“Climate-Smart” Agriculture
Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation

Policiesǡ Piactices anu Financing foi Foou Secuiityǡ Auaptation anu Nitigation
Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganization of the 0niteu Nations ȋFA0Ȍ

The contents anu conclusions of this iepoit aie consiueieu appiopiiate foi the time of its piepaiationǤ They
may be mouifieu in the light of fuithei knowleuge gaineu at subsequent stagesǤ The uesignations employeu
anu the piesentation of mateiial in this infoimation piouuct uo not imply the expiession of any opinion
whatsoevei on the pait of the Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganization of the 0niteu Nations ȋFA0Ȍ conceining the
legal oi uevelopment status of any countiyǡ teiiitoiyǡ city oi aiea oi of its authoiitiesǡ oi conceining the
uelimitation of its fiontieis oi bounuaiiesǤ
The mention of specific companies oi piouucts of manufactuieisǡ whethei oi not these have been patenteuǡ
uoes not imply that these have been enuoiseu oi iecommenueu by FA0 in piefeience to otheis of a similai
natuie that aie not mentioneuǤ
All iights ieseiveuǤ Repiouuction anu uissemination of mateiial in this infoimation piouuct foi euucational
oi othei nonǦcommeicial puiposes aie authoiizeu without any piioi wiitten peimission fiom the copyiight
holueis pioviueu the souice is fully acknowleugeuǤ Repiouuction of mateiial in this infoimation piouuct foi
iesale oi othei commeicial puiposes is piohibiteu without wiitten peimission of the copyiight holueisǤ
Applications foi such peimission shoulu be auuiesseu toǣ
Electionic Publishing Policy anu Suppoit Bianch
Communication Bivision
viale uelle Teime ui Caiacallaǡ ͲͲͳͷ͵ Romeǡ Italy
oi by eǦmail toǣ
̹ FA0 ʹͲͳͲ


This papei is the outcome of a collaboiative effoit between the Natuial Resouices Nanagement anu
Enviionment Bepaitmentǡ the Economic anu Social Bevelopment Bepaitmentǡ the Agiicultuie anu Consumei
Piotection Bepaitmentǡ the Fisheiies anu Aquacultuie Bepaitment anu the Foiestiy Bepaitment of the Foou
anu Agiicultuie 0iganization of the 0niteu Nations ȋFA0ȌǤ The authois incluue Leslie Lippeiǡ Wenuy Nannǡ
Alexanuie Neybeckǡ Reuben Sessa with the technical contiibutions of Noujaheu Achouiiǡ Boyle Bakeiǡ
Cateiina Batelloǡ Catheiine Bessyǡ Susan Biaatzǡ Ieionim Capaluoǡ Fiancis Chopinǡ Linua Colletteǡ Iulien
Custotǡ 0liviei Buboisǡ Cassanuia Be Youngǡ Theouoi Fiieuiichǡ Nichelle uauthieiǡ Pieiie ueibeiǡ vincent
uitzǡ Kakoli uhoshǡ Robeit uouantoueu uueiǡ Benjamin Benueisonǡ Iiene Boffmannǡ Petei Bolmgienǡ Amii
Kassamǡ Philippe Le Coentǡ Clemencia Licona Nanzuiǡ Nebambi Lutalauioǡ Baiinuei Nakkaiǡ Bivine Nganje
Njieǡ Thomas 0sboinǡ Ioachim 0tteǡ Iulio Pinto Coites anu Boiis Soto anu the kinu assistance of Emelyne
Cheneyǡ Saia uianauos ǡ Naiia uuaiuia anu Lisen RunstenǤ


1.1.3 Existingsystems,practicesandmethodssuitableforclimateǦsmartagriculture ǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤǤ ͵
Agiicultuie in ueveloping countiies must unueigo a significant tiansfoimation in oiuei to meet the
ielateu challenges of achieving foou secuiity anu iesponuing to climate changeǤ Piojections baseu on
population giowth anu foou consumption patteins inuicate that agiicultuial piouuction will neeu to
inciease by at least ͹Ͳ peicent to meet uemanus by ʹͲͷͲǤ Nost estimates also inuicate that climate
change is likely to ieuuce agiicultuial piouuctivityǡ piouuction stability anu incomes in some aieas that
alieauy have high levels of foou insecuiityǤ Beveloping climateǦsmait agiicultuie
is thus ciucial to
achieving futuie foou secuiity anu climate change goalsǤ This papei examines some of the key technicalǡ
institutionalǡ policy anu financial iesponses iequiieu to achieve this tiansfoimationǤ Builuing on case
stuuies fiom the fieluǡ the papei outlines a iange of piacticesǡ appioaches anu tools aimeu at incieasing
the iesilience anu piouuctivity of agiicultuial piouuction systemsǡ while also ieuucing anu iemoving
emissionsǤ The seconu pait of the papei suiveys institutional anu policy options available to piomote the
tiansition to climateǦsmait agiicultuie at the smallholuei levelǤ Finallyǡ the papei consiueis cuiient
financing gaps anu makes innovative suggestions iegaiuing the combineu use of uiffeient souicesǡ
financing mechanisms anu ueliveiy systemsǤ
1) Agriculture in developing countries must undergo a significant transformation in order to meet
the related challenges of food security and climate change.

2) Effective climate-smart practices already exist and could be implemented in developing country
agricultural systems.
3) Adopting an ecosystem approach, working at landscape scale and ensuring intersectoral
coordination and cooperation is crucial for effective climate change responses.
4) Considerable investment is required in filling data and knowledge gaps and in research and
development of technologies, methodologies, as well as the conservation and production of suitable
varieties and breeds.
5) Institutional and financial support will be required to enable smallholders to make the transition to
climate-smart agriculture.
6) Strengthened institutional capacity will be needed to improve dissemination of climate-smart
information and coordinate over large areas and numbers of farmers.
7) Greater consistency between agriculture, food security and climate change policy-making must be
achieved at national, regional and international levels.
8) Available financing, current and projected, are substantially insufficient to meet climate change and
food security challenges faced by the agriculture sector.
9) Synergistically combining financing from public and private sources, as well as those earmarked for
climate change and food security are innovative options to meet the investment requirements of the
agricultural sector.
10) To be effective in channelling fast-track financing to agriculture, financing mechanisms will
need to take sector-specific considerations into account.
Definition of climate-smart agriculture: agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes
GHGs (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals.



0vei the past six uecaues woilu agiicultuie has become consiueiably moie efficientǤ
Impiovements in piouuction systems anu ciop anu livestock bieeuing piogiammes have iesulteu
in a uoubling of foou piouuction while incieasing the amount of agiicultuial lanu by just ͳͲ
peicentǤ Boweveiǡ climate change is expecteu to exaceibate the existing challenges faceu by
agiicultuieǤ The puipose of this papei is to highlight that foou secuiity anu climate change aie
closely linkeu in the agiicultuie sectoi anu that key oppoitunities exist to tiansfoim the sectoi
towaius climateǦsmait systems that auuiess bothǤ
Estimates show that woilu population will giow fiom the cuiient ͸Ǥ͹ billion to ͻ billion by
ʹͲͷͲ with most of the inciease occuiiing in South Asia anu subǦSahaian AfiicaǤ Taking into
account the changes in the composition anu level of consumption associateu with giowing
householu incomesǡ FA0 estimates that feeuing the woilu population will iequiie a ͹Ͳ peicent
inciease in total agiicultuial piouuction
ȋBiuinsmaǡ ʹͲͲͻȌǤ
At the same timeǡ climate change thieatens piouuctionǯs stability anu piouuctivityǤ In many
aieas of the woilu wheie agiicultuial piouuctivity is alieauy low anu the means of coping with
auveise events aie limiteuǡ climate change is expecteu to ieuuce piouuctivity to even lowei levels
anu make piouuction moie eiiatic ȋStein Review ʹͲͲ͸Ǣ Cline ʹͲͲ͹Ǣ Fishei etalǤ ʹͲͲʹǢ IPCC ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ
Long teim changes in the patteins of tempeiatuie anu piecipitationǡ that aie pait of climate
changeǡ aie expecteu to shift piouuction seasonsǡ pest anu uisease patteinsǡ anu mouify the set of
feasible ciops affecting piouuctionǡ piicesǡ incomes anu ultimatelyǡ livelihoous anu livesǤ
Pieseiving anu enhancing foou secuiity iequiies agiicultuial piouuction systems to change
in the uiiection of highei piouuctivity anu alsoǡ essentiallyǡ lowei output vaiiability in the face of
climate iisk anu iisks of an agioǦecological anu socioǦeconomic natuieǤ In oiuei to stabilize output
anu incomeǡ piouuction systems must become moie iesilientǡ iǤeǤ moie capable of peifoiming well
in the face of uisiuptive eventsǤ Noie piouuctive anu iesilient agiicultuie iequiies tiansfoimations
in the management of natuial iesouices ȋeǤgǤ lanuǡ wateiǡ soil nutiientsǡ anu genetic iesouicesȌ anu
highei efficiency in the use of these iesouices anu inputs foi piouuctionǤ Tiansitioning to such
systems coulu also geneiate significant mitigation benefits by incieasing caibon sinksǡ as well as
ieuucing emissions pei unit of agiicultuial piouuctǤ
Tiansfoimations aie neeueu in both commeicial anu subsistence agiicultuial systemsǡ but
with significant uiffeiences in piioiities anu capacityǤ In commeicial systemsǡ incieasing efficiency
anu ieuucing emissionsǡ as well as othei negative enviionmental impactsǡ aie key conceinsǤ In
agiicultuieǦbaseu countiiesǡ wheie agiicultuie is ciitical foi economic uevelopment ȋWoilu Bankǡ
ʹͲͲͺȌǡ tiansfoiming smallholuei systems is not only impoitant foi foou secuiity but also foi
poveity ieuuctionǡ as well as foi aggiegate giowth anu stiuctuial changeǤ In the lattei gioup of
countiiesǡ incieasing piouuctivity to achieve foou secuiity is cleaily a piioiityǡ which is piojecteu
to entail a significant inciease in emissions fiom the agiicultuial sectoi in ueveloping countiies
ȋIPCC ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ Achieving the neeueu levels of giowthǡ but on a lowei emissions tiajectoiy will
iequiie a conceiteu effoit to maximize syneigies anu minimize tiaueoffs between piouuctivity anu
mitigationǤ Ensuiing that institutions anu incentives aie in place to achieve climateǦsmait
tiansitionsǡ as well as auequate financial iesouicesǡ is thus essential to meeting these challengesǤ In
this context mitigation finance can play a key function in leveiaging othei investments to suppoit
activities that geneiate syneigiesǤ
These estimates refer to a specific baseline scenario which excludes, among other elements, the effects of climate change on
production. For more details see FAO (2006).
The above summaiizeu key issues aie elaboiateu in thiee main sectionsǤ In section ͳ
examples of climateǦsmait piouuction systems aie pioviueu to illustiate what can be achieveu anu
also highlight the knowleuge anu technical gaps that neeu to be auuiesseuǤ In pait ʹ the iole that
institutions anu policy must play in the tiansfoimation of piouuction systems to climateǦsmait
piouuction systems is examineuǤ In pait ͵ we uiscuss the financial oppoitunities anu the shoitfalls
anu constiaints that neeu to be iesolveu to ensuie the auequate suppoit in tiansitioning to
climateǦsmait agiicultuieǤ Annex I pioviues examples of FA0 methous anu tools which can suppoit
national climateǦsmait agiicultuieǤ
1) Agriculture in developing countries must undergo a significant transformation in order to
meet the related challenges of food security and climate change.
1.1 Introduction
ͳǤͳǤͳ Consiueiations foi climateǦsmait piouuction systems
The piouuctionǡ piocessing anu maiketing of agiicultuial goous aie cential to foou secuiity anu
economic giowthǤ Piouucts ueiiveu fiom plants anu animals incluue foous ȋsuch as ceiealsǡ vegetablesǡ
fiuitsǡ fish anu meatȌǡ fibeis ȋsuch as cottonǡ woolǡ hemp anu silkȌǡ fuels ȋsuch as uungǡ chaicoal anu
biofuels fiom ciops anu iesiuuesȌ anu othei iaw mateiials ȋincluuing meuicinesǡ builuing mateiialsǡ
iesinsǡ etcǤȌǤ Piouuction has been achieveu thiough a numbei of piouuction systems which iange fiom
smallholuei mixeu ciopping anu livestock systems to intensive faiming piactices such as laige
monocultuies anu intensive livestock ieaiingǤ The sustainable intensification of piouuctionǡ especially in
ueveloping countiiesǡ can ensuie foou secuiity anu contiibute to mitigating climate change by ieuucing
uefoiestation anu the encioachment of agiicultuie into natuial ecosystems ȋBuiney et alǡ ʹͲͳͲ anu
Bellassenǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ
The oveiall efficiencyǡ iesilienceǡ auaptive capacity anu mitigation potential of the piouuction
systems can be enhanceu thiough impioving its vaiious componentsǡ some of the key ones aie
highlighteu belowǤ Examples of piouuction systems aie pioviueu at the enu of the section to illustiate
the feasibility anu constiaints of ueveloping climate smait agiicultuieǤ 0thei key issuesǡ such as access
to maiketsǡ inputsǡ knowleugeǡ finances anu issues ielateu to lanu tenuie aie also funuamental foi
ensuiing foou secuiityǡ these issues aie ievieweu in pait ʹ of this uocumentǤ

Soilandnutrientmanagement:the availability of nitiogen anu othei nutiients is essential
to inciease yielusǤ This can be uone thiough composting manuie anu ciop iesiuuesǡ moie piecise
matching of nutiients with plant neeusǡ contiolleu ielease anu ueep placement technologies oi
using legumes foi natuial nitiogen fixationǤ 0sing methous anu piactices that incieases oiganic
nutiient inputsǡ ietention anu use aie theiefoie funuamental anu ieuuces the neeu of synthetic
feitilizeis whichǡ uue to cost anu accessǡ aie often unavailable to smallholueis anuǡ thiough theii
piouuction anu tianspoitǡ contiibute to uBu emissionsǤ
Many subsistence crop production system soils are depleted and have poor nutrient content. This can be partially
resolved by the use of legumes as green manures, planted in intercropping systems, as part of a scheme of crop
rotation or in agro-forestry systems. For example, the haulms of the legume groundnut can be eaten by livestock or
incorporated into the soil. In this latter case, the yield of the subsequent crop (e.g. maize or rice) can be much
higher (as much as double), even if the groundnut yield is low. In forage legume/grass mixtures, nitrogen can be
found to be transferred from legume to grass varieties (e.g. 13 to 34 percent of fixed N). Used as a livestock feed it
can also increase food conversion ratios and decrease methane emissions. Legumes also provide a useful protein
source for humans. [FAO, 2009c].

Waterharvestinganduse:Impioveu watei haivesting anu ietention ȋsuch as poolsǡ uamsǡ
pitsǡ ietaining iiugesǡ etcǤȌ anu wateiǦuse efficiency ȋiiiigation systemsȌ aie funuamental foi
incieasing piouuction anu auuiessing incieasing iiiegulaiity of iainfall patteinsǤ Touayǡ iiiigation is
piacticeu on ʹͲ peicent of the agiicultuial lanu in ueveloping countiies but can geneiate ͳ͵Ͳ
peicent moie yielus than iainǦfeu systemsǤ The expansion of efficient management technologies anu
methousǡ especially those ielevant to smallholueis is funuamentalǤ
In Yatenga province, farmers reclaimed degraded farmland by digging planting pits, known as zaï. This traditional
technique was improved by increasing depth and diameter of the pits and adding organic matter. The Zaï
concentrate both nutrients and water and facilitate water infiltration and retention. Thus lands which used to be
barely productive can now achieve yields from 300kg/ha to 1500kg/ha, depending on rainfalls. In the same province,
farmers, with support from Oxfam, began building stone contour bunds to harvest rainwater. The bunds allows water
to spread evenly through the field and infiltrates the soil and also prevents soil and organic matter being washed
away. Thanks to local networks of farmers these techniques are now used on 200 000 to 300 000 ha (Reij 2009).
Pest and disease control: Theie is eviuence that climate change is alteiing the uistiibutionǡ
inciuence anu intensity of animal anu plant pests anu uiseases as well as invasive anu alien speciesǤ The
iecent emeigence in seveial iegions of multiǦviiulentǡ aggiessive stiains of wheat yellow iust auapteu to
high tempeiatuies is a goou inuication of the iisks associateu with pathogen auaptation to climate changeǤ
These new aggiessive stiains have spieau at unpieceuenteu speeu in five continents iesulting in
epiuemics in new ciopping aieasǡ pieviously not favouiable foi yellow iust anu wheie wellǦauapteuǡ
iesistant vaiieties aie not yet availableǤ The wheat uisease Spot Blotchǡ causeu by Cohliobolus sativusǡ is
anothei exampleǡ causing heavy losses in Southein Biazilǡ Boliviaǡ Paiaguayǡ anu Eastein Inuiaǡ uue to a
lack of iesistance to the uiseaseǤ As wheat giowing aieas of Asia become waimeiǡ the pathogen is likely to
spieau even fuithei anu cause fuithei lossesǤ
Resilient ecosystems: Impioving ecosystem management anu biouiveisity can pioviue a
numbei of ecosystem seivicesǡ which can leau to moie iesilientǡ piouuctive anu sustainable systems
that may also contiibute to ieuucing oi iemoving gieenhouse gasesǤ Seivices incluueǡ contiol of
pests anu uiseaseǡ iegulation of micioclimateǡ uecomposition of wastesǡ iegulating nutiient cycles
anu ciop pollinationǤ Enabling anu enhancing the piovision of such seivices can be achieveu
thiough the auoption of uiffeient natuial iesouice management anu piouuction piacticesǤ
Genetic resources: uenetic makeǦup ueteimines a plants anu animals toleiance to shocks
such as tempeiatuie extiemesǡ uioughtǡ floouing anu pests anu uiseasesǤ It also iegulates the length
of giowing seasonȀpiouuction cycle anu the iesponse to inputs such as feitilizeiǡ watei anu feeuǤ
The pieseivation of genetic iesouices of ciops anu bieeus anu theii wilu ielatives is theiefoie
funuamental in ueveloping iesilience to shocksǡ impioving the efficient use of iesouicesǡ shoitening
piouuction cycles anu geneiating highei yielus ȋanu quality anu nutiitional contentȌ pei aiea of
lanuǤ ueneiating vaiieties anu bieeus which aie tailoieu to ecosystems anu the neeus of faimeis is
Efficient seed production systems are required to ensure rapid access of farmers to varieties adapted to their new
agro-ecological conditions.
In northern Cameroon, local varieties of millet, sorghum and maize were not adapted to lower rainfall and increased
drought. The agriculture research institute developed adapted earlier maturing varieties of these crops and with the
support of FAO farmer seed enterprises were organized to produce certified seed for sale to farmers in the surrounding
villages. The new varieties produced good yields in spite of the unfavourable agro-ecology which has resulted in its hi
demand and led in the creation of 68 community seed enterprises with over 1 000 member (both women and men)
producing over 200 Tons of seed per year. There are similar projects in other countries [Guei, 2010].
FAO has supported the introduction of new seed varieties in Haiti to increase food production and facilitate the transition from
emergency to rehabilitation. One of the success stories has been the introduction from Guatemala of the bean variety ICTA
Lijero, which is very early-maturing and is resistant to one of the major disease problems in Haiti, the Golden Mosaic Virus.
This variety allows farmers in irrigated plains to have two harvests of beans before the starting of the hot season. Since 2007,
FAO has supported community seed producer groups in seed production of ICTA Lijero. In 2009, the FAO seed multiplication
programme has supported 34 seed producers groups that have produced 400T of bean seed including ICTA Lijero.
Harvesting, processing and supply chains: Efficient haivesting anu eaily tiansfoimation of
agiicultuial piouuce can ieuuce postǦhaivest losses ȋPBLȌ anu pieseive foou quantityǡ quality anu
nutiitional value of the piouuctǤ It also ensuies bettei use of coǦpiouucts anu byǦpiouuctsǡ eithei as feeu
foi livestockǡ to piouuce ienewable eneigy in integiateu systems oi to impiove soil feitilityǤ As supply
chains become longei anu moie complex it becomes eveimoie impoitant to inciease the opeiational
efficiency of piocessingǡ packagingǡ stoiageǡ tianspoitǡ etc to ensuie incieaseu shelf lifeǡ ietain quality anu
ieuuce caibon footpiintsǤ Foou piocessing allows suiplus to be stoieu foi low piouuction yeais oi allows
a staggeieu saleǤ This ensuies gieatei availability of foou anu income thioughout the season anu in yeais
of low piouuctionǤ Foou piocessing cieates jobs anu income oppoitunitiesǡ especially foi womenǤ
In the northern region of Afghanistan where more than half of the country’s cereals are produced, many farmers
store their crop in plastic and fibre bags or in farm buildings without proper flooring, doors and windows. This offers
limited protection, resulting in significant post-harvest losses. The Government requested support from FAO to
provide silos for communities and farming households for grain storage. With funds provided by the Government of
the Federal Republic of Germany, FAO implemented a project from 2004 to 2006 with the objectives reducing post-
harvest losses and enhancing the technical capacity of local tinsmiths, blacksmiths and craftsmen for construction of
metallic grain silos. Seven main grain producing provinces were selected as focus areas. Technical personnel from
the Ministry of Agriculture and NGOs trained 300 local artisans in the manufacture of silos, while contracts were
issued to over 100 tinsmiths who built metallic silos ranging from 250 to 1 800 kilogram capacity for distribution in
local communities. The project also oversaw the construction of grain warehouses for community use in 12 sites and
trained beneficiaries on how best to operate and manage the facilities. It was found that the use of the metallic silos
had reduced storage loss from 15-20 percent to less than 1-2 percent, grains were of higher quality (as protected
from insects, mice and mould) and could be stored for longer. Based on the training received, tinsmiths, blacksmiths
and craftsmen are now fabricating silos as a profitable enterprise.
ͳǤͳǤʹ Achievements anu constiaints
Nouein technologies anu auvances in the agiicultuie sectoiǡ such as inoiganic feitilizeisǡ pesticiuesǡ
feeusǡ supplementsǡ high yieluing vaiietiesǡ anu lanu management anu iiiigation techniques have
consiueiably incieaseu piouuctionǤ This has been funuamental in meeting the foou neeus of a
giowing population anu in geneiating economic giowth neeueu foi poveity ieuuctionǤ Bowevei in
ceitain ciicumstances these piactices anu techniques have causeu ecological uamageǡ uegiauation
of soilsǡ unsustainable use of iesouicesǢ outbieak of pests anu uiseases anu have causeu health
pioblems to both livestock anu humansǤ Such unsustainable piactices have iesulteu in lowei yielusǡ
uegiaueu oi uepleteu natuial iesouices anu have been a uiivei of agiicultuieǯs encioachment into
impoitant natuial ecological aieas such as foiestsǤ The quest to inciease yielus anu to uo this
without expanuing the amount of lanu unuei cultivation has often heighteneu the vulneiability of
piouuction systems to shocks such as outbieaks of pests anu uiseasesǡ uioughts anu floous anu
changing climate patteinsǤ In auuitionǡ theie aie many piouuction systems in ueveloping countiies
that uue to a lack of financeǡ iesouicesǡ knowleuge anu capacity aie well below the potential yielu
that coulu be achieveuǤ
ͳǤͳǤ͵ Existing systemsǡ piactices anu methous suitable foi climateǦsmait agiicultuie
Theie aie seveial challenges in tiansitioning to high piouuctionǡ intensifieuǡ iesilientǡ sustainableǡ
anu lowǦemission agiicultuieǤ Boweveiǡ as shown in the examples belowǡ caieful selection of
piouuction systemsǡ auoption of appiopiiate methous anu piactices anu use of suitable vaiieties
anu bieeusǡ can allow consiueiable impiovements to be maueǤ Theie aie numeious FA0 iesouicesǡ
guiuelinesǡ toolsǡ technologies anu othei applications to assist policy makeisǡ extension woikeis anu
faimeis in selecting the most appiopiiate piouuction systemsǡ unueitaking lanu use anu iesouice
assessmentsǡ evaluating vulneiability anu unueitaking impact assessmentsǤ Recentlyǡ FA0 has
uevelopeu a caibon balance tool ȋEXǦACTȌ to appiaise mitigation impact of newly pioposeu foou
secuiityǡ agiicultuie policies anu piojectsǤ The tool is now being useu in ovei ʹͲ countiies with
IFABǡ Woilu Bank anu uTZǤ FA0 methous anu tools aie pioviueu in Annex IǤ
Boweveiǡ theie aie still consiueiable knowleuge gaps ielating to the suitability anu use of
these piouuction systems anu piactices acioss a wiue vaiiety of agioǦecological anu socioǦeconomic
contexts anu scalesǤ Theie is even less knowleuge on the suitability of uiffeient systems unuei
vaiying futuie climate change scenaiios anu othei biotic anu abiotic stiessesǤ Boweveiǡ in many
cases even existing knowleugeǡ technologies anu inputs have not ieacheu faimeisǡ especially in
ueveloping countiiesǤ Foi this to be achieveu theie is a neeu foi policesǡ infiastiuctuies anu
consiueiable investments to builu the financial anu technical capacity of faimeis ȋespecially
smallholueisȌ to enable them to auopt climateǦsmait piactices that coulu geneiate economic iuial
giowth anu ensuie foou secuiityǤ The last two sections of the uocument theiefoie specifically
auuiess these institutionalǡ policy ȋpage ͳ͹Ȍ anu financial ȋpage ʹͶȌ issuesǤ
1.2 Crops:riceproductionsystems
Rice is funuamental foi foou secuiity with appioximately thiee billion peopleǡ about half of the
woilu populationǡ eating iice eveiy uayǤ Nany of the pooiest anu most unueinouiisheu in Asia
uepenu on iice as theii staple foouǤ Appioximately ͳͶͶ million ha of lanu is cultivateu unuei iice
each yeaiǤ The wateiloggeu anu waim soils of iice pauuies make this piouuction system a laige
emittei of methaneǤ Rice piouuction is anu will be affecteu by changes in climateǤ Iiiegulai iainfallǡ
uiiei spells in the wet season ȋuamaging young plantsȌǡ uiought anu floous aie all having an effect
on yielusǤ This has also causeu outbieaks of pests anu uiseasesǡ with laige losses of ciops anu
haivesteu piouuctsǤ Peng etal. ȋʹͲͲͶȌ have analyzeu ͸ yeais of uata fiom ʹʹ͹ iiiigateu iice faims
in six majoi iiceǦgiowing countiies in Asiaǡ which piouuces moie than ͻͲ peicent of the woilu̵s
iiceǤ They founu that iising tempeiatuiesǡ especially night tempeiatuiesǡ have hau a seveie effect on
yielus causing losses of ͳͲ ǦʹͲ peicent of haivests in some locationsǤ
A numbei of methous anu piactices aie being auopteu to auuiess these challengesǤ Foi
exampleǡ piouuction systems have been auapteu by alteiing ciopping patteinsǡ planting uates anu
faim management techniquesǤ Foi instanceǡ embankments have been built to piotect iice faims
fiom floous anu new uiought anu submeigence toleiant vaiieties of iice aie being piouuceu anu
uistiibuteu by goveinment institutions anu the piivate sectoiǤ In auuitionǡ many faimeis aie
uiveisifying theii piouuction systemsǡ giowing othei ceiealsǡ vegetables anu ieaiing fish anu
animals ȋsuch as pigs anu chickensȌǤ The iesiuues anu waste fiom each system aie being composteu
anu useu on the lanuǡ theieby ieuucing the neeu foi exteinal inputsǤ This uiveisification has
incieaseu incomesǡ impioveu nutiitionǡ built iesilience to shocks anu minimizeu financial iisksǤ The
uevelopment of auvanceu moueling techniquesǡ mapping the effect of climate change on iiceǦ
giowing iegions anu pioviuing ciop insuiance aie othei examples of managing iisks anu ieuucing
vulneiabilityǤ Reseaich on iice cultivation has iuentifieu that emissions mainly occui in the few
months of the yeai when the giounu is fully wateiloggeuǤ A moie integiateu appioach to iice pauuy
iiiigation anu feitilizei application has theiefoie been founu to substantially ieuuce emissionsǤ The
use of ammonium sulphate supplements have also been useu to piomote soil miciobial activity anu
ieuuce methanogensǤ In auuitionǡ uiea ueep placement ȋ0BPȌ technology has been uevelopeu
wheie uiea in the foim of supei gianules oi small biiquettes is placeu unuei the soil neai the plant
ioots anu out of the floouwatei wheie it is susceptible to lossǤ In Banglaueshǡ this piactice has
shown ͷͲǦ͸Ͳ peicent savings in uiea use anu yielu incieases of about ͳ ton pei haǤ
Bohol Island is one of the biggest rice-growing areas in the Philippines’ Visayas regions. Before the completion of the
Bohol Integrated Irrigation System (BIIS) in 2007, two older reservoirs (Malinao and Capayas Dam) were beset by
problems and unable to ensure sufficient water during the year’s second crop (November to April), especially for farmers
who live farthest downstream from the dam. This problem was aggravated by the practice of unequal water distribution
and a preference by farmers for continuously flooded rice growing conditions.
In the face of declining rice production, the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) created an action plan for the BIIS. This
included the construction of a new dam (Bayongan Dam; funded by a loan from the Japan Bank for International
Cooperation) and the implementation of a water-saving technology called Alternate-Wetting and Drying (AWD) which was
developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in cooperation with national research institutes. The visible
success of AWD in pilot farms, as well as specific training programmes for farmers, were able to dispelled the widely held
perception of possible yield losses from non-flooded rice fields. Ample adoption of AWD facilitated an optimum use of
irrigation water, so that the cropping intensity could be increased from ca. 119 % to ca. 160 % (related to the maximum of
200 % in these double-cropping systems). Moreover, according to the revised IPCC methodology (IPCC 2006), ‘multiple
aeration’, to which the AWD corresponds, potentially reduces methane emissions by 48 % compared to continuous
flooding of rice fields. AWD therefore generates multiple benefits related to methane emission reduction (mitigation),
reducing water use (adaptation where water is scarce), increasing productivity and contributing to food security (Bouman
et al. 2007).

1.3 Crops:ConservationAgriculture
Conseivation Agiicultuie ȋCAȌ is a teim encompassing faiming piactices which have thiee key
chaiacteiisticsǣ ͳǤ minimal mechanical soil uistuibance ȋiǤeǤ no tillage anu uiiect seeuingȌǢ ʹǤ
maintenance of a mulch of caibonǦiich oiganic mattei coveiing anu feeuing the soil ȋeǤgǤ stiaw anuȀoi
othei ciop iesiuues incluuing covei ciopsȌǢ anu ͵Ǥ iotations oi sequences anu associations of ciops
incluuing tiees which coulu incluue nitiogenǦfixing legumesǤ Theie aie cuiiently some ͳͳ͹ million
hectaies ȋabout ͺ peicent of global aiable cioplanuȌ in such systems woiluwiueǡ incieasing by about ͸
million hectaies pei yeai ȋwwwǤfaoǤoiȀagȀcaȌǤ They covei all agioǦecologies anu iange fiom small to
laige faimsǤ CA offeis climate change auaptation anu mitigation solutions while impioving foou secuiity
thiough sustainable piouuction intensification anu enhanceu piouuctivity of iesouice useǤ
Nanagement of soil feitility anu oiganic matteiǡ anu impiovement of the efficiency of nutiient
inputsǡ enable moie to be piouuceu with piopoitionally less feitilizeisǤ It also saves on eneigy use in
faiming anu ieuuces emissions fiom the buining of ciop iesiuuesǤ Noieovei it helps sequestei caibon in
soilǤ Avoiuance of tillage minimises occuiience of net losses of caibon uioxiue by miciobial
iespiiation anu oxiuation of the soil oiganic mattei anu builus soil stiuctuie anu biopoies thiough
soil biota anu iootsǤ Naintenance of a mulch layei pioviues a substiate foi soilǦinhabiting micioǦ
oiganisms which helps to impiove anu maintain watei anu nutiients in the soilǤ This also
contiibutes to net inciease of soil oiganic mattei Ǧ ueiiveu fiom caibon uioxiue captuieu by
photosynthesis in plantsǡ whose iesiuues above anu below the suiface aie subsequently
tiansfoimeu anu sequesteieu by soil biotaǤ
Rotations anu ciop associations that incluue legumes aie capable of hosting nitiogenǦfixing
bacteiia in theii iootsǡ which contiibutes to optimum plant giowth without incieaseu uES
emissions inuuceu by feitiliseiǯs piouuctionǤ
Conseivation Agiicultuie also contiibutes to auaptation to climate change by ieuucing ciop
vulneiabilityǤ The piotective soil covei of leavesǡ stems anu stalks fiom the pievious ciop shielus the soil
suiface fiom heatǡ winu anu iainǡ keeps the soil coolei anu ieuuces moistuie losses by evapoiationǤ In
uiiei conuitionsǡ it ieuuces ciop watei iequiiementsǡ makes bettei use of soil watei anu facilitates
ueepei iooting of ciopsǢ in extiemely wet conuitionsǡ CA facilitates iain watei infiltiationǡ ieuucing soil
eiosion anu the iisk of uownstieam floouingǤ Conseivation Agiicultuie also contiibutes to piotect ciops
fiom extieme tempeiatuiesǤ Ciop iotation ovei seveial seasons also minimises the outbieak of pests
anu uiseasesǤ
CA thus offeis oppoitunities foi climate change auaptation anu mitigation solutionsǡ while
impioving foou secuiity thiough sustainable piouuction intensification anu enhanceu piouuctivity
of iesouice useǤ
In Uzbekistan, where monocropping of cotton is common place, FAO has contributed to enhance the productivity of
cotton through CA including no-till, diversification (rotation with wheat and grain legumes) and selected cover crops.
This involved the establishment of demonstration plots and training in soil water dynamics, organic matter
improvement and related soil stability measures, methodologies and techniques. The technologies introduced during
the project in Tashkent resulted in improved soil quality, crop development and yields. The project also showed that
farmers were willing to use the CA practices step by step with a well-tested crop rotation system.
In Egypt, CA was introduced in the rice-cropping systems of the Nile Delta, where more than 50 percent of the 3-5
million tones of rice straw residues produced annually are burnt in the field as a practical means of disposal. Rice in
rotation with berseem (a forage legume) or wheat achieved yields under CA equal to those grown under
conventional practices with savings in time, energy (fuel) and labour needed for land preparation and crop
management. The project also demonstrated the advantages of CA practices for weed control, crop water
consumption and improvement of soil conditions for crop development.
Farmers in Lesotho have been able to boost agricultural yields and increase food production by adopting CA. The
practice, locally known as likoti, also contributes to combating soil erosion and to enhancing fertility. The socio-
economic and environmental benefits help poor households to rehabilitate and strengthen their livelihood capital
base and ultimately help rural communities to build system resilience in the face of widespread poverty and
increasing vulnerability that affect the country. Results show that attending appropriate training is a crucial
prerequisite for the correct adoption of likoti. However, training is more effective when trainers pursue true
participation and when social capital among farmers is stronger. Further important determinants of adoption are the
level of education and the economic incentives provided to vulnerable households (Silici 2010).
In Lempira, Honduras, farmers moved from a traditional slash and burn system to the Quesungual system. This CA
system uses trees and mulch. An economic analysis of this transition showed that during the first two years maize
and sorghum yields were about equal to those obtained with the traditional slash and burn system. From the third
year, however, their yields increased, in addition, the system provided the farmer with firewood and posts, which
gave an extra value to the production. Because of the increased production of maize, the quantity of stover
increased as well; this could be sold as livestock fodder. Additionally, from the first year onwards, the farmer could
rent out the land for livestock grazing, because of the increased biomass production. Usually this was done for two
months. The application of the Quesungual system not only meets the household subsistence needs for fruit, timber,
firewood and grains, but also generates a surplus which can be sold providing an additional source of income.

1.4 Livestockproductionefficiencyandresilience
Livestock pioviue foou anu livelihoous foi one billion of the woilu̵s pooiǡ especially in uiy anu
infeitile aieas wheie othei agiicultuial piactices aie less piacticableǤ They play an impoitant
multifunctional iole in many ueveloping iegions pioviuing foouǡ incomeǡ uiaught powei foi
ploughing anu tianspoitǤ They can also pioviue valuable asset functionsǡ such as collateial foi
cieuitǡ anu emeigency cash flow when solu in times of ciisisǤ
The livestock sectoi has expanueu iapiuly in iecent uecaues anu will continue to uo so as
uemanu foi meat anu uaiiy piouucts continues to giowǤ An inciease of up to ͸ͺ peicent by ʹͲ͵Ͳ
fiom the ʹͲͲͲ base peiiou has been estimateu anu this is mainly uiiven by population anu income
giowth in ueveloping countiies ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ Livestock is also the woiluǯs laigest usei of lanu
iesouicesǡ with giazing lanu occupying ʹ͸ peicent of the eaithǯs iceǦfiee lanu suifaceǡ anu ͵͵
peicent of cioplanu ueuicateu to the piouuction of feeu ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲͻȌǤ The quick expansion of the
sectoi is a cause of oveigiazing anu lanu uegiauation anu an impoitant uiivei of uefoiestationǤ It is
also iesponsible foi methane anu nitious oxiue emissions fiom iuminant uigestion anu manuie
managementǡ anu is the laigest global souice of methane emissionsǤ Boweveiǡ the caibon footpiint
of livestock vaiies consiueiably among piouuction systemsǡ iegionsǡ anu commouitiesǡ mainly uue
to vaiiations in the quality of feeuǡ the feeu conveision efficiencies of uiffeient animal species anu
impacts on uefoiestation anu lanu uegiauation ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͳͲbȌǤ
Significant piouuctivity impiovements aie neeueu foi ueveloping countiies to meet giowing
foou secuiity anu uevelopment iequiiementsǡ while minimizing iesouice use anu uBu emissions
fiom piouuctionǤ Past piouuctivity gains in the sectoi have been achieveu thiough the application
of science anu auvanceu technology in feeuing anu nutiitionǡ genetics anu iepiouuctionǡ anu animal
health contiol as well as geneial impiovements in animal husbanuiyǤ The extension of these
appioachesǡ paiticulaily in ueveloping countiies wheie theie aie laige piouuctivity gapsǡ can play a
key iole in mitigation anu in builuing iesilience to climate changeǤ This is especially impoitant in
maiginal lanus in semiaiiu aieasǡ which aie paiticulaily vulneiable to climate changeǤ Impioveu
foiecasting of iisksǡ ueteimination of the effects of climate changeǡ eaily uetection anu contiol of
uisease outbieaks aie also funuamental to allow piompt iesponses anu builu iesilienceǤ
The efficient tieatment of manuie can also ieuuce emissions anu iaise piouuctivity of the
sectoiǤ Foi exampleǡ the anaeiobic uigestion of manuie stoieu as a liquiu oi sluiiy can lowei
methane emissions anu piouuce useful eneigyǡ while the composting soliu manuies can lowei
emissions anu piouuce useful oiganic amenuments foi soilsǤ The substitution of manuie foi
inoiganic feitilizeis can also lowei emissions anu impiove soil conuition anu piouuctivityǤ The
ieintegiation of livestock with ciop activitiesǡ the stiategic location of intensive livestock
piouuction units anu enhanceu piocessing techniques to ieuuce piouuction losses aie also effective
stiategies foi boosting piouuctivityǤ
In auuition to measuies that focus uiiectly on animal piouuctivityǡ feeu anu manuie
managementǡ theie aie a iange of giasslanu management piactices that can auuiess mitigation anu
impiove iesilienceǤ uiasslanusǡ incluuing iangelanusǡ shiub lanusǡ pastuie lanusǡ anu cioplanus sown
with pastuieǡ tiees anu fouuei ciopsǡ iepiesent ͹Ͳ peicent of the woiluǯs agiicultuial aieaǤ The soils
unuei giasslanus contain about ʹͲ peicent of the woiluǯs soil caibon stocks ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͳͲaȌǡ howeveiǡ
these stocks aie at iisk fiom lanu uegiauationǤ The Lanu Begiauation Assessment in Biylanus ȋLABAȌ
iecently estimateu that ͳ͸ peicent of iangelanus aie cuiiently unueigoing uegiauationǤ Aiiesting
fuithei uegiauation anu iestoiing uegiaueu giasslanusǡ thiough giazing management anu ievegetation
aie impoitant mitigation stiategiesǤ This can incluue setǦasiuesǡ postponing giazing while foiage species
aie giowing oi ensuiing even giazing of vaiious speciesǡ to stimulate uiveise giassesǡ impiove nutiient
cycling anu plant piouuctivityǤ These piactices along with supplementing pooi quality foiages with
fouuei tieesǡ as in silvopastoial systemsǡ can all contiibute to inciease piouuctivityǡ iesilience anu boost
caibon iemovalsǤ
FONCREAGRO (http://foncreagro.org/) in association with the private sector is undertaking a number of pro-poor livestock
initiatives with the aim to increase milk production in poor and vulnerable areas of Peru, such as the Cajamarca region.
Production efficiency is achieved through: breeding programmes (using crosses from Brown Swiss); improved pasture and
manure management; decrease in the use of synthetic fertilizers, and improving livestock health through the provision of
veterinary services and the sanitation of canals and treatment of animals for diseases such as liver fluke. Such practices
have increased milk production per cow by 25 percent with significant improvement in quality. In addition, weaning age has
decreased, calves reach 280kg in 20 months instead of 30 months and time between births has been reduced from 16.5
months to 14.9 months. These efficiency improvements has resulted in increases in production and income (by
approximately 60 percent) but with a smaller more efficient herd. This has resulted in reduced greenhouse gas emissions
and smaller impact on the resource base. Continuity of the system is ensured through training of all members of the
community on all aspects of the production system.
Livestock production in developing countries is largely dependent on fibrous feeds – mainly crop residues and low quality
pasture – that are deficient in nitrogen, minerals and vitamins. However, these feedstuffs can be better used if the rumen
diet is supplemented with nitrogen, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. One of the most suitable methods used to supply
animals with the nutrients not found in fibrous feed (in tropical smallholder conditions) is to feed the animals urea and
molasses in the form of urea-molasses mineral blocks. These mineral blocks increase productivity of meat and milk
production and promote higher reproductive efficiency in ruminant animal species, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and
yak. The success of the technique has resulted in its adoption in over 60 countries (FAO 2007a).
The recent outbreak of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Madagascar in 2008 provides an example of how principles and
tools such as rapid disease detection, early warning, early response, as promoted in the EMPRES programme, can
be used for the control of emerging diseases. The virus, which causes high livestock losses and is also a severe
threat to human health, was found in test samples which triggered a country wide survey of livestock and the
establishment of surveillance systems. Sentinel screening of herds in thirteen locations were establish through the
contracting of local, private veterinarians to undertake field surveillance and undertake weekly visits to communities.
Mosquitoes and other samples were collected in the infected areas in order to identify vector species. To prevent
human contamination, information campaigns were organized and protective equipment was distributed to
professionals working in slaughterhouses. In autumn 2008, a month after the first training, a veterinarian in a remote
area launched an alert. The implementation of local measures immediately after detection of the first cases
prevented the outbreak from spreading. (EMPRESS Transboundary Animal Diseases Bulletin No 35).

1.5 Agroforestry
Agiofoiestiy is the use of tiees anu shiubs in agiicultuial ciop anuȀoi animal piouuction anu lanu
management systemsǤ It is estimateu that tiees occui on Ͷ͸ peicent of all agiicultuial lanus anu
suppoit ͵Ͳ peicent of all iuial populations ȋZomei etǤ al ʹͲͲͻȌǤ Tiees aie useu in many tiauitional
anu mouein faiming anu iangelanu systemsǤ Tiees on faims aie paiticulaily pievalent in Southeast
Asia anu Cential anu South AmeiicaǤ Agiofoiestiy systems anu piactices come in many foimsǡ
incluuing impioveu fallowsǡ taungya ȋgiowing annual agiicultuial ciops uuiing the establishment of
a foiest plantationȌǡ home gaiuensǡ giowing multipuipose tiees anu shiubsǡ bounuaiy plantingǡ
faim wooulotsǡ oichaiusǡ plantationȀciop combinationsǡ shelteibeltsǡ winubieaksǡ conseivation
heugesǡ fouuei banksǡ live fencesǡ tiees on pastuie anu tiee apicultuie ȋNaiiǡ ͳͻͻ͵ anu Sinclaiiǡ
The use of tiees anu shiubs in agiicultuial systems help to tackle the tiiple challenge of
secuiing foou secuiityǡ mitigation anu ieuucing the vulneiability anu incieasing the auatability of
agiicultuial systems to climate changeǤ Tiees in the faiming system can help inciease faim incomes
anu can help uiveisify piouuction anu thus spieau iisk against agiicultuial piouuction oi maiket
failuiesǤ This will be incieasingly impoitant as impacts of climate change become moie pionounceuǤ
Tiees anu shiubs can uiminish the effects of extieme weathei eventsǡ such as heavy iainsǡ uioughts
anu winu stoimsǤ They pievent eiosionǡ stabilize soilsǡ iaise infiltiation iates anu halt lanu
uegiauationǤ They can eniich biouiveisity in the lanuscape anu inciease ecosystem stabilityǤ
Tiees can impiove soil feitility anu soil moistuie thiough incieasing soil oiganic matteiǤ
NitiogenǦfixing leguminous tiees anu shiubs can be especially impoitant to soil feitility wheie
theie is limiteu access to mineial feitilizeisǤ Impioveu soil feitility tenus to inciease agiicultuial
piouuctivity anu may allow moie flexibility in the types of ciops that can be giownǤ Foi example
agiofoiestiy systems in Afiica have incieaseu maize yielus by ͳǤ͵ anu ͳǤ͸ tons pei hectaie pei yeai
ȋSileshi et alǤ ʹͲͲͺȌǤ Fouuei tiees have been tiauitionally useu by faimeis anu pastoialists on
extensive systems but fouuei shiubs such as callianuia anu leucaena aie now being useu in moie
intensive systemsǡ incieasing piouuction anu ieuucing the neeu foi exteinal feeus ȋFianzelǡ
Wambugu anu Tuweiǡ ʹͲͲ͵ȌǤ Agiofoiestiy systems foi fouuei aie also piofitable in uevelopeu
countiiesǤ Foi exampleǡ in the noithein agiicultuial iegion of westein Austialiaǡ using tagasaste
ȋChamaecytisus piolifeiusȌ has incieaseu ietuins to faimeis whose cattle foimeily giazeu on
annual giasses anu legumes ȋAbaui etalǤǡ ʹͲͲ͵ȌǤ
Agiofoiestiy systems aie impoitant souices of timbei anu fuelwoou thioughout the woilu
in both ueveloping anu uevelopeu countiiesǤ Foi exampleǡ inteiciopping of tiees anu ciops is
piacticeu on ͵ million hectaies in China ȋSenǡ ͳͻͻͳȌ anu in the 0niteu Kinguomǡ a iange of
timbeiȀceieal anu timbeiȀpastuie systems has been piofitable to faimeis ȋNcAuamǡ Thomas anu
Willis ͳͻͻͻȌǤ Tiees piouuceu on faim aie majoi souices of timbei in Asia ȋeǤgǤ Chinaǡ Inuiaǡ
PakistanȌǡ East Afiica ȋeǤgǤ TanzaniaȌ anu Southein Afiica ȋeǤg ZambiaȌǡ Incieasing woou piouuction
on faims can take piessuie off foiestsǡ which woulu otheiwise iesult in theii uegiauationǤ
Agiofoiestiy systems tenu to sequestei much gieatei quantities of caibon than agiicultuial
systems without tieesǤ Planting tiees in agiicultuial lanus is ielatively efficient anu cost effective
compaieu to othei mitigation stiategiesǡ anu pioviues a iange of coǦbenefits impoitant foi
impioveu faim family livelihoous anu climate change auaptationǤ Theie aie seveial examples of
piivate companies suppoiting agiofoiestiy in exchange foi caibon benefitsǤ
Agiofoiestiy is theiefoie impoitant both foi climate change mitigation as well as foi
auaptation thiough ieuucing vulneiabilityǡ uiveisifying income souicesǡ impioving livelihoous anu
builuing the capacity of smallholueis to auapt to climate changeǤ Boweveiǡ agiofoiestiy in many
iegions is still constiaineu by local customsǡ institutions anu national policiesǤ Theie is an uigent
neeu foi capacity builuingǡ extension anu ieseaich piogiammes to scieen anu to match species with
the iight ecological zones anu agiicultuial piacticesǤ Theie is a neeu to suppoit anu uevelop piivate
public sectoi paitneiships to uevelop anu uistiibute agiofoiestiy geimplasmǡ like theie is foi the
ciops sectoiǤ

Nany success stoiies uemonstiate that with appiopiiate access to maiket anu value auueu
oppoitunitiesǡ initial funuing mechanisms to kick off piocesses anu tiansitionǡ anu othei initiatives
anu enabling conuitionsǡ iuial piouuceis anu faimeis get to piouuce on a laige scale with impact at
subǦnational anu national levelǤ Foi instanceǡ unuei the Clean Bevelopment Nechanism ȋCBNȌ of
the Kyoto Piotocolǡ Ethiopia will qualify foi caibon cieuits foi iefoiestation anu affoiestation
piojectsǤ The Bumbo Regeneiation Pioject will enable the futuie sale of ͵͵ͺǡͲͲͲ tonnes of caibon
cieuits by ʹͲͳ͹ ȋWoilu Bankǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ The benefits of Faiuheibia albiua agiofoiestiy systems in subǦ
Sahaian Afiica have been highly uocumenteu ȋbox ͳͲȌǤThe caibon pioject in the Nhambita
community in Nozambique ȋbox ͳͳȌ also auvocates foi agiofoiestiyǤ
Faidherbia albida is a tree commonly found in agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This tree, which is
widespread throughout the continent, thrives on a range of soils and occurs in ecosystems from, deserts to wet
tropical climates. It fixes nitrogen and has the special feature of ‘reversed leaf phenology’ meaning it is dormant and
sheds its leaves during the early rainy season and leafs out when the dry season begins. This feature makes it
compatible with food crop production, because it does not compete for light, nutrients and water. Farmers have
frequently reported significant crop yield increases for maize, sorghum, millet, cotton and groundnut when grown in
proximity to Faidherbia. From 6 percent to more than 100 percent yield increases have been reported in the
Like many other agroforestry species, Faidherbia tends to increase carbon stocks both above-ground and in the soil
(8) and improves soil water retention and nutrient status. Faidherbia trees are currently found on less than 2 percent
of Africa’s maize area and less than 13 percent of the area grown with sorghum and millet. With maize being the
most widely cropped staple in Africa, the potential for adopting this agroforestry system is tremendous. Further
research is needed to better explore the potential benefits Faidherbia can provide, including for crop productivity in
different agro-ecosystems; wood and non-wood products for household use or sale on the market; and possibilities
for engaging with carbon markets.

Initiated in 2003, the project pays 1000 smallholder farmers in the buffer zone of the Gorongosa National Park in
Sofala Province for sequestering carbon through adoption of agroforestry practices and for reduced emissions from
deforestation and degradation (REDD) of miombo woodlands. Farmers are contracted to sequester carbon on their
machambas (farmlands) through adoption of agroforestry practices from a ‘menu’ that includes horticultural tree
species, woodlots, intercropping food crops with Faidherbia albida, planting native hardwoods around the boundary
of the machambas, and planting fruit trees within the homestead. In all, different project activities yield carbon offsets
equal to 24,117 tCO
e per annum over an area of about 20 000 hectares. Farmers receive carbon payments at a
rate of US$4.5 per tCO
or in the range of US$433/ha to $808/ha over seven years. The project shows that carbon
sequestration through land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) can both promote sustainable rural
livelihoods as well as generate verifiable carbon emissions reductions for the international community.
1.6 Fisheriesandaquaculture
0vei ͷͲͲ million people uepenuǡ uiiectly oi inuiiectlyǡ on fisheiies anu aquacultuie foi theii
livelihoousǤ Fish also pioviues essential nutiition foi ͵ billion people anu at least ͷͲ peicent of
animal piotein anu essential mineials to ͶͲͲ million people in the pooiest countiiesǤ Boweveiǡ
climate change is biinging about huge challenges to these iesouicesǤ Piouuction systems anu
livelihoousǡ alieauy in ciisis fiom oveiǦfishingǡ pooi management anu impacts fiom othei teiiestiial
anthiopogenic influencesǡ aie likely to succumb fuithei as the fiequency anu intensity of stoims
inciease anu extieme weathei events become moie commonǤ Fisheisǡ as well as othei community
membeisǡ will be at gieatei iisk of losing theii lives anu assetsǡ such as boatsǡ fishing equipment anu
aquacultuie infiastiuctuiesǤ Auaptation stiategies will neeu to be context anu location specific anu
to take into account both shoitǦteim ȋeǤgǤ incieaseu fiequency anu intensity of extieme eventsȌ anu
longǦteim ȋeǤgǤ ieuuceu piouuctivity of aquatic ecosystemsȌ phenomenaǤ Stiategies to inciease
iesilience anu auaptive capacity will iequiie wiueǦscale implementation anu auoption of measuies
anu piactices that auheie to the piinciples of the Coue of Conuuct foi Responsible FisheiiesǤ
Climate iesilient sustainable intensification of aquacultuie must occui to meet giowing
consumption neeus anu is being achieveu by impioving management appioaches anu thiough the
selection of suitable stock ȋfoi example thiough saline iesistant species in zones facing sea level
iiseȌǤ Impioveu eneigy efficiency anu uecieaseu use of fish meal anu fish oil feeus aie essential
mitigation stiategies as these inputs aie the main caibon footpiint in aquacultuie systemsǤ
Incieasing feeuing efficiency oi switching to heibivoious oi omnivoious speciesǡ such as caipǡ
gieatly ieuuces the neeu foi fish feeu inputs anu achieves much highei inputȀoutput iatios than
othei piotein souicesǡ such as salmonǤ The integiation of aquacultuie within bioauei faiming
lanuscapes pioviues fuithei oppoitunitiesǡ foi example sluuge piouuceu uuiing the tieatment of
aquacultuie wastewatei oi ponu seuiments can be useu to feitilize agiicultuial ciopsǤ Noie
stiategic location of aquacultuie infiastiuctuie can also avoiu potential climate change iisks anu
minimize the impacts on natuial systems such as wetlanuǡ mangioves anu ieefsǤ In auuitionǡ
ieplanting mangioves in many aquacultuie aieas in tiopical iegions can iestoie impoitant
ecosystem seivicesǡ piotect the coastline fiom inunuations anuǡ along with othei plants anu
seagiassesǡ can sequestei caibonǡ incieasing maiine Dzblue caibondz sinksǤ Naiicultuie faiming
systems such as filteiǦfeeueis anu seaweeus aie excellent piouuction systems as they iequiie littleǡ
if anyǡ exteinal inputs anu can even pioviue ecosystem seivices such as filteiing anu absoibing
excess nutiients in the wateiǤ In some casesǡ these systems fai exceeu efficiency anu caibon uptake
levels when compaieu to lanu agiicultuial activitiesǤ Noieoveiǡ seaweeus can be useu foi feeuǡ foou
piouucts anu have the potential foi biofuel piouuctionǤ
Auaptation will also iequiie piivate sectoi aujustments in fishing piactices as abunuance
anu availability of tiauitional species uecline anu oppoitunities foi catching novel species giowsǤ
Significant levels of ieǦinvestment in facilitiesǡ equipment anu tiaining will be iequiieu as fisheiies
supply chains auaptǤ In all casesǡ this tiansition will neeu to be achieveu with impiovements in the
safety anu ieuuctions in the loss of life anu acciuents while minimizing eneigy use anu ieuucing
wasteǤ Low Impact Fuel Efficient ȏLIFEȐ fishing vesselsǡ fishing geais anu fishing piactices auapteu
to each specific fisheiy can ieuuce the sectoiǯs gieenhouse gas emissions fiom the estimateu ʹǤͳ
million poweieu fishing vessels which consume an estimateu Ͷͳ million tones of fuelǡ buffei the
sectoi fiom futuie oil shocks anu impiove the oveiall safety anu enviionmental sustainability of
fishing opeiationsǤ In auuitionǡ theie is an uigent neeu to ieuuce fishing capacity in many fisheiies
aiounu the woiluǡ to ieuuce the incentives to oveifish anu to impiove the economic peifoimance of
those fisheiiesǤ This woulu have the auueu benefit of fuithei ieuucing gieenhouse gas emissionsǤ
The farming of seaweeds, oysters and clams constitute the largest proportion of mariculture production worldwide.
The culture of these groups requires minimal energy inputs and, therefore, has a relatively small carbon footprint.
Moreover, the rapid turnover in seaweed culture, approximately three months per crop (in the tropics) with yields of
over 2 500 tonnes per ha, far exceeds the potential carbon uptake that could be obtained through other agricultural
activity for a comparable area. Additionally, such systems can filter nutrients and provide a “cleaning service” to
coastal marine environments.
The farming of seaweed has expanded rapidly in recent decades as demand has outstripped the supply available
from natural resources. Annual production value are estimated at US$5.5-6 billion; with commercial harvesting
occurring in about 35 countries, spread between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, in waters ranging from
cold, through temperate, to tropical. China is the largest producer of edible seaweeds. About five million tonnes
(mostly for kombu) is produced from hundreds of hectares of Laminaria japonica that is grown on suspended ropes
in the ocean. Other seaweeds, such as kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum, originally harvested
from natural stocks in Indonesia and the Philippines for the production of thickening and gelling agents
(Carrageenan), are now cultivated and production has also spread to other countries, including Tanzania (Zanzibar),
Viet Nam and some of the Pacific Islands.
Another environmentally-friendly and GHG mitigating mariculture system is aquasilviculture, the integration of
aquaculture and mangrove forestry. Such systems are commonly used in Indonesia and Vietnam and in the early
stages of development in other countries such as Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Malaysia. The approaches differ
among and within countries but mainly constitute the integration of mangrove ponds and pens for fish and crabs
(Primavera, 2000). Such systems not only sequester carbon, but they are also more resilient to shocks and extreme
events and also lead to increased production due to improved ecosystem services. A good example of the benefits
of aquasilviculture can be seen in the introduction of the system in the tambak region of Java, an area of over
300 000 ha of extensive ponds which lacked mangroves. The introduction of mangroves led to the increase in
production, in food supplies and contributed significantly to the socio-economic well-being of the coastal rural
population (Sukardjo 1989). The system was therefore more profitable than just direct planting of mangrove trees,
and the net financial benefits to the reforestation programme of the State Forestry Corporation was considerable
(Sukardjo, 1989).

Well-designed and responsibly-used passive fishing gears such as gill nets, pots, hook and lines and traps can
reduce the requirement for fossil fuel consumption by as much as 30-40 percent over conventional active fishing
gears, such as trawls. Moreover, the use of bio-degradable materials can minimize the amount of ghost fishing when
fishing gears are inadvertently lost as a result of bad weather. New designs of selective fishing gear can reduce the
capture of juveniles and other forms of bycatch as well as reducing discards. Innovative technologies such as GPS
and echosounders can also be used to ensure that fishing gears are not set on vulnerable or sensitive habitats.
Other innovations in design of vessels and fishing equipment coupled with safety training can minimize accidents
and loss of life at sea and assist with fishing losing its reputation of being the most dangerous occupation in the
1.7 UrbanandperiǦurbanagriculture
ͷͲ peicent of the global population now lives in cities anu this is expecteu to iise to ͹Ͳ peicent by
ʹͲͷͲǤ Such laige expansion causes the encioachment of the city into suiiounuing natuial
ecosystems anu agiicultuial lanusǤ
Cities aie often unable to pioviue sufficient employment oppoitunities to theii giowing
populations which leaus to a iapiu inciease in uiban poveity iates anu foou insecuiityǤ These uiban
pooi often lack the money to puichase foou oi the lanu to giow itǤ It is estimateu that these
inuiviuuals spenu up to ͸Ͳ peicent of theii incomes to buy foouǤ Foi exampleǡ the iecent foou ciisis
incieaseu foou piices anu the global economic uowntuin ieuuceu employment oppoitunities anu
incomes especially within uiban aieasǤ Climate change anu highei inciuences of natuial anu humanǦ
maue uisasteis have also causeu uisiuptions in foouǦsupply chains into cities fuithei incieasing
foou insecuiityǤ
Although cities will continue to laigely uepenu on iuial agiicultuieǡ uiban anu peiiǦuiban
agiicultuie is pioviuing significant quantities of foou ȋespecially of peiishable itemsȌ anu impioving
foou secuiity of the uiban pooiǤ It is estimateu that up to ͳͷ peicent of the woiluǯs foou is piouuceu
by uiban agiicultuie anu ͹Ͳ peicent of uiban householus in ueveloping countiies paiticipate in
agiicultuial activitiesǤ vegetablesǡ fiuitsǡ mushioomsǡ heibsǡ meatǡ eggsǡ milk anu even fish aie being
piouuceu in community gaiuensǡ piivate backyaiusǡ schoolsǡ hospitalsǡ ioof topsǡ winuow boxes anu
vacant public lanus ȋincluuing at the siue of ioaus anu iail tiacksȌǤ This home piouuction can
pioviue up to ͸Ͳ peicent of a families foou iequiiementsǤ This not only gieatly impioves nutiition it
also allows families to spenu moie of theii incomes on othei expensesǡ such as euucation anu
healthǤ In auuitionǡ uiban agiicultuie also geneiates micioǦenteipiises such as the piouuction of
compostǡ foou piocessing anu saleǤ
0thei auvantages of uiban agiicultuie aie the Dzgieeningdz of citiesǡ impioving aii qualityǡ anu
loweiing tempeiatuiesǤ These benefits has leu many cities ȋsuch as Beijing Banoiǡ Kampala
Shanghaiǡ Iavaǡ Bakaiǡ Acciaǡ Bavanaǡ Buenos Aiiesǡ Bogotáǡ Limaǡ Cuiitibaǡ 0uitoǡ Nanaguaǡ
Tegucigalpa anu RosaiioȌ to uevelop consiueiable uiban agiicultuial capacityǡ piouucing a laige
peicentage of theii milkǡ eggsǡ meatǡ fiuit anu vegetable iequiiements ȋup to ͻͲ peicent foi the lastȌǤ
Bowevei if the full potential of uiban agiicultuie is to be achieveu theie aie a numbei of key
constiaints anu issues which neeu to be auuiesseuǤ Foi exampleǡ the lack of access to watei anu
othei piouuctive iesouicesǤ Competition foi lanu anu issues ielateu to tenuie iights have been
founu to be majoi constiaintsǤ The enviionmental impact of uiban agiicultuieǡ the foou safety
conceins of using waste watei anu oiganic mateiial anu the iisk of the spieau of uiseases anu
contamination of toxic pollutants aie all of majoi conceinsǤ City planneis theiefoie iequiie technical
guiuance foi the integiation of agiicultuial activities into uiban uevelopment anu tiaining neeus to
be pioviueu on uiban sustainable piouuction systemsǤ Theie is uigent neeu to ievisit foou
uistiibution systems anu ensuie iesilient uibanǦiuial linkagesǡ especially with iegaiu to new shocks
causeu by climate changeǤ
FAO and the Government of Senegal have initiated Micro-Gardens in Dakar in 1999. This initiative has reduced
poverty by providing fresh vegetables to poor families, thereby improving their food supply and nutrition. The project
also promotes income generation through the sale of production surplus. The project facilitates access to urban and
peri-urban horticultural production for city-dwellers who do not have access to farmland, mobilizes human resource
in the fields of administration and research, and promotes the use of agricultural waste such as peanut shells and
rice chaff. The micro-garden technology has been adopted across all social sectors: poor, wealthy, men, women,
young, old and physically handicapped. More than 4,000 families have been trained in micro-garden technology.
The main challenges in the implementation of the project included training and organization of beneficiaries, access
to equipment and inputs, and marketing of produce. The micro-gardens benefited from local means and equipment,
housed at the Horticultural Development Centre (CDH) of the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA),
including an office, laboratory and national reference micro-garden.
In the absence of territorial planning for the allotment of production spaces to micro-gardeners, some city halls,
schools and hospitals have made their backyards available for micro-gardeners. The micro-gardens project has also
established outlets in all the regional capitals to provide access to alternatives to high-cost chemical fertilizers,
including tea manure, manure, and Biogen. Annual yields have increased and costs of inputs reduced through the
use of alternative materials and drip irrigation kits promoted by the FAO. The project is collaborating with Italian
NGOs in Dakar to establish a specific supply chain mechanism for micro-gardeners’ produce to strengthen financial
autonomy of the beneficiaries and ensure sustainability of the project. Micro-gardners’ produce is promoted via
television programmes and advertising; and with the introduction of a certificate of vegetable analysis, established
by the Institute of Food Technology (ITA). The goal is to create a label for micro-gardeners’ produce.

The population explosion and the tendency to build on agricultural land have acted to limit the resources of city
families and their access to healthy products. With a little effort and money, rooftops can contribute in improving the
families’ quality of life and provide them with healthy food and increased income. Although the idea is not new,
rooftop gardens in Egypt has only recently been implemented. In the early 1990s at Ain Shams University, a group
of agriculture professors developed an initiative of growing organic vegetables to suit densely populated cities of
Egypt. The initiative was applied on a small scale until it was officially adopted in 2001 by the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO).terraces and balconies, even on civil construction walls, and for not requiring big investments in
capital or long hours of work.: sugarcane waste, polyethylene bags, tires, containers and cylinders, and soil. fruit
such as mangos, figs, guavas, bananas, and sugarcane stalks in his terrace of 1,200 sq ft (110 m2) in Bandra.

The urban producer’s resource book: A practical guide for working with Low Income Urban and PeriUrban Producers
Organizations provides a useful reference with guidelines and the issues that have to be addressed. Country
examples are provided for each issue to show how UPA can be developed in cooperation with a number of
stakeholders. Accessed at: www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1177e/a1177e00.htm
1.8 DiversifiedandIntegratedFoodǦEnergySystems

As can alieauy be seen in the above piouuction systemsǡ uiveisification can both inciease the efficiency
of systems anu builu theii iesilience to climate changeǤ It can spieau iiskǡ incieasing economic iesilience
at the faim anu at the local levelǤ Biveisifieu iotationsǡ incluuing ciop vaiieties anu species with uiffeient
theimalȀtempeiatuie iequiiementsǡ bettei watei use efficiency anu iesistance to pestȀuiseaseǡ anu
lowei yielu vaiiability aie an effective way to ieuuce iisks anu inciease efficiencyǤ Intiouucing new
types of ciops ȋsuch as vegetablesȌǡ tiees ȋfiuit anu woou piouuctsȌ anu othei plants can inciease anu
uiveisify piouuction anu impiove oveiall nutiitional levelsǤ Integiateu ciop anu livestock systems also
inciease the efficiency anu enviionmental sustainability of both piouuction systemsǤ The waste
piouucts of one component seive as a iesouice foi the othei ȋeǤgǤ manuie incieases ciop piouuction anu
ciop iesiuues anu byǦpiouucts aie useu as animal feeusȌǤ Animals also play vaiious iolesǡ they can
pioviue eneigy foi faim woik oi tianspoitation anu constitute a capital to be conveiteu into cash when
neeueuǤ These systemsǡ which exist unuei vaiious foims anu levels of integiationǡ pioviue oppoitunities
foi incieasing oveiall piouuction anu economic iesilience of faimeisǤ
Beveloping piouuction systems which also meet the eneigy iequiiements of smallholueis is also
impoitantǤ Boweveiǡ thiee billion people Ȃ about half of the woiluǯs population Ǧ iely on unsustainable
biomassǦbaseu eneigy souices to meet theii basic eneigy neeus foi cooking anu heatingǡ anu ͳǤ͸ billion
people lack access to electiicity ȋIEA ʹͲͲʹȌǤ In iuial communities in ueveloping countiies this often
iesults in encioachments into natuial ecosystemsǡ foi example the cutting uown of foiests foi fuelǡ
leauing to majoi souices of emissionsǤ Integiateu Foou Eneigy Systems ȋIFESȌ aim at auuiessing these
issues by simultaneously piouucing foou anu eneigyǤ This geneially tianslates into two main methousǤ
The fiist combines foou anu eneigy ciops on the same plot of lanuǡ such as in agiofoiesty systems foi
exampleǣ giowing tiees foi fuelwoou anu chaicoalǤ The seconu type of IFES is achieveu thiough the use
of byǦpiouuctsȀiesiuues of one type of piouuct to piouuce anotheiǤ Examples incluue biogas fiom
livestock iesiuuesǡ animal feeu fiom byǦpiouucts of coin ethanolǡ oi bagasse foi eneigy as a byǦpiouuct
of sugaicane piouuction foi foou puiposesǤ While simple IFES systems such as agiofoiestiy oi biogas
systems aie wiuespieauǡ moie complex IFES aie less fiequently implementeu uue to the technical anu
institutional capacity iequiieu to establish anu maintain themǡ anu the lack of policy suppoitǤ Solai
theimalǡ photovoltaicsǡ geotheimalǡ winu anu watei powei aie othei options anu can be incluueu in
IFESǡ uespite the high staitǦup costs anu specializeu suppoit iequiieu foi theii installation anu seivicingǤ
Viet Nam embarked on an integrated land management scheme, following land rights being given to individual
farmers. This is supported by the Vietnamese Gardeners’ Association (VACVINA), which works at all levels, and has
national responsibility to promote this concept – called the VAC integrated system. It involves gardening, fish rearing
and animal husbandry, to make optimal use of the land. Traditional fuels such as wood and coal for cooking are
becoming increasingly scarce and expensive, and can contribute to deforestation. Increasing livestock production in
rural communities with high population density leads to health and environmental issues from the quantity of animal
dung being produced. Biogas digesters are part of the solution offered by this initiative, using the waste to generate
energy, and the resultant slurry can be used as a fertilizer to improve soil quality. A market-based approach has
been adopted to disseminate the plants and the service provided to those buying the digesters is comprehensive.
The customer must have at least four to six pigs or two to three cattle that provide the animal dung. They pay the
total installation cost for the digesters to local service providers, and operate the biodigester using instructions
provided by them. A biodigester produces enough daily fuel for cooking and lighting. It improves the surrounding
environment, whilst livestock produces meat, milk and fish products for local consumption and subsistence farming.
Source: FAO/Practical Action, 2009.

Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, has a population of eight million inhabitants and
consumes up to 6 million tonnes of bioenergy equivalent per year. The city is surrounded by grasslands and patches
of forest. The bioenergy used by the urban households consists mainly of fuelwood (charcoal and firewood).
Charcoal needs, but also most of the staple starchy foods in the diet (cassava and maize), are provided by slash-
and-burn shifting cultivation and by carbonization of the patches of forest and tree savannahs, which continue to
deteriorate. Production obtained from these tree stands is becoming scarce and expensive. Soil fertility is declining,
crop yields after fallow are decreasing, springs are drying up and fires are increasingly frequent. Slash-and-burn
cultivation gives rise to tree fallow after one to three years of cropping, due to the exhaustion of soil reserves.
Improving tree fallow consists in planting tree legumes, whose roots combined with microorganisms fix atmospheric
nitrogen. Organic matter and nitrogen storage in the soil is thereby accelerated. This is especially true for acacias,
trees that are also known for their large biomass/wood production. The trees can already be planted during the
cropping period and continue to grow rapidly after harvesting, during the fallow phase (CIRAD 2010; Bisiaux et al.
2009 and Hans Seidel Foundation 2009).

Methane from pig waste represents the largest source of livestock GHG emissions in Thailand with the number of
pigs in the country expected to more than double between 2000 and 2020. A pilot project on ten pig farms with a
total annual average pig population of around 131 200 pigs will reduce methane emissions from pig waste
management by the installation of anaerobic treatment systems that recover biogas for use as energy. The total
emission reductions are estimated at about 58 000 tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO
) equivalent per year (tCO
The project is partly financed by these reductions through a Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol.
The electricity produced is expected for on-farm consumption. Sludge material will be dried and sold as fertilizer and
soil amendment. In addition the project includes specific component activities for the community such as street
lighting, access to drinking water, scholarships, mosquito spray machine, community shop, capacity building. This
project is implemented by the World Bank and FAO. It is part of the Livestock Waste Management in East Asia
project which global environment objective is to reduce livestock-induced, land-based pollution and environmental
2) Effective climate-smart practices already exist and could be implemented in developing
country agriculture systems.
3) Adopting an ecosystem approach, working at landscape scale and ensuring intersectoral
coordination and cooperation is crucial for effective climate change responses.
4) Considerable investment is required in filling data and knowledge gaps and in research and
development of technologies, methodologies, as well as the conservation and production of suitable
varieties and breeds.
Ensuiing foou secuiity anu uevelopment unuei climate change in some paits of the woiluǡ will
involve incieasing yielusǡ income anu piouuctionǡ which can geneially be expecteu to leau to
incieaseu aggiegate emissionsǡ although emissions pei unit piouuct may ueclineǤ While agiicultuial
piouuction systems will be expecteu fiist anu foiemost to inciease piouuctivity anu iesilience to
suppoit foou secuiityǡ theie is also the potential foi ueveloping low emission uevelopment
tiajectoiies without compiomising uevelopment anu foou secuiity goalsǤ
To meet these multiple challengesǡ it has been suggesteu by FA0 that a majoi
tiansfoimation of the agiicultuie sectoi will be necessaiy anu this will iequiie institutional anu
policy suppoitǤ Bettei aligneu policy appioaches acioss agiicultuialǡ enviionmental anu financial
bounuaiies anu innovative institutional aiiangements to piomote theii implementation will be
neeueuǤ This section coveis ciitical institutional anu policy aujustments iequiieu to suppoit the
tiansition to climateǦsmait agiicultuieǤ
2.1 Enablingpolicyenvironment
Key iequiiements foi an enabling policy enviionment to piomote climateǦsmait smallholuei
agiicultuial tiansfoimations is gieatei coheienceǡ cooiuination anu integiation between climate
changeǡ agiicultuial uevelopment anu foou secuiity policy piocessesǤ Policies in all thiee of these
aieas have both impacts on smallholuei piouuctions systems anu on uBu emissionsǤ Lack of
coheience can pievent syneigy captuie anu ienuei the puisuit of the stateu policy objectives
ʹǤͳǤͳ National policyǦmaking
Climate change policies at the national level aie expiesseu thiough the National Action Plan foi
Auaptation ȋNAPAsȌ anu the Nationally Appiopiiate Nitigation Actions ȋNANAsȌ as well as thiough
national oi iegional climate change stiategiesǤ Agiicultuial uevelopment anu foou secuiity plans aie
expiesseu in national uevelopment stiategies anu poveity ieuuction stiategy papeis ȋPRSPSȌǤ In the
case of Afiican countiiesǡ agiicultuial uevelopment anu investment stiategies aie being uevelopeu
unuei the CAABP ȋCompiehensive Afiican Agiicultuial Bevelopment PiogiammeȌ umbiellaǤ
Recently countiies have been calleu upon to uevelop CAABP compacts that outline theii agiicultuial
uevelopment piioiities anu investment iequiiementsǤ These stiategies will be suppoiteu by
ʹͲ 0SB billion in funusǡ which the LǯAquila uͺ Summit in ʹͲͲͻ agieeu to mobilize ovei thiee yeais
foi foou secuiityǤ
FA0 iecently conuucteu a suivey of a sample of these countiies to compaie the policy
objectives stateu in the NAPAsǡ NANAs anu CAABP compactsǤ The policy statements maue foi
CAABP aie geneially focuseu on impioving piouuctivity anu ietuins to smallǦscale agiicultuieǡ anu
geneially incluue some emphasis on sustainable lanu management anu soil iestoiationǤ Policy
statements maue foi NAPAs anu NANAs that have been submitteu by LBCs focus on smallholuei
agiicultuie Ȃincieasing ieliance of the sectoi by bettei management of lanu anu soil iesouicesǡ
wheieas CAABP statements often focus on agiicultuial piouuctivity taiget incieasesǤ IIEB ʹͲͳͲ also
noteu a uisciepancy between Afiican agiicultuial piouuctivity taigetsǡ as set out in national anu
iegional policy uocumentsǡ anu the piojections of how climate change will impact upon agiicultuieǤ
Bettei alignment of the technology appioaches envisioneu in these uiffeient policy uialoguesǡ anu in
paiticulai bettei integiation of sustainable lanu management factois into mainstieam agiicultuial
uevelopment planning will facilitate a moie holistic appioach to consiueiing agiicultuial
uevelopmentǡ auaptation anu mitigationǤ
Bettei integiation of foou secuiityǡ safety nets anu auaptation policies offeis the potential to
ieap significant benefitsǤ Bettei use of climate science infoimation in assessing iisks anu
vulneiability anu then ueveloping the safety nets anu insuiance piouucts as an effective iesponse is
alieauy being piloteu in some aieas with faiily positive iesults ȋBaiiett etalǤ ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ Policies ielateu
to piice stability aie also key to both auaptation anu foou secuiityǡ incluuing the use of buffei stocks
of foouǤ
ʹǤͳǤʹ Cooiuinateu inteinational policies
At the inteinational levelǡ bettei integiation of foou secuiityǡ agiicultuial uevelopment anu climate
change policies anu financing is also neeueuǤ Two paiallel global uialogues on ieuucing foou
insecuiity anu iesponuing to climate change have until now hau iemaikably little substantive
integiation of issues unuei consiueiationǤ Likewise the agiicultuial community has only iecently
become active in the uiscussions anu negotiations of inteinational climate change policies that
coulu have piofounu impacts on the sectoiǤ Cieation of mechanisms that allow uialogues between
foou secuiityǡ agiicultuial uevelopment anu climate change policyǦmakeis is funuamentalǤ
2.2 Institutions:informationproductionanddissemination
0ne key iole of institutions is the piouuction anu uissemination of infoimationǡ ianging fiom
piouuction anu maiketing conuitions to the uevelopment of iegulations anu stanuaiusǤ Climate
changeǡ by incieasing unceitaintyǡ as well as the value of iapiu anu accuiate iesponse ȋoi costs of
not uoing soȌ incieases the value of infoimation anu the impoitance of institutions that geneiate
anu uisseminate itǤ It will be ciitical that national anu inteinational agiicultuial ieseaich
piogiammes focuseu on ueveloping countiies incoipoiate climate change into theii piogiammingǤ
Foi example theie is a cleai lack of consistent anu coheient piojections specifying the effects of
climate change on the uiffeient ueteiminants of Afiican foou secuiity ȋIIEB ʹͲͳͲȌǤ Access to
infoimation is seen as a piioiity aiea foi many countiies as highlighteu in Figuie ͳǤ

Figure 1: The types of activities prioritized in African NAPAs, clearly indicate that in the African context designing
national adaptation plans of action, information dissemination and coordination are equally or more important than
research on new technologies.

2.3 Climatedataandinformationgaps
Impioving the use of climate science uata foi agiicultuial planning can ieuuce the unceitainties
geneiateu by climate changeǡ impiove eaily waining systems foi uioughtǡ floouǡ pest anu uisease
inciuence anu thus inciease the capacity of faimeis anu agiicultuial planneis to allocate iesouices
effectively anu ieuuce iisks ȋsee annex ͳȌǤ SEI ʹͲͲͺ cites the neeu foi moie Dztianslatoisdz of climate
infoimationǡ who can biiuge the uiviue between science anu fielu applicationǡ assisting
communities anu planneis to unueistanu the implications of iesults foi theii immeuiate planning
uecisionsǤ Enhancing communication between piouuceis anu useis of climate science is also cleaily
a iequiiementǤ Institutions to facilitate this exchange can be existing communications anu
infoimation uissemination netwoiksǡ incluuing extension ȋsee Box ʹͳ below on Climate Fielu
SchoolsȌǤ Capacity builuing of policy makeis as well as technical staff is anothei avenueǤ Finallyǡ
platfoims foi collaboiative action anu infoimation shaiingǡ such as the weAuapt platfoimǡ which
unites moueleisǡ piactitioneis anu uonoisǡ can enhance the uevelopment anu use of climate science
infoimation foi agiicultuial uecisionǦmaking ȋSEI ʹͲͲͺȌǤ
2.4 Disseminationmechanisms
The impeiative of climate change iequiies incieaseu capacity of faimeis to make both shoit anu
long teim planning uecisions anu technology choicesǤ Agiicultuial extension systems aie the main
conuuit foi uisseminating the infoimation iequiieu to make such changesǤ Yetǡ in many ueveloping
countiiesǡ these systems have long been in uecline ȋFA0 ʹͲͲͺȌǤ Resouices have been seveiely
cuitaileu anu seivices incieasingly outsouiceu to the piivate sectoi oi uioppeuǤ Anothei weakness
has been the heavy focus on inputs ȋseeus anu feitilizeiȌ anu less attention to maiketing oi
commeicial seivices ȋFA0 ʹͲͲͺȌǤ Pioblems with ueliveiing infoimation at a ielevant spatial anu
time scaleǡ uifficulty in communicating the infoimation anu lack of usei paiticipation in
uevelopment of infoimation systems aie all pioblems that have been encounteieu ȋBansen et al.Ǣ
Faimei Fielu Schools ȋFFSȌ aie a paiticipatoiy appioach to faimei euucation anu
empoweimentǤ They have spieau iapiuly in iecent yeaisǡ piomoteu mainly by FA0 with suppoit
fiom uonoisǡ as a way of iesolving both the neeu to coiiect infoimation failuies anu of pioviuing
initial foims of faimei oiganizationǤ The aim of the FFS is to builu faimeisǯ capacity to analyze theii
piouuction systemsǡ iuentify pioblemsǡ test possible solutions anu eventually auopt the piactices
anu technologies most suitable to theii faiming systemǤ The ciiticism of the schools is that they
ieach only a small gioup of faimeis anu uo so at a ielatively high cost both financially anu in
management timeǤ In a numbei of countiies howeveiǡ incluuing Kenya anu Sieiia Leoneǡ FFS have
been active in maiketing anu have pioven to be sustainable even in the absence of uonoi funuing
ȋsee Box ʹͳȌ which contains examples of how FFS aie being useu to facilitate the use of climate
Integrated pest management field schools have been one of the technology transfer and capacity building
mechanisms that have been part of FAO's development work for many years. The department of agricultural
extension in West Java, Indonesia, has converted the integrated pest management schools into climate field schools
for the benefit of farmers, incorporating climate information within the farm decision making process. Climate
forecast technology has undergone substantial improvements during the last 15 years which could increase farmers’
effectiveness in coping with extreme climate events by tailoring cropping management to forecast information.
However, farmers' awareness of seasonal climate forecasts and their capacity to use to it to tailor their crop
management strategies is still low. Experience in Indonesia has shown that the use of farmer field schools can be an
effective way of bridging this gap and this has led to the introduction of climate field school (CFS). The programme
was facilitated by Bogor Agricultural University in collaboration with the Directorate of Plant Protection, Department
of Agriculture, National Agency for Meteorology and Geophysics (BMG) and Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
(ADPC). Source: FAO, www.fao.org/teca/content/climate-field-school-farmers.

2.5 Institutionstoimproveaccesscoordinationandcollectiveaction
Input supplyǡ eǤgǤ access to feitilizei anu seeusǡ is an activity that iequiies cooiuination beyonu the
faimǤ Dzuiven the maiket failuies that leau to socially suboptimal use of seeu anu feitilizeiǡ
goveinments fiequently step in to uistiibute them uiiectlyǤ uoveinmentǦleu uistiibution
piogiammes have often incieaseu input useǡ but the fiscal anu auministiative costs aie usually high
anu the peifoimance eiiaticdz ȋWoilu Bankǡ ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ Yetǡ cutbacks have often simply iesulteu in
leaving smallholueis without ieliable access to seeu anu feitilizeiǤ Piouucei oiganizations may offei
a piomising avenue to impioving input supplies to smallholueisǤ 0ne example is Boutiques
d’Intrants in Nigei consisting of a netwoik of moie than ͵ͲͲ input uistiibution shops which aie
manageu by faimei oiganizationsǤ Impioving the capacity of smallholueis to impiove theii
maiketeu ietuins via the establishment of maiketing platfoimsǡ such as the Platafoimas pioject in
Ecuauoi foi small potato piouuceisǡ was founu to leau to a significant inciease in householu
incomes anu welfaie foi piouuceis who paiticipateu in the maiketing gioup ȋCavatassi etalǤǡ ʹͲͲͻȌǤ
Nany of the biophysical impiovements to inciease iesilience in smallholuei agiicultuial
piouuction systems iuentifieu above iequiie action anu cooiuination amongst many stakeholueis in
the iuial lanuscapeǤ Restoiation of uegiaueu aieas to impiove soil qualityǡ impioveu management
of communal watei iesouicesǡ anu infoimal seeu systems to facilitate the exchange of plant genetic
iesouices aie all examples of collective iesouice management activities that aie likely to become
moie impoitant unuei climate changeǤ In many casesǡ local institutions exist to govein collective
action anu access to collective natuial iesouicesǡ but they aie often coming unuei incieaseu
piessuie uue to population giowthǡ conflictsǡ changes in maiket patteins anu state inteivention
ȋNcCaithy anu Swallowǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ NiamiiǦFulleiǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ Baikes anu Folkeǡ ͳͻͻͺȌǤ
Effective systems of use anu access iights anuǡ in geneialǡ piopeity iights aie essential to
impiove management of natuial iesouices incluuing lanuǡ watei anu genetic iesouicesǤ In many
cases these iights aie pooily specifieuǡ oveilapping oi not foimalizeuǤ Impioving them is a piioiity
foi pioviuing faimeis Ȃ especially women Ȃ with the incentives neeueu to make long teim
investments in tiansfoimationsǤ Boweveiǡ foimalizing iights uoes not necessaiily impiove secuiity
of oveiall iesouice access since ambiguous iights often seive as an insuiance mechanismǡ especially
impoitant wheie othei safety nets aie not available Ȃ anu likely to become even moie impoitant as
weathei becomes moie vaiiableǤ In some casesǡ bettei secuiity of iights to iesouice use coulu be
achieveu thiough a system foi iuentifyingǡ cooiuinating anu iecognizing infoimal iightsǡ
stiengthening customaiy tenuie systemsǤ Boweveiǡ in othei casesǡ when the piessuie of
commeicial agiicultuie on iesouices is paiticulaily highǡ customaiy systems may come unuei
stiessǡ thus iequiiing the auoption of moie foimalizeu appioachesǤ
Most farmers in developing countries access their seeds from what is known as the “informal seed system”.
Essentially this includes all non-certified seed sources, which is primarily farmers’ own saved seed, but also includes
seed obtained through exchanges through social networks or in rural markets. Advantages of the informal seed
system are low costs and ease of access. In traditional systems of seed exchange, trust and reciprocity are essential
to the functioning of the system and they serve to ensure quality standards. In general these networks are confined to
a very local level, with little interchange with outside sources. Recent research work by FAO indicates that for many
crops, local agricultural markets are becoming an increasingly important source of seeds in the informal sector, and
these include exchanges of seeds sourced both locally and from external sources. However often there is a lack of
information on the quality and genetic content of varieties, support is therefore required in generating this information
to assist farmers in selecting the appropriate seeds, including those that may have attributes important for climate
change. This may include organizing local seed and genetic diversity fairs, alternative labeling systems such as
quality declared seed or farmer-based labeling schemes, and certification and training of traders.
Source: Lipper et al. 2009.
2.6 Institutionstosupportfinancingandinsuranceneeds
ʹǤ͸Ǥͳ Cieuit
Climate change cieates new financing iequiiements both in teims of amounts anu financial flows
associateu with neeueu investmentsǡ which will iequiie innovative institutional solutionsǤ In
synthesizing potential syneigies between auaptation anu mitigation in smallholuei agiicultuial
tiansitionsǡ FA0 ʹͲͲͻ founu that foi seveial options anu locationsǡ syneigies woulu be geneiateu in
the long teimǡ but in the shoit iun ȋwhich coulu last up to ten yeaisȌ tiaueoffs in the foim of income
losses oi incieaseu income vaiiability weie expeiienceuǤ
Ciop anu giasslanu iestoiation piojectsǡ foi instanceǡ often take lanu out of piouuction foi a
significant peiiou of timeǡ ieuucing cultivateu oi giazing lanu available in the shoit iunǡ but leauing
to oveiall incieases in piouuctivity anu stability in the long iunǤ A uiffeient type of tiaueǦoff may
occui with incoipoiating ciop iesiuues that aie expecteu to inciease soil feitility anu watei
ietention capacityǡ theieby incieasing yielus at least ovei the meuiumǦlong teimǤ Boweveiǡ wheie
livestock aie an impoitant component of the foou piouuction systemǡ theie is a potential tiaueǦoff
between iesiuues useu foi the foou ciop system veisus its use as livestock feeuǤ Solutions to
suppoit these long teim tiansitions aie neeueuǡ anu financing is cleaily one key aspectǤ Two
impoitant issues emeigeǣ exploiing the possibility of nonǦtiauitional souices of finance to suppoit
the neeueu tiansitions anu potential links to insuiance instiumentsǤ
ʹǤ͸Ǥʹ Insuiance
vaiious foims of insuiance mechanisms alieauy exist in many iuial communities in ueveloping
countiies ȋFafchampsǡ ʹͲͲʹȌǤ Boweveiǡ these mechanisms can involve high oppoitunity costs in the
foim of foiegone uevelopment ȋBansen etalǤ ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ Selection of less iiskyǡ but less piofitable ciop
vaiietiesǡ unueiǦuse of feitilizeisǡ engaging less householu laboi in faiming enteipiises anu shifting
fiom piouuctive to liquiu assets as piecautionaiy savings aie all examples of insuiance mechanisms
that may constiain uevelopment ȋBansen etalǤ anu iefeiences theieinȌǤ The incieasing inciuence of
Dzgeneializeudz weathei shocks ȋshocks that affect allȀmost membeis of a communityȌ aie even
fuithei ieuucing efficacy of local insuiance aiiangementsǤ Inuex insuiance piogiammes aie one
potential iesponse to the insuiance gap in ueveloping countiy agiicultuieǤ Inuex insuiance insuies
against an objectivelyǦmeasuieu inuex Ȃ such as a iainfall ueficitǤ The key is the uegiee to which the
inuicatoi is coiielateu with losses anu this iequiies caieful attention ȋBaiiett etalǤ ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ Basis iisk
aiises wheie coiielations aie not well calibiateu anu in heteiogenous iegions with pooi uata anu
vaiieu climatesǡ inuex insuiance may not be viableǤ Contiact uesign anu tiansactions costs aie
impoitant issues in piogiamme effectiveness anu have implications foi uesign of appiopiiate
institutional settingsǤ InuexǦinsuiance piogiammes can be manageu thiough social safety net
piogiammes oi commeicial financial institutionsǡ but in eithei case capacity builuing is iequiieuǤ
Impioveu use of climate ielateu infoimation is also impoitant in incieasing effectiveness of such
piogiammes ȋBansen etal. ʹͲͲͺǢ Baiiett etal. ʹͲͲͻȌǤ Inuex baseu insuiance ieuuces the pioblems
of moial hazaiu anu auveise selectionǡ anu geneiates gieatei willingness of lenueis to extenu cieuit
to faimeisǤ
ʹǤ͸Ǥ͵ Social Safety Nets
Safety nets aie a foim of social insuiance compiising piogiammes suppoiteu by the public sectoi oi
Nu0s that pioviue tiansfeis to pievent the pooi fiom falling below a ceitain poveity levelǤ These
piogiammes incluue cash tiansfeisǡ foou uistiibutionǡ seeus anu tools uistiibutionsǡ conuitional
cash tiansfeis ȋBeveieauxǡ ʹͲͲʹȌǤ Seveial new initiatives foi safety net piogiammes have iecently
emeigeuǡ incluuing Ethiopiaǯs Piouuctive Safety Net Piogiamme ȋsee box ʹ͵Ȍ anu the Kenya Bungei
Safety Net PiogiammeǤ Theie has been a continuing uebate about the iole of such piogiammes visǦ
àǦvis uevelopment activitiesǤ Boweveiǡ iecent eviuence inuicates tiaueoffs between piotection anu
uevelopment aie not pionounceu ȋRavallionǡ ʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ Insteauǡ safety net piogiammes can actually be
a foim of social investment into human capital ȋeǤgǤ nutiitionǡ euucationȌ anu piouuctive capital ȋeǤgǤ
allowing householus to auopt highei iisk anu highei piouuctivity stiategiesǢ S0FIǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ Safety
nets aie incieasingly being linkeu to iights baseu appioaches to foou secuiity moving fiom a chaiity
to entitlementsǤ Safety nets aie likely to become incieasingly impoitant in the context of climate
change as incieaseu inciuence of wiuely covaiiate iisks will iequiie the coveiage anu financing that
these souices may pioviue ȋWoilu Bankǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ
ʹǤ͸ǤͶ Payments foi enviionmental seivices
Payments foi enviionmental seivices aie one potential souice of alteinative financing foi
agiicultuial tiansitions ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲ͹aȌǤ As uiscusseu in moie uetail belowǡ mitigation of climate
change is an enviionmental seivice that smallholueis can pioviue anu is often syneigistic with
impiovements to agiicultuial piouuctivity anu stabilityǤ Examples aie also given in Boxes ȋͳͳȌ on
the Nhambita pioject in Nozambique anu Box ȋʹͷȌ on the Thiee Riveis Sustainable uiazing Pioject
in ChinaǤ Emeiging caibon maikets anu payments foi emissions iemovals oi ieuuctions have
attiacteu much inteiest anu anticipation of such financing as a souice of income foi some
agiicultuial activities anu piouuceisǤ Boweveiǡ high tiansactions costsǡ as well as low potential
mitigation benefits in many smallholuei systems seiiously limit the potential of caibon maiket
offsets to smallholueisǤ Public financing foi mitigation at a subǦsectoial oi iegional level is moie
likely to have an impact on smallholuei agiicultuie in the neai futuie ȋFA0 ʹͲͲͻǢ Lippei etǤ alǤ
ʹͲͲͻǢ Cacho anu Lippei ʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ
PES expeiiences suggest that the following aie usefulǣ ȋiȌ foimal anu infoimal institutional
aiiangements that can facilitate aggiegation amongst a laige numbei of smallholueis ȋeǤgǤ gioup
cieuit schemesǡ existing communityǦbaseu natuial iesouice management piogiammesǡ faimei fielu
schools anu othei faimeisǯ oiganizations anu womenǯs gioupsȌǡ ȋiiȌ policies in the agiicultuieǡ
financial anu enviionmental sectois that encouiage the flow of public anu piivate financing to
faimeisǡ ȋiiiȌ capacity builuingǡ incluuing on accessing financing mechanisms anu ȋivȌ an agieeu
system foi payments to faimeisǤ
The Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) targets people facing predictable food insecurity and offers
guaranteed employment for five days a month in return for transfers of either food or cash - US$4 per month for
each household member. The purpose of the programme is to build resilience to shocks amongst vulnerable
households. The programme differs from other food-for-work programmes in that the transfer is predictable and
regular. This facilitates in building assets at the household level as well as local economic development. The PSNP
is funded by donors under a multiyear arrangement, unlike food aid which is based on emergency appeals. The
programme started with five million people in 2005 and intends to cover eight million by 2009. Community assets
such as schools, health posts, feeder road and small scale irrigation and natural resource conservation have been
built under the programme. It has been found that households involved in the scheme were now consuming more or
better food. Three in five beneficiaries said they had avoided selling assets to buy food, while around a quarter had
acquired new assets; almost all attributed this directly to the PSNP. The programme intends to “graduate”
participants after they build sufficient resilience to cope with shocks without the threat of falling back into food
Source: IRIN news www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=7570


The Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project was funded by GEF and
involved CATIE, FAO and other partners. The objective was to assess silvopastoral (forest grazing) systems to
rehabilitate degraded pastures to protect soils, store carbon, and foster biodiversity. Other objectives was to develop
incentives and mechanisms for payment for ecosystem services (PES) that would result in benefits for farmers and
communities and distil lessons for policy making on land use, environmental services and socio-economic
development. From 2003 to 2006, cattle farmers, from Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua, participating in the
project received between US$2 000 and US$2 400 per farm, representing 10 to 15 percent of net income to
implement the programme silvopastoral systems. This resulted 60 percent reduction in degraded pastures in the
three countries, and the area of silvopastoral land use (e.g. improved pastures with high density trees, fodder banks
and live fences) increased significantly. The environmental benefits associated with the project include a 71 percent
increase in carbon sequestered (from 27.7 million tonnes of CO
-eq in 2003 to 47.6 million tonnes in 2006),
increases in bird, bat and butterfly species and a moderate increase in forested area. Milk production and farm
income also increased, by more than 10 to 115 percent respectively. Herbicide use dropped by 60 percent, and the
practice of using fire to manage pasture is now less frequent. Other demonstrated environmental benefits of
Silvopastoral systems included the improvement of water infiltration; soil retention; soil productivity; land
rehabilitation, and the reduction of fossil fuel dependence (e.g. substitution of inorganic fertilizer with nitrogen fixing
plants). The project has successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of introducing payment incentives to farmers
and in increasing the awareness of the potential of integrated ecosystem management for providing critical
environmental services including the restoration of degraded pasture.

5) Institutional and financial support will be required to enable smallholders to make the
transition to climate-smart agriculture.
6) Strengthened institutional capacity will be needed to improve dissemination of climate-smart
information and coordinate over large areas and numbers of farmers.
7) Greater consistency between agriculture, food security and climate change policy-making
must be achieved at national and international levels.

3.1 Whyfinancingisneeded
Sustainable tiansfoimation of the agiicultuie sectoiǡ necessitating combineu action on foou
secuiityǡ uevelopment anu climate changeǡ will not be costless anu will iequiie laigeǦscale
investments to meet the piojecteu costsǤ 0nceitainties about potential lossesǡ catastiophic iisks anu
incieaseu costs of inaction associateu with climate change inuicate that immeuiate anu moie
aggiessive tiansfoimative action is neeueuǤ Financing is thus uigentǤ
Yetǡ iesouices foi agiicultuieǡ both fiom 0BA anu climate change financingǡ have not been
foithcoming in the amounts neeueu ovei the last uecaues anu financing gaps aie piojecteu foi the
futuieǤ The shaie of agiicultuie in official uevelopment assistanceǡ which ueclineu fiom ͳͻ peicent
in ͳͻͺͲ to ͵ peicent in ʹͲͲ͸ǡ is now aiounu ͸ peicent ȋFA0 ʹͲͲͻuȌǤ This has leu ovei the last few
uecaues to agiicultuie suffeiing uiastic ueclines in uevelopment investment anu assistanceǤ FA0
has calleu upon the inteinational community to iesolutely ieveise this longǦteim negative tienuǤ
Neeting the financing challenge will iequiie innovationǡ coopeiative action anu political will
to auuiess uigently anu auequately cuiient anu piojecteu shoitfalls foi auaptation anu mitigation
geneiallyǡ incluuing thiough the use of multiple funuing souicesǡ new anu existing mechanismsǡ anu
bettei ways of connecting action to financing.These issues aie biiefly examineu belowǤ
3.2 Financinggaps
The annual costs of auaptation in the agiicultuie sectoi in ueveloping countiies have been iecently
estimateu by the Woilu Bank to be 0S̈́ʹǤͷǦʹǤ͸ billion a yeai between ʹͲͳͲ anu ʹͲͷͲ ȋWoilu Bankǡ
ʹͲͳͲȌǤ Annual inciemental investments anu financial flows neeueu foi auaptation of agiicultuie in
ueveloping countiies have been estimateu at 0S̈́͹ billion a yeai in ʹͲ͵Ͳ ȋ0NFCCCǡ ʹͲͲ͹ anu IIEBǡ
ʹͲͲͻȌǤ In the lattei stuuy it was acknowleugeu that this estimate was Dzon the low siue of auaptation
costs of the sectoidzǤ It fuithei inuicateu that that the cost of achieving the ielevant Nillennium
Bevelopment uoal was estimateu at 0S̈́ͶͲȂ͸Ͳ billion pei yeai anu that without this nonǦclimate
investmentǡ the estimateu levels of investment neeueu foi auaptation within the agiicultuie sectoi
woulu be insufficient to avoiu seiious uamageǤ
The 0NFCCC ȋʹͲͲ͹Ȍ estimateu that auuitional investment anu financial flows neeueu in
ueveloping countiies foi mitigation fiom the agiicultuie sectoi woulu be about 0S̈́ͳʹǤʹͷǦͳͶ billion
a yeai in ʹͲ͵ͲǤ Yetǡ the costs of soil caibon sequestiation uo not seem to be incluueuǤ NcKinsey anu
Company ȋʹͲͲͻȌ stateu that Dzin foiestiy anu agiicultuieǡ both costs anu investments aie ielatively
lowdzǤ Boweveiǡ calculations in this uocument excluueu tiansaction anu piogiamme costs anu leveis
aie assumeu not to iequiie any substantial capital investmentǤ Costs foi measuiement anu
monitoiingǡ capacity anu infiastiuctuie builuing anu caibonǦcieuitǦmonetization aie estimateu to
be ͵Ǥͺ billion euios foi the agiicultuie sectoi in ʹͲ͵Ͳ anu total expenuituies foi abatement leveis
ovei ʹͲͳͲǦʹͲ͵Ͳ is estimateu to be ͳ͵ billion euiosǤ Tiansaction costsǡ without aggiegation
mechanismsǡ coulu be high foi the multituue of smallholueis involveu anu incentive piogiammes to
ensuie auoption of abatement technologies may also be iequiieuǤ Costs of auoption anu
implementation vaiy by locality anu can be significant in teims of both investment anu oppoitunity
costs ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲͻaȌǤ
The Copenhagen Accoiu committeu uevelopeu countiies to pioviue 0S̈́͵Ͳ billion in fastǦ
stait financing fiom ʹͲͳͲ to ʹͲͳʹ ȋuiviueu equally between auaptation anu mitigationȌ anu set a
goal to mobilize 0S̈́ͳͲͲ billion by ʹͲʹͲ in the context of mitigationǤ Pleugeu iesouices foi fastǦ
tiack financing aie estimateu to be between 0S̈́ʹ͹Ǥͻ anu 0S̈́ʹͻ billion as of August ʹͲͳͲǡ howevei
past peifoimance on climate financing shows laige gaps among iesouices pleugeuǡ uepositeu anu
uisbuiseu ȋ0BIǦBeniich Boell Founuation website on climate financing anu WRIǡ Summaiy of
Bevelopeu Countiy DzFast Staitdz Climate Pleugesǡ last upuateu ͳʹ August ʹͲͳͲȌǤ
Compaiing oveiall estimateu costs foi auaptation anu mitigation in ʹͲ͵Ͳ anu available iesouices
ovei the shoit teim shows a sizeable financing gapǤ Resouices foi mitigation in ueveloping countiies fiom
majoi multilateial ȋCBNǡ Woilu Bankǡ uEFȌ anu bilateial funus aie estimateu to be aiounu 0S̈́ͺ billion a
yeai to ʹͲͳʹǤ If Copenhagen Accoiu commitments aie metǡ this figuie coulu ieach 0S̈́ͳͷ billion a yeai
between ʹͲͳͲ anu ʹͲͳʹ anu 0S̈́ͳͲͲ billion in ʹͲʹͲǤ This is against estimateu mitigation costs of 0S̈́ͳͶͲǦ
ͳ͹ͷ billion a yeai by ʹͲ͵Ͳǡ with associateu financing iequiiements of 0S̈́ʹ͸ͷǦͷ͸ͷ billionǤ Against
estimateu funuing iequiiements aveiaging 0S̈́͵ͲǦͳͲͲ billion a yeaiǡ between ʹͲͳͲ anu ʹͲͷͲǡ available
iesouices foi auaptation aie estimateu to be 0S̈́ʹǤʹǦʹǤͷ billion fiom ʹͲͳͲ to ʹͲͳʹǡ excluuing piivate
financeǡ which coulu ieach 0S̈́ͳͷ billionǡ if Copenhagen Accoiu commitments aie fulfilleu ȋWoilu Bankǡ
WBRǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ A veiy inuicative summaiy of financing gapsǡ baseu on appioximate figuies anu uiawn fiom
vaiious souicesǡ is pioviueu in the giaph belowǤ

Figure 2: Investment needs vs available resources (in blue) in developing countries: A funding gap

While the shaie of cuiient climate change flows to agiicultuial mitigation anu auaptation
aie not yet known at this timeǡ it is uoubtful that they woulu meet the sectoiǯs oveiall investment
iequiiementsǡ given the exclusion of agiicultuie fiom the main climate change financing
mechanisms ȋsee belowȌǤ
0veiallǡ the vast majoiity of the investment in agiicultuie comes fiom piivate uomestic
souicesǡ incluuing fiom faimeis themselves anu funus they boiiowǤ Remittances fiom abioau also
constitute an impoitant financial flow in many ueveloping countiiesǤ Public spenuing on agiicultuie
in ueveloping countiies has been lowǣ in agiicultuieǦbaseu economies Ͷ peicent of agiicultuial uBPǡ
while the sectoi geneiates ʹͻ peicent of uBP anu employs ͸ͷ peicent of the laboui foice ȋWoilu
Bankǡ WBRǡ ʹͲͲͺȌǤ The iemaining public investment comes fiom 0BAǤ uoveinments of lowǦincome
foouǦueficit countiies coulu consiuei incieasing the shaie of agiicultuie in theii national buugets
fiom theii cuiient levels to at least ͳͲ peicentǤ
Total 0BA commitments in ʹͲͲͺ fiom BAC uonois was 0S̈́ͳͷͺ billionǡ with 0S̈́Ͷ billion
ȋonly about ͵ peicentȌ committeu to the agiicultuie sectoi ȋ0ECBǡ online Inteinational
Bevelopment StatisticsȌǤ Following the foou piice ciisis in ʹͲͲͺǡ two new instiuments have
emeigeuǣ the ulobal Agiicultuie anu Foou Secuiity Piogiamme ȋuAFSPȌ anu the ulobal Foou Ciisis
Response Piogiamme ȋuFRPȌǤ These piogiammes will be suppoiteu fiom the 0S̈́ʹͲ billion in
funusǡ which the LǯAquila uǦͺ Summit in ʹͲͲͻ agieeu to mobilize ovei thiee yeais foi foou secuiityǤ
In its woik on DzBow to Feeu the woilu in ʹͲͷͲdz FA0 estimateu that cumulative gioss
investment iequiiements foi agiicultuie in ueveloping countiies auu up to neaily 0S̈́ͻǤʹ tiillion
until ʹͲͷͲ oi neaily 0S̈́ʹͳͲ billion annually ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲͻaȌǤ These estimates weie foi investments in
piimaiy agiicultuie anu uownstieam seivicesǡ most of which will come fiom piivate souicesǤ
Essential public investments eǤgǤ ioausǡ iiiigationǡ communication anu euucation weie not incluueuǤ
Available iesouices to suppoit the necessaiy tiansfoimation of agiicultuial systems to ensuie foou
secuiity anu uevelopment in ueveloping countiies aie thus cuiiently insufficient anu funuing fiom
the piivate sectoi incluuing that in ueveloping countiiesǡ will continue to be impoitantǤ
While agiicultuie anu foou secuiity aie moie iecently attiacting gieatei funuing ȋthan ovei
the last uecauesȌǡ they aie not wiuely consiueieu to be key Dzciunchdz issues within the climate
change negotiations anu within climate financing mechanisms ȋsee belowȌǤ The extent to which
agiicultuie coulu attiact climate finance in futuie will uepenu on bettei iecognition of its significant
mitigation potentialǡ its iole as a uiivei of uefoiestationǡ the impoitance of its auaptation to climate
change foi foou secuiity anu uevelopment anu the feasibility anu costs of implementing action anu
measuiing iesultsǤ Noie iobust analyses of costsǡ investment neeusǡ financial flows anu NRv
methouologies foi measuiing action anu suppoit aie neeueu foi the agiicultuie sectoiǤ
3.3 Sourcesoffinancing
It is appaient fiom the financing gaps mentioneu aboveǡ that businessǦasǦusual will not be an option
foi financingǤ Foi agiicultuie to contiibute in line with its potential to auuiess the uual challenges of
foou secuiity anu climate changeǡ both highei levels of financing anu moie innovative appioaches
will be iequiieuǤ It is also eviuent that public iesouices alone will not suffice anu how such
iesouices coulu be useu to leveiage oi be combineu with othei souices of funuing is likely to shape
futuie financing foi the sectoiǤ
͵Ǥ͵Ǥͳ Blenuing uiffeient souices of financing
Financing to suppoit the iesponse of ueveloping countiies to climate change coulu be uiawn fiom
publicǡ piivate anu innovative souices of financingǤ Public financeǡ foi example in REBB pilotsǡ has
often acteu as a catalyst foi action oi to funu activities oi aieas neglecteu by the piivate sectoiǤ
Expanuing anu uiveisifying the souices useu coulu pioviue gieatei flexibility anu the oppoitunity to
tap auuitional souices of funuingǤ Pioposals maue foi innovative souices of financing incluue a
peicentage of uNP fiom uevelopeu countiiesǡ levies on inteinational tianspoit emissions oi
financial tiansactionsǡ caibon taxesǡ issuing bonus to iaise significant iesouicesǡ auctioning of
allowances ȋAA0sȌ within capǦanuǦtiaue schemes anu an eventual global caibon maiketǤ
The use of publicǦpiivate paitneiships is also being exploieuǤ FA0 has facilitateu a publicǦ
piivate paitneiship that seeks to geneiate piouuctivity incieases anu iemoval of gieenhouse gases
thiough the iestoiation of iangelanus in the Tibetan Bighlanus of ChinaǤ Caibon finance is useu to
compensate the tempoiaiy loss of income fiom taking lanu out of piouuction oi ieuuction in heiu
size ȋsee box ʹͷ on ͵ Riveis Pioject belowȌǤ
0BA foi agiicultuie is not intenueu foi financing agiicultuial auaptation oi mitigationǤ It
coulu be useuǡ howeveiǡ to pioviue buuget oi sectoial financing suppoit foi capacity builuingǡ
access to infoimationȀtechnologies oi to covei upfiont expenuituies necessaiy foi making changes
in agiicultuial piouuction systems that suppoit both foou secuiity anu climate change objectivesǤ
Noie syneigistic use of 0BA anu multiple climate change financing stieams coulu help to biing
togethei effoits to tiansfoim agiicultuial systems to meet foou secuiity anu agiicultuial
uevelopment goalsǡ with those aimeu at making these systems moie iesilient anu emissionǦ
ieuucingȀiemoving ovei the longǦteimǤ
National policies to encouiage appiopiiate piivate anu uomestic goveinment investment
coulu help in achieving syneigies acioss uiffeient financing souices anu in spieauing iisk acioss
piivate anu public investoisǤ Combining financing stieamsǡ foi example longǦteim inteinational
0BA anu caibon finance may benefit funuing of agiicultuial piogiammes aiming to achieve multiple
objectivesǡ incluuing changes in behavioi anu investment uecisionsǤ This may meiit consiueiation in
the context of agiicultuial planning anu policy foimulationǡ while potential aieas of
oveilapȀauuitionality anu gieatei costǦeffectiveness woulu iequiie iuentification anu quantificationǤ
The 3 Rivers Project, situated in the Qinghai province of China (North) is a pilot project using carbon financing to
facilitate grassland restoration and increase livestock productivity. Carbon finance, from a voluntary scheme, will be
used to compensate costs and foregone income during the transition period and to increase productivity. Under the
proposed pilot, herders will be offered a menu of options designed to fit their specific land use, which includes a
combination of grassland restoration zoning and stocking rate management, in an incentive-based system. Given
the current overstocking rates (about 45 percent), considerable reductions in income are expected during the first
years of the project, for which herders will receive compensation. In the following years, as incomes are expected to
grow in response to increased livestock productivity (and possible other small business support measures),
compensation will decrease progressively until year 10.
Overall, in the first 10 years of the project, households will have fewer but more productive livestock. From 10-20
years, they can increase herds beyond the level of the first ten years, without the risk of overgrazing. Increased
availability of forage will enable higher incomes and higher levels of production over the long-term, providing an
incentive for long-term sustainable management. In addition, the project will develop a number of activities aiming at
improving the profitability of livestock rearing, in order to improve herders’ livelihoods. This will include the
improvement of animal production (e.g. feeding, winter housing and breeding) as well as the development of
processing activities and marketing associations.
This model hopes to break the vicious cycle of overstocking-degradation, building in, and demonstrating, sustainable
management options during the project’s lifetime, while generating a reduction of approximately 500,000tCO
e, over
a period of ten years. It also aims to address some of the key barriers to smallholder access to carbon finance,
which include the lack of appropriate methodologies for crediting, as well as methodologies for cost effective
monitoring, reporting and verification.

͵Ǥ͵Ǥʹ Leveiaging
Accoiuing to IPCC ȋʹͲͲ͹a anu ʹͲͲ͹bȌǡ a maximum of 0S̈́͵Ͳ billion coulu be obtaineu annually
thiough agiicultuial mitigation fiom the estimateu total annual value of the foui majoi mitigation
categoiies ȋciopsǡ giazing lanu impiovementsǡ oiganic soil anu uegiaueu lanu iestoiationȌ in nonǦ
0ECB countiies ȋͳǤͷ utȀC0
ǡ valueu at 0S̈́ʹͲȀt C0
eȌǤ This figuie is not insignificantǡ but is
only appioximately ͳͷ peicent of the oveiall agiicultuial investment iequiieu foi foou secuiity
ȋ0S̈́ʹͳͲ billion a yeai to ʹͲͷͲȌǤ Boweveiǡ assuming that agiicultuial investment can leveiage five
times its value in caibon ievenues ȋWoilu Bankǡ ʹͲͲͻȌǡ caibon finance may pioviue incentives to
leveiage 0S̈́ͳͷͲ billion woith of climateǦsmait agiicultuial investments in ueveloping countiiesǤ
Nitigation finance coulu thus pioviue significant incentives to leveiage agiicultuial investments
that geneiate piouuctivity incieasesǡ ieuuctionȀiemoval of gieenhouse gases anu incieaseu climate
Consiueiing the size of the oveiall agiicultuial investments iequiieuǡ veisus the potential
income fiom caibon maiketsǡ it is peihaps of gieatei impoitance to shift agiicultuial investments
towaius climateǦsmait agiicultuial uevelopment that pioviues multiple benefits in auuiessing foou
secuiity anu climate change challengesǤ Bigh tiansaction costsǡ as well as the neeu foi high levels of
cooiuination anu managementǡ gieatly limit the potential of agiicultuial mitigation financing fiom
caibon offset maiketsǤ This inuicates that public financing foi mitigation will be iequiieu anu coulu
be channeleu thiough existing financing mechanisms oi thiough a climate change funu cuiiently
unuei uiscussion within the 0NFCCC negotiationsǤ
0sing mitigation finance to suppoit tiansfoimation of smallholuei agiicultuial systems
may iequiie going beyonu caibonǦoffset financing fiom uevelopeu countiies to the establishment
of mitigation financing foi ueveloping countiy agiicultuial activities that geneiate coǦbenefitsǡ
eǤgǤ the uevelopment of climateǦsmait sustainable agiicultuial piouuction systemsǤ In this senseǡ
mitigation finance coulu facilitate auoption of uesiieu tiansitions that have been impeueu by lack
of financial iesouicesǤ In this context mitigation finance can be a piecious iesouiceǡ especially
when useu as an incentive to captuie syneigiesǤ
3.4 Financingmechanisms
͵ǤͶǤͳ Weaknesses of existing mechanisms
While a numbei of existing financing mechanisms have been instiumental in mobilizing iesouices
foi climate change mitigation anu auaptationǡ FA0 has unueilineu that the main mechanisms have
geneially not enableu agiicultuie ȋoi foiestiyȌ to contiibute fully to auaptation anu mitigation
effoitsǡ in accoiuance with its potential ȋFA0ǡ ʹͲͲͻbȌǤ
The Clean Development Fund (CDM) laigely excluues agiicultuieǡ as soil caibon
sequestiation ȋiepiesenting ͺͻ peicent of agiicultuieǯs mitigation potentialȌ is not eligibleǤ The
Euiopean 0nion Emissions Tiauing Scheme ȋE0ǦETSȌ also excluues agiicultuieǤ This contiasts with
voluntaiy caibon maikets anu the Woilu Bankǯs BioCarbon Fund which incluue soil caibon
sequestiationǤ Although ͶǤͶͻ peicent of all iegisteieu CBN piojects aie uesignateu as ielating to
agiicultuie ȋ0NFCCC ʹͲͳͲǡ CBN websiteȌǡ these mainly auuiess eneigy ȋbioeneigyȌ thiough the use
of agiicultuial iesiuuesǡ biofuels fiom ciops anu manuie managementǤ ȋRIS0E uatabase of CBN
piojectsǡ upuateu ͳ August ʹͲͳͲȌǤ
CBNǯs piojectǦbaseu anu offset appioaches may be inauequate to geneiate the bieauth anu
scale of incentives iequiieu foi agiicultuial mitigationǤ CBN incentives appeai too weak to
stimulate tiansfoimation in the economy anu have not enableu ueveloping countiies to move
towaius lowǦemission uevelopment pathways that uo not thieaten economic giowthǤ CBN piojects
also tenu to have high tiansaction costs foi many ueveloping countiiesǡ long appioval peiious anu a
naiiow geogiaphic spieauǤ Effoits to coiiect these weaknesses aie unuei uiscussion anu
implementationǤ New appioachesǡ such as piogiammatic CBNǡ sectoial CBNǡ sustainable
uevelopment policies anu measuiesǡ may enable scaling up of funuing but vaiy in the uegiee to
which they ȋiȌ can pioviue incentives foi mitigation on a laigeǦscaleǡ ȋiiȌ aie linkeu to sustainable
uevelopment anu ȋiiiȌ in teims of theii tiansaction costsǤ
The Adaptation Fund has iecently become opeiational anu ten piojects have been
submitteuǡ two of which ielateu to agiicultuieǣ ȋiȌ WFP submitteu a pioject pioposalǡ entitleu An
Integiateu Appioach to Builuing Climate Resilience in 0ganuaǯs Fiagile Ecosystems to assist
vulneiable populations in auapting to the impacts of climatic changes in two fiagile ecosystems
chaiacteiizeu by ielatively high agiicultuial piouuctivity anu ȋiiȌ 0NEP submitteu one on
vulneiability of the iice subǦsectoi to climate vaiiability anu piojecteu climate changeǤ
Agiicultuie anu foou secuiity meiit only a footnote ȋalong with othei sectoisȌ in the uiaft
AWuǦLCA negotiating text on auaptation ȋ0NFCCCǡ ʹͲͳͲȌ The lattei contiasts with the laige
numbei of National Auaptation Plans of Action ȋNAPAsȌ of Least Bevelopeu Countiies ȋLBCsȌ
focusing on agiicultuie that have iemaineu laigely unfunueuǤ
Beveloping countiiesǡ especially Least Bevelopeu Countiiesǡ have complaineu that accessing
iesouices fiom the Global Environment Facility ȋuEFȌ has been complicateu anu pioject appioval
takes a long timeǤ They have inuicateu that this has inhibiteu implementation of NAPAs anu
piepaiation of national communicationsǤ They have also uiawn attention to unueiǦfunuing of the
Special Climate Change Funu anu the LeastǦuevelopeu Countiies Funuǡ which aie funueu on a
voluntaiy basisǤ
͵ǤͶǤʹ New mechanisms
As climate change has moveu up the policy agenuaǡ finance mechanisms taigeting climate change
have multiplieuǤ Cuiiently about ʹͲ uiffeient climate changeǦielateu finance initiatives existǤ In
ʹͲͲ͹ aloneǡ ͳͶ new initiatives weie launcheu ȋWoilu Bankǡ WBRǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ This piolifeiation of new
financing mechanisms has iaiseu conceins about fiagmentationǡ with high tiansaction costs ȋeach
initiative has its own goveinance stiuctuies anu iegulationsȌǡ which in tuin can ieuuce capacity to
avoiu uuplication anu inefficient allocation of iesouicesǤ
Stiengthening national owneishipǡ tianspaiency anu accountability will be impoitant foi
inteinational mechanisms as well foi national mechanisms ieceiving iesouicesǡ incluuing thiough
uiiect access. Foi agiicultuieǡ cooiuination acioss uiffeient financing mechanisms is neeueu in
oiuei to ieach the scale iequiieu to meet agiicultuial piouuction anu climate change challenges anu
to ensuie an auequate link between national action anu inteinational suppoitǤ
National funus, such as Biazilǯs Amazon Fundǡ the Indonesian Climate Change Trust Fund
ȋICCTFȌ oi the pioposeu national Nexican uieen Funuǡ pioviue oppoitunities foi gieatei national
owneiship anu bettei integiation with national policies anu piogiammesǤ
͵ǤͶǤ͵ Aichitectuie that enables actionǡ incluuing by agiicultuie
Biscussion of financing mechanisms within the climate change negotiations has not tackleu sectoiǦ
specific aspectsǤ Foim cuiiently tenus to pieceue functionǡ as attention is focuseu on aichitectuie
iathei than on what will be financeu anu how finance woulu be linkeu to ueveloping countiy
actionsǤ Theie is a iisk thatǡ uue to theii specificitiesǡ lanuǦbaseu activities may yet again finu that
they uo not fit within the paiameteis of financing mechanisms ȋas was the case with the CBNȌǤ A
sepaiate funuing aiiangement foi REBB has been pioposeu within futuie financing mechanismsǡ
but it is uncleai at this time whethei agiicultuieǡ as a main uiivei of uefoiestationǡ woulu be able to
ieceive funuing fiom this winuowǤ Foi agiicultuie to be pait of the solution to climate changeǡ
financing appioaches anu mechanisms neeu to make suie that agiicultuie is eligible to ieceive
iesouices fiom existing oi futuie climate funuing mechanismsǡ that the specificities of agiicultuie
aie taken into account anu that agiicultuial piouuceis aie iewaiueu foi the geneiation of multiple
seivices benefiting foou secuiityǡ uevelopmentǡ auaptation anu mitigationǤ
Ceitain agiicultuial piactices can contiibute to both auaptation anu mitigationǢ howevei
funuing mechanisms ȋas well as policy fiamewoiksȌ have iemaineu sepaiate anu aie still exploiing
how to iewaiu action that can achieve bothǤ Finuing ways to oveicome what is sometimes a false
uichotomy between auaptation anu mitigation ȋwhich can be the case with agiicultuieǡ especially
wheie soil caibon sequestiation is conceineuȌǡ as well as the integiation of auaptation anu
mitigation finance with agiicultuial uevelopment financing channels anu activitiesǡ will be a
challenge faceu by financing mechanisms in futuieǤ
Bioauei appioaches that look beyonu cuiient silos to foims of financing that coulu suppoit
high piouuctivityȀiesilience anu low emission agiicultuial uevelopment anu uevelopmentȀfoou
secuiityǦiesponsible climate change iesponses will be neeueuǤ Nechanisms must also be flexible
enough to funu options aujusteu to the specific agioǦecologicalǡ institutional anu technological
situations of uiffeient countiiesǡ incluuing theii uiffeient capacitiesǤ They may also be calleu upon to
auuiess the potential foi establishing longǦteim anu ieliable funuing souicesǡ iewaiuing syneigies
anu iesolving potential conflicts oi tiaueǦoffs uue to multiple funu objectivesǤ
3.5 Connectingactiontofinancing

͵ǤͷǤͳNational level
Auequate investment in national climateǦsmait agiicultuial policy foimulationǡ ieseaichǡ anu
extensionǡ incluuing ielateu capacity builuingǡ is impoitant in suppoiting action by faimeisǤ
Ninistiies of Agiicultuieǡ national ieseaich institutes anu extension systems in many cases neeu to
be built back following the uecline in iesouices allocateu to agiicultuie both inteinationally anu
uomesticallyǤ While uomestic iesouices may suffice foi these activities in some countiiesǡ in otheis
exteinal suppoit will be necessaiyǤ
NationallyǦowneu instiuments that can piomote coheience anu cooiuination in piioiity
setting foi climateǦsmait agiicultuie action anu financing may be useful to goveinmentsǤ The
Inuonesian Ninistiy of Agiicultuie has alieauy foimulateu an Agiicultuie Sectoi Climate Change
Roau NapǤ The ioau map is wiitten in the foim of guiuelines Dzforcreatingsynergiesbetweenclimate
change adaptation and mitigation programmes and action plans among subǦsectors.” Bettei
claiification of how financing might be linkeu to nationallyǦowneu action fiamewoiksǡ incluuing
NAPAsȀauaptation fiamewoiks anu NANAȀiegistiiesǡ is still iequiieuǤ
͵ǤͷǤʹ Linking to faimeis
Linking financing to faimeiǦgeneiateu climate change iesponses iequiies a bettei unueistanuing of
mitigation anu auaptation benefits that can be obtaineu fiom uiffeient sustainable agiicultuial
optionsǡ the incentives that may be iequiieu to auopt themǡ anu the costsǤ Incentives may be
monetaiy in the foim of cieuit oi payments but coulu also be inǦkinuǡ incluuing access to lanuǡ
maikets oi seeusǡ feitilizeis anu othei piouuction inputsǤ
Expeiiences with payments foi enviionmental seivice ȋPESȌ anu miciofinance coulu be
uiawn upon in builuing incentive systems foi the auoption of ielevant piactices anu technologies
ȋsee section ʹȌǤ Wheie payments foi mitigation anu auaptation activities aie economically viableǡ
they may pioviue the stimulus foi faimeis to auopt sustainable agiicultuial lanu management
piacticesǤ In some instancesǡ payments of limiteu uuiation coulu pioviue incentives foi soil caibon
sequestiation anu also encouiage tiansition towaius piouuctive anu iesilient piouuction systemsǡ
while fitting with the satuiation of soil caibon poolsǤ Nost soil caibon sequestiation activities aie
expecteu to ieach satuiation at a ceitain point in timeǡ iǤeǤ aftei ʹͲ to ͳͲͲ yeais anu theiefoie uo not
pioviue sustainable income in peipetuityǤ If caibon sequestiation incentives also leau to moie
piouuctive anu sustainable foims of agiicultuieǡ theie will be a lowei iisk of nonǦpeimanence
ȋcompaieu to baseline conuitionsȌǤ
It is impoitantǡ howeveiǡ to unueiline that beyonu consiueiations of histoiical iesponsibility
some foims of mitigation fiom smallholuei agiicultuie will not be cost effective foi inteinational
offset compliance maiketsǡ uue to low ietuinsǡ high tiansactions costs oi high iisksǡ which
constitute investment baiiieisǤ The cuiient low piice foi caibon cieuits anu lack of capacity to
paiticipate in compliance maikets aie othei baiiieis that neeu to be taken into account when
consiueiing mitigation actionǤ These aspects anu uiffeiing national capacities anu ciicumstances
suggest that a stepwise appioach may be useful to builu confiuenceǡ capacity anu expeiience in
linking financing foi both auaptation anu mitigation to smallholueis at giounu levelǤ
͵ǤͷǤ͵ NRv
A key issue associateu with financing foi mitigation is measuiementǡ iepoiting anu veiification
ȋNRvȌ of emission ieuuctions anu iemovalsǡ as well as of inteinational suppoit pioviueuǤ Theie is
cuiiently no consensus on the specific paiameteis of NRv foi inteinational financingǡ but eventual
uecisions in this iegaiu coulu affect the costs anu viability of uiffeient agiicultuial mitigation
activitiesǤ The type anu cost of NRv systems aie likely to vaiy by the financing souice useu anu ovei
time ȋas capacity is builtȌǤ Simplei anu less expensive foims of NRv that aie moie ieauily useable
by faimeis coulu be utilizeu wheie offǦsets aie not involveuǤ Beveloping countiies anu faimeis aie
moie likely to unueitake action to builu NRv capacityǡ wheie theie is confiuence anu uiiect access
to auequate anu pieuictable financing foi capacity builuingǡ anu technology uevelopmentȀtiansfeiǤ
Noie iobust measuiement of soil caibon sequestiation may iequiie combining actual soil
samplesǡ with moueling anuȀoi uefault values foi emissionǦieuucingȀiemoving activitiesǤ NRv of
inteinational suppoit coulu incluue infoimation on allocation by sectoisǡ which woulu help in
having a bettei pictuie of financial flows to the agiicultuie sectoi anu uiffeientiation of 0BA anu
climate financing theieinǤ Finally consiueiably less attention has been given to measuiing iesults
fiom auaptation activitiesǤ This may ieceive gieatei attention in futuieǤ
͵ǤͷǤͶ Pilots
Pilot activitiesǡ tailoieu to countiyǦspecific agiicultuial conuitionsȀcapabilities anu suppoiting
stiategy foimulationǡ technology uevelopmentȀtiansfei anu capacity builuingǡ coulu enable countiy
ieauiness to implement agiicultuial mitigation anu auaptation action in the context of enhanceu
sustainable agiicultuial uevelopment anu foou secuiityǤ Such pilots coulu offei possibilities foi
linking eaily climateǦsmait action with fastǦstait financing in the pieuominantly agiicultuieǦbaseu
economies of many ueveloping countiiesǤ
8) Available financing, current and projected, are substantially insufficient to meet climate
change and food security challenges faced by the agriculture sector.
9) Synergistically combining financing from public and private sources, as well as those
earmarked for climate change and food security are innovative options to meet the investment
requirements of the agricultural sector.
10) To be effective in channelling fast-track financing to agriculture, financing mechanisms will
need to take sector-specific considerations into account.
Abadi,A.,Lefroy,T.,Cooper,D.,Hean,R.&Davies,C.ʹͲͲ͵Ǥ Profitabilityofmediumtolowrainfall
agroforestryinthecroppingzoneǤ Baitonǡ AustialiaǡRuial Inuustiies Reseaich anu Bevelopment
Coipoiation Publication NoǤ ͲʹǤ
Anriquez,G.,andDaidone,S. ʹͲͲͺǤ DzLinkages between Faim anu NonǦFaim Sectois at the Bouseholu
Level in Ruial uhanaǤ A consistent stochastic uistance function appioachdzǡ ESAǦFAOWorking
Paper08Ǧ01ǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
Ward. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ PovertyTrapsandClimateandWeatherRisk:LimitationsandOpportunitiesofIndexǦ
basedRiskFinancingǡ IRI Technical Repoit Ͳ͹ǦͲ͵Ǥ
Bellassen,V., ManlayR.J.ǡ ChéryJ.ǦP.,GitzV.,TouréA.,Bernoux,M.&Chotte,J.ǦL. ʹͲͳͲǤ NultiǦ
ciiteiia spatialization of soil oiganic caibon sequestiation potential fiom agiicultuial
intensification in SenegalǤ ClimaticChangeǡ volume ͻͺǡ Numbeis ͳǦʹǡ Ianuaiy ʹͲͳͲ ǡ ppǤ ʹͳ͵Ǧ
Berkes,F.andFolke,C.C.(eds.)Ǥ ͳͻͻͺǤ LinkingSocialandEcologicalSystems:managementpracticesand
socialmechanismsforbuildingresilienceǡ Cambiiuge 0niveisity Piessǡ CambiiugeǤ
Bisiaux,F.,Peltier,R.andMuliele,J.ǦC. ʹͲͲͻǤ Plantations inuustiielles et agiofoiesteiie au seivice ues
populations ues plateaux Batékéǡ Nampuǡ en République uémociatique uu CongoǤ Bois et foiêts
ues tiopiques ͵Ͳͳȋ͵ȌǣʹͳǦ͵ʹǤ
Bouman,B.A.M.,Lampayan,R.M.andTuong,T.P. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ Watei management in iiiigateu iiceǣ coping
with watei scaicityǤ Los Bañosǡ Lagunaǣ IRRIǤ ͷͶ pǤ
Bruinsma,J.ʹͲͲͻǤ DzThe Resouice 0utlook to ʹͲͷͲdzǡ in ExpertMeetingon“HowtoFeedtheWorldin
2050”ǣ FA0ǡ RomeǤ
Burke,M.,andLobell,D. ʹͲͲͻǤ DzShifts in Afiican ciop climates by ʹͲͷͲǡ anu the implications foi ciop
impiovement anu genetic iesouices conseivationdzǡ GlobalEnvironmentalChangeǤ
Burney,J.A.,S.J.Davis,andD.B.LobellǤ ʹͲͳͲǤ uieenhouse gas mitigation by agiicultuial
intensificationǤ Pioceeuings of the national Acauemy of Sciencesǡ ͳͲ͹ȋʹ͸Ȍǣ ͳʹͲͷʹǦͳʹͲͷ͹Ǥ
Capaldo,J.,Karfakis,P.,Knowles,M.,Smulders,M. ʹͲͳͲǤ AModelofVulnerabilitytoFoodInsecurityǡ
ESA Woiking Papeiǡ NoǤ ͳͲǦͲ͵ǡ FA0ǣ RomeǤ
Cacho,O.J.,Lipper,L. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ Abatement anu tiansaction costs of caibonǦsink pioject involving
smallholueisǤ Woiking papeiǤ FA0ǣ RomeǤ
Cavatassi,R.,González,M.,Winters,P.,AndradeǦPiedra,J.,Thiele,G.,Espinosa,P. ʹͲͲͻǤ Linking
Ecuadorǡ ESA Woiking Papeis ͲͻǦͲ͸ǡ FA0ǣ RomeǤ
CAWMA. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ WaterforFood,WaterforLife:AcomprehensiveAssessmentofwatermanagementin
AgricultureǤ Lonuonǣ Eaithscan anu Colomboǣ Inteinational Watei Nanagement InstituteǤ
CIRAD. ʹͲͳͲǤ Sustainable chaicoal piouuction in the Bemociatic Republic of CongoǤ CIRABǤ
Cline,W.R. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ GlobalWarmingandAgriculture:ImpactEstimatesbyCountryǡ Centei foi ulobal
Bevelopmentǡ Peteison Institute foi Inteinational EconomicsǤ
Devereux,S. ʹͲͲʹǤ CanSocialSafetyNetsReduceChronicPoverty? Bevelopment Policy Reviewǡ ʹͲͲʹǡ ʹͲ
ȋͷȌǣ ͸ͷ͹Ǧ͸͹ͷǤ
Fafchamps,M.,andKourosaki,T. ʹͲͲʹǤ DzInsuiance Naiket Efficiency anu Ciop Choices in Pakistandzǡ
JournalofDevelopmentEconomicsǡ ͸͹ȋʹȌǣ ͶͳͻǦͷ͵ǡ Apiil ʹͲͲʹǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲ͵Ǥ AntiǦhungerProgramme,AtwinǦtrackApproachtoHungerReduction:PrioritiesforNational
andInternationalActionǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ WorldAgriculture:towards2030/2050,InterimReportǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ
FAO.ʹͲͲ͹aǤ TheStateofFoodandAgriculture,PayingFarmersforEnvironmentalServicesǡ Foou anu
Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲ͹bǤ Feeu supplementation blocksǡ FA0 technical papeisǡ FA0 Animal piouuction anu health
papeis No ͳ͸Ͷǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͺaǤ FoodOulook:GlobalMarketAnalysisǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͺbǤ Financing Climate Change Auaptation anu Nitigation in the Agiicultuie anu Foiestiy
Sectoisǡ in 0NFCCCǢ submission by FA0 anu IFABǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͺcǤ InstitutionstoSupportAgriculturalDevelopmentǡ 0npublisheu Repoitǡ FA0ǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͻaǤ FoodsecurityandAgriculturalMitigationinDevelopingCountries:OptionforCapturing
Synergiesǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͻbǤ TheStateofFoodandAgriculture—LivestockintheBalanceǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie
0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͻcǤ Increasingcropproductionsustainably,theperspectiveofbiologicalprocessesǡ Novembei
ʹͲͲͻǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO.ʹͲͲͻuǤ TheInvestmentImperativeǡ papei fiom the FA0 Bigh Level Confeience on Woilu Foou
Secuiityǣ The Challenges of Climate Change anu Bioeneigyǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ
FAO.ʹͲͳͲaǤ Challengesandopportunitiesforcarbonsequestrationingrasslandsystems.Atechnical
reportongrasslandmanagementandclimatechangemitigation.Integiateu Ciop managementǡ
volǤ ͻǦʹͲͳͲǡ Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
FAO. ʹͲͳͲbǤ Greenhousegasemissionsfromthedairysector.Alifecycleassessment. Foou anu Agiicultuie
0iganizationǡ RomeǤ
Franzel,S.,Wambugu,C.&Tuwei,P.ʹͲͲ͵Ǥ Theadoptionanddisseminationoffoddershrubsincentral
KenyaǤ Agiicultuial Reseaich anu Netwoik Seiies Papei NoǤ ͳ͵ͳǤ Lonuonǡ 0veiseas Bevelopment
Fischer,G.,Shah,M.,vanVelthuizen,H. ʹͲͲʹǤ DzClimate Change anu Agiicultuial vulneiabilitydzǡ in
ContributiontotheWorldSummitonSustainableDevelopmentǡ Iohannesbuigǡ Inteinational
Institute foi Applieu Systems Analysis ȋIAASAȌǣ LaxenbuigǤ
Goodhue,R.andMcCarthy,N. ʹͲͲͻǤ Tiauitional Piopeity Rightsǡ Common Piopeityǡ anu Nobility in
semiǦAiiu Afiican Pastoialist SystemsǤ Enviionment anu Bevelopment EconomicsǤ ͳͶǣ ʹͻǦͷͲǤ
Gregory,P.,Ingram,JSI.,Brklacich,M. DzClimate change anu foou secuiitydz PhilosophicalTransactionsof
theRoyalSocietyBǡ ʹͲͲͷǤ ͵͸Ͳǣ pǤ ʹͳ͵ͻǦʹͳͶͺǤ
Guei,R.G.,Barra,A.,andSilué,D. ʹͲͳͲǤ Piomoting smallholuei seeu enteipiises ȋSSEȌǣ 0uality seeu
piouuction of iiceǡ maizeǡ soighum anu millet in noithein CameioonǤ Accepteu foi publication in
The Inteinational Iouinal of Agiicultuial SustainabilityǤ
HansSeidelFoundation. ʹͲͲͻǤ Pioject iepoit in ueiman ȋEine Eifolgsgeschichte uei Piojektaibeit uei
BannsǦSeiuelǦ Stiftung in uei Bemokiatischen Republik Kongo Ȃ uasAgiofoistwiitschaftspiojekt
DzNampudz PiojektbeiichtȌǢ
Hansen,J.W.,Baethgen,W.,Osgood,D.,Ceccato,P.,Ngugi,R.K. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ DzInnovations in climate iisk
managementǣ piotecting anu builuing iuial livelihoous in a vaiiable anu changing climatedzǡ
JournalofSemiǦAridTropicalAgriculturalResearch ͶȋͳȌǤ ȋpublisheu online at
Hansen,J.W.,Meza,F.J.,Osgood,D.ʹͲͲͺǤ DzEconomic value of seasonal climate foiecasts foi agiicultuieǣ
ieview of exǦante assessments anu iecommenuations foi futuie ieseaichdzǡ JournalofApplied
MeteorologyandClimatology Ͷ͹ǣͳʹ͸ͻǦͳʹͺ͸Ǥ
IEA. ʹͲͲʹǤ Woilu Eneigy 0utlookǤ Chaptei ͳ͵Ǥ Eneigy anu Poveityǣ
wwwǤieaǤoigȀweoȀuatabase̴electiicityȀWE0ʹͲ ͲʹǦChapteiΨʹͲͳ͵Ǥpuf
IIED. ʹͲͲͻǤ Assessing the costs of auaptation to climate changeǣ A ieview of the 0NFCCC anu othei
iecent estimatesǡ Inteinational Institute foi Enviionment anu BevelopmentǤ
IIED. ʹͲͳͲǤ DzThe Impacts of Climate Change on Foou Secuiity in Afiicaǣ A Synthesis of Policy Issues foi
Euiopedzǡ Inteinational Institute foi Enviionment anu BevelopmentǤ
IPCC. ʹͲͲͳǤ ClimateChange2001,ThirdAssessmentReportǡ InteiǦgoveinmental panel on Climate Changeǡ
online atǣ httpǣȀȀwwwǤgiiuaǤnoȀpublicationsȀotheiȀipcc̴taiȀ
IPCC. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ DzContiibution of Woiking uioup II to the Fouith Assessment Repoit of the
Inteigoveinmental Panel on Climate Changedzǡ NǤLǤ Paiiyǡ 0ǤFǤ Canzianiǡ IǤPǤ Palutikofǡ PǤIǤ van uei
Linuen anu CǤEǤ Banson ȋeusȌǡ in ClimateChange2007,FourthAssessmentReportǡ InteiǦ
goveinmental panel on Climate Changeǡ Cambiiuge 0niveisity Piessǡ Cambiiugeǡ 0niteu
Kinguom anu New Yoikǡ NYǡ 0SAǡ online atǣ
IPCC. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ IPCC uuiuelines foi National uieenhouse uas Inventoiiesǡ BǤ Egglestonǡ Buenuia Lǡ Niwa Kǡ
Ngaia Tǡ Tanabe Kǡ EuitoiǤ ʹͲͲ͸ǡ The National uieenhouse uas Inventoiies Piogiammeǡ
Inteigoveinmental Panel on Climate ChangeǤ
Lipper,L.,Sakuyama,T.,Stringer,R.,andZilberman,D.(eds.). ʹͲͲͻǤ DzPayment foi Enviionmental
Seivices in Agiicultuial Lanuscapesǣ Economic Policies anu Poveity Reuuction in Beveloping
Countiiesdzǡ NaturalResourceManagementandPolicySeriesǡ volǤ ͵ͳǡ Spiingeiǡ Lonuonǡ 0Kǡ ʹͲͲͻ
ȋjointly publisheu with Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganization of the 0niteu NationsȌǤ
climate change auaptation neeus foi foou secuiity in ʹͲ͵Ͳdzǡ Scienceǡ ʹͲͲͺǤ ͵ͳͻȋͷͺ͸͵Ȍǣ pǤ ͸Ͳ͹Ǧ
Lobell,D.,andBurney,J.ʹͲͲͻǤ Dzuieenhouse uas Nitigation by Agiicultuial Intensificationdzǡ Proceedings
oftheNationalAcademyofSciencesǡ Iune ͳͷǡ ʹͲͳͲǤ
Matson,P.A.,Parton,W.J.,Power,A.G.,Swift,M.J. ͳͻͻ͹Ǥ DzAgiicultuial Intensification anu Ecosystem
Piopeitiesdzǡ ScienceǣvolǤ ʹ͹͹Ǥ noǤ ͷ͵ʹͷǡ ppǤ ͷͲͶ Ȃ ͷͲͻǤ
McAdam,J.H.,Thomas,T.H.&Willis,R.W.ͳͻͻͻǤ The economics of agiofoiestiy systems in the 0niteu
Kinguom anu theii futuie piospectsǤ Scottish Foiestiyǡ ͷ͵ȋͳȌǣ ͵͹ȂͶͳǤ
McCarthy,N.andDiGregorio,M. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ ClimateVariabilityandFlexibilityinResourceAccess:TheCase
ofPastoralMobilityinNorthernKenya.Enviionment anu Bevelopment Economicsǡ ͳʹȋ͵ȌǣͶͲ͵Ǧ
McCarthy,N.,andSwallow,B. ʹͲͲͲǤ DzPiopeity Rightsǡ Riskǡ anu Livestock Bevelopment in Afiicaǣ
Issues anu Pioject Appioachdzǡ in NcCaithyǡ NǤǡ BǤ Swallowǡ NǤ Kiikǡ PǤ Bazel ȋeusǤȌǡ ʹͲͲͲǡ Property
Rights,Risk,andLivestockDevelopmentinAfricaǡ IFPRIǡ Washingtonǡ BǤCǤ anu ILRIǡ NaiiobiǤ
McKinseyandCompany. ʹͲͲͻǤ Pathways to a LowǦCaibon Economyǡ veision ʹǤ
Nair,P.K.R.ͳͻͻ͵Ǥ AnIntroductiontoAgroforestryǤ Kluwei Acauemic Publisheisǡ Boiuiechtǡ The
NiamirǦFuller,M.(ed.). ͳͻͻͻǤ ManagingMobilityinAfricanRangelands.TheLegitimizationof
Transhumanceǡ Inteimeuiate Technology Publicationsǡ LtuǤ
Otsuka,K.,andPlace,F. ʹͲͲͳǤ LandTenureandNaturalResourceManagement:AComparativeStudyof
AgrarianCommunitiesinAsiaandAfrica, Baltimoieǡ NBǣ Iohns Bopkins 0niveisity PiessǤ
Cassman,K.G.ʹͲͲͶǤ Rice yielus uecline with highei night tempeiatuie fiom global waimingǡ
PNAS Iuly ͸ǡ ʹͲͲͶ volǤ ͳͲͳ noǤ ʹ͹ ͻͻ͹ͳǦͻͻ͹ͷǤ
Primavera,J.H.ʹͲͲͲǤ Aquasilvicultuie tiials in mangioves in Aklan Piovinceǡ Panay IsǤǡ cential
PhilippinesǤ Inteinational Woikshop on Biackishwatei Nangiove Ecosystems Piouuctivity anu
Sustainable 0tilizationǡ Tsukubaǡ Iapanǡ ʹͻ FebǤǦͳ NaiǤ ʹͲͲͲǤ
Ravallion,M., ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ DzTiansfeis anu Safety Nets in Pooi Countiiesǣ Revisiting the Tiaueoffs anu Policy
0ptionsǡdz in Abhijit Baneijeeǡ Rolanu Benabou anu Bilip Nookeijee ȋeusȌǡ UnderstandingPovertyǡ
0xfoiu 0niveisity PiessǤ
Sinclair,F.L.ͳͻͻͻǤA geneial classification of agiofoiestiy piacticeǤ Agiofoiestiy Systemsǡ Ͷ͸ǣ ͳ͸ͳȂͳͺͲǤ
Smit,B.,andBockel,L. ʹͲͲͻǤ DzClimate Change anu Agiicultuie Policiesǣ how to mainstieam climate
change auaptation anu mitigation into agiicultuie policiesǫdzǡ EASYPOLǡ FA0ǣ RomeǤ
Reij,C.,Tappan,G.andSmale,M. ʹͲͲͻǤ AgroenvironmentaltransformationintheSahel:Anotherkindof
“GreeenRevolution.”IFPRI Biscussion PapeiǤ Washingtonǡ BǤCǤǡ Inteinational Foou Policy
Reseaich InstituteǤ
Roberts,J.,andSchlenker,W. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ DzNonlineai Effects of Weathei on Coin Yielusdzǡ Reviewof
AgriculturalEconomicsǡ ʹͺȋ͵Ȍǡ Fallǡ pǤ ͵ͻͳǦ͵ͻͺǤ
Sileshi,G.,Akinnifesi,F.K.,Ajayi,O.C.,Place,F. ʹͲͲͺǤ NetaǦanalysis of maize yielu iesponse to woouy
anu heibaceous legumes in the subǦSahaian AfiicaǤ PlantandSoil͵Ͳ͹ǡ ͳǦͳͻǤ
Stern,N. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ SternReviewonTheEconomicsofClimateChangeǡ BN Tieasuiyǡ LonuonǤ
Sukardjo,S. ͳͻͺͻǤ Tumpang saii ponu as a multiple use concept to save the mangiove foiest in IavaǤ
Biotiop SpecǤ PublǤ ͵͹ǣͳͳͷǦͳʹͺǤ Sukaiujoǡ SǤ
Rosenzweig,C.andTubiello,F.N. ʹͲͲ͸Ǥ DzAuaptation anu Nitigation Stiategies in Agiicultuieǣ An
Analysis of Potential Syneigiesdzǡ MitigationandAdaptationStrategiesforGlobalChangeǡ ͳʹǣ pp
Schmidhuber,J.,andTubiello,F.N. ʹͲͲ͹Ǥ Dzulobal foou secuiity unuei climate changedzǡ in Proceedings
oftheNationalAcademyofSciencesǡ 0SA ȋPNASȌǡ volume ͳͲͶǡ Numbei ͷͲǡ BecembeiǤ
SEI. ʹͲͲͺǤ ClimateChangeandAdaptationinAfricanAgricultureǡ Stockholm Enviionment InstituteǤ
Sen. ͳͻͻͳǤ Agiofoiestiy in ChinaǤ Beijingǡ Ninistiy of Foieign AffaiisǤ
Silici,L. ʹͲͳͲǤ Conseivation Agiicultuie anu Sustainable Ciop IntensificationǤ Integiateu Ciop
NanagementǤ volǤ ͳͲǤ Plant Piouuction anu Piotection Bivisionǡ FA0ǡ RomeǤ
A.Notenbaert,N.BekeleandA.Omolo.ʹͲͲͺǤ DzClimate change anu poveity in Afiicaǣ Napping
hotspots of vulneiabilitydzǡ AfJAREǡ vol ʹ No ͳ NaichǤ
UNʹͲͲͻǤ StateofWorldPopulation2009,FacingaChangingWorld:Women,PopulationandClimateǢ
0NFPAǡ New Yoikǡ NYǤ
UNEP. ʹͲͲͻǤ AnnualReportǡ 0niteu Nations Enviionment PiogiammeǤ
UNFCCC. Challenges anu oppoitunities foi mitigation in the agiicultuial sectoiǡ in Technical papeiǣ
WorldBank. ʹͲͲͺǤ WorldDevelopmentReport2008,AgricultureforDevelopmentǡ The Woilu Bankǡ
Washingtonǡ BǤCǤ
WorldBank. ʹͲͲͻǤ Review of ͳͲ yeais expeiiences with CBN piojectsǤ
WorldBank. ʹͲͲͻǤ Woilu Bevelopment Repoit ʹͲͳͲǡ Bevelopment anu Climate Changeǡ The Woilu
Bankǡ Washingtonǡ BǤCǤ
WorldBank. ʹͲͳͲǤ Potential of agiofoiestiy to contiibute to poveity alleviation to economic giowth
anu to piotection of enviionmental seivices in the countiies of the Southein anu Eastein Afiica
iegionsǤ A uiscussion PapeiǤ Apiil ʹͲͳͲǤ
Zomer, R.J., Trabucco, A., Coe, R. and Place, F. ʹͲͲͻǤ Tiees on Faimǣ Analysis of ulobal Extent anu
ueogiaphical Patteins of AgiofoiestiyǤ ICRAF Woiking Papei noǤ ͺͻǤ Naiiobiǡ Kenyaǣ Woilu Agiofoiestiy
AAU Assigneu Amount 0nit
ADPC Asian Bisastei Piepaieuness Centei
ARD Agiicultuial Reseaich anu Bevelopment
AWD Alteinate Wetting anu Biying
BIIS Bohol Integiateu Iiiigation System
BMG National Agency foi Neteoiology anu ueophysics
CA Conseivation Agiicultuie
CAADP Compiehensive Afiican Agiicultuial Bevelopment Piogiamme
CATIE Tiopical Agiicultuie Reseaich anu Bighei Euucation Centie
CDM Clean Bevelopment Nechanism
CDH Boiticultuial Bevelopment Centie
CERF Cential Emeigency Response Funu
CFS Climate Fielu School
CGE Computable ueneial Equilibiium
CIPAV Centie foi ieseaich on sustainable agiicultuial piouuction systems
CM Ciop Nonitoiing
CSD Commission on Sustainable Bevelopment
DAC Bevelopment Assistance Committee
ECMWF Euiopean Centie foi NeuiumǦRange Weathei Foiecasts
FADO Faim Auaptive Bynamic 0ptimization
FAO Foou anu Agiicultuie 0iganization of the 0niteu Nations
FFS Faimei Fielu Schools
FONAFIFO Costa Rican Foiestiy Funu
GAFSP ulobal Agiicultuie anu Foou Secuiity Piogiamme
GCM ulobal Climate Nouel
GEF ulobal Enviionmental Facility
GFRP ulobal Foou Ciisis Response Piogiamme
GHG uieenhouse uas
GNP uioss National Piouuct
HLPE Bigh Level Panel of Expeits foi foou secuiity anu nutiition
ICCTF Inuonesian Climate Change Tiust Funu
ICTA Instituto ue Ciencia y Tecnologia Agiicolas
IIED Inteinational Institute foi Enviionment anu Bevelopment
IPCC Inteigoveinmental Panel on Climate Change
IPM Integiateu pest management
IRLCO Inteinational Reu Locust Contiol 0iganization
IRRI Inteinational Rice Reseaich Institute
ISRA Senegalese Institute of Agiicultuial Reseaich
LADA Lanu Begiauation Assessment in Biylanus
LDC Least Bevelopeu Countiy
LIFE Low Impact Fuel Efficient
LULUCF Lanu 0seǡ Lanu 0se Change anu Foiestiy
MPE NultiǦcensoi Piecipitation Estimate
MRV Neasuiementǡ Repoiting anu veiification
NAMA Nationally Appiopiiate Nitigation Actions
NAPA National Auaptation Piogiammes of Action
NGO NonǦuoveinmental 0iganization
NIA National Iiiigation Auministiation
ODA 0fficial Bevelopment Assistance
OIE Woilu 0iganisation foi Animal Bealth
PES Payment foi Enviionmental Seivice
PHL Post Baivest Losses
PRSP Poveity Reuuction Stiategy Papei
PSNP Piouuctive Safety Net Piogiamme
QDS 0uality Beclaieu Seeu
REDD Reuucing Emissions fiom Befoiestation anu Foiest Begiauation
RFE Rain Fall Estimate
RVF Rift valley Fevei
SEI Stockholm Enviionment Institute
SRI Sustainable Rice Intensification
UDP 0iea Beep Placement
UNFCCC 0niteu Nations Fiamewoik Convention on Climate Change
UPA 0iban anu PeiiǦuiban Agiicultuie
UPH 0iban anu PeiiǦuiban Boiticultuie
VACVINA vietnamese uaiueneisǯ Association
WDR Woilu Bevelopment Repoit
The following annex pioviues a numbei of useful methous anu tools uevelopeu by FA0 anu its paitneis
foi unueitaking vaiious assessments anu monitoiing which pioviues funuamental infoimation foi
infoimeu planning of climate change auaptation piacticesǤ
FA0 tools help to ueiive an effective weatheiǦbaseu ciop yielu inuex foi ciop insuianceǤ The appioach
pioposes to compute a ciop specific watei balance to ueiive valueǦauueu ciopǦweathei vaiiables that
can be combineu with othei uata ȋeǤgǤ iemote sensing inputsǡ faim inputs such as feitilizei useȌǤ The
methouology uses giiuueu infoimation that is not too sensitive to inuiviuual missing stationsǡ pioviueu
sufficient uata points aie availableǤ The methouology has uemonstiateu the possibility of piouucing
weathei baseu maize yielu inuex foi ciop insuiance foi any point in Nalawi eveiy ten uays staiting fiom
planting timeǤ RealǦtime maize yielu inuices coveiing the whole countiy can be objectively piouuceuǤ
The maize yielu inuex satisfies all the uesiiable ciiteiia foi maize ciop insuiance in NalawiǤ Fiist
estimates of Inuex can be pioviueu at planting time anu upuateu in ieal time thioughout the seasonǤ
Noie specific piouucts foi ciop insuiance can be piepaieu using ciiteiia pioviueu by insuiance expeitsǡ
anu the methouology can easily be extenueu to othei ciopsǤ
Betails atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀclimpagȀaw̴ʹ̴enǤasp
The DzCN Boxdz ȋCiop Nonitoiing BoxȌ is a toolbox foi agiometeoiological ciop monitoiing anu yielu
foiecastingǤ It is an automateu softwaie suite with a Dzvisual menudz that offeis easy access to uatabase
that holus all the uata neeueu to analyse the impact of weathei on ciopsǤ The tool is useful foi iisk
analysisǡ monitoiing anu foiecasting ciop piouuctionǡ which is an essential input to foou secuiity
planningǤ The tool can compaie maps of cuiient yielu expectations with histoiical aveiage conuitionsǤ
The CN Box is meant to offei an easy solution to iapiuly setting up an opeiational ciop monitoiing anu
foiecasting systemǤ In the initial phaseǡ iefeience uata as well as iealǦtime satellite anu weathei uata can
be pioviueu by FA0 baseu on inteinational souicesǡ but ovei the peiiouǡ moie anu moie national uata
can be useuǤ Inteiesteu countiies ieceive a combination of tiainingǡ haiuwaieǡ softwaie customizeu foi
local useǡ as well as the iealǦtime uata iequiieu to opeiate the system inǦcountiyǤ The package can be
tailoieu to suit the countiiesǯ specific iequiiementsǡ baseu on national piefeiences as well as available
expeitiseǡ methous anu uataǤ
Betails atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀclimpagȀaw̴͸̴enǤasp oiwwwǤfoousecǤoigȀtools̴cw̴ͲͳǤhtm

FA0 is ueveloping an integiateu methouology ȋtoolboxȌ to asses climate change impacts on agiicultuieǤ
The methouology compiises foui main softwaie componentsǣ a uownscaling methou foi piocessing
ulobal Climate Nouel ȋuCNȌ output uataǡ a hyuiological mouel foi iiiigation watei iesouices estimationǡ
a ciop giowth mouel to estimate ciop yielus anu a Computable ueneial Equilibiium ȋCuEȌ Nouel to
simulate the effect of changing agiicultuial yielus on national economiesǤ The integiateu toolbox foi
countiy wiue implementation will be available togethei with usei manualǡ tutoiials anu sample uata in
ʹͲͳͳ anu valiuation will be caiiieu out in two countiies in AfiicaǤ The methouology is baseu on a stuuy
conuucteu by FA0ǡ togethei with the Woilu Bank anu Noiocco national institutionsǡ to assess the impact
of climate change on Noioccan agiicultuieǤ The stuuy coveis fifty ciopsǡ majoi agioecological zonesǡ anu
climate change scenaiiosǤ Foi complete uocument visitǣ Ǥ
The Local Climate Estimate Tool ȋNew̴locClