by an executive committee whose original members considered Hitler to be overbearing. Infuriated committee members (including Drexler) held out at first. The NSDAP was centred in Munich. or . To publicize the meeting. the party changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or National Socialist German Workers Party (abbreviated NSDAP). who eventually became head of the Nazis' paramilitary organization the SA (Sturmabteilung. anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas. and in his absence there was a revolt among the DAP leadership in Munich. the former air force pilot Hermann Göring. marking the first time this title was publicly used. he claimed to be the party's seventh overall member. both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate a small party. Hitler received 543 votes for and only one against. one of the early founders of the party and member of the occult Thule Society. By early 1921. Gradually they noticed Hitler and his growing movement as a suitable vehicle for their goals. Hitler joined DAP on 12 September 1919 and became the party's 55th member. teaching him how to dress and speak. Here Hitler met Dietrich Eckart. When they realized the loss of Hitler would effectively mean the end of the party. Hitler was discharged from the army in March 1920 and with his former superiors' continued encouragement began participating full time in the party's activities. and introducing him to a wide range of people. Adolf Hitler was introduced as Führer of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. In February. His actual membership number was 555 (the 500 was added to make the group appear larger) but later the number was reduced to create the impression that Hitler was one of the founding members. polemic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles. he sent out two truckloads of party supporters to drive around with swastikas. Hitler responded to its publication in a Munich newspaper by suing for libel and later won a small settlement. Drexler was impressed with Hitler's oratory skills and invited him to join the party. Hitler was impressed with founder Anton Drexler's anti-semitic. rival politicians (including monarchists. They formed an alliance with a group of socialists from Augsburg. which favoured a strong active government. Hitler rushed back to Munich and countered them by tendering his resignation from the party on 11 July 1921. Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. nationalists and other non-internationalist socialists) and especially against Marxists and Jews. but it has been established that this claim is false. Hitler thanked Eckart by paying tribute to him in the second volume of Mein Kampf. reactionary monarchists. nationalist. began attracting adherents. Hitler was becoming highly effective at speaking in front of large crowds. cause a commotion and throw out leaflets. To increase the party's appeal. He was also made the seventh member of the executive committee. liberals. capitalists and communists. the German Workers' Party (DAP). At the next gathering on 29 July 1921. with unlimited powers. social democrats.In July 1919. a "non-Jewish" version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society. The executive committee of the NSDAP eventually backed down and Hitler's demands were put to a vote of party members. Years later. Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (police spy) of an Aufklärungskommando (Intelligence Commando) of the Reichswehr. and the army captain Ernst Röhm. attacking Jews. Eckart became Hitler's mentor. he seized the moment and announced he would return on the condition that he replace Drexler as party chairman. attacking Hitler's lust for power and criticizing the violent men around him. Early followers included Rudolf Hess. During his inspection of the party. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled Adolf Hitler: Is he a traitor?. Hitler gained notoriety outside of the party for his rowdy. Hitler's beer hall oratory. their first use of this tactic. a hotbed of German nationalists who included Army officers determined to crush Marxism and undermine the Weimar Republic. exchanging ideas with him.
Ludendorff. Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a front in an attempted coup later known as the "Beer Hall Putsch" (sometimes as the "Hitler Putsch" or "Munich Putsch"). During Hitler's trial. Bavaria's de facto ruler. Drawing of Hitler. Hitler attracted the attention of local business interests. A Munich personality thus became a nationally known figure. He was soon arrested for high treason. 1923 Beer Hall Putsch Main article: Beer Hall Putsch Encouraged by this early support. Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the party. along with leading figures in the Reichswehr and the police. Hitler assimilated independent groups. the support of Kahr and the local military establishment for the destruction of the Berlin government. He declared that he had set up a new government with Ludendorff and demanded."Storm Division"). Hitler and the heads of the Bavarian police and military planned on forming a new government. Hitler wanted to emulate Benito Mussolini's "March on Rome" by staging his own "Campaign in Berlin". who became Gauleiter of Franconia. led by Julius Streicher. a large beer hall in Munich. and in 1923. at gunpoint. the police dispersed them. As well. Hitler received favoured . when Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow the Bavarian government as a start to their "March on Berlin". The Nazi Party had copied Italy's fascists in appearance and had adopted some of their policies. Hitler and Ludendorff obtained the clandestine support of Gustav von Kahr. such as the Nuremberg-based Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft. On 1 April 1924. Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting headed by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller. was accepted into influential circles of Munich society. Sixteen NSDAP members were killed. Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg Prison. As political posters show. The next day. On 8 November 1923. Hanfstaengl's wife Helene talked him out of it. Hitler fled to the home of Ernst Hanfstaengl and contemplated suicide. he was given almost unlimited time to speak. which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. Kahr withdrew his support and fled to join the opposition to Hitler at the first opportunity. and became associated with wartime General Erich Ludendorff during this time. and his popularity soared as he voiced nationalistic sentiments in his defence speech.
000 copies between 1925 and 1934. and Cowardice) to his deputy Rudolf Hess.treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers. by order of the Bavarian Supreme Court on 19 December.  On 28 June 1925. Mein Kampf was influenced by The Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant. originally entitled Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies. he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (My Struggle. which issued its final rejection of the state prosecutor's objections to Hitler's early release. Including time on remand. where he claimed his privileges had been extensively revoked. was an autobiography and an exposition of his ideology. he had served little more than one year of his sentence. S. selling about 240." [sic]. The copyright of Mein Kampf in Europe is claimed by the Free State of Bavaria and scheduled to end on 31 December 2015. Reproductions in Germany are authorized only for scholarly purposes and in heavily commented form. about 10 million copies had been sold or distributed (newlyweds and soldiers received free copies). which Hitler called "my Bible. Rebuilding of the party . dedicated to Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart. He was pardoned and released from jail on 20 December 1924. Hitler wrote a letter from Uffing to the editor of The Nation in New York City complaining of the length of his sentence at "Sandberg a. Stupidity. Mein Kampf Main article: Mein Kampf Dust jacket of Mein Kampf While at Landsberg. The book. By the end of the war." It was published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926.
1928 At the time of Hitler's release. Hitler centralized the party even more and asserted the Führerprinzip ("Leader principle") as the basic principle of party organization. and soon a more subtle propaganda emerged. Leaders were not elected by their group. Prime Minister of Bavaria. but were rather appointed by their superior. but early Nazi attempts to gain support by blaming these humiliations on "international Jewry" were not particularly successful with the electorate. combining antisemitism with an attack on the failures of the "Weimar system" and the parties supporting it. The party learned quickly. threatening Hitler's authority. standing up behind Hermann Göring at a Nazi rally in Nuremberg. Since Hitler was banned from public speeches. Munich remained his party's mainstay. to lift the ban. A key element of Hitler's appeal was his ability to evoke a sense of offended national pride caused by the Treaty of Versailles imposed on the defeated German Empire by the Western Allies. Hitler pursued a "strategy of legality": this meant formally adhering to the rules of the Weimar Republic until he had legally gained .Adolf Hitler (left). the political situation in Germany had calmed and the economy had improved. he appointed Gregor Strasser. Consistent with Hitler's disdain for democracy. Though the "Hitler Putsch" had given Hitler some national prominence. Having failed in overthrowing the Republic by a coup. based on representations that the party would now only seek political power through legal means. but this faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference in 1926. as Reichsorganisationsleiter. emphasizing the socialist element in the party's programme. Strasser. authorizing him to organize the party in northern Germany. The NSDAP and its organs were banned in Bavaria after the collapse of the putsch. Hitler incurred a new ban on public speaking as a result of an inflammatory speech. After this encounter. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms. who in 1924 had been elected to the Reichstag. Even though the ban on the NSDAP was removed effective 16 February 1925. during which Goebbels joined Hitler. Germany had lost economically important territory in Europe along with its colonies and in admitting to sole responsibility for the war had agreed to pay a huge reparations bill totaling 132 billion marks. answering to them while demanding unquestioning obedience from their inferiors. which hampered Hitler's opportunities for agitation. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Gauleiter Nord-West became an internal opposition. joined by his younger brother Otto and Joseph Goebbels. Hitler convinced Heinrich Held. steered an increasingly independent course. all power and authority devolved from the top down.
99937.power.1 737.6 . 1932Novemb er 1932 01933-03-01 March 1.9 277. Rise to power Main article: Adolf Hitler's rise to power Nazi Party Election Results Seats Percentage Date 01924-05-01 May 1. 1933March 1933 Votes &0000000 &000000000 001918300 0000006500 0000001.100 &0000000 &000000000 006409600 0000018300 0000006. He would then use the institutions of the Weimar Republic to destroy it and establish himself as dictator.300 &0000000 &000000000 000907300 0000003000 000000907 0003.5 18.9 0006.600 &0000000 &000000000 013745800 0000037399 00000013. 1928May 1928 01930-09-01 September 1. 1924Decembe r 1924 01928-05-01 May 1.300 &0000000 &000000000 000810100 0000002600 000000810 0002. 1932July 1932 01932-11-01 November 1.3 09.000 in Reichstag Background &0000000000000 Hitler in prison 03200000032 &0000000000000 Hitler is released from prison 01400000014 &0000000000000 01200000012 &0000000000000 After the financial crisis 107000000107 &0000000000000 After Hitler was candidate for 230000000230 presidency &0000000000000 196000000196 &0000000000000 During Hitler's term as Chancellor 288000000288 of Germany Brüning Administration .4 00018. especially in the paramilitary SA.000 &0000000 &000000000 017277000 0000043899 00000017. opposed this strategy.4 745. 99943.800 &0000000 &000000000 011737000 0000033100 00000011. 1930Septemb er 1930 01932-07-01 July 1. 1924May 1924 01924-12-01 December 1. Some party members.0 . 00033. Röhm and others ridiculed Hitler as "Adolphe Legalité".
and that his Party was a friend. In the process. with Hitler in the centre The political turning point for Hitler came when the Great Depression hit Germany in 1930. On 25 February. parliamentary republic found themselves unable to agree on counter-measures. . they jumped from the ninth-smallest party in the chamber to the second largest. Hans Frank had Hitler brought to the stand to prove that the Nazi Party was a law-abiding party. In 1932. Tolerated by the majority of parties. During his testimony. the states conferred citizenship. had to implement his measures through the president's emergency decrees. This appointment made Hitler a citizen of Brunswick. The Weimar Republic had never been firmly rooted and was openly opposed by right-wing conservatives (including monarchists). Hitler appealed to the bulk of German farmers.An NSDAP meeting in December 1930. lacking a majority in parliament. one of the defence lawyers. communists and the Nazis. Leutnants Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin. His niece's death is viewed as a source of deep. who had been hard-hit by both the inflation of the 1920s and the unemployment of the Depression. however. was 19 years younger than he was and had used his gun. lasting pain for him. Hitler's testimony of 25 September 1930 won him many admirers within the ranks of the officer corps. the interior minister of the Brunswick. Geli.3% of the vote along with 107 seats. and used as their defence that the Nazi Party membership should not be forbidden to those serving in the Reichswehr. he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. admitted quite openly to Nazi Party membership. The republican parties lost their majority and their ability to resume the grand coalition. a Nazi (the Nazis were part of a right-wing coalition governing the state) appointed Hitler as administrator for the state's delegation to the Reichsrat in Berlin. As the parties loyal to the democratic. For almost seven years Hitler was stateless and faced the risk of deportation from Germany. war veterans and the middle class. that the phrase "National Revolution" was only to be interpreted "politically". His 27 January 1932 speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf won him. In September 1931. while the Nazis suddenly rose from relative obscurity to win 18. Hitler's niece Geli Raubal was found dead in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his half-sister Angela and her daughter Geli had been with him in Munich since 1929). an apparent suicide. Brüning's measures of budget consolidation and financial austerity brought little economic improvement and were extremely unpopular. The Reichstag's initial opposition to Brüning's measures led to premature elections in September 1930. who was believed to be in some sort of romantic relationship with Hitler. In those days. Hitler intended to run against the aging President Paul von Hindenburg in the scheduled presidential elections. Heinrich Brüning of the Roman Catholic Centre Party. The new Chancellor. Hitler appeared as a major defence witness at the trial in Leipzig of two junior Reichswehr officers charged with membership of the Nazi Party. When the Prosecution argued that the Nazi Party was a dangerous revolutionary force. for the first time. their grand coalition broke up and was replaced by a minority cabinet. The two officers. Hitler insisted that his party was determined to come to power legally. not an enemy of the Reichswehr. Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913 and had formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925. In September–October 1930. Under these circumstances. so this automatically made Hitler a citizen of Germany as well and thus eligible to run for president. this rule by decree would become the norm over a series of unworkable parliaments and paved the way for authoritarian forms of government. which at that time was forbidden to Reichswehr personnel. support from a broad swath of Germany's most powerful industrialists.
Although he lost to Hindenburg. media mogul and chairman of the DNVP. On the morning of 30 January 1933. The businessmen wrote letters to Hindenburg.The new German citizen ran against Hindenburg. urging him to appoint Hitler as leader of a government "independent from parliamentary parties" which could turn into a movement that would "enrapture millions of people. Also involved were Hjalmar Schacht. republican and even social democratic parties. While Papen intended to use Hitler as a figurehead. Hitler's campaign was called "Hitler über Deutschland" (Hitler over Germany). most powers wielded by the interior minister in other countries were held by the interior ministers of the states). the president reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government formed by the NSDAP and DNVP. The Nazis' seizure of power subsequently became known as the Machtergreifung or Machtübernahme. Reichstag fire and the March elections . the Nazis gained key positions. His first speech as Chancellor took place on 10 February. (April 2009) Meanwhile. besides a reference to his dictatorial ambitions. Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony. Göring was named minister without portfolio. Catholic. Fritz Thyssen and other leading German businessmen and international bankers. As a concession to the Nazis. Papen tried to get his revenge on Schleicher by working toward the General's downfall. it referred to the fact that he campaigned by aircraft. However. monarchist. Appointment as Chancellor This section needs additional citations for verification. Another candidate was a Communist and member of a fringe right-wing party. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Hitler came in second on both rounds. 30 January 1933 Finally. most notably by Papen as Vice-Chancellor and by Hugenberg as Minister of the Economy. the election established Hitler as a realistic alternative in German politics. They financially supported the Nazi Party. who was supported by a broad range of nationalist. in Hindenburg's office. which had been brought to the brink of bankruptcy by the cost of heavy campaigning." Hitler from a window of the Chancellory receiving an ovation at his inauguration as Chancellor. The name had a double meaning. who was given the relatively powerless interior ministry (in Germany at the time. The only other Nazi besides Hitler to get a portfolio was Wilhelm Frick. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the Nazis were to be contained by a framework of conservative cabinet ministers. through forming an intrigue with the camarilla and Alfred Hugenberg. attaining more than 35% of the vote during the second one in April.
including habeas corpus. the third largest party in the Reichstag. or murdered. Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag again. On election day. the German Communist Party (KPD) and other groups were suppressed. the concordats signed by German states and the continued existence of the Centre Party. Though such a bill was not unprecedented. and the government's resources for propaganda. Since the bill required a ⅔ majority in order to pass. .9% of the vote. turned out to be decisive: under the leadership of Ludwig Kaas. It did so in return for the government's oral guarantees regarding the Church's liberty. Parade of SA troops past Hitler – Nuremberg. This "Day of Potsdam" was staged to demonstrate reconciliation and unity between the revolutionary Nazi movement and "Old Prussia" with its elites and virtues. and Communist functionaries and deputies were arrested. the government needed the support of other parties. (April 2009) (Find sources: Adolf Hitler – news. necessitating maintaining a coalition with the DNVP. the Reichstag building was set on fire. 6 March. Because no single party could gain a majority. the party decided to vote for the Enabling Act. anti-communist hysteria. Hitler foiled all attempts by his opponents to gain a majority in parliament.Having become Chancellor. Since a Dutch independent communist was found in the building. remaining the largest party. Hitler appeared in a tail coat and humbly greeted the aged President Hindenburg. forced to flee. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. but on 27 February 1933. November 1935 "Day of Potsdam" and the Enabling Act This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The position of the Centre Party. but its victory was marred by its failure to secure an absolute majority. the NSDAP increased its result to 43. with the Nazis making use of paramilitary violence. The government reacted with the Reichstag Fire Decree of 28 February which suspended basic rights. the fire was blamed on a communist plot. Elections were scheduled for early March. Under the provisions of this decree. scholar) On 21 March. Because of the Nazis' failure to obtain a majority on their own. Hitler's government confronted the newly elected Reichstag with the Enabling Act that would have vested the cabinet with legislative powers for a period of four years. books. Campaigning continued. this act was different since it allowed for deviations from the constitution. the new Reichstag was constituted with an opening ceremony held at Potsdam's garrison church.
As well. The State Party dissolved on June 28. opponents unconnected with the SA were murdered. Hitler's government further suppressed the remaining political opposition. as well as some Social Democrats. all parties except the Social Democrats voted in favour of the bill. stormtroopers ransacked and destroyed every trade union office in the country and 4 May the Christian Trade Unions and all other unions vowed allegiance to Hitler. the Reichstag assembled in a replacement building under extremely turbulent circumstances. The Steel Helmets (World War One veterans) on 26 April were placed under Hitler's leadership with guarantee they would exist as an autonomous organization to be called upon as an auxiliary police force. The right wing German Nationalist Front was forced to incorporate its small paramilitaries into the Nazi SA and dissolved per the "Friendship Agreement". The 60 year old People's Party officially dissolved on 4 July. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references." while Social Democrat Otto Wels denounced the act in his speech. Hitler used allegations of a plot by the SA leader Ernst Röhm to purge the SA's leadership during the Night of the Long Knives. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. On 2 May. and proceeded to politically isolate Vice-Chancellor Papen. Removal of remaining limits This section needs additional citations for verification. . At the end of the day. The Communists. on 14 July. The Catholic Church was given no choice but to support Hitler after dissolution of their Centre Party on 5 July. were barred from attending. transformed Hitler's government into a legal dictatorship. Finally. The Enabling Act. leading to a 10 May court order that all property and assets be seized. Hitler used the SA paramilitary to push Hugenberg into resigning. notably Gregor Strasser and former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. the Nazi Party was declared the only legal party in Germany as big business and the army stood on the sidelines. combined with the Reichstag Fire Decree. Some SA men served as guards within while large groups outside the building shouted slogans and threats toward the arriving deputies. Because the SA's demands for political and military power caused much anxiety among military and political leaders. (April 2009) — With this combination of legislative and executive power. After the rapid dissolution of the Communist Party the Social Democratic Party (SPD) were banned. Kaas announced that the Centre Party would support the bill with "concerns put aside.On 23 March.
This action effectively removed the last legal remedy by which Hitler could be dismissed – and with it. Hitler's cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency vacant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). He was already Supreme Commander by virtue of holding the powers of the president. Hitler and his clique removed army commander Werner von Fritsch on suspicion of homosexuality. nearly all institutional checks and balances on his power. Hitler became Germany's president under the title Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor of the Reich). More importantly. Werner von Blomberg. When it came time for the soldiers and sailors to swear the traditional loyalty oath. acting president until new elections could be held. for himself. Hitler now became Supreme Commander of the armed forces. The Enabling Act specifically barred Hitler from taking any action that tampered with the presidency. He took over Blomberg's other old post. However. Rather than call new elections as required by the constitution. Hitler forced the resignation of his War Minister (formerly Defense Minister). it had been altered into an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler. "Strongest concentration of powers in Führer's hands!" Third Reich . that of Commanderin-Chief of the Armed Forces. On 19 August a plebiscite approved the merger of the presidency with the chancellorship winning 84. As head of state. Prior to removing Blomberg. Hitler announced he was assuming personal command of the armed forces.In 1934. soldiers and sailors swear loyalty to the holder of the office of supreme commander/commander-in-chief. or OKW).6% of the electorate. The constitution had been amended in 1932 to make the president of the High Court of Justice. President Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934. This action technically violated both the constitution and the Enabling Act. The next day. In 1938. two scandals resulted in Hitler bringing the Armed Forces under his control. Normally. no one dared object. not a specific person. not the chancellor. the newspapers announced. headed by the pliant General Wilhelm Keitel. Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (High Command of the Armed Forces. after evidence surfaced that Blomberg's new wife had a criminal past.
The Nazis eliminated opposition through a process known as Gleichschaltung ("bringing into line"). at least for those not affected by the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic. Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband. Laborers and farmers. railroads. with the construction of dozens of dams. Economy and culture Hitler oversaw one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement Germany had ever seen. Hitler went on to gain public support by convincing most Germans he was their saviour from the economic Depression. claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artefacts of propaganda from the era. including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills. mostly based on debt flotation[jargon] and expansion of the military. her family. with Albert Speer becoming famous as the first architect of the Reich. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization. 1934 Nuremberg rally Hitler oversaw one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history. Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. the traditional voters of the NSDAP. While important as an architect in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture. her children. mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. the "Judeo-Bolsheviks". and her home. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht. Speer proved much more effective as armaments minister during the last years of World War II. autobahns. the Versailles treaty.Main article: Nazi Germany Having secured supreme political power. since wages were slightly reduced in pre-World War II years. saw an increase in their standard of living. The unemployment rate was cut substantially. Given this. despite a 25% increase in the cost of living. In 1936. however. Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale. and other civil works. communism. and other "undesirable" minorities." This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. Berlin hosted the summer . This revitalising of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living.
even wider than the old Great Western Railway of Britain. Please consider moving more of the content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow (not to be confused with his more famous uncle. the restoration of the frontiers of 1914. achieving mixed results. In March 1933. a lavish celebration was held in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. Other groups of historians centred around Rainer Zitelmann have contended that Hitler had a deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of German society.Olympic games. Hitler endorsed the "MacDonald Plan". In March 1933. and German re-armament Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini during Hitler's visit to Venice from 14 to 16 June 1934 In a meeting with his leading generals and admirals on 3 February 1933. featuring military parades. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest. An important historical debate about Hitler's economic policies concerns the "modernization" issue. Production was deferred because of the war. Tripartite Pact. Hitler spoke of "conquest of Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives. the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald presented the compromise "MacDonald Plan". and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe as goals for the future. visits from foreign dignitaries. (April 2010) Main articles: Axis powers. which were opened by Hitler and choreographed to demonstrate Aryan superiority over all other races. which advocated Anschluss with Austria. thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners. they were preempted by World War II.  Rearmament and new alliances This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. and that in . the rejection of the Part V of Versailles. Had the railroad been built. On 20 April 1939. correctly guessing that nothing would come of it. its gauge would have been three metres. Historians such as David Schoenbaum and Henry Ashby Turner have argued that social and economic polices under Hitler were modernization carried out in pursuit of anti-modern goals. to resolve the deadlock between the French demand for sécurité ("security") and the German demand for gleichberechtigung ("equality of armaments") at the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva. the first major statement of German foreign policy aims appeared with the memo submitted to the German Cabinet by the State Secretary at the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office). Although Hitler made plans for a Breitspurbahn ("broad gauge railroad network"). Hitler contributed slightly to the design of the car that later became the Volkswagen Beetle and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its design and construction. Switzerland. the return of the former German colonies in Africa. the former Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow).
 In October 1933. offered the new government the legal limit of 100 million Reichmarks to finance rearmament. which had been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. the German Ambassador in Moscow. Alfred Rosenberg in his capacity as head of the Nazi Party's Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Political Office) visited London as part of a disastrous effort to win an alliance with Britain. in a meeting in November 1933 with the British Ambassador. Hitler commented that Germany required several years of peace before it could be sufficiently rearmed enough to risk a war. When the president of the Reichsbank. Hitler informed that he wished for an anti-Soviet understanding with Poland. In a secret speech given before his Cabinet on 5 November 1934. Hitler wrote that a future National Socialist foreign policy goal was "the destruction of Russia with the help of England. Speaking to the Burgermeister of Hamburg in 1933. in the fall of 1933 opened secret talks with Poland that were to lead to the German–Polish NonAggression Pact of January 1934. Hitler pulled Germany out of both the League of Nations and World Disarmament Conference after his Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath made it appear to world public opinion that the French demand for sécurité was the principal stumbling block. and hinted strongly that Germany already possessed an Air Force. Hitler met with the British Lord Privy Seal. and advised to take immediate steps to repair relations with the Soviets. Hitler. Hitler placed military spending ahead of unemployment relief. In June 1933. Hitler's plans were something less than pacific. Hitler stated he had "given the working class his word that he would allow no price increases. which created a major storm abroad." . who during the next five years was to advance 12 billion Reichmarks worth of "Mefo-bills" to pay for rearmament. A more successful initiative in foreign policy occurred with relations with Poland. In February 1934. Hitler was seriously concerned over the dangers of inflation damaging his popularity. In the 1920s.the interval he could win some goodwill in London by making his government appear moderate." In May 1933. A major initiative in Hitler's foreign policy in his early years was to create an alliance with Britain. In line with the views he advocated in Mein Kampf and Zweites Buch about the necessity of building an Anglo-German alliance. Wage-earners would accuse him of breaking his word if he did not act against the rising prices. Hitler found the sum too low. In response. Hitler. Hitler was forced to disavow Alfred Hugenberg of the German National People's Party. 21 May 1935. who while attending the London World Economic Conference put forth a programme of colonial expansion in both Africa and Eastern Europe. In the fall of 1934. In May 1933. Dirksen advised the Führer that he was allowing relations with the Soviet Union to deteriorate to an unacceptable extent.000strong German Army in exchange for a German "guarantee" of the British Empire. Sir Eric Phipps. Hitler met with Herbert von Dirksen. and the French obstinate. the British stated a 10-year waiting period would be necessary before Britain would support an increase in the size of the German Army. Much to Dirksen's intense disappointment. Sir Anthony Eden. Revolutionary conditions among the people would be the further consequence. leading Hitler to state he was after much greater things than merely overturning the Treaty of Versailles. and sacked Luther in March 1933 to replace him with Hjalmar Schacht. and 7 March 1936. and indeed was only prepared to spend money on the latter if the former was satisfied first. offered a scheme in which Britain would support a 300. In spite of intense opposition from the military and the Auswärtiges Amt who preferred closer ties with the Soviet Union. Hans Luther. At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933. the former Chancellor Dr. In his "peace speeches" of 17 May 1933. and until then a policy of caution was called for. Hitler stressed his supposed pacific goals and a willingness to work within the international system. which Dirksen protested implied recognition of the German-Polish border. In private.
.N. especially the Alte Kämpfer (Old Fighters. Nazi Party activists and the SA started a major wave of assaults.000 men (six times the number stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles). the Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA) was signed in London which allowed for increasing the allowed German tonnage up to 35% of that of the British navy.Although a secret German armaments programme had been on-going since 1919.G. Dr. Hitler had excoriated the Imperial German government for pursuing colonial expansion in Africa prior to 1914 on the grounds that the natural area for Lebensraum was Eastern Europe.. Hitler called the signing of the AGNA "the happiest day of his life" as he believed the agreement marked the beginning of the Anglo-German alliance he had predicted in Mein Kampf. During his talks with Simon and Eden." a solution to the "Jewish problem. plus reports that the German public did not approve of the wave of anti-Semitic violence.000 Reichmarks/day to prevent food shortages. no law had been passed banning marriage or sex between those Germans belonging to the "Aryan" and Jewish "races". introducing an Air Force (Luftwaffe) and increasing the size of the Navy (Kriegsmarine). Following Dr. between inflation and the need to use foreign exchange to buy raw materials Germany lacked for rearmament.e. France." "that the government would then have to follow. Hitler had no real interest in the former German African colonies. Italy and the League of Nations quickly condemned these actions. Starting in April 1935. no country took any action to stop this development and German re-armament continued. On 18 June 1935. Later in March 1935. In the summer of 1935. vandalism and boycotts against German Jews. those who joined the Party before 1930. and a pressing need for some 300. i. there were only 5 million Reichmarks available for military expenditure. and hence rearmament. Hitler held a series of meetings in Berlin with the British Foreign Secretary Sir John Simon and Eden. A Gestapo report from the spring of 1935 stated that the rank and file of the Nazi Party would "set in motion by us from below. In August 1935. Hitler first used what he regarded as the brilliant colonial negotiating tactic. directly undermining the League of Nations and put the Treaty of Versailles on the path towards irrelevance. after re-assurances from Hitler that Germany was only interested in peace. during which he successfully evaded British offers for German participation in a regional security pact meant to serve as an Eastern European equivalent of the Locarno pact while the two British ministers avoided taking up Hitler's offers of alliance. Britain. The rank and file of the Party were most unhappy that two years into the Third Reich. However. It was Hitler's intention to use colonial demands as a negotiating tactic that would see a German "renunciation" of colonial claims in exchange for Britain making an alliance with the Reich on German terms. This agreement was made without consulting either France or Italy. Hjalmar Schacht advised Hitler that the wave of anti-Semitic violence was interfering with the workings of the economy. when Hitler parlayed an offer from Simon to return to the League of Nations by demanding the return of the former German colonies in Africa.A. and that continuing . and who tended to be the most ardent anti-Semitics in the Party). and despite countless promises by Hitler prior to 1933." As a result. not Africa. and the SA into lashing out against Germany's Jewish minority as a way of expressing their frustrations against a group that the authorities would not generally protect. In Mein Kampf. Hitler rejected Part V of the Versailles treaty by publicly announcing that the German army would be expanded to 600. in June 1935 Hitler ordered the next step in the creation of an Anglo-German alliance: taking all the societies demanding the restoration of the former German African colonies and coordinating (Gleichschaltung) them into a new Reich Colonial League (Reichskolonialbund) which over the next few years waged an extremely aggressive propaganda campaign for colonial restoration. Hitler was informed that. After the signing of the A. Schacht's complaints. disenchantment with how the Third Reich had developed in practice as opposed to what been promised led many in the Nazi Party. in March 1935.
Hitler ordered a stop to "individual actions" against German Jews on 8 August 1935. The laws of September 1935 are generally known as the Nuremberg Laws. In an interview with the French journalist Bertrand de Jouvenel in February 1936. the Spanish Civil War began when the military. Expansion to the East. Given the economic problems which was affecting his popularity by early 1936. Dr. Hitler ordered 60 million Reichmarks of foreign exchange to be used to buy seed oil for German farmers. In August 1936. a decision that led to bitter complaints from Dr. Hitler felt that the Italian aggression opened great opportunities for Germany. . Hitler hurriedly ordered two civil servants. Bernhard Lösener and Franz Albrecht Medicus of the Interior Ministry to fly to Nuremberg to start drafting antiSemitic laws for Hitler to present to the Reichstag for 15 September. The annual Nazi Party Rally held at Nuremberg in September 1935 was to feature the first session of the Reichstag held at that city since 1543. Hitler issued the "Four-Year Plan Memorandum" ordering Hermann Göring . though precisely which parts were out of date was left unclear. in order to prevent further food shortages and the introduction of rationing. the German Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath persuaded Hitler to cancel his speech praising Italy for her willingness to commit aggression. Hitler had planned to have the Reichstag pass a law making the Nazi Swastika flag the flag of the German Reich. Neurath convinced Hitler that his speech was too provocative to public opinion abroad as it contradicted the message of Hitler's "peace speeches". and Spain served as a testing ground for Germany's new forces and their methods. In October 1935. Hitler again violated the Versailles treaty by reoccupying the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland. thus leaving Hitler with the sudden need to have something else to address the first meeting of the Reichstag in Nuremberg since 1543. other than the Reich Flag Law." At the last minute before the Nuremberg Party Rally was due to begin. led by General Francisco Franco. Hitler felt the pressing need for a foreign policy triumph as a way of distracting public attention from the economy. rebelled against the elected Popular Front government. and deprived "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship. Hitler appeared to disavow Mein Kampf by saying that parts of his book were now out of date and he was not guided by them. and a major speech in support of the impending Italian aggression against Ethiopia. Schacht and the War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg that it would be impossible to achieve rearmament as long as foreign exchange was diverted to preventing food shortages. and his sympathies were with the Party radicals. In August 1935. the employment of Aryan woman under the age of 45 in Jewish households. . Good relationship with Poland . In July 1936. then Germany would commit to sending twelve divisions to the Far East to protect British colonial possessions there from a Japanese attack. Hitler sent troops to support Franco. Hitler continued with his efforts to create an Anglo-German alliance. Conflicts Italy-Abyssinia-England. especially because Hitler had only reluctantly given the halt order for pragmatic reasons. After receiving an appeal for help from General Franco in July 1936. In March 1936. At the same time. it was imperative to bring in harsh new anti-Semitic laws as a consolation prize for those Party members who were disappointed with Hitler's halt order of 8 August. In July 1936. then Japan-Russia imminent. he offered to Phipps a promise that if Britain were to sign an alliance with the Reich. The Baltic belongs to us . On the evening of 15 September. . . he grew bolder.police toleration of the violence was hurting the regime's popularity with the wider public. From Hitler's perspective. Hitler told Goebbels his foreign policy vision as: "With England eternal alliance. in response to a growing crisis in the German economy caused by the strains of rearmament. Hitler's offer was refused. On 13 September 1935. In the spring of 1936 in response to requests from Richard Walther Darré. When Britain and France did nothing. Hitler presented two laws before the Reichstag banning sex and marriage between Aryan and Jewish Germans. Hitler reluctantly ordered cuts in military spending.
Robert Bosch of Robert Bosch GmbH. which all owe unqualified service in this struggle for the self-assertion of our nation. . . and that from this compulsion there arises a series of conclusions relating to the most important tasks that our people have ever been set. and another faction around Göring calling for the opposite. The "Four-Year Plan Memorandum" predicated an imminent all-out. Carl Friedrich Goerdeler calling for decreased military spending and a turn away from autarkic policies. In the memo. then Germany will be lost!" and "The nation does not live for the economy. indeed the annihilation of the German people . . Hitler called for Germany to have the world's "first army" in terms of fighting power within the next four years and that "the extent of the military development of our resources cannot be too large. who had something of a phobia about writing. which was written personally by Hitler. the German government was divided into two factions. No state will be able to withdraw or even remain at a distance from this historical conflict . can be gauged by the fact that Hitler. whose essence and aim. Hitler hesitated for the first half of 1936 before siding with the more radical faction in his "Four Year Plan" memo of August. with one (the so-called "free market" faction) centring around the Reichsbank President Hjalmar Schacht and the former Price Commissioner Dr. but rather the contrary was the case) against the "primacy of economics" approach championed by Marxist historians (that Hitler was an "agent" of and subordinate to German business). . Hitler wrote: Since the outbreak of the French Revolution. and to protect herself against it. During the 1936 economic crisis. I only want."[clarification needed] Documents such as the Four Year Plan Memo have often been used by right historians such as Henry Ashby Turner and Karl Dietrich Bracher who argue for a "primacy of politics" approach (that Hitler was not subordinate to German business. for economic leaders. or for economic or financial theories.to carry out the Four Year Plan to have the German economy ready for war within the next four years. Supporting the "free-market" faction were some of Germany's leading business executives. For a victory of Bolshevism over Germany would not lead to a Versailles treaty. . but to the final destruction. economic leaders and theories. are solely the elimination of those strata of mankind which have hitherto provided the leadership and their replacement by worldwide Jewry. however. on the contrary. I consider it necessary for the Reichstag to pass the following two laws: 1) A law providing the death penalty for economic sabotage and 2) A law making the whole of Jewry liable for all damage inflicted by individual specimens of this community of criminals upon the German economy. the world has been moving with ever increasing speed toward a new conflict. there must at particular times be certain disturbances of the balance at the expense of other less vital tasks. ." Hitler went on to write that given the magnitude of the coming struggle that the concerns expressed by members of the "free market" faction like Schacht and Goerdeler that the current level of military spending was bankrupting Germany were irrelevant. in these lines. nor its pace too swift" (italics in the original) and the role of the economy was simply to support "Germany's self-assertion and the extension of her Lebensraum. the most extreme solution of which is called Bolshevism. Hitler wrote that: "However well balanced the general pattern of a nation's life ought to be. it is finance and the economy. which indicates that Hitler had something especially important to say. Historians such as Richard Overy have argued that the importance of the memo. and thus upon the German people. . to set down my conviction that this crisis cannot and will not fail to arrive and that it is Germany's duty to secure her own existence by every means in face of this catastrophe. which necessitated a total effort at rearmament regardless of the economic costs. apocalyptic struggle between "JudoBolshevism" and German National Socialism. and Albert Voegeler of Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG. It is not the aim of this memorandum to prophesy the time when the untenable situation in Europe will become an open crisis. hardly ever wrote anything down. If we do not succeed in bringing the German army as rapidly as possible to the rank of premier army in the world . most notably Hermann Duecher of AEG.
I have sent you as the best man I've got. get Britain to join the Anti-Comintern Pact. On 25 November of the same year. Italy and Poland to adhere. . in November 1937. of the invited powers only the Italians were to sign the pact. a brother of emperor Hirohito. However. But if in future all our efforts are still in vain. James's. . But I think it would be a short war and the moment it is over. But get on with it. the freelance Nazi diplomat Joachim von Ribbentrop was appointed German Ambassador to the Embassy of Germany in London at the Court of St. . then I'm ready for war as well. as Hitler refused the Japanese request to halt German arms shipments to China or withdraw the German officers serving with the Chinese in the Second Sino-Japanese War. the meeting with Prince Chichibu had little consequence. that is what I want most of all.In August 1936. China. Both the military and the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) were strongly opposed to ending the informal German alliance with China that existed since the 1910s. it was folly to seek an alliance with Japan that would have the inevitable result of ending the Sino-German alignment. I will then be ready at any time to offer the British an honourable peace acceptable to both sides. To strengthen relationships with Japan. Do your best. On 25 October 1936. Do what you can . Before Ribbentrop left to take up his post in October 1936. an Axis was declared between Italy and Germany An Axis was declared between Germany and Italy by Count Galeazzo Ciano. invitations were sent out for Britain. However. there it is. At the time of the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. you have the trumps in your hand. The Auswärtiges Amt and the military both argued to Hitler that given the foreign exchange problems which afflicted German rearmament. Hitler met in 1937 in Nuremberg Prince Chichibu. . foreign minister of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini on 25 October 1936. I would regret it very much. play them well. but if it has to be. I'm ready at any time for an air pact as well. . Ribbentrop. I will follow your efforts with interest". and pressured Hitler to avoid offending the Chinese. Germany concluded the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan. I would then demand that Britain join the Anti-Comintern Pact or perhaps some other pact. and the fact that various Sino-German economic agreements provided Germany with raw materials that would otherwise use up precious foreign exchange. Hitler told him: "Ribbentrop . fair enough.
 Late in November 1937. Hitler received as his guest the British Lord Privy Seal. In a talk with the League of Nations High Commissioner for the Free City of Danzig. at the Reich Chancellory. Hitler had suffered severely from stomach pains and eczema in 1936–37. leaving him with only a few years to obtain the necessary Lebensraum. and if a Franco-German war broke out. then Britain was almost certain to intervene rather than risk the chance of a French defeat. Blomberg and Fritsch had no moral objections to German aggression. Moreover.By the latter half of 1937. Goebbels noted in his diary Hitler now wished to see the "Great Germanic Reich" he envisioned in his own lifetime rather than leaving the work of building the "Great Germanic Reich" to his successors. Hitler made clear his view of Britain as an ideal ally. the War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg." but if necessary "against Britain. he would probably follow suit." Hitler's intentions outlined in the Hossbach memorandum led to strong protests from the Foreign Minister. The aggression against Austria and Czechoslovakia were intended to be the first of a series of localized wars in Eastern Europe that would secure Germany's position in Europe before the final showdown with Britain and France. Fritsch. Amongst these questions were Danzig. England was interested to see that any alterations should come through the course of peaceful . that any German aggression in Eastern Europe was bound to trigger a war with France because of the French alliance system in Eastern Europe (the so-called cordon sanitaire). In the memo. Blomberg and Neurath all argue that Hitler was pursuing an extremely high-risk strategy of localized wars in Eastern Europe that was most likely to cause a general war before Germany was ready for such a conflict. leading to his remark to the Nazi Party's propaganda leadership in October 1937 that because both parents died early in their lives. but rather based their opposition on the question of timing – determining the best time for aggression. About the same time. Hitler protested what he regarded as British interference in the "German sphere" in Europe. and advised Hitler to wait until Germany had more time to rearm. and the Army Commander General Werner von Fritsch. Halifax told Hitler that: "All other questions fall into the category of possible alterations in the European order which might be destined to come about with the passage of time. though in the same talk." preferably "with Britain. blaming "inadequate" British leadership for turning down his offers of an alliance. which for pure selfishness was blocking German plans. Neurath. Hitler stated the conference minutes were to be regarded as his "political testament" in the event of his death. Speaking of changes to Germany's frontiers. A striking change in the Hossbach Memo was Hitler's changed view of Britain from the prospective ally of 1928 in the Zweites Buch to the "hate-inspired antagonist" of 1937 in the Hossbach memo. Dr. Hitler had abandoned his dream of an Anglo-German alliance. Adolf Hitler held a secret meeting with the War and Foreign Ministers and the three service chiefs. Hitler was recorded as saying that such a state of crisis had been reached in the German economy that the only way of stopping a severe decline in living standards in Germany was to embark sometime in the near-future on a policy of aggression by seizing Austria and Czechoslovakia. the Swiss diplomat Carl Jacob Burckhardt in September 1937. On 5 November 1937. Hitler stated that the arms race meant that time for action had to occur before Britain and France obtained a permanent lead in the arms race. He ordered the attendees to make plans for war in the east no later than 1943 in order to acquire Lebensraum. Austria and Czechoslovakia. Lord Halifax who was visiting Germany ostensibly as part of a hunting trip. Baron Konstantin von Neurath. and stated his intentions for acquiring "living space" Lebensraum for the German people. recorded in the Hossbach Memorandum. The historian Klaus Hildebrand described the memo as the start of an "ambivalent course" towards Britain while the late historian Andreas Hillgruber argued that Hitler was embarking on expansion "without Britain.
eugenics. many died as a result of starvation and disease while working as slave labourers (sometimes benefiting private German companies). Soviet prisoners of war (possibly as many as three million). a pseudo-science that advocated racial purity. It was based on the ideas of Arthur de Gobineau. assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries. Hitler was most unhappy with the criticism of his intentions expressed by Neurath. not peacetime. but was carrying out a foreign policy aiming at war.  The Holocaust Main article: The Holocaust An American soldier stands in front of a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration camp One of the foundations of Hitler's social policies was the concept of racial hygiene. Jehovah's . Halifax made clear in his statements to Hitler—though whether Hitler appreciated the significance of this or not is unclear—that any possible territorial changes had to be accomplished peacefully. and by sacking Neurath as Foreign Minister on 4 February 1938. and in early 1938 asserted his control of the military-foreign policy apparatus through the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair. role and title of the Oberster Befehlshaber der Wehrmacht (supreme commander of the armed forces). The Official German history of World War II has argued that from early 1938 onwards. ghettos and mass executions. including about six million Jews. Applied to human beings. and social Darwinism. In addition to those gassed to death." The first victims were children with physical and developmental disabilities. After a public outcry. the SS. members of resistance groups. assuming the rank. the abolition of the War Ministry and its replacement by the OKW. would not tolerate territorial changes via war. the physically handicapped and mentally retarded. Roma. Hitler seems to have misunderstood Halifax's remarks as confirming his conviction that Britain would just stand aside while he pursued his strategy of limited wars in Eastern Europe. non-Jewish Poles. and Fritsch in the Hossbach Memo. in concentration camps." Significantly. or through less systematic methods elsewhere. homosexuals. Blomberg. Along with Jews. Hitler made a show of ending this program.evolution and that the methods should be avoided which might cause far-reaching disturbances. those killings occurred in a programme dubbed Action T4. systematically killed somewhere between 11 and 14 million people. but the killings continued (see Nazi eugenics). and that though Britain had no security commitments in Eastern Europe beyond the Covenant of the League of Nations. "survival of the fittest" was interpreted as requiring racial purity and killing off "life unworthy of life. Between 1939 and 1945. a French count. Hitler was not carrying out a foreign policy that had carried a high risk of war. Communists and political opponents. The British economic historian Richard Overy commented that the establishment of the OKW in February 1938 was a clear sign of what Hitler's intentions were since supreme headquarters organizations such as the OKW are normally set up during wartime.
and that he was kept well informed about their activities. On 22 February. there is documentation showing that he approved the Einsatzgruppen killing squads that followed the German army through Poland and Russia. While no specific order from Hitler authorizing the mass killing has surfaced. The evidence also suggests that in the fall of 1941 Himmler and Hitler decided upon mass extermination by gassing.Witnesses. World War II Main article: World War II Early diplomatic triumphs Alliance with Japan Main article: German–Japanese relations Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka with Hitler in Berlin In February 1938. Hitler's valet Heinz Linge and his military aide Otto Gunsche said Hitler had "pored over the first blueprints of gas chambers. and psychiatric patients were killed. During interrogations by Soviet intelligence officers declassified over fifty years later. One of the biggest centres of mass-killing was the industrial extermination camp complex of AuschwitzBirkenau. Hitler was recorded saying to his associates." His private secretary. . the socalled "China Lobby" who tried to steer German foreign policy away from war in Europe. trade unionists. The records of this meeting provide the clearest evidence of planning for the Holocaust. The military at the time strongly favoured continuing Germany's alliance with China. Adventists. testified that Hitler knew all about the death camps. The Holocaust (the "Endlösung der jüdischen Frage" or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") was planned and ordered by leading Nazis. the Wannsee conference was held on 20 January 1942. China had the support of Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath and War Minister Werner von Blomberg. with fifteen senior officials participating (including Adolf Eichmann) and led by Reinhard Heydrich. To make for smoother cooperation in the implementation of this "Final Solution". "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". Hitler finally ended the dilemma that had plagued German Far Eastern policy: whether to continue the informal Sino-German alliance that had existed with the Republic of China since the 1910s or to create a new alliance with Japan. Hitler never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killing in precise terms. with Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich playing key roles. As far as is known. Göring gave a written authorisation to Heydrich to "make all necessary preparations" for a "total solution of the Jewish question". Traudl Junge.
he intensified a crisis over the German-speaking Sudetenland districts of Czechoslovakia. Hitler pressured Austria into unification with Germany (the Anschluss) and made a triumphant entry into Vienna on 14 March. he would always raise still higher demands . depriving the Germans of raw materials such as tungsten that the Chinese had previously provided.Both men. and Prague's refusal to meet Henlein's demands. In an address to the Reichstag. The ending of the Sino-German alignment increased the problems of German rearmament. (April 2010) In March 1938. his real intentions being to use the Sudeten question as the justification both at home and abroad for a war of aggression to destroy Czechoslovakia. relentless propaganda attacks about the supposed ill treatment of the Sudetenlanders. as the Germans were now forced to use their limited supply of foreign exchange to buy raw materials on the open market. who was more interested in Lebensraum in Eastern Europe than in participating in international consortiums. Austria and Czechoslovakia This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Next. and to complete the so-called "West Wall" to guard the Rhineland. During the Hitler-Henlein meetings. Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek canceled all Sino-German economic agreements. and finally. the largest of the ethnic German parties of the Sudetenland. rejected the British offer. Hitler ordered an end to arms shipments to China. Since Hitler wished to have the fall harvest brought in as much as possible.  . "incidents" between Heimfront activists and the Czechoslovak authorities to justify an invasion that would swiftly destroy Czechoslovakia in a few days campaign before other powers could act. In April 1938. Hitler argued that it was totally outrageous on Britain's part to impose conditions on German conduct in Europe as the price for territory in Africa. Please consider moving more of the content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. were sacked by Hitler in early 1938. Moreover... not an international consortium running Central Africa. On 28–29 March 1938. the date for the invasion was chosen for late September or early October 1938. he wanted to sabotage an understanding by all means because this was the only method to blow up Czechoslovakia quickly". and ordered the recall of all the German officers attached to the Chinese Army. Hitler held a series of secret meetings in Berlin with Konrad Henlein of the Sudeten Heimfront (Home Front). the British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson met with Hitler and presented on behalf of his government a proposal for an international consortium to rule much of Africa (in which Germany would be assigned a leading role) in exchange for a German promise never to resort to war to change the frontiers. Hitler announced German recognition of Manchukuo. Henlein told the foreign minister of Hungary that "whatever the Czech government might offer. In private. Hitler ended the conversation by telling Henderson he would rather wait 20 years for the return of the former colonies than accept British conditions for avoiding war. under the grounds of self-determination. the strongly pro-Japanese Joachim von Ribbentrop. and renounced the German claims to the former colonies in the Pacific held by Japan. Hitler considered the Sudeten issue unimportant. the Japanese-occupied puppet state in Manchuria. Hitler. Hitler's plans called for a massive military build-up along the Czechoslovak border. Hitler chose to end the alliance with China to gain an alignment with the more modern and powerful Japan. Upon the advice of Hitler's newly appointed Foreign Minister. however. On 3 March 1938. it was agreed that Henlein would provide the pretext for German aggression against Czechoslovakia by making demands on Prague for increased autonomy for Sudeten Germans that Prague could never be reasonably expected to fulfill. In retaliation for ending German support to China in its war against Japan. using as his excuse that he wanted the former German African colonies returned to the Reich.
G. At the conference of 28 May 1938.A. highly "furious" with the perception that he had been forced to back down by the Czechoslovak mobilization and the warnings from London and Paris. The Chief of the General Staff. However. . when he had. Hitler called Beck's arguments against war "kindische Kräfteberechnungen" ("childish power play calculations").In April 1938. the plan would only work if both Britain and France made it known to the world that they would fight to preserve Czechoslovakia. However his replacement. to arrest Hitler the moment he gave the invasion order. General Franz Halder. In the immediate aftermath of the May crisis. protested in a lengthy series of memos that Fall Grün would start a world war that Germany would lose. Beck hoped they would all resign together but no one resigned except Beck. drawn at Hitler's orders. Hitler ordered the OKW to start preparing plans for Fall Grün (Case Green). Hitler ordered an acceleration of German naval building beyond the limits of the A.. envisaged the Royal Navy for the first time as the principal opponent of the Kriegsmarine. On 4 August 1938. and in the "Heye memorandum". erroneous reports of major German troop movements along the Czechoslovak border just prior to the elections. Hitler expressed his belief that Britain would not risk a war until British rearmament was complete. a secret Army meeting was held at which Beck read his report. This would help to convince the German people that certain defeat awaited Germany. and expansion "against Britain" was the only viable course. Further increasing the tension in Europe was the May Crisis of 19–22 May 1938. to use the words of an aide. Hitler. the May Crisis and the perception of a diplomatic defeat further reinforced Hitler in his chosen course. the killing of two ethnic Germans by the Czechoslovak police. England and France". and Germany should in a series of wars eliminate France and her allies in Europe in the interval in the years 1938– 41 while German rearmament was still ahead. and urged Hitler to put off the projected war. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (Chief of German Intelligence) and Graf von Helldorf (Berlin's Police Chief). the codename for an invasion of Czechoslovakia. which led to a partial Czechoslovak mobilization and firm warnings from London against a German move against Czechoslovakia before it was realized that no invasion was intended for that weekend. Hitler's determination to go through with Fall Grün in 1938 provoked a major crisis in the German command structure. Though plans had already been drafted in April 1938 for an invasion of Czechoslovakia in the near future. in fact. General Ludwig Beck. They agreed something had to be done to prevent certain disaster. it was believed in London that such a course of action was indeed being considered in Berlin. Hitler declared that it was his "unalterable" decision to "smash Czechoslovakia" by 1 October of the same year. which was explained as securing the eastern flank "for advancing against the West. The Munich Agreement therefore preserved Hitler in power. Though no invasion had been planned for May 1938. and Ribbentrop's highly bellicose remarks to Henderson when the latter asked the former if an invasion was indeed scheduled for the weekend. sympathised with Beck and together they conspired with several top generals. been planning nothing for that weekend. was. Chamberlain and French Premier Édouard Daladier decided not to threaten a war over Czechoslovakia and so the planned removal of Hitler could not be justified. In September. The May Crisis seemed to have had the effect of convincing Hitler that expansion "without Britain" was not possible. The May Crisis of 1938 was a false alarm caused by rumours that Czechoslovakia would be invaded the weekend of the municipal elections in that country. for his part. However the messengers were not taken seriously by the British. leading to two warnings on 21 May and 22 May that the United Kingdom would go to war with Germany if France became involved in a war with Germany. At the same conference. which Hitler felt would be around 1941–42. Agents were therefore sent to England to tell Chamberlain that an attack on Czechoslovakia was planned and their intentions to overthrow Hitler if this occurred.N.
leading Hitler in turn to retort that because his document stating his new demands was entitled "Memorandum". Chamberlain had decided to execute Plan Z in response to erroneous information supplied by the German opposition that the invasion was due to start any time after 18 September. as a result of intense French. and for good measure. that Germany would not forsake war as an option until all the claims against Czechoslovakia by Poland and Hungary had been satisfied. In a summit at Berchtesgaden. Chamberlain promised to pressure Beneš into agreeing to Hitler's publicly stated demands about allowing the Sudetenland to join Germany. the British delegation was most unpleasantly surprised to have Hitler reject his own terms he had presented at Berchtesgaden as now unacceptable. culminating in major clashes in midSeptember that led to the declaration of martial law in certain Sudeten districts. and began preparations for war. sometime between 27 and 28 September. Initially. together with information leaked by anti-war elements in the German military that the war was scheduled for sometime in September. and Daladier to discuss the Czechoslovak situation. no plebiscites to be held in the transferred districts until after the transfer. with Hitler aiming to use the Sudeten issue as a pretext for war and Chamberlain genuinely striving for a peaceful solution. meet Hitler. which granted most of the demands for Sudeten autonomy made by Henlein in his Karlsbad speech of April 1938. information reached London that Germany was beginning to mobilize reservists. Chamberlain offered to fly to Germany to discuss a solution to the crisis. Hitler changed his mind. To put an end to Chamberlain's peace-making efforts once and for all. Finally. to offer France assistance". he agreed to see the British Prime Minister because to refuse Chamberlain's offer would confirm the lie to his repeated claims that he was a man of peace driven reluctantly to war because of Beneš's intractability. the British government's Chief Industrial Advisor. Though Hitler was not happy with Chamberlain's offer. and threatened to deprive the Germans of their pretext for aggression. The talks between Chamberlain and Hitler in September 1938 were made difficult by their innately differing concepts of what Europe should look like. Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be ceded to Germany no later than 28 September 1938 with no negotiations between Prague and Berlin and no international commission to oversee the transfer. most disappointed when Franco-British pressure secured just that. The differing views between the two leaders were best symbolized when Chamberlain was presented with Hitler's new demands and protested at being presented with an ultimatum. it could not possibly be an ultimatum. for a conference to be held in Munich with Chamberlain.  Henlein's Heimfront promptly responded to the offer of "Fourth Plan" by having a series of violent crashes with the Czechoslovak police. was dispatched to Berlin to inform Hitler that if the Germans attacked Czechoslovakia. In a response to the threatening situation. by all accounts. in return for a reluctant promise by Hitler to postpone any military action until Chamberlain had given a chance to fulfill his promise. Just what . the "Fourth Plan" for constitutional reorganization of his country. Sir Horace Wilson. Hitler had agreed to the postponement out of the expectation that Chamberlain would fail to secure Prague's consent to transferring the Sudetenland. and was. and "then England would feel honour bound. and a close associate of Chamberlain. in late August 1938. President Edvard Beneš unveiled on 5 September 1938. the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had conceived of Plan Z. and then work out an agreement that could end the crisis. On 13 September 1938. When Chamberlain returned to Germany on 22 September to present his peace plan for the transfer of the Sudetenland at a summit with Hitler at Bad Godesberg.Starting in August 1938. then France would honour her commitments as demanded by the Franco-Czechoslovak alliance of 1924. Mussolini. On 25 September 1938 Britain rejected the Bad Godesberg ultimatum. namely to fly to Germany. of and through the intercession of Mussolini. To further underline the point. determined to continue with the attack planned for 1 October 1938. and especially British diplomatic pressure. and asked to take up a suggestion.
Poland and Hungary that they would not fight on behalf of Germany. but it is likely that the combination of Franco-British warnings. which gave in to Hitler's ostensible demands by handing over the Sudetenland districts to Germany.  Chamberlain. and on 24 September the Admiralty forbade British ships to sail to Germany. historians have argued that Hitler's decision to call off Fall Grün was due to concerns about the oil problem. . warnings from the states that Hitler saw as his would-be allies in the form of Italy. Germany lacked sufficient supplies of oil and other crucial raw materials (the plants that would produce the synthetic oil for the German war effort were not in operation yet). to which Chamberlain attached great importance and Hitler none at all. Though Chamberlain was well-satisfied with the Munich conference. Hitler was TIME magazine's Man of the Year for 1938. had finally convinced him of what the most likely result of Fall Grün would be. it could not break a British blockade. The British detained the tanker Invershannon carrying 8. and the likelihood that a war with Britain would see a blockade cutting Germany off from oil supplies. Chamberlain had Hitler sign a declaration of Anglo-German friendship. which caused immediate economic pain in Germany. Chamberlain. Given Germany's dependence on imported oil (80% of German oil in the 1930s came from the New World).600 tons of oil to Hamburg. Daladier and Mussolini that led to the Munich Agreement.had caused Hitler to change his attitude is not entirely clear. and was highly dependent upon imports from abroad. At the end of the conference.6 million tons of oil. the view from his advisors that Germany was not prepared either militarily or economically for a world war. and Germany would wait until Hungarian and Polish claims were settled. the Munich Conference mostly comprised discussions in one day of talks on technical questions about how the transfer of the Sudetenland would take place. Daladier. Hitler and Mussolini at the Munich Conference On 30 September 1938. the minor nature of the alleged casus belli being the timetables for the transfer made Hitler appear too much like the aggressor. and very visible signs that the majority of Germans were not enthusiastic about the prospect of war. Japan. Germany would be defeated for no other reason than a shortage of oil. and since Germany had hardly any oil stocks.6 million tons of oil at hand. and featured the relatively minor concessions from Hitler that the transfer would take place over a ten day period in October. overseen by an international commission. and that war with Britain and France would require 7. Moreover. The Economics Ministry told Hitler that Germany had only 2. and especially the mobilization of the British fleet. As a result of the summit. Since London and Paris had already agreed to the idea of a transfer of the disputed territory in midSeptember.  The Kriegsmarine reported that should war come with Britain. Starting on 18 September 1938. leading to his infamous claim to have secured "peace for our time". Hitler was privately furious about being "cheated" out of the war he was desperate to have in 1938. a one-day conference was held in Munich attended by Hitler. the British refused to supply metals to Germany.
 In Hitler's view. was a diplomatic defeat which proved that Britain needed to be ended as a power to allow him to pursue his dreams of eastern expansion. with German policies being accordingly reoriented. Though Hitler professed happiness in public over the achievement of his ostensible demands. whom Hitler described as a warmongering antiGerman faction. On 27 January 1939. in private he was determined to have a war the next time around by ensuring that Germany's future demands would not be met. a British-brokered peace. This marked a huge change from the earlier years of the Third Reich. and the "hyprocrisy" of British criticism of the November 1938 Kristallnacht event. Britain should mind her own business and worry about her own troubles". In November 1938. 68 destroyers and 249 U-boats by 1944 that was intended to crush the Royal Navy. Alfred Duff Cooper and Anthony Eden. In November 1938. The importance of the Z Plan can be seen in Hitler's orders that henceforward the Kriegsmarine was to go from third to first in allotment of raw materials. when the German media had portrayed the British Empire in very favourable terms. Britain replaced the Soviet Union in Hitler's mind as the main enemy of the Reich. and accordingly. Hitler felt since Britain would not ally herself nor stand aside to facilitate Germany's continental ambitions. three battlecruisers. Hitler ordered a major anti-British propaganda campaign to be launched with the British being loudly abused for their "hypocrisy" in maintaining world-wide empire while seeking to block the Germans from acquiring an empire of their own. Hitler approved the Z Plan. money and skilled workers. 44 light cruisers. Hitler claimed "We Germans will no longer endure such governessy interference. Hitler expressed his disappointment over the Munich Agreement in a speech on 9 October 1938 in Saarbrücken when he lashed out against the Conservative anti-appeasers Winston Churchill. and were likely to come to power at any moment. the Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop was ordered to convert the Anti-Comintern Pact into an open antiBritish military alliance. Britain and France left Czechoslovakia to Hitler's mercy. four aircraft carriers. the Luftwaffe was ordered to start . it had become a major threat.Hitler enters the German populated Sudetenland region of Czechoslavakia in October 1938 which was annexed to Germany proper due to the Munich agreement By appeasing Hitler. who would attack Germany at the first opportunity. A particular highlight in the anti-British propaganda was alleged British human rights abuses in dealing with the Arab uprising in the British Mandate of Palestine and in British India. In the spring of 1939. eight heavy cruisers. In the same speech. a five-year naval expansion program which called for a Kriegsmarine of 10 battleships. as a prelude for a war against Britain and France. though extremely favourable to the ostensible German demands. In the aftermath of Munich.
forced Hitler in January 1939 to reluctantly order major defence cuts with the Wehrmacht having its steel allocations cut by 30%. the Chancellery of the Führer headed by Philipp Bouhler received a letter concerning a severely physically and mentally disabled baby girl named Sofia Knauer living in Leipzig. expanded the T4 program to killing. At that time. In the same speech." Later in November 1938. Brandt to henceforward have all disabled infants born in Germany killed. and the economist Rudolf Brinkmann "the overbred intellectual circles" who were trying to block him from fulfilling his mission by their appeals to caution. Hitler complained that his peace propaganda of the last five years had been too successful. rubber 14% and copper 20%. the continuing economic crisis caused by problems of rearmament. to increase German foreign exchange holdings to pay for raw materials such as high-grade iron needed for military materials.. The name which that speech is known comes from Hitler's "prophecy" issued towards the end of the speech: . In December 1938. Hitler noted that he had been forced to speak of peace as the goal in order to attain the degree of rearmament "which were an essential prerequisite . for the next step". bombed-out island to be too much for the British public. As part of a power play against his rivals. the Presidential Chancellery of Otto Meissner. and it was time for the German people to be subjected to war propaganda. Subsequently Dr. the office of Hitler's adjutant Wilhelm Brückner and the Deputy Führer's office which was effectively headed by Martin Bormann over control of access to Hitler. Bouhler presented the letter concerning the disabled girl to Hitler. Hitler ordered Bouhler and Dr. who thanked Bouhler for bringing the matter to his attention and responded by ordering his personal physician Dr. cement 25%. aluminium 47%. Hitler stated: "It is self-evident that such peace propaganda conducted for a decade has its risky aspect. all physically or mentally disabled children in Germany. In January 1939. the diplomat Ulrich von Hassell. especially the shortage of foreign hard currencies needed to pay for raw materials Germany lacked. because it can too easily induce people to come to the conclusion that the present government is identical with the decision and with the intention to keep peace under all circumstances". together with reports from Göring that the Four Year Plan was hopelessly behind schedule. Hitler expressed frustration with the more cautious advice he was receiving from some quarters. On 30 January 1939. Karl Brandt to kill Knauer. Hjalmar Schacht. Brandt and Bouhler. first. all disabled adults. Hitler's war plans against Britain called for a joint Kriegsmarine-Luftwaffe offensive that was to stage "rapid annihilating blows" against British cities and shipping with the expectation that "The moment England is cut off from her supplies she is forced to capitulate" as Hitler expected that the experience of living in a blockaded. and but for the fact that he needed their skills "otherwise. famine-stricken. This was the origin of the Action T4 program. in a secret speech to a group of German journalists. second. In late 1938 and early 1939. Hitler called the economic expert Carl Friedrich Goerdeler. General Ludwig Beck. the office of the Reich Chancellery led by Hans-Heinrich Lammers. there was a furious rivalry existing between Bouhler's office. acting on their own initiative in the expectation of winning Hitler's favour.. The "Export or die" speech of 30 January 1939 is also known as Hitler's "Prophecy Speech". and. Dr. perhaps we could someday exterminate them or do something of this kind to them". and instead called for new journalism that "had to present certain foreign policy events in such a fashion that the inner voice of the people itself slowly begins to shout out for the use of force. Hitler made his "Export or die" speech calling for a German economic offensive ("export battle".building a strategic bombing force that was meant to level British cities. Destroyed Jewish businesses in Magdeburg following Kristallnacht In November 1938. to use Hitler's term).
. and that of the whole nation. Hitler ordered Germany's army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939. The country's name has changed to the Greater German Reich since 1943 and this name can be seen on the stamp. and that I would then among many other things settle the Jewish problem."One thing I should like to say on this day which may be memorable for others as well for us Germans: In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet. and I have usually been ridiculed for it. Start of World War II Adolf Hitler's face on a German stamp 1944. and the opening of the first Vernichtungslager in late 1941. At least part of the reason why Hitler violated the Munich Agreement by seizing the Czech half of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 was to obtain Czechoslovak assets to help with the economic crisis. the "Prophecy Speech" was simply an expression of bravado on Hitler's part. but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!" A significant historical debate has swung around the "Prophecy Speech". If the international Jewish financiers outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war. then the result will not be the bolsheviszation of the earth. he would use it as a cover for his already pre-existing plans for genocide. In his opinion. Browning has also pointed to the existence of the Madagascar Plan of 1940–41 and various other schemes as proof that there was no genocidal master plan. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance the Jewish race which only received my prophecies with laughter when I said I would one day take over the leadership of the State. and thus the victory of Jewry. then there would not have been a 30month "stay of execution" between the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. Hitler was committed to genocide of the Jews as his central goal. Functionalist historians such as Christopher Browning have dismissed this interpretation on the grounds that if Hitler were serious with the intentions expressed in the "Prophecy Speech". but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of the face. Lucy Dawidowicz and Gerald Fleming have argued that the "Prophecy Speech" was simply Hitler's way of saying that once he started a world war. Today I will be once more the prophet. Historians who take an intentionist line such as Eberhard Jäckel have argued that at minimum from the time of the "Prophecy Speech" onwards. and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. and had little connection with the actual unfolding of anti-Semitic policies. Their laughter was uproarious.
Hitler ordered the military to start preparing for Fall Weiss (Case White). Ribbentrop's status as the former Ambassador to London made him in Hitler's eyes the leading Nazi British expert.As part of the anti-British course.  A notable contradiction existed in Hitler's plans between the long-term anti-British course. establish an acceptable relationship with Poland in order to fight against the West" but since the Poles would not co-operate in setting up an "acceptable relationship" (i. which led Hitler to decide upon the destruction of Poland as the main German foreign policy goal of 1939. but rather less happy about the prospect of war with Britain and France. the German hope was to transform Poland into a satellite state. and in his view. Danzig was just a pretext for aggression as the Sudetenland had been intended to be in 1938. which was likely to provoke a general war by engaging in such actions as attacking Poland. Initially. In a speech in Wilhelmshaven for the launch of the battleship Tirpitz on 1 April 1939. if that was the price Germany had to pay for the destruction of Poland. even the conception of the British Empire.. Hitler was much offended by the British "guarantee" of Polish independence issued on 31 March 1939. The historian Gerhard Weinberg has argued since Hitler's audience comprised men who were all for the destruction of Poland (anti-Polish feelings were traditionally very strong in the German Army).e. and Hitler's immediate foreign policy in 1939. In his private discussions with his officials in 1939. As part of the new course. Adolf Hitler. Hitler's dilemma between his short-term and long-term goals was resolved by Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. becoming a German satellite). Hitler threatened to denounce the Anglo-German Naval Agreement if the British persisted with their "encirclement" policy as represented by the "guarantee" of Polish independence. Poland's obliteration was the necessary prelude to that goal by securing the eastern flank and helpfully adding to Germany's Lebensraum. but by March 1939 the German demands had been rejected by the Poles three times. As a pretext for aggression against Poland. In August 1939. In addition. The extent that Hitler was influenced by Ribbentrop's advice can be seen in Hitler's orders to the German . and told his associates that "I shall brew them a devil's drink". Ribbentrop's advice that Britain would not honour her commitments to Poland carried much weight with Hitler. tended to send reports that supported Ribbentrop's analysis such as a dispatch in August 1939 that reported British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain knew "the social structure of Britain. In addition. the German Ambassador in London. whose major instruments such as a vastly expanded Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe would take several years to complete. it was deemed necessary by Hitler to have Poland either a satellite state or otherwise neutralized. and throughout 1939. Ribbentrop based his appraisal partly on an alleged statement made to him by the French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet in December 1938 that France now recognized Eastern Europe as Germany's exclusive sphere of influence. would not survive the chaos of even a victorious war". it is quite likely that Hitler was speaking the truth on this occasion. Hitler always described Britain as the main enemy that had to be defeated. complaining of British "encirclement" of Germany. and any German–Polish war would accordingly be a limited regional war. Herbert von Dirksen. and as a result. renounced both the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact. and so would back down. Hitler believed this necessary both on strategic grounds as a way of securing the Reich's eastern flank and on economic grounds as a way of evading the effects of a British blockade. Hitler spoke to his generals that his original plan for 1939 had to ".. who told Hitler that neither Britain nor France would honour their commitments to Poland. the Germans always refused to engage in talks about the matter. Ribbentrop only showed Hitler diplomatic cables that supported his analysis. in a speech before the Reichstag on 28 April 1939. while highlighting the Danzig issue as a grievance. For Hitler. Hitler claimed the Free City of Danzig and the right for "extra-territorial" roads across the Polish Corridor which Germany had unwillingly ceded under the Versailles treaty. the plan for a German invasion to be executed on 25 August 1939. he believed he had no choice other than wiping Poland off the map. On 3 April 1939.
the French Ambassador. Only very briefly. Gerhard Weinberg and Ian Kershaw have argued that a non-economic reason for Hitler's rush to war was Hitler's morbid and obsessive fear of an early death. and various schemes intended to keep Britain out of the war. but in any case. Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland. and hence his feeling that he did not have long to accomplish his work. and the need to have sufficient time to concentrate German troops on the Polish border left Hitler in a self-imposed situation in August 1939 where Soviet cooperation was absolutely crucial if he were to have a war that year. would probably be by later that day to present the French declaration of war. on 17 September. and. caused Hitler to postpone the attack on Poland from 25 August to 1 September. Hitler chose to spend the last days of peace either trying to manoeuvre the British into neutrality through his offer of 25 August 1939 to "guarantee" the British Empire. Hitler chose late August as his date for Fall Weiss in order to limit disruption to German agricultural production caused by mobilization.military on 21 August 1939 for a limited mobilization against Poland alone. On 1 September 1939. Hitler was not to be deterred from his aim of invading Poland. Not long after this. when news of the Anglo-Polish alliance being signed on 25 August 1939 in response to the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (instead of the severing of ties between London and Warsaw predicted by Ribbentrop) together with news from Italy that Mussolini would not honour the Pact of Steel. Hitler was most unpleasantly surprised at receiving the British declaration of war on 3 September 1939. Joseph Stalin accepted Hitler's proposal to conclude a non-aggression pact (the MolotovRibbentrop Pact). whose secret protocols contained an agreement to partition Poland. Historians such as William Carr. Germany invaded western Poland. A major historical debate about the reasons for Hitler's foreign policy choices in 1939 concerns whether a structural economic crisis drove Hitler into a "flight into war" as claimed by the Marxist historian Timothy Mason or whether Hitler's actions were more influenced by noneconomic factors as claimed by the economic historian Richard Overy. on 23 August 1939. Hitler oscillated between the determination to fight the Western powers if he had to. The problems caused by the need to begin a campaign in Poland in late August or early September in order to have the campaign finished before the October rains arrived. and turning to Ribbentrop angrily asked "Now what?" Ribbentrop had nothing to say other than that Robert Coulondre. In the last days of peace. or having Ribbentrop present a last-minute peace plan to Henderson with an impossibly short time limit for its acceptance as part of an effort to blame the war on the British and Poles. . The Munich agreement appeared to be sufficient to dispel most of the remaining hold which the "collective security" idea may have had in Soviet circles. Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September but did not immediately act.
Members of the Reichstag greet Hitler in October 1939 after the conclusion of the Polish campaign Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich. 1940 .
1940. complained to Hitler that Forster was allowing thousands of Poles to be accepted as "racial" Germans and thus "contaminating" German "racial purity". However. and promised them "There would be no questions asked" about how this "Germanization" was to be accomplished. air superiority for the invasion Operation Sealion could not be assured. In April 1940. Hitler's orders were interpreted in very different ways by Forster and Greiser. On 27 September 1940. another major dispute broke out between different factions with one centring around Reichsfüherer SS Heinrich Himmler and Arthur Greiser championing and carrying out ethnic cleansing schemes for Poland. By the end of October 1940. Hitler's forces attacked France. The Battle of Britain was Hitler's prelude to a planned invasion. and ending mass expulsions as economically disruptive. The purpose of the Tripartite Treaty. and another centring around Hermann Göring and Hans Frank calling for turning Poland into the "granary" of the Reich. and led to the Himmler–Greiser viewpoint triumphing as German policy for Poland. namely Albert Forster and Arthur Greiser. to "Germanize" the area. and Ciano. After the conquest of Poland. seconded by Himmler. whereas Greiser carried out a brutal ethnic cleansing campaign of expelling the entire Polish population into the Government-General of Poland. Hitler called Himmler's memo "good and correct". At a conference held at Göring's Karinhall estate on 12 February 1940. the Tripartite Treaty was signed in Berlin by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan." or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). Hitler. In May 1940. After the fall of Poland came a period journalists called the "Phoney War. including London. which was directed against an unnamed power that was clearly meant to be the United States. After having his overtures for peace rejected by the British. Hitler's handling of the Forster–Greiser dispute has often been advanced as an example of Ian Kershaw's theory of "Working Towards the Führer". France surrendered on 22 June 1940. conquering Luxembourg. Forster followed a policy of simply having the local Poles sign forms stating they had German blood with no documentation required. During this period. was to deter the Americans from supporting the British. and Coventry. and not to involve him. The attacks began by pounding Royal Air Force airbases and radar stations protecting South-East England. the Netherlands and Belgium in the process. whose forces evacuated France by sea from Dunkirk. continued to fight alongside other British dominions in the Battle of the Atlantic. Hitler merely told Himmler and Greiser to take up their difficulties with Forster. with Albert Speer (left) and Arno Breker (right) – Adolf Hitler in a public speech in Danzig at the end of September 1939. now led by Winston Churchill. Himmler showed Hitler a memo entitled "Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Alien Population in the East". On 15 May 1940. Hitler built up his forces on Germany's western frontier. Hitler's remark had the effect of scuttling the so-called Karinhall argreement. the Luftwaffe failed to defeat the Royal Air Force. and asked Hitler to order Forster to stop. which called for expelling the entire Jewish population of Europe into Africa and reducing the remainder of the Polish population to a "leaderless labouring class". Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom. Romania and Bulgaria. and Hitler ordered the bombing of British cities. . German forces invaded Denmark and Norway.Adolf Hitler in Paris. mostly at night. In part of north-western Poland annexed to Germany. Plymouth. When Greiser. They were collectively known as the Axis Powers. These victories persuaded Benito Mussolini of Italy to join the war on Hitler's side on 10 June 1940. and allowed his subordinates to work out policy on their own. It was later expanded to include Hungary. Hitler instructed the two Gauleiters in charge of the area. the dispute was settled in favour of the Göring-Frank view of economic exploitation. Britain. namely that Hitler issued vague instructions.
three million German troops attacked the Soviet Union. but they were not prepared for the harsh conditions brought on by the first blizzards of winter and in the days that followed. Hitler released Fuhrer Directive No.In the Spring of 1941. and the world's largest army (the Soviet Union). German forces arrived in Libya to bolster the Italian forces there. It also encircled and destroyed many Soviet forces. and David Irving have argued that the official reason given by the Germans for Barbarossa in 1941 was the real reason. and four days later. This theory has been widely attacked as erroneous. German forces were sent to support Iraqi rebel forces fighting against the British and to invade Crete. However. This invasion seized huge amounts of territory. which Stalin had ordered not to retreat. The invasion failed to achieve the quick triumph Hitler wanted. Soviet forces drove them back over 320 kilometres (200 miles). Hildebrand has claimed that the news in the spring of 1941 of Soviet troop concentrations on the border led to Hitler engaging in a flucht nach vorn ("flight forward" – i. In February. the Germans were stopped barely short of Moscow in December 1941 by the Russian winter and fierce Soviet resistance. Some historians such as Andreas Hillgruber have argued that Barbarossa was merely one "stage" of Hitler's Stufenplan (stage by stage plan) for world conquest. including the Baltic states. namely that Barbarossa was a "preventive war" forced on Hitler to avert an impeding Soviet attack scheduled for July 1941. Belarus. responding to a danger by charging on rather than retreating. namely that Winston Churchill held out the hope that the Soviet Union might enter the war on the Allied side. the world's greatest industrial and financial power (the United States). Joachim Hoffmann. On 7 December 1941. 30. he launched the invasion of Yugoslavia which was followed quickly by the invasion of Greece. Ernst Topitsch. breaking the nonaggression pact Hitler had concluded with Stalin two years earlier. the American historian Gerhard Weinberg once compared the advocates of the preventive war theory to believers in "fairy tales" The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union reached its apex on 2 December 1941 as part of the 258th Infantry Division advanced to within 15 miles (24 km) of Moscow. Hawaii. Hitler's response was recorded as "als Partisanen auszurotten" ("exterminate them as partisans").  In Lukacs's perspective. the Balkans. In May.e. and that the invasion of the Soviet Union was an ad hoc move on the part of Hitler due to Britain's refusal to surrender. Hitler was distracted from his plans for the East by various activities in North Africa. Barbarossa was thus primarily an anti-British move on the part of Hitler intended to force Britain to sue for peace by destroying her only hope of victory rather than an anti-Soviet move. Ernst Nolte. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. and the Middle East. close enough to see the spires of the Kremlin. On 18 December 1941.) A third faction comprising a diverse group such as Viktor Suvorov. which Hillgruber believed that Hitler had formulated in the 1920s. The Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer has commented that the remark is . Lukacs has argued that the reason Hitler gave in private for Barbarossa. Klaus Hildebrand has maintained that Stalin and Hitler were independently planning to attack each other in 1941. A major historical dispute concerns Hitler's reasons for Operation Barbarossa. Path to defeat On 22 June 1941. Hitler's formal declaration of war against the United States officially engaged him in war against a coalition that included the world's largest empire (the British Empire). On 23 May. the appointment book of the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler shows he met with Hitler. In April. was indeed Hitler's real reason for Barbarossa. and in response to Himmler's question "What to do with the Jews of Russia?". and that the only way of forcing a British surrender was to eliminate that hope. Other historians such as John Lukacs have contended that Hitler never had a stufenplan. and Ukraine.
German forces were defeated in the second battle of El Alamein. and some plotted to remove Hitler from power. Adolf Hitler in Reichstag during his speech against Franklin D. Throughout 1943 and 1944. Operation Overlord. Attempted assassination In July 1944.probably as close as historians will ever get to a definitive order from Hitler for the genocide carried out during the Holocaust. Syphilis has also been suspected as a cause of at least some of his symptoms. Mussolini was deposed by Pietro Badoglio. although the evidence is slight. Realists in the German army knew defeat was inevitable. The main resistance movement was destroyed. the Battle of Stalingrad ended with the destruction of the German 6th Army. In February 1943. On 6 June 1944. Claus von Stauffenberg planted a bomb in Hitler's headquarters. and Germany's military and economic position deteriorated along with Hitler's health. as indicated by his left hand's severe trembling. the Western Allied armies landed in northern France in what was one of the largest amphibious operations in history. Hitler's military judgment became increasingly erratic. He ordered savage reprisals. Roosevelt. as part of Operation Valkyrie in what became known as the 20 July plot. Hitler's biographer Ian Kershaw and others believe that he may have suffered from Parkinson's disease. the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the Eastern Front.900 people. who surrendered to the Allies. Thereafter came the Battle of Kursk. Following the allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) in 1943. sometimes by starvation in solitary confinement followed by slow strangulation. although smaller isolated groups continued to operate. 11 December 1941. Defeat and death Main article: Death of Adolf Hitler . The destroyed 'Wolf's Lair' barracks after the 20 July 1944 plot In late 1942. resulting in the executions of more than 4. the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) at Rastenburg. Hitler narrowly escaped death. thwarting Hitler's plans to seize the Suez Canal and the Middle East.
There was a long silence. and shoot himself at the end. Heinrici called Hans Krebs. which had been pushed south of the salient. and told him that Hitler's plan could not be implemented. had chocolates distributed to his troops in honour of Hitler's birthday. Ignoring the facts. your mothers and your parents. Hitler celebrated his 56th birthday in the Führerbunker ("Führer's shelter") below the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery). Execution of this scorched earth plan was entrusted to arms minister Albert Speer. He hoped to negotiate a separate peace with America and Britain. He and his . during one of his last military conferences. head up the defence of the city. Soviet forces attacked the outskirts of Berlin. the Red Army had driven the Germans back into Central Europe and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany. Hitler ordered Steiner to attack the northern flank of the huge salient created by the breakthrough of Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front. On 22 April. Hitler saw salvation in the ragtag units commanded by Waffen SS General Felix Steiner. It was something more than a corps but less than an army. Twelfth Army was to link up with Ninth Army and break through to the city. on Hitler's orders. The Soviets were now advancing towards Hitler's bunker with little to stop them. Wenck did attack and. had so weakened the front that the Russians had broken through into Berlin. Rather. On 20 April. Wilhelm Burgdorf. This new plan had Wenck turn his army – currently facing the Americans to the west – and attack towards the east to relieve Berlin. Heinrici asked to speak to Hitler but was told by Krebs that Hitler was too busy to take his call. But "Army Detachment Steiner" existed primarily on paper. Hitler's stubbornness and defiance of military realities allowed the Holocaust to continue. Elsewhere. General Hermann Niehoff. Alfred Jodl.By late 1944. chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres (Supreme Command of the Army or OKH). in the confusion. Hitler realized that Germany had lost the war. Before the day ended. This culminated in an oath to stay in Berlin. Hitler decided that the entire nation should go down with him. and that the withdrawal from Berlin of several units for Steiner's army. a hope buoyed by the death of Franklin D. Hitler's followers urged him to flee to the mountains of Bavaria to make a last stand in the National Redoubt. Then Hitler was told that the attack had never been launched. was ultimately unsuccessful. In April 1945. Hitler again found salvation in a new plan that included General Walther Wenck's Twelfth Army. Fight with everything you have got. Meanwhile. Roosevelt on 12 April 1945. and all the generations that will come after us. like the plan in general. saying that Germany's failure to win the war forfeited its right to survive. But Hitler was determined to either live or die in the capital. He ordered the complete destruction of all German industrial infrastructure before it could fall into Allied hands. and launched a tirade against the perceived treachery and incompetence of his commanders. the German Ninth Army. was ordered to attack north in a pincer attack. Hitler asked everyone except Wilhelm Keitel. and Martin Bormann to leave the room. for the sake of your wives and your children. Georgi Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the defences of German General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter is amongst you. Joseph Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin: I call on you to fight for your city. But the link with the Ninth Army. but allowed no retreats. who disobeyed the order. the garrison commander of the besieged Festung Breslau ("fortress Breslau"). Steiner's command became known as Armeeabteilung Steiner ("Army Detachment Steiner"). made temporary contact with the Potsdam garrison. Hitler interrupted the report to ask what had happened to Steiner's offensive. Hans Krebs. On 23 April. By 21 April. Late on 21 April. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear.
Wilhelm Burgdorf. Traudl Junge. The same day. Joseph Goebbels. Berlin was completely cut off from the rest of Germany. and Martin Bormann witnessed and signed this last will and testament of Adolf Hitler. . Göring was removed from all his positions in the government. Göring argued that. Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden in Bavaria. who once captured the city with 200 men. He. May 1945 During the night of 28 April.. which is presumed to have increased his determination to avoid capture.  Further on the 23 April. On the same day. in anger. Wenck reported that his Twelfth Army had been forced back along the entire front. Hitler also appointed Waffen SS General (SS Brigadeführer) Wilhelm Mohnke the (Kommandant) Battle Commander for the defence of the government district (Zitadelle sector) that included the Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker. On 28 April. Later when Hitler wrote his will on 29 April. Göring mentioned a time limit after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated. His wife and children are here as well. Weidling replaced Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Helmuth Reymann and Colonel (Oberst) Ernst Kaether. General Alfred Jodl (Supreme Army Command) did not provide this information to Hans Krebs in Berlin until early in the morning of 30 April. He noted that no further attacks towards Berlin were possible.. Hitler was informed of the assassination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on 28 April. By the end of the day on 27 April. Cover of US military newspaper The Stars and Stripes. by having Göring arrested. Hitler responded. he should assume leadership of Germany as Hitler's designated successor. Hitler discovered that SS leader Heinrich Himmler was trying to discuss surrender terms with the Western Allies (through the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte). will now use every means to galvanize the defence of the capital. The Battle for Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle . since Hitler was cut off in Berlin. Hitler ordered Himmler's arrest and had Hermann Fegelein (Himmler's representative for the SS at Hitler's HQ in Berlin) shot. Hitler dictated his will and political statement to his private secretary. Hitler appointed General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling as the commander of the Berlin Defense Area.colleagues will remain in your midst. Hans Krebs. On 29 April.
philosophers. a fragment of human skull stored in its archives and displayed to the public in a 2000 exhibition came from the remains of Hitler's body. and analysis of the sutures between the skull plates indicated an age between 20 and 40 years old at the time of death. after intense street-to-street combat. the six Goebbels children. Hitler had at various times in the past contemplated suicide. the Memorial Stone Against War and Fascism is engraved with the following message: FÜR FRIEDEN FREIHEIT UND DEMOKRATIE NIE WIEDER FASCHISMUS MILLIONEN TOTE MAHNEN Loosely translated it reads: "For peace. Holocaust denial. the Nazi Party and the results of Nazism are typically regarded as gravely immoral. Geli Raubal had used in her suicide. According to the Russian Federal Security Service. shooting himself in the temple with a Walther PPK while simultaneously biting into a cyanide capsule. and politicians have often applied the word evil in both a secular and a religious sense. Hitler committed suicide. Eva Braun. The authenticity of the skull has been challenged by historians and researchers. In the postwar years there were conflicting reports about what happened to Hitler's remains. Hitler's body and that of Eva Braun were put in a bomb crater. In 1970. doused in gasoline by SS Sturmbannführer Otto Günsche and other Führerbunker aides. along with the display of Nazi symbols such as swastikas. Berlin surrendered. Joseph and Magda Goebbels. Legacy Further information: Consequences of German Nazism and Neo-Nazism Outside the building in Braunau am Inn. and the Walther was the same pistol that his niece. were collected. the remains were disinterred. records found in the Soviet archives revealed that the remains of Hitler. After the fall of the Soviet Union. Austria. Austria where Adolf Hitler was born is a memorial stone warning of the horrors of World War II Hitler. is prohibited in Germany and Austria. General Hans Krebs and Hitler's dogs. DNA analysis conducted in 2009 showed the skull fragment to be that of a woman. cremated and scattered in the Elbe River by the Soviets. On 2 May. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the west are overwhelmingly condemnatory. Historians.On 30 April 1945. freedom // and democracy // never again fascism // millions of dead remind [us]"[clarification needed] . Outside of Hitler's birthplace in Braunau am Inn. when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery. moved and secretly buried in graves near Rathenow in Brandenburg. and cremated as the Red Army advanced and shelling continued.
" In public. Religious views Main article: Adolf Hitler's religious views Hitler was raised by Roman Catholic parents. the German historian. liturgy and phraseology in his politics. After he had moved to Germany. Conway and many other historians it is beyond doubt that Hitler held a "fundamental antagonism" towards the Christian churches. but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position." In light of these private statements." the historian Steigmann-Gall (whose views on Christianity and Nazism are admittedly outside the consensus) states. Hitler often praised Christian heritage. In the political relations with the churches in Germany however. as reported by his intimates. and professed a belief in an Aryan Jesus Christ. it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned advocating for Germans even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianty." Yet. considering it a religion fit only for slaves. most importantly. but after he left home. when he was a young man. for John S. a belief system purged of what he objected to in orthodox Christianity. At the same time. The various accounts of Hitler's private statements vary strongly in their reliability. as Steigmann-Gall has also pointed out in the debate about religion in Nazi Germany: "Nominal church membership is a very unreliable gauge of actual piety in this context.  Here Hitler's attack on Catholicism "resonated Streicher's contention that the Catholic establishment was allying itself with the Jews. he admired the power of Rome but had severe hostility towards its teaching. he adopted some elements of the Catholic Church's hierarchical organization. to put it briefly. Hitler readily adopted a strategy "that suited his immediate political purposes". of a Jewish dogma. In his speeches and publications Hitler spoke of his interpretation of Christianity as a central motivation for his antisemitism." His private statements. but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice. Friedrich Meinecke. Hitler favoured aspects of Protestantism if they were more suitable to his own objectives. Hitler "can be classified as Catholic. Hitler maintained that the "terrorism in religion is. German Christian culture." . Hermann Rauschning's Hitler speaks is considered by most historians to be an invention. By 1940 however. stating that "As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated. His intention was to wait until the war was over to destroy the influence of Christianity. In a nominal sense therefore. and featuring added racist elements. Former Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat spoke of his 'admiration' of Hitler in 1953. leader of the right-wing Hindu Shiv Sena party in the Indian state of the Maharashtra. even before the rise of the Nazis to power. Bal Thackeray. Hitler for a time advocated for Germans a form of the Christian faith he called "Positive Christianity". Hitler had a general plan. which Christianity has universalized and whose effect is to sow trouble and confusion in men's minds. a Jesus who fought against the Jews. though it is possible he was speaking in the context of a rebellion against the British Empire. Louis Farrakhan has referred to him as a "very great man".Some people have referred to Hitler's legacy in neutral or favourable terms. Hitler never "actually left his church or refused to pay church taxes. show Hitler as critical of traditional Christianity. said of Hitler's life that "it is one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life". The leader of the Hitler Youth stated "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start. he never attended Mass or received the sacraments. declared in 1995 that he was an admirer of Hitler. where the Catholic and the Protestant church are largely financed through a church tax collected by the state. to destroy Christianity within the Reich.
 Syphilis Hitler's tremors and irregular heartbeat during the last years of his life could have been symptoms of tertiary (late stage) syphilis. occultism. Brigitte Hamann leaves the question open and Ian Kershaw is extremely sceptical. other writers believe the young Hitler was strongly influenced. Paul Ehrlich's introduction of the drug Salvarsan. chapter 10 "Causes of the Collapse". Hitler did not adhere to esoteric ideas. in contrast to some Nazi ideologues. and give credence to the claim of its publisher Lanz von Liebenfels that Hitler visited Liebenfels in 1909 and praised his work. while his life course may have been influenced by his anger at being a syphilitic. A fear of cancer (from which his mother died) is the most widely cited reason. He had problems with his teeth and his personal dentist Hugo Blaschke stated that he fitted a large dental bridge to his upper jaw in 1933 and that on 10 November 1944 he carried out surgery to cut off part of the left rear section of the bridge that was causing an infection of his gums. though many authors[who?] also assert Hitler had a profound and deep love of animals. However. skin lesions. His possible discovery in 1908 that he himself had the disease may have been responsible for his demeanor. There are reports of him disgusting his guests by giving them graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make them shun meat. Hitler generally followed a vegetarian diet. such as the occult and anti-semitic magazine Ostara. Nevertheless. Theodor Morell diagnosed the symptoms as such by early 1945 in a joint report to SS head Heinrich Himmler. Along with another doctor.Hitler once stated. "We do not want any other god than Germany itself. he wrote about the temptation of prostitution and the spreading of syphilis. specifically volume 1. Historians have speculated he may have caught the affliction from a German prostitute at a time when the disease was not yet treatable by modern antibiotics. or Ariosophy. It is essential to have fanatical faith and hope and love in and for Germany." Attitude to occultism Some writers believe that. although he ate meat on occasion. (See Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany). In several chapters of Mein Kampf. Some historians have also cited Hitler's preoccupation with syphilis across 14 pages of Mein Kampf. where he called it a "Jewish disease". Parkinson's disease. which would also explain his avoidance of normal sexual relations with women. After the early 1930s. as well as his belief that he had acquired the disease from undesirable societal elements which he intended to eliminate. Hitler was a non-smoker and promoted aggressive anti-smoking campaigns throughout Germany. He has variously been said to have had irritable bowel syndrome. syphilis had become curable in 1910 with Dr. particularly in his racial views. by an abundance of occult works on the mystical superiority of the Germans.  Asperger syndrome and a strongly suggested addiction to methamphetamine. Health Hitler's health has long been the subject of debate. The historians are still divided on the question of the reliability of Lanz' claim of a contact with Hitler. syphilis. He was also suffering from a sinus infection. Martin Bormann had a greenhouse constructed for him near the Berghof (near Berchtesgaden) to ensure a steady supply of fresh fruit and vegetables for Hitler throughout the war. Hitler ridiculed such beliefs in Mein Kampf. which would mean he had a syphilis infection for many years. leading to speculation he may have had the disease himself. . Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke considers his account reliable. irregular heartbeat.
 Deborah Hayden has written extensively regarding Hitler and syphilis[vague]. Since the 1870s. he had been in surgery for numerous days without much sleep). allegedly involved in the Soviet autopsy. as to whether he could "assist a man who suffers from severe headaches. Schenck only saw Hitler briefly on two occasions and. Other complaints . Morell treated Hitler with a drug agent that was commonly used in 1945. stated in a 1967 book that Hitler's left testicle was missing. Haase. Historian Robert Waite claims Hitler tested negative on a Wassermann test as late as 1939. Records do show he was wounded in 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. Bezymensky later admitted that the claim was falsified. showing that the disease was still active. It detailed how Hitler had contracted syphilis in his youth and was treated for it at a hospital in Pasewalk. Hitler lived in constant fear of the disease. Rudolf Brandt. Monorchism See also: Hitler's possible monorchism It has been alleged that Hitler had monorchism. Hitler's personal doctor. A more reliable doctor. Also. although Morell is viewed as an unreliable doctor by most historians and any diagnoses he may have made are subject to doubt.No pictures exist of Hitler revealing any portion of his torso. in 1937. who worked at an emergency casualty station in the Reich Chancellery during April 1945." Kersten was shown a top-secret 26-page report. 23 years after the doctor's death. that at that time. because the Wassermann test was prone to false-negative results. was extremely exhausted and dazed during these meetings (at the time. supposedly described the dictator's condition to a priest who later wrote down what he had been told in a document which was uncovered in 2008. However. Himmler. and by the start of 1942. Germany. by his own admission. the head of the Luftwaffe. and some sources describe his injury as a wound to the groin. some of Schenck's opinions were based on hearsay from Dr. military service and later political career. Ernst-Günther Schenck. and took treatment for it no matter what doctors told him. Regardless of whether he actually had syphilis or not. Consulted by his patient. which does not prove that he did not have the disease. signs were evident that progressive syphilitic paralysis (Tabes dorsalis) was occurring. dizziness and insomnia. However. journalist and Académie française member Joseph Kessel wrote that in the winter of 1942. Soviet doctor Lev Bezymensky. Johan Jambor. Kersten heard of Hitler's medical condition. the medical condition of having only one testicle. The book also relates how Kersten learned from Himmler's secretary. Parkinson's disease It has also been speculated Hitler had Parkinson's disease. it was a common rhetorical practice on the völkisch right to associate Jews with diseases such as syphilis. Himmler advised Kersten that Morell (who in the 1930s claimed to be a specialist venereologist) was in charge of Hitler's treatment. and no clinical mention of any such condition has ever been discovered. symptoms re-appeared. see above) which began before the war and continued to worsen until the end of his life. Newsreels of Hitler show he had tremors in his hand and a shuffling walk (also a symptom of tertiary syphilis. probably the only other people privy to the report's information were Nazi Party chairman Martin Bormann and Hermann Göring. however. Hitler was routinely examined by many doctors throughout his childhood. also claimed Hitler might have Parkinson's disease. and that it was a state secret. In his biography of Doctor Felix Kersten called The Man with the Miraculous Hands.
See the talk page for details. the German historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler dismissed theories that sought to explain Nazi Germany as due to some defect. they had the effect of personalizing the phenomena of Nazi Germany by attributing everything that happened in the Third Reich to one flawed individual. Waite. pointing out the apparently drastic decline of Hitler's health as Germany began losing World War II. If true. as his plans and early achievements collapsed about him). Albert Speer stated he thought this was the most likely cause of the later rigidity of Hitler’s decision making (never allowing military retreats). Others have proposed Hitler may have been schizophrenic.From the 1930s he suffered from stomach pains. Historians' views In a 1980 article. this might be explained by a series of brief reactive psychoses in a narcissistic personality which could not withstand being confronted with reality (in this case. speculation and conjecture. as these two activities are known to trigger psychotic reactions in some individuals. In his opinion. medical or otherwise in Hitler. as opposed to the "personalized" explanations for the Holocaust and World War II. but rather met the criteria for both disorders. who wrote an extensive psychohistory of Hitler. which manifested its symptoms in numerous ways and would imply Hitler was in full control of himself and his actions. and was therefore most likely a schizoaffective. Mental health This section contains close paraphrasing of one or more non-free copyrighted sources. Ideas in this article should be expressed in an original manner. based on claims that he was hallucinating and delusional during his last year of life. besides the problem that such theories about Hitler's medical condition were extremely difficult to prove. Hitler never visited a psychiatrist. In addition. there would be more reasoning behind his actions. This topic is very controversial. concluded that he suffered from borderline personality disorder. but he was otherwise uninjured. as many believe that if a psychological cause can be found for Hitler's behavior. Some doctors dismiss Hitler's ailments as hypochondria. in 1936 a non cancerous polyp was removed from his throat and he developed eczema on his legs. any such diagnosis is speculation. He suffered ruptured eardrums as a result of the July 20 plot bomb blast in 1944 and 200 wood splinters had to be removed from his legs. Sexuality . his regular methamphetamine use and possible sleep deprivation in the last period of his life must be factored into any speculation as to the cause of his possible psychotic symptoms. Others believe that Hitler had a mental disorder and was not schizophrenic nor bipolar. The British historian Sir Ian Kershaw agreed that it was better to take a broader view of German history by seeking to examine what social forces led to the Third Reich and its policies. that he was not the "savior of Germany" he envisioned himself to be. (March 2010) Hitler's mental health is a minefield of theories. and under current methodology. Addiction to amphetamine Hitler began using amphetamine occasionally after 1937 and became addicted to amphetamine after the late summer of 1942.
which some commentators have claimed was sexual. Lothar Machtan argues in The Hidden Hitler that Hitler was homosexual. and later had a mistress. He had a close bond with his half-niece Geli Raubal. various investigative reporters have attempted to track down other distant relatives of the Führer. a fact that has led to speculation that Hitler may have had sexual fetishes. whom he married 29 April 1945 Main article: Sexuality of Adolf Hitler Hitler presented himself publicly as a man without a domestic life. None of William Hitler's children have had any children of their own. as was claimed by Otto Strasser.Hitler with his long-time mistress Eva Braun. a political opponent of Hitler. denied this. Reiter. Alois. New York. died in 1960. The most prominent and longest-living direct descendant of Adolf Hitler's father. . dedicated entirely to his political mission. Over the years. the only one to survive the Nazi regime. With his wife Phyllis. Mimi Reiter. Many are now alleged to be living inconspicuous lives and have long since changed their last name. was Adolf's nephew William Patrick Hitler. He had a fiancée in the 1920s. All three women attempted suicide (two succeeded). and had four sons. Eva Braun. Some theorists have claimed that Hitler had a relationship with British fascist Unity Mitford. though there is no evidence that proves this. changed his last name. the last living member of Adolf Hitler's immediate family. [clarification needed] such as urolagnia (aroused by urine or urination). he eventually moved to Long Island.  Family Main article: Hitler (disambiguation) Paula Hitler.
grandmother Paula Hitler. emotional speech. Over time. father Alois Hitler. the JewishMarxist plot to conquer the world. brother-in-law through Hitler's marriage to Eva Braun Ilse Braun. half-brother Angela Hitler Raubal. sister-in-law through Hitler's marriage to Eva Braun Johann Georg Hiedler. Jr. sister-in-law through Hitler's marriage to Eva Braun Heinz Hitler. nephew Hermann Fegelein. half-sister Bridget Dowling. nephew Hitler in media Video of Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden See also: Adolf Hitler in popular culture Oratory and rallies Main article: List of speeches given by Adolf Hitler Hitler was a gifted orator who captivated many with his beating of the lectern and growling. presumed great uncle and possibly Hitler's true paternal grandfather Leo Raubal Jr. mistress and then wife Geli Raubal. sister-in-law Eva Braun. presumed grandfather Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. maternal great-grandfather. Hitler perfected his delivery by rehearsing . He honed his skills by giving speeches to soldiers during 1919 and 1920. nephew Maria Schicklgruber. He became adept at telling people what they wanted to hear (the stab-in-the-back.. niece Gretl Braun. mother Alois Hitler. sister William Patrick Hitler. and the betrayal of Germany in the Versailles treaty) and identifying a scapegoat for their plight.Adolf Hitler's genealogy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Klara Hitler.
but still intellectually detached manner during this talk (the speech has been compared to that of the working class). and by making the stiff armed salute. which presents the 1934 Nuremberg Rally. Munitions minister and architect Albert Speer. Today the recording is the only known recording of Hitler not speaking in an official tone. Whether the film itself recruited new Nazis out of theatre audiences is unknown. by marching. He was allegedly coached by Erik-Jan Hanussen. ironically. The process of self-persuasion may have affected Hitler. This process can be appreciated by watching Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will. who may have known Hitler as well as anyone. a self-styled clairvoyant who focused on hand and arm gestures and who. Hitler admits to underestimating the Soviet Union's ability to conduct war. The majority of the recording is a monologue by Hitler. By participating in the rallies. The camera shoots Hitler from on high and from below. said that Hitler was above all else an actor. the obverse bears an image of Hitler giving a speech and has a recording of both a speech by Hitler and also Party Member Hans Hinkel. the participants strengthened their commitment to the Nazi movement. Massive Nazi rallies staged by Speer were designed to spark a process of self-persuasion for the participants. Documentaries during the Third Reich . but most of the participants are not. During the visit an engineer of the Finnish broadcasting company YLE. recorded Hitler and Mannerheim in conversation. Patria picture disc Adolf Hitler even released a 7-inch picture disc with one of his speeches. The recording captures 11½ minutes of the two leaders in private conversation. He gave the same speech (though it got smoother and smoother with repetition) hundreds of times first to soldiers and then to audiences in beer halls. Known as the Patria (Fatherland) picture disc. but only twice head-on. had Jewish heritage. The reverse bears a hand holding a swastika flag and the Carl Woitschach recording (1933 – Telefunken A 1431) "In Dem Kampf um die Heimat – Faschistenmarsch". something which had to be done secretly since Hitler never allowed recordings of him off-guard. Hitler and Baron Mannerheim (June 1942) Recorded in private conversation Hitler visited Finnish Field Marshal Mannerheim on 4 June 1942. by shouting heil. Hitler speaks in a slightly excited. Thor Damen. In the recording. Some of the people in the film are paid actors.in front of mirrors and carefully choreographing his display of emotions. These camera angles give Hitler a Christ-like aura.
Made by Austrian Jewish director André Heller shortly before Junge's death from lung cancer. Olympia (1938). including the 1936 Olympic Games and Nuremberg Rallies. The series begins with World War II footage. Das Fernsehen unter dem Hakenkreuz (Television Under the Swastika) (1999): documentary by Michael Kloft about the domestic use of television in Nazi Germany for propaganda purposes from 1935 to 1944. Hitler was the central figure of the first three films. Clips of the interview were used in Downfall. Junge recalls the last days in the Berlin bunker. 1934). Television Hitler's attendance at various public functions. co-produced by Hitler. including Hitler. along with other programming highlighting activity by public officials. Hitler also featured prominently in the Olympia film. Traudl Junge. created by Third Reich historian R. Hitler was featured in many newsreels. Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will. were often repeated in public viewing rooms. Ruins of the Reich (2007): four-part series of the Rise and Fall of Hitler's Reich and its effects. Documentaries post Third Reich • The World at War (1974): a Thames Television series which contains much information about Hitler and Nazi Germany. and how the Cold War began in earnest after Germany surrendered. Whether the latter is a propaganda film or a true documentary is still a subject of controversy. 1935). Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht (Day of Freedom: Our Armed Forces. As a prominent politician. Historical consultant is Ian Kershaw. including an interview with his secretary. Undergångens arkitektur (The Architecture of Doom) (1989): documentary about the National Socialist aesthetic as envisioned by Hitler. Hitler's secretary. Samples from a number of surviving television films from Nazi Germany were included in the 1999 documentary Das Fernsehen unter dem Hakenkreuz (Television Under the Swastika). Adams • • • • • • • Films . Cold War (1998): a CNN series about the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. 1933). they focused on the party rallies of the respective years and are considered propaganda films. Im toten Winkel – Hitlers Sekretärin (Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary) (2002): an exclusive 90 minute interview with Traudl Junge. Adolf Hitler's Last Days: from the BBC series "Secrets of World War II" tells the story about Hitler's last days during World War II.J. appeared on television broadcasts made between 1935 and 1939. These events. but it nonetheless perpetuated and spread the propagandistic message of the 1936 Olympic Games depicting Nazi Germany as a prosperous and peaceful country.Hitler appeared in and was involved to varying degrees with a series of films by the pioneering filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl via Universum Film AG (UFA): • • • • Der Sieg des Glaubens (Victory of Faith. The Nazis: A Warning From History (1997): six-part BBC TV series on how the cultured and educated Germans accepted Hitler and the Nazis up to its downfall.
The Empty Mirror (1996): a psychodrama which speculates on the events following Hitler (portrayed by Norman Rodway) surviving the fall of Nazi Germany. a British (7 January 1973) made-for-television production. Europa. and other elements. starring Robert Carlyle. Hitler is portrayed by Ryszard Pietruski.• • • The Death of Adolf Hitler. Fatherland (1994): a hypothetical view of Germany in 1964. The Bunker (1981): a U. played by David Bamber. theatrical stages. Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004): German movie about the last days of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. puppets. In 2002. starring Frank Finlay. photographic backgrounds. Max (2002): fictional drama depicting a friendship between Jewish art dealer Max Rothman (John Cusack) and a young Adolf Hitler (Noah Taylor) as a failed painter in Vienna.S. The film stars Anthony Hopkins. Europa (1990): based on the true story of a German Jew who joined the Hitler Youth in order to avoid capture. starring Sir Alec Guinness. starring Bruno Ganz. a favorite secretary of Hitler's. The movie depicts the last days of Hitler. Hitler: The Last Ten Days (1973): movie depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitler's death. Dr Freud Will See You Now Mr Hitler (2008): radio drama by Laurence Marks and Maurice Gran presenting an imagined scenario in which Sigmund Freud treats the young Hitler. had Hitler won World War II. Toby Jones played Hitler. adapted from the novel by former journalist Robert Harris. Junge said she felt great guilt for ". Hitler: The Rise of Evil (2003): two-part TV series about the early years of Adolf Hitler and his rise to power (up to 1933). This film is partly based on the autobiography of Traudl Junge. made-for-television movie describing the last days in the Führerbunker from 17 January 1945 to 2 May 1945. is portrayed as a target of the famous assassination plot by Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. Moloch (1999): Hitler portrayed by Leonid Mozgovoy in a fictional drama set at his Berghof Retreat in the Bavarian Alps.." Valkyrie (2008): Hitler. liking the greatest criminal ever to have lived. The director uses documentary clips.. Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler – Ein Film aus Deutschland (Hitler: A Film from Germany) (1977): a seven-hour work in four parts. • • • • • • • • • • See also • • • • • • • • Adolf Hitler's directives Ex-Nazi Party members Führermuseum Glossary of Nazi Germany Glossary of German military terms List of books by or about Adolf Hitler List of Nazi Party leaders and officials Poison Kitchen Footnotes .
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New York. New York: New Press. P. Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography. Macmillan Publishers.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Overy. L. 1919–1945. New York: Viking Press. Chicago. R. ISBN 0297811339 Robertson. Young Hitler. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. The Holy Fox. Putnam's Sons Rosenbaum. Robert (1990). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. ISBN 0-671-72868-7 Speer. Doubleday. (1963).lawschool. ISBN 006095339X Shirer. Quartet Books Publishing. ISBN 0226885097 Weinberg. ISBN 0880294027 Rees. http://library.edu/WhatWeHave/SpecialCollections/Donovan/Hitler /index. Gerhard (1980). Chicago. ISBN 0521782651 Toland. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0521823714 Strobl. (1998). ISBN 1842-127357 Steigmann-Gall. John (1967). The Bunker. London: Macmillan. (1993). G. Andrew (1991). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity. ISBN 3-85842421-8 Roberts. ISBN 1403918120 Further reading • • Hant.M. The Wages of Destruction. Richard (2005). Richard (2003). Adam (2006). Penguin Books.2277/0521823714. The Nemesis of Power.cfm O'Donnell. The Solution to the German Problem. ISBN 0-30680958-3 • . ISBN 978-0704371828 Murray. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0563387041 Rißmann. Illinois: University of Chicago Press. Laurence (1997). Robert G. New York: Da Capo Press. London: Longmans Röpke. John (1991 reprint). Gerwin (2000). The Nazis: A Warning From History. ISBN 0385420536 Tooze. Cambridge. Claus (2010). Simon & Schuster. Henry A. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany. ISBN 0226885119 Wheeler-Bennett. Zürich München: Pendo. Inside the Third Reich. The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Starting World War II. ISBN 0670038261 Waite. (1943). Albert (2003). The Germanic Isle. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. William L. Stalin's Russia. Gerhard (1970). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of his Evil. Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler: With Predictions of His Future Behavior and Suggestions for Dealing with Him Now and After Germany's Surrender. Wilhelm (1946). E. ISBN 0393020304 Payne. (1990 reprint). Weidenfeld & Nicolson History. Hitler's Pre-War Policy and Military Plans. ISBN 0306-80514-6 Weinberg. Illinois: University of Chicago Press.cornell. The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Diplomatic Revolution in Europe 1933–1936. New York: Cambridge University Press. Vorsehungsglaube und Sendungsbewußtsein des deutschen Diktators. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. doi:10. Michael (2001) (in (German)). James (1978). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Hitlers Gott. Cambridge.
Illnesses. Focal Point Publications. Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture Art and Music. Baypoint Press. et al. Hitler's Mind: A Plunge into Madness. http://www. ISBN 1-57488-2287 Zalampas.co. D. The Death of Adolf Hitler: Unknown Documents from Soviet Archives. (2000). (1999). ISBN 0-283-98981-5. (1990). Potomac Books.ac. and Drugs. Bowling Green State University Popular Press. http://www. (1983). G. S. ISBN 0-7181-0634-2 Doyle. ISBN 0-9665852-9-1 Morell. Praeger Publishers.fpp. E. ISBN 087972-488-9 Works by or about Adolf Hitler in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • • • External links • Find more about Adolf Hitler on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from Wikiversity Images and videos • • • Adolf Hitler at the Internet Movie Database Adolf Hitler (Character) at the Internet Movie Database (The Character portrayed in film and television) Color Footage of Hitler during WWII . Cooper Square Press.uk/publications/articles/journal_35_1/Hitler's_medical_care. The Medical Casebook of Adolf Hitler. (2005). (1980). Harcourt Brace. L. ISBN 0-275-94132-9 Victor. ISBN 0-8154-1066-2 Heston. Dr. (1992).uk/books/Morell/Morell.pdf Heston. ISBN 0-8128-2718-X Heston. L.Medical books • • • • • • Bezymenski.rcpe. (1968). Hitler's Medical Care. Theodore. Doctors. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil. (1999). L.zip Schwaab. Doctors. Adolf Hitler: A Medical Descent That Changed History His Drug Abuse. Adolf Hitler : The Secret Diaries of Hitler's Doctor. The Medical Casebook of Adolf Hitler: His Illnesses. L. Stein & Day.
• • • • • • • • • • • Photos of Adolf Hitler Download "The Young Hitler I Knew" on archive. The positions of Head of State and Government were combined 1934–1945 in the office of Führer and Chancellor of Germany [show] v•d•e Adolf Hitler . Marriage Certificate and Political Testament. April 1945 (34 pages) "The Discovery of Hitler's Wills" Office of Strategic Services report on how the testament was found The Testament of Adolf Hitler the Bormann-Hitler documents (transcripts of conversations in February–2 April 1945) Political offices Preceded by Anton Drexler Leader of the NSDAP 1921–1945 Leader of the SA 1930–1945 Chancellor of Germany(1) 1933–1945 Führer of Germany(1) 1934–1945 Military offices Speeches and publications Preceded by Franz Pfeffer von Salomon Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg (as President) Succeeded by None Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels Succeeded by Karl Dönitz (as President) Preceded by Walther von Brauchitsch Notes and references Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres (Army Commander) 1941–1945 Succeeded by Ferdinand Schörner 1. German Museum of History Berlin Hitler Speech (10 February 1933) with English Translation Hitler's book Mein Kampf (full English translation) Adolf Hitler's Private Will.High Hitler A speech from 1932 (text and audiofile).org Did Hitler have only one testicle? from The Straight Dope OSS document alleging sexual deviancy History Channel's Episode .
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[show] v•d•e Heads of State of Nazi Germany N a z i G Paul von Hindenburg (as President) · Adolf Hitler (as Führer and Chancellor) · Karl e Dönitz (as President) r m a n y [show] v•d•e Members of Hitler's cabinet (30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945) Adolf Hitler (Chancellor and Führer) · Heinrich Himmler (Reichsführer) Franz von Papen (ind) · Hermann Göring · Konstantin von Neurath · Joachim von Ribbentrop · Martin Bormann · Joseph Goebbels · Wilhelm Frick · Rudolf Hess · Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (ind) · Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) · Kurt Schmitt · Hjalmar Schacht (ind) · Walther Funk · Franz Seldte · Franz Gürtner (DNVP) · Franz Schlegelberger · Otto Georg Thierack · Werner von Blomberg (ind) · Wilhelm Keitel (ind) · Freiherr von EltzRübenach (ind) · Julius Dorpmüller · Wilhelm Ohnesorge · Richard Walther Darré · Herbert Backe · Bernhard Rust · Fritz Todt · Albert Speer · Alfred Rosenberg · Hanns Kerrl · Hermann Muhs · Otto Meißner (ind) · Hans Lammers · Karl Hermann Frank · Ernst Röhm All personnel were or became NSDAP members except where indicated ("ind" = nominally independent) [show] v•d•e Final occupants of the Führerbunker by date of departure 2 Robert Ley 1 A p r i .
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Dharmarajika. Andhra Pradesh. Dhammarajika. Prajapita. Other titles include Devanampriya Priyadarsi.Dhammanayak. Ashokavardhan. Mauryaraja. Chakravartin. Titles Magadhrajshretha. Magadharajan. Dharmanayak Born Birthplace Died Place of death Buried 304 BC Pataliputra. Patna Ashes immersed in Ganges River. possibly in . Dhammashok. Bhupatin. Amaravati. Dhammaradnya. Radnyashreshtha. Dhammarakhit. Patna 232 BC (aged 72) Pataliputra. Preserved at Musee Guimet Reign Coronation Full name 273-232 BC 270 BC Ashoka Bindusara Maurya Samrat. Dharmashok. Aryashok. Asokvadhhan .A Chakravatin (possibly Ashoka) 1st century BC/CE. Samrat.
304–232 BC). One of India's greatest emperors. He embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Vedic tradition after witnessing the mass deaths of the war of Kalinga. he is referred to as Devānāmpriya (Devanāgarī: देवानािपय)/Devānaṃpiya or "The Beloved Of The Gods". He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha.Teevala. and Priyadarśin (Devanāgarī: . soka= sorrow or worry).the Emperor of Emperors Ashoka. love. Afghanistan in the west. IPA: [aˈɕoːkə]. tolerance and vegetarianism. His name "aśoka" means "without sorrow" in Sanskrit (a= no/without. truth. Cremated 232 BC. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence). popularly known as Ashoka the Great. In the history of India Ashoka is referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka. to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east. was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra. In his edicts. which no one in his dynasty had conquered starting from Chandragupta Maurya. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga. Sanghamitra. which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan. Humanism Ashoka (Devanāgarī: अशोक. His reign was headquartered in Magadha (present-day Bihar. India). less than 24 hours after death Predecessor Successor Consort Bindusara Dasaratha Maurya Maharani Devi Rani Tishyaraksha Wives Rani Padmavati Rani Kaurwaki Offspring Mahendra. IAST: Aśoka. Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator.Varanasi. Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. Kunala Royal House Mauryan dynasty Father Mother Religious beliefs Bindusara Rani Dharma or Shubhadrangi Buddhism.
Wells in his bestselling two-volume work. the influence of Ashoka is seen in Asia and especially the Indian subcontinent.िपयदशी)/Piyadassī or "He who regards everyone with affection". In the History of Buddhism Ashoka is considered just after Gautama Buddha. wrote of emperor Ashoka: In the history of the world there have been thousands of kings and emperors who called themselves 'their highnesses. "Lawful. 1 E a r l y l i f e ○ 1 . 2 R i s e t o P o . G. Renowned British author and social critic H. Contents [show] • 1 Biogra phy ○ 1 . and in the Sri Lankan text Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle"). The Outline of History (1920). Another title of his is Dhamma (prakrit: धममः).' 'their majesties. Righteous". They shone for a brief moment. Religious. An emblem excavated from his empire is today the national Emblem of India. and as quickly disappeared. even unto this day. But Ashoka shines and shines brightly like a bright star.' and 'their exalted majesties' and so on. Along with the Edicts of Ashoka. his legend is related in the later 2nd century Aśokāvadāna ("Narrative of Asoka") and Divyāvadāna ("Divine narrative"). After two thousand years.
3 C o n q u e s t o f K a l i n g a ○ 1 . 4 B u d d h i s t C o n v e r s i o n ○ 1 .w e r ○ 1 .
5 D e a t h a n d l e g a c y • 2 Histori cal sources 3 Import ant • ..
years in the life of Ashok a • 4 Contri butions ○ 4 . 2 A s a n A d m . 1 G l o b a l S p r e a d o f B u d d h i s m ○ 4 .
4 P i l l a r s o f A s h o k a ( A .i n i s t r a t o r ○ 4 . 3 A s h o k a C h a k r a ○ 4 .
5 L i o n C a p i t a l o f A s o k a ( A s h o k m u d r a ) ○ 4 .s h o k s t a m b h a ) ○ 4 .
1 A t t r i b u t e .. 6 C o n s t r u c t i o n s c r e d i t e d t o A s h o k a • 5 Quotati ons ○ 5 .
1 I n a r t a n d f i l m . 2 A b o u t A s h o k a • 6 Ashok a Today ○ 6 .d t o A s h o k a ○ 5 .
in his adolescence. He was very adventurous and this made him a terrific fighter. Vitthashoka (a much loved brother from the same mother). was rude and naughty. Ashoka was very well known for his sword fighting. Because of this quality he was sent to destroy the riot of Avanti. Ashoka was a frightening warrior and a heartless general. According to a legend. when Chandragupta Maurya left his empire for a Jain living. He was a kshatriya and was given all royal military trainings and other Vedic knowledge.○ 6 . Ashoka. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. As the legend goes. Because of his exemplary intellect and warrior skills. he was said to have been the favorite of his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. (January 2009) Ashoka was born to the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and his Queen 'Dharma' (although she was a Brahmin or Shubhadrangi. she was undervalued as she wasn't of royal blood). in spite of his grandfather's warning. he killed a Lion with just a wooden rod. he threw his sword away. He was a fearsome hunter. Ashoka found the sword and kept it. 2 I n L i t e r a t u r e • • • • • 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Source s 10 Notes 11 Extern al links Biography Early life This article needs additional citations for verification. . Ashoka had several elder siblings (all half-brothers from other wives of Bindusara). He had just one younger sibling.
with whom he fell in love. Ashoka expanded his empire over the next eight years. Ascending the throne. Emperor Bindusara died. he became a follower of the Buddha's teaching after his conquest of Kalinga on the east coast of India in . His growing popularity across the empire made his elder brothers wary of his chances of being favored by Bindusara to become the next emperor. Ashoka went into Ujjain and in the ensuing battle was injured. he was welcomed by the revolting militias and the uprising ended without a conflict. Ashoka was known for his unquenched thirst for wars and campaigns launched to conquer the lands of other rulers and became known as Chandashok (terrible Ashoka). Taxshila was a highly volatile place because of the war-like Indo-Greek population and mismanagement by Susima himself. As news of Ashoka's visit with his army trickled in. It was quite unacceptable to Bindusara that one of his sons should marry a Buddhist. a city in the north-west District of Pakistani Punjab region. Ashoka beheads his elder brother to ascend the throne. fierce. Recently found inscriptions indicate that she would later become either his second or third queen. Meanwhile. This is where he first learned the teachings of the Buddha. Ashoka went on to command several regiments of the Mauryan army. the Sanskrit word chanda meaning cruel. but his generals quelled the uprising. Susima. however. Developing into an impeccable warrior general and a shrewd statesman. there was again a violent uprising in Ujjain. Chandi-devi being associated with Kali. He went into Kalinga and stayed there incognito. Prince Susima planned the execution of the unborn child. and it is also where he met Devi. the assassin who came to kill Devi and her child killed his mother instead. The eldest of them. The empire stretched from Iran to Bangladesh/Assam and from Central Asia (Afganistan) to Tamil Nadu/South India. who was his personal nurse and the daughter of a merchant from adjacent Vidisha. In the meanwhile. He was treated by Buddhist monks and nuns. Ashoka complied and left for the troubled area. Conquest of Kalinga Main article: Kalinga War While the early part of Ashoka's reign was apparently quite bloodthirsty. for which Prince Susima was the Governor. In this phase of his life. Emperor Bindusara summoned Ashoka out of exile after two years. After recovering. This had led to the formation of different militias causing unrest. Tamilnadu / Andhra pradesh). Ashoka was treated in hiding so that loyalists of the Susima group could not harm him. As the news of the unborn heir to the throne spread. or rude. The following year passed quite peacefully for him. he married her. There he met a fisher woman named Kaurwaki. but this time the uprising was crushed with an iron fist) Ashoka's success made his stepbrothers more wary of his intentions of becoming the emperor and more incitements from Susima led Bindusara to send Ashoka into exile. so he did not allow Ashoka to stay in Pataliputra but instead sent him back to Ujjain and made him the governor of Ujjain. (The province revolted once more during the rule of Ashoka. and Devi was about to deliver his first child.e. the traditional heir to the throne. persuaded Bindusara to send Ashoka to quell an uprising in Taxshila. from the Pamir Knots in the north almost to the peninsular of southern India (i. from the present-day boundaries and regions of Burma–Bangladesh and the state of Assam in India in the east to the territory of present-day Iran / Persia and Afghanistan in the west.Rise to Power Maurya Empire at the age of Ashoka.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This enraged Ashoka immensely. what's a defeat then? Is this a victory or a defeat? Is this justice or injustice? Is it gallantry or a rout? Is it valor to kill innocent children and women? Do I do it to widen the empire and for prosperity or to destroy the other's kingdom and splendor? One has lost her husband. someone . someone else a father. attacked with the greatest invasion ever recorded in Indian history until then. Ashoka sent one of his generals to Kalinga to make them submit. which was intrinsically entwined with the concept of bravery and Kshatriya dharma. He was advised by his ministers to attack Kalinga for this act of treachery. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. This sight made him sick and he cried the famous monologue: What have I done? If this is a victory. Thailand showing another larger Dharma Chakra / Ashoka Chakra atop the four lions thought to be missing in the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath Museum which has been adopted as the National Emblem of India. however. Ashoka then asked Kalinga's royalty to submit before his supremacy. The general and his forces were. one day after the war was over. Ashoka. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance. One of Susima's brothers might have fled to Kalinga and found official refuge there. Ashoka ventured out to roam the city and all he could see were burnt houses and scattered corpses. completely routed through the skilled tact of Kalinga's commander-in-chief. Rajdharma means the duty of the rulers.the present-day state of Orissa. When they defied this diktat. Ashoka's later edicts state that about 100. With its monarchical parliamentary democracy it was quite an exception in ancient Bharata where there existed the concept of Rajdharma. The pretext for the start of the Kalinga War (265 BC or 263 BC) is uncertain. Buddhist Conversion This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2009) A similar four "Indian lion" Lion Capital of Ashoka atop an intact Ashoka Pillar at Wat U Mong near Chiang Mai. As the legend goes. The whole of Kalinga was plundered and destroyed. Kalinga was a state that prided itself on its sovereignty and democracy. but they were no match for Ashoka's brutal strength. baffled at this defeat. someone a child. Thousands of men and women were deported.000 people were killed on the Kalinga side and 10.000 from Ashoka's army.
liberality towards friends.. none could match his strength. obedience to parents. so easily overthrown. politics and caste. Ashoka defined the main principles of dharma (dhamma) as nonviolence. who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). He made Buddhism his state religion around 260 BC. including the Seleucid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian kingdom established by Diodotus I. as far as ancient Rome and Egypt. These principles suggest a general ethic of behaviour to which no religious or social group could object. After this transformation. He is acclaimed for constructing hospitals for animals and renovating major roads throughout India.. humane treatment of servants. He treated his subjects as equals regardless of their religion. he pursued an official policy of nonviolence (ahimsa). and propagated it and preached it within his domain and worldwide from about 250 BC. Even the unnecessary slaughter or mutilation of people was immediately abolished. but among his neighbors. He was a contemporary of both Antiochus I Soter and his successor Antiochus II Theos of the Seleucid dynasty as well as Diodotus I and his son Diodotus II of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.an unborn infant. The Stupas of Sanchi are world famous and the stupa named Sanchi Stupa was built by Emperor Ashoka. eagles the messengers of death or evil? The brutality of the conquest led him to adopt Buddhism and he used his position to propagate the relatively new religion to new heights. were instead made to be well-respected allies. Everyone became protected by the king's law against sport hunting and branding. Some critics say that Ashoka was afraid of more wars. allowing them leave for the outside a day of the year. During the remaining portion of Ashoka's reign. The kingdoms surrounding his. He built thousands of Stupas and Viharas for Buddhist followers. and water transit and irrigation systems for trade and agriculture. Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali Prominent in this cause were his son Venerable Mahindra and daughter Sanghamitra (whose name means "friend of the Sangha"). the follower of Dharma. What's this debris of the corpses? Are these marks of victory or defeat? Are these vultures. crows. meaning Ashoka. Ashoka also showed mercy to those imprisoned. If his inscriptions and edicts are well studied one finds that he . He attempted to raise the professional ambition of the common man by building universities for study. Emperor Ashoka undoubtedly has to be credited with the first serious attempt to develop a Buddhist policy. tolerance of all sects and opinions. Ashoka came to be known as Dhammashoka (Sanskrit). Limited hunting was permitted for consumption reasons but Ashoka also promoted the concept of vegetarianism. and generosity towards all.. respect for the Brahmans and other religious teachers and priests.
where the Greek king Antiochos rules. the Keralaputras. in their territories: Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children. It has a four-lion capital (four lions standing back to back) which was adopted as the emblem of the modern Indian republic. although no Hellenic historical record of this event remain: The conquest by Dharma has been won here. King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain. Ashoka's own words as known from his Edicts are: "All men are my children. Also. Emperor Ashoka is known as Piyadasi (in Pali) or Priyadarshi (in Sanskrit) meaning "good looking" or "favored by the gods with good blessing". on the borders. All his inscriptions have the imperial touch and show compassionate loving. Ashoka mentions Hellenistic kings of the period as converts to Buddhism. and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). The source of much of our knowledge of Ashoka is the many inscriptions he had carved on pillars and rocks throughout the empire. but the stone etchings clearly depict how Ashoka wanted to be thought of and remembered. I wish that all men should be happy always. which talk of friendly relations. the Cholas. and among the people beyond the borders. and they talk of his fame and conquered lands as well as the neighboring kingdoms holding up his might. as far . beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy. for human and nonhuman animals.600 km) away. Dhammika) Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine. He addressed his people as his "children". —Edicts of Ashoka.400–9. His edicts. Magas and Alexander rule.was familiar with the Hellenic world but never in awe of it. in the 3rd century BC. Stupa of Sanchi. These inscriptions promoted Buddhist morality and encouraged nonviolence and adherence to Dharma (duty or proper behavior). this pillar records the visit of the emperor to Sarnath. the Pandyas. The lion symbolizes both Ashoka's imperial rule and the kingship of the Buddha. and even six hundred yojanas (5. likewise in the south among the Cholas. It is difficult to determine whether or not some actual events ever happened. I am like a father to them. the Pandyas. One also gets some primary information about the Kalinga War and Ashoka's allies plus some useful knowledge on the civil administration. Made of sandstone. In translating these monuments. Rock Edict 13 (S. historians learn the bulk of what is assumed to have been true fact of the Mauryan Empire. The fame of the Mauryan empire was widespread from the time that Ashoka's grandfather Chandragupta Maurya defeated Seleucus Nicator. give the names of both Antiochus of the Seleucid empire and Ptolemy III of Egypt. The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath is the most popular of the relics left by Ashoka. the Satiyaputras. the founder of the Seleucid Dynasty. in the Edicts." Edward D'Cruz interprets the Ashokan dharma as a "religion to be used as a symbol of a new imperial unity and a cementing force to weld the diverse and heterogeneous elements of the empire". Antigonos.
the regent in Takshashila. Mahindra and Sanghamitra went into Sri Lanka and converted the King. a star. It is said that she had got his son Kunala. blinded by a wily stratagem. in the city of Ujjain. The language used for inscription was the then current spoken form called Prakrit. more popular across the known and the unknown world. The reign of Ashoka Maurya could easily have disappeared into history as the ages passed by. the last Maurya ruler. King Piyadasi. What Ashoka left behind was the first written language in India since the ancient city of Harappa. but many of their names are lost to time. the Mauryan dynasty lasted just fifty more years. Pusyamitra Sunga founded the Sunga dynasty (185 BC-78 BC) and ruled just a fragmented part of the Mauryan Empire. They were naturally not handling state affairs after him. and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos. Ashoka had many wives and children. Devi. Brhadrata. while he was taking the Guard of Honor of his forces. In the year 185 BC. as some of the emissaries of Ashoka. and shines almost alone. After his death. Kunala was succeeded by his son. Pusyamitra Sunga.as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochos rules. the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. Death and legacy Ashoka ruled for an estimated forty years. a semi-fictionalized portrayal of Ashoka's life was produced as a motion picture under the title Asoka. Ashoka was ranked #53 on Michael H. When India gained independence from the British Empire it adopted Ashoka's emblem for its own. Mahindra and Sanghamitra were twins born by his first wife. the name of Asoka shines. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. Many of the northwestern territories of the Mauryan Empire (modern-day Iran.G. Afghanistan and Pakistan) became the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available. Ashoka hears Kunala's song. Rock Edict 2 The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism. Samprati. He had entrusted to them the job of making his state religion. has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods. Buddhism. I have had them imported and grown. XII). active in spreading Buddhism (the Mahavamsa. In 2001. The testimony of this wise king was discovered in the form of magnificently sculpted pillars and boulders with a variety of actions and teachings he wished to be published etched into the stone. placing the Dharmachakra (The Wheel of Righteous Duty) that crowned his many columns on the flag of the newly independent state. the Queen and their people to Buddhism." Buddhist Kingship . and would have had he not left behind a record of his trials. In 1992. The official executioners spared Kunala and he became a wandering singer accompanied by his favourite wife Kanchanmala. was assassinated by the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces. restoring Kunala to the court. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. are described in Pali sources as leading Greek (Yona) Buddhist monks. he seems to have come under the spell of his youngest wife Tishyaraksha. The British historian H.. In his old age. about fifty years after Ashoka's death. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals. but his rule did not last long after Ashoka's death. In Pataliputra.. King Ashoka. such as Dharmaraksita. Wells has written: "Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history . and realizes that Kunala's misfortune may have been a punishment for some past sin of the emperor himself and condemns Tishyaraksha to death. made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. —Edicts of Ashoka.
and the Mahabodhi Temple. This development ultimately lead to a close association in many Southeast Asian countries between the monarchy and the religious hierarchy. kings established monasteries. thus. His main interests were Sanchi and Sarnath besides Harappa and Mohenjodaro. In particular. Ashoka also said that all his courtiers were true to their self and governed the people in a moral manner. Following Ashoka's example. and supported the ordination of monks in their kingdom. but by supporting and earning the approval of the Buddhist sangha. the model of ruler ship embodied by Ashoka replaced the notion of divine kingship that had previously dominated (in the Angkor kingdom. the king sought to legitimize his rule not through descent from a divine source. Additional information is contributed by the Edicts of Asoka. Western sources – Ashoka was almost forgotten by the historians of the early British India but James Prinsep contributed in the revelation of historical sources. an association that can still be seen today in the state-supported Buddhism of Thailand and the traditional role of the Thai king as both a religious and secular leader. Another important historian was British archaeologist Sir John Hubert Marshall who was director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. Ashokavadana. and Dipavamsa Eastern sources . Mahavamsa.Main articles: History of Buddhism and History of Buddhism in India Further information: Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Buddhism in Burma One of the more enduring legacies of Ashoka Maurya was the model that he provided for the relationship between Buddhism and the state. for instance). a British archaeologist and army engineer and often known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India. Sir Mortimer Wheeler who was a British archaeologist also exposed Ashokan historical sources. as Ashoka had in calling a conclave to settle a number of contentious issues during his reign. Sanchi. unveiled heritage sites like the Bharhut Stupa. his contribution is recognizable in realms of historical sources. Under this model of 'Buddhist kingship'. the Sanskrit Ashokavadana ('Story of Ashoka'). written in the 2nd century. Kabul Museum.Information about the life and reign of Ashoka primarily comes from a relatively small number of Buddhist sources. whose authorship was finally attributed to the Ashoka of Buddhist legend after the discovery of dynastic lists that gave the . from Kandahar (Shar-i-kuna). Many rulers also took an active role in resolving disputes over the status and regulation of the sangha. Sarnath. funded the construction of stupas. Main articles: Edicts of Ashoka. Sir Alexander Cunningham. Throughout Theravada Southeastern Asia. Historical sources Bilingual inscription in (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka. and the two Pāli chronicles of Sri Lanka (the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa) provide most of the currently known information about Ashoka. especially the Taxila.
Mahavamsa -The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle") is a historical poem written in the Pali language. of the kings of Sri Lanka. Ashoka declares himself to be an "upasaka". The edicts describe in detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism through the sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of Indian history. Edicts of Ashoka -The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka. Furthermore.As it often refers to the royal dynasties of India. Dipavamsa -The Dipavamsa. early scholars regarded Ashoka as a primarily Buddhist monarch who underwent a conversion to Buddhism and was actively engaged in sponsoring and supporting the Buddhist monastic institution. The use of Buddhist sources in reconstructing the life of Ashoka has had a strong influence on perceptions of Ashoka.. Building on traditional accounts. and his edicts addressed to the population at large (there are some addressed specifically to Buddhists. Chronicle of the Island. Important years in the life of Ashoka Birth – 304 BC Marriage with Maharani devi – 286 BC Mahindra's birth – 284 BC . as well as boulders and cave walls. there is strong evidence in the edicts alone that he was a Buddhist. and these do not explicitly state that Ashoka was a Buddhist. which include an 80-pillar hypostyle hall. made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BC. Jainism. this was an exclusively Buddhist use of the word. (i. In his edicts. Ashoka expresses support for all the major religions of his time: Buddhism.It give more information about Ashoka's proselytism. The legend was translated into Chinese by Fa Hien in 300 CE. and Ajivikaism. and he banned Vedic animal sacrifices. Ashokavadana . The only source of information not attributable to Buddhist sources are the Ashokan edicts. Patna. but did not so for the sites of other religions. as well as the interpretations of his edicts. in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. He erected rock pillars at Buddhist holy sites. Brahmanism. In one edict he belittles rituals. The chronicle is believe to be compiled from Atthakatha and other sources around the 3–4th century. Architectural remains of his period have been found at Kumhrar.The Ashokavadana is a 2nd century CE text related to the legend of the Maurya Emperor Ashoka. Finally. Some scholars have tended to question this assessment. the Mahavamsa is also valuable for historians who wish to date and relate contemporary royal dynasties in the Indian subcontinent. in one. Social and animal welfare . Religious precepts. He also used the word "dhamma" to refer to qualities of the heart that underlie moral action. the ideals he promotes correspond to the first three steps of the Buddha's graduated discourse.name used in the edicts (Priyadarsi – 'favored by the Gods') as a title or additional name of Ashoka Mauriya. there are many edicts expressed to Buddhists alone. and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan and India. and in another he demonstrates a close familiarity with Buddhist texts. However.e. this is not the case for the other religions) generally focus on moral themes members of all the religions would accept. these strongly suggest that he at least did not look to the Vedic tradition for guidance. or "Deepavamsa". King Dhatusena (4th century CE) had ordered that the Dipavamsa be recited at the Mahinda (son to Ashoka )festival held annually in Anuradhapura. Moral precepts. It is very important in dating the consecration of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. It covers the period from the coming of King Vijaya of Kalinga (ancient Orissa) in 543 BC to the reign of King Mahasena (334–361).
Italy and Turkey. Ashoka helped to construct Sanchi and Mahabodhi Temple. and also gave all types of help to that end. Greece. Ashoka never tried to harm or to destroy non-Buddhist religions. Myanmar (old name Suvarnabhumi for Burma and Thailand). now a Buddhist emperor. He sent his only daughter Sanghamitta and son Mahindra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka (ancient name Tamraparni). believed that Buddhism is beneficial for all human beings as well as animals and plants. and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia. 250 BC) at Pataliputra (today's Patna). Chaitya. As his reign continued his even-handedness was replaced with special inclination towards Buddhism. Mahadhhamarakhhita stahvira to Maharashtra (old name Maharatthha). Bhutan. Ashoka also helped to develop viharas (intellectual hubs) such as Nalanda and Taxila. Ashoka inspired the Buddhist monks to compose the sacred religious texts. Egypt. Ashoka helped and respected both Sramans (Buddhists monks) and Brahmins (Vedic monks). Maharaskshit sthavira to Syria. and indeed gave donations to non-Buddhists. Sangharama. China and Mongolia. He gave donations to viharas and mathas. Sohn Uttar Sthavira to modern Cambodia. Persia / Iran. . Ashoka also sent many prominent Buddhist monks (bhikshus) Sthaviras like Madhyamik Sthavira to modern Kashmir and Afganistan. so he built 84.Sanghamitta's birth – 281 BC Reign – 272/273 BC to his Nirvana / Death (232 BC) Rajyabhisheka – 270 BC Tending to Buddhism – 266 BC Building Chaityas – 266/263 BC Mahindra and Sanghamitta Become Buddhist – 264 BC Kalinga Vijaya – 262/263 BC Converted to Buddhism – 263 BC Dharmayatra – 263–250 BC Third Buddhist council – 250–253 BC Mahindra's Sri Lanka Yatra – 252 BC Buddhist Proselytism – 250 to his Death / Nirvana Edicts – 243/242 BC Death / Nirvana of Sanghamitta – 240 BC Rani Tishyaraksha becomes Pattarani – 236 BC Prince Kunal becomes Upraja – 233 bc Ashoka's Death / Nirvana – 232 BC (Note – There are some historians according to whom Ashoka embraced Buddhism in 266 BC but became a true follower of Buddhism after the Conquest of Kalinga 262 BC or 263 BC) Contributions Global Spread of Buddhism Ashoka. Ashoka also invited Buddhists and non-Buddhists for religious conferences. Maharakhhit Sthavira and Yavandhammarakhhita Sthavira to South India. Laos. Thailand and Vietnam. Ashoka also helped to organize the Third Buddhist council (c. Massim Sthavira to Nepal. It was conducted by the monk Moggaliputta-Tissa who was the spiritual teacher of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. viharas.000 stupas.
inns. and they could call him when they need him. Ashoka Chakra . the poor. According to Ashoka. Ashoka called his people as his children.As an Administrator Mauryan ringstone. medical herbs and engineers to his neighboring countries. He helped students. Ashoka was against any discrimination among humans. peace and love. Tamraparni. He was the first emperor in human history who has taught the lesson of unity. 3rd century BC. and respected animal life and tree life. Hellenic polytheism and Ajivikas. Ashoka asked people to live with harmony. wells. orphans and the elderly with social. Ashoka commanded his people to serve the orders of their elders parents) and religious monks (shramana and Brahmin). Northwest Pakistan. According to him the happiness of people is the happiness of the ruler. fishing and deforestation. Ashoka also believed in dharmacharana (dhammacharana) and dharmavijaya (dhammavijaya). Ashoka allowed females to be educated. He also permitted females to enter religious institutions. He allowed female Buddhist monastic such as Bhikkhuni. Ashoka was perhaps the first emperor in human history to ban slavery. with standing goddess. political and economic help. He combined in himself the complexity a king and a simplicity of a buddhist monk. Ashoka asserted his people to live with Dharmmacharana. love and tolerance. Hinduism. Ashoka's aim was not to expand the territories but the welfare of all of his subjects (sarvajansukhay). hospitals. Ashoka's military power was so strong that he was able to crush those empires that went to war against him still. peace. equality and love. His opinion was that the sword is not as powerful as love. Ashoka also recommended his people study all religions and respect all religions. Ashoka was also Kind to prisoners. This made him different from other emperors. hunting. British Museum. peace. In his neighboring countries Ashoka helped humans as well as animals. to harm another's religion is a harm to someone's owns religion. Pandya. he was on friendly terms with kingdoms in the South like Cholas. Ashoka also helped Buddhism as well as religions like Jainism. the post Alexandrian empire. According to many European and Asian historians the age of Ashoka was the age of light and delightment. hatred gives birth to hatred and a feeling of love gives birth to love and mercy. According to his edicts we know that he provided humanitarian help including doctors. Ashoka also planted trees in his empire and his neighboring countries. Ashoka was the true devotee of nonviolence. Keralputra. and Suvarnabhumi who were strong enough to remain outside his empire and continued to profess Hinduism. Ashoka also banned the death sentence and asked the same for the neighboring countries. He also asked people to save money and not to spend for immoral causes. According to Ashoka. In his vast empire there was no evidence of recognizable mutiny or civil war. Because of these reasons he is known as the emperor of all ages and thus became a milestone in the History of the world.
The wheel has 24 spokes. our relation to the plant life here. The "Ashoka Chakra" in the . the path of truth to guide our conduct. Ashoka Chakra can also been seen on the base of Lion Capital of Ashoka which has been adopted as the National Emblem of India. A few days before India became independent on August 1947. "the wheel of Righteousness" (Dharma in Sanskrit or Dhamma in Pali)" Ashoka Chakra on the Indian National Flag. who later became India's first Vice President. The Ashoka chakra was built by Ashoka during his reign. The process it signifies is the cycle of time as how the world changes with time. where it is rendered in a Navy-blue color on a White background. Saffron. the specially constituted Constituent Assembly decided that the flag of India must be acceptable to all parties and communities. White and Green with the Ashoka Chakra was selected. A flag with three colours. The white in the center is light. The Ashoka Chakra has been widely inscribed on many relics of the Mauryan Emperor. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the National flag of the Republic of India (adopted on 22 July 1947). The horse means accuracy and speed while the bull means hardwork. clarified the adopted flag and described its significance as follows: Bhagwa or the saffron color denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. by replacing the symbol of Charkha (Spinning wheel) of the preindependence versions of the flag. Chakra is a Sanskrit word which also means cycle or self repeating process. most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Sarnath and The Ashoka Pillar. The Ashoka Chakra (the wheel of Ashoka) is a depiction of the Dharmachakra or Dhammachakka in Pali. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.The Ashoka Chakra. on which all other life depends. The green shows our relation to (the) soil. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. the Wheel of Dharma (Sanskrit: Chakra means wheel).
Righteousness 14.center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. It also represents 24 hours in a day. Supreme wisdom 22. Pillars of Ashoka (Ashokstambha) Main article: Pillars of Ashoka . Empathy 19. There is death in stagnation. The twenty four spokes in this chakra wheel represent twenty four virtues: 1. or faith in the goodness of God or nature. Hope. Supreme knowledge 21. Again. Courage 3. it must move and go forward. Selflessness 11. Supreme moral 23. Peacefulness 5. Graciousness 17. white for peace and truth. the wheel denotes motion. Kindness 6. There is life in movement. Humility 18. dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principle of those who work under this flag. A widely held unofficial interpretation is that the saffron stands for purity and spirituality. Self sacrifice 12. Goodness 7. Gentleness 9. Truthfulness 13. Faithfulness 8. trust. Patience 4. India should no more resist change. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change. Mercy 16. Justice 15. Sympathy 20. Self-control 10. Love for all beings 24. Truth or satya. Love 2. green for fertility and prosperity and the wheel for justice/righteousness.
Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height. The first Pillar of Ashoka was found in the 16th century by Thomas Coryat in the ruins of ancient Delhi. a horse. sometimes hundreds of miles. with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant. standing back to back. and weighing up to fifty tons each. a bull. a short cylindrical abacus with four 24spoked Dharma wheels with four animals (an elephant.The Asokan pillar at Lumbini The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. now in the state of Uttar Pradesh. and a lion. there must have been many pillars of Ashoka although only ten with inscriptions still survive. It was originally placed atop the Aśoka pillar at Sarnath. The Sarnath pillar is a column surmounted by a capital. while the swastika stands for the cosmic dance around a fixed center and guards against evil. . The capital contains four lions (Indian / Asiatic Lions). or manji. India. This Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been adopted as the National Emblem of India and the wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base was placed onto the center of the National Flag of India. separated by intervening spoked chariot-wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. just south of Varanasi and dragged. The Sarnath pillar bears one of the Edicts of Ashoka. on the pillars. a galloping horse. "No one shall cause division in the order of monks". The wheel represents the sun time and Buddhist law. The Ashoka Lion capital or the Sarnath lion capital is also known as the national symbol of India. and erected by Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BC. mounted on an abacus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone. which reads. all the pillars were quarried at Chunar. a bull. to where they were erected. The four animals in the Sarnath capital are believed to symbolize different steps of Lord Buddha's life. sometimes called the Aśoka Column is still in its original location. the capital was believed to be crowned by a 'Wheel of Dharma' (Dharmachakra popularly known in India as the "Ashoka Chakra"). but the Lion Capital is now in the Sarnath Museum. a lion). The pillar. an inscription against division within the Buddhist community. There is no evidence of a swastika. Lion Capital of Asoka (Ashokmudra) Main article: Lion Capital of Asoka The Lion capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four "Indian lions" standing back to back. which consists of a canopy representing an inverted bell-shaped lotus flower. Originally.
(reconstructed). India Mahabodhi Temple. India Nalanda University (Vishwaviddyalaya). The Bull represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince. Madhya Pradesh. The Lion represents the accomplishment of Buddha. in Brahmi. Madhya Pradesh. and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next. India Dhamek Stupa. Bihar. India Deorkothar Stupa. there are some non-religious interpretations also about the symbolism of the Ashoka capital pillar at Sarnath. The Horse represents Buddha's departure from palatial life. Pakistan Bharhut stupa. the wheels as symbols of his enlightened rule (Chakravartin) and the four animals as symbols of four adjoining territories of India. sandstones.• • • • The Elephant represents the Buddha's idea in reference to the dream of Queen Maya of a white elephant entering her womb. Pakistan Bhir Mound. Bihar. the four lions symbolize Ashoka's rule over the four directions. which I desire for all men. Sarnath. Taxila. Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh. • All men are my children. Besides the religious interpretations. India Taxila University (Vishwaviddyalaya). Bihar. Please help improve the article by removing excessive quotations or transferring them to Wikiquote. (some portions like Sariputta Stupa). Constructions credited to Ashoka • • • • • • • • • • Sanchi. Swat. India Butkara Stupa. Pakistan Quotations This article contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (some portions like Dharmarajika Stupa and Kunala Stupa). According to them. You do not . India Barabar Caves. British Museum. Taxila. (May 2010) Attributed to Ashoka Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BC). What I desire for my own children. Help is available.
King Piyadasi.But Beloved-of-the-Gods. and he honors them with gifts and honors of various kinds. To do good is difficult. that the people might practice the Dhamma. relations. and not killing living beings. you do not understand the full extent of my desire. relatives. generosity to friends. and if some of you do understand. grandsons and their descendants up to the end of the world act in like manner. If there is none to appeal on their behalf. (no distribution like) distribution of Dhamma. Truly. It is my desire that there should be uniformity in law and uniformity in sentencing. Respect for mother and father is good. and (no kinship like) kinship through Dhamma. not killing living beings is good. One should listen to and respect the doctrines professed by others. respect for mother and father.understand to what extent I desire this. and. Along roads I have had banyan trees planted so that they can give shade to animals and men. the prisoners can give gifts in order to make merit for the next world. for all of them desire self-control and purity of heart. does not value gifts and honors as much as he values this—that there should be growth in the essentials of all religions. acquaintances. During this time their relatives can make appeals to have the prisoners' lives spared. and in various places. I even go this far. Brahmans and ascetics is good. both now and in the future. I have done many good deeds. or observe fasts. One who does good first does something hard to do. to grant a three-day stay for those in prison who have been tried and sentenced to death. due to excessive devotion." only harms his own religion. (no acquaintance like) acquaintance with Dhamma. Such things to make the people happy have been done by former kings. it is easy to do evil. I have had watering-places made for the use of animals and men. generosity to friends. But these are but minor achievements. companions. At intervals of eight //krosas//. and condemns others with the thought "Let me glorify my own religion. I have had wells dug. rest-houses built. they will do evil. King Piyadasi does not consider glory and fame to be of great account unless they are achieved through having my subjects respect Dhamma and practice Dhamma. Whoever praises his own religion. But whoever amongst them neglects this. if my sons. honors both ascetics and the householders of all religions. and I have had mango groves planted. Therefore contact (between religions) is good. And it consists of this: proper behavior towards servants and employees. • • • Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice. King Piyadasi. All religions should reside everywhere. moderation in spending and moderation in saving is good. • • • • • • • About Ashoka . There is no gift like the gift of the Dhamma. I have done these things for this purpose. Brahmans and ascetics. they too will do much good.
Mahabodhi Temple is credited to Ashoka.
"Among the emperors and historical personalities, Samrath / Emperor Ashoka is the surely only being who had decided not to battle with enemy when he won the battle." – Jawaharlal Nehru in The Discovery of India (page no. 86). "There is the only one period in Indian history which is a period of freedom, greatness and glory. That is the period of the Mauryan empire (Ashoka's empire)." – B. R. Ambedkar in Annihilation of Caste (page no. 70–71). "Ashoka is perhaps the only emperor who hated wars because of the blood shed and cruelty. He wanted to win the souls of people with love not the bodies with sword and terror." – V. G. Gokhale. "In some cases Ashoka may be compared with Alexander the Great, Augustus Caesar, Genghis Khan, Timur, Peter I of Russia, Napoleon I. But Ashoka was not extra ambitious like Alexander. Ashoka was an ideal administrator like Augustus Caesar, but unlike Caesar, he didn't want to be known as a dictator. Ashoka was a strong general but unlike Napoleon I Ashoka never was unsatisfied. Ashoka wanted to be loved by his subjects. He never terrorized his subjects like Genghis Khan, Timur and Peter I of Russia. Nobility of soul, purity of mind, honesty of nature, clarity of dignity and love for all let Ashoka sit with Gautama Buddha and Jesus Christ." – Madhav Kondvilkar in Devancha Priya Raja Priyadarshi Samrath Ashok (page no. 19). "Nowadays wars, conflicts and blood shed have become very familiar, but about two thousand years ago Ashoka comprehended the evils of war and conflicts. Ashoka turned his all power to establish harmony and peace, in this way he has put a fine example to be followed before all mankind. In this way he has shown that in peacetime man would be a progressed being." – Dr. Binda Paranjape in Ashokache Shilalekha (page no.29). "A hundred years after my death there will be an emperor named Ashoka in Pataliputra. He will rule one of the four continents and adorn Jambudvipa (old name to India) with my relics, building eighty four thousand stupas for the welfare of
people. He will have them honored by gods and men. His fame will be widespread. His meritorious gift was just this: Jaya threw a handful of dust into the Tathaagata's bowl." Prediction of Buddha for Ashoka according to the Ashokavadana.
Stupas at Deorkothar are built by Ashoka
"He (Ashoka) insisted on the recognition of the sanctity of all human life". Dr. Munshi. "Asoka, one of the great monarchs of history, whose dominions extended from Afghanistan to Madras... is the only military monarch on record who abandoned warfare after victory. He had invaded Kalinga (255 B.C.), a country along the east coast of Madras, perhaps with some intention of completing the conquest of the tip of the Indian peninsula. The expedition was successful, but he was disgusted by what be saw of the cruelties and horrors of war. He declared, in certain inscriptions that still exist, that he would no longer seek conquest by war, but by religion, and the rest of his life was devoted to the spreading of Buddhism throughout the world. He seems to have ruled his vast empire in peace and with great ability. He was no mere religious fanatic. For eight and twenty years Asoka worked sanely for the real needs of men. Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties and graciousnesses and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Asoka shines, and shines, almost alone, a star. From the Volga to Japan his name is still honored. China, Tibet, and even India, though it has left his doctrine, preserve the tradition of his greatness. More living men cherish his memory today than have ever heard the names of Constantine or Charlemagne." – H.G. Wells in The Outline of History (Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind) published in (1920) chapter no. 25.4 (Buddhism and Asoka) page no 365–366. "A large number of international scholars agree that Emperor Aśoka of India in the 3rd century B.C. was one of the greatest conquerors who later achieved the most difficult conquest of all — the conquest of himself — through self-conviction and his perception of human suffering. After embracing the Dhamma of the Buddha as his guide and refuge, he transformed the goal of his regime from military conquest to conquest by Dhamma. By providing royal patronage for the propagation of Buddhism both within and outside his vast dominion, he helped promote the metamorphosis of Buddhism from one among many sects of Indian ascetic spirituality into a world religion that was eventually to penetrate almost all of southern and eastern Asia." – Anuradha Seneviratna in King Asoka and Buddhism Historical & Literary Studies (editors preface ) (page. no. xi).
The Dharmarajika stupa, Taxila, Pakistan is Commissioned under Ashoka.
"We have no way of knowing how effective Asoka’s reforms were or how long they lasted but we do know that monarchs throughout the ancient Buddhist world were encouraged to look to his style of government as an ideal to be followed. King Asoka has to be credited with first attempt to develop a Buddhist polity. Today, with widespread disillusionment in prevailing ideologies and the search for a political philosophy that goes beyond greed, hatred, and delusion, Asoka’s edicts may make a meaningful contribution to development of a more spiritually based political system." – Ven. S. Dhammika in The Edicts of Ashoka. "Many people ask: How can any nation be defended if all of its people adopt nonviolence? It is rather difficult to answer this hypothetical question. However, an emperor ruled over India with nonviolence and compassion in the 3rd century B.C. Ashoka was the emperor - emperor of peace and social justice. He did not rule by force or by accumulating goods and means of comfort for himself or by pomp and show. He ruled by sacrificing material comforts and by treating all his subjects equal and with justice. His example can guide us, rulers and administrators, politicians and civil servants, religious leaders and laymen, to establish peace, justice and harmony in present-day world." – Sh. Duli Chandra Jain and Ms. Sunita Jain in Ashoka - Emperor Or Monk. "Ashoka was a man dedicated to peace, and the only emperor in history to forsake warfare after victory in the Kalinga war, devoting the balance of his lifetime serving not only his people, but mankind, with magnanimity and benevolence seldom seen in history. Thus he was able to build the Golden Period of Indian history." – Dr. Kirthisinghe.
In art and film
See also: Asoka (2001 film)
Asoka is a 2001 epic Bollywood historical drama. It is a largely fictional version of the life of the Indian emperor Ashoka. The film was directed by Santosh Sivan and stars Shahrukh Khan as Ashoka and Kareena Kapoor as Kaurwaki, a princess of Kalinga.The film ends with Asoka renouncing the sword and embracing Buddhism. The final narrative describes how Asoka not only built a large empire, but spread Buddhism and the winds of peace through it. Asoka and the Decline of the Maurya by Romila Thapar.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Early India and Pakistan: to Ashoka (1970) by Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler. Asoka the Great by Monisha Mukundan. Asokan Sites and Artefacts, a Source-book with Bibliography. Harry Falk, Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2006 ISBN 978-3-8053-3712-0. The Legend of King Asoka (1948) by John S. Strong. Ashoka the Great (1995) by D. C. Ahir. Ashoka text and glossary (1924) by Alfred C. Woolner . Asoka: The Buddhist Emperor of India by Vincent A. Smith. Discovery of the Exact Site of Asoka's Classic Capital of Pataliputra (1892) by L. A. Waddell. Asoka Maurya (1966) by B. G. Gokhale. The Legend of King Asoka (1989) by John S. Strong. Asoka (1923) by D.R. Bhandarkar. Ashoka, The Great by B. K. Chaturvedi. Asoka by Mookerji Radhakumud. King Aśoka and Buddhism Historical And Literaray Studies by Anuradha Seneviratna. To Uphold the World: The Message of Ashoka and Kautilya for the 21st Century (2008) by Bruce Rich. Asoka and His Inscriptions by Beni Madhab Barua. Asoka's Edicts (1956) by A. C. Sen. One of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature, Jaishankar Prasad, composed Ashoka ki chinta (in English: Worry of Ashoka), a famous Hindi verse. The poem portrays Ashoka’s heart during the war of kalinga. In Piers Anthony’s series of space opera novels, the main character mentions Asoka as a model for administrators to strive for.
Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka
The ruined Bharhut Stupa, seen in back is Stupa at Deorkothar the lal pahadi (red mountain)
Butkara capital of Asoka) on stupa. 3rd century BC Indian passport Relics of Buddha obtained from a stupa built by Emperor Asoka in 3rd century BCE. National Museum Delhi.A view of the banks of the River Daya. Ashoka's pillar in Nepal . also the Mauryan architecture in supposed battlefield of Kalinga from atop the Barabar Mounts Dhauli hills Carved decoration of the Northern gateway The Asokan pillar to the Great Stupa of at Lumbini Sanchi Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka Ashokmudra (lion decorations.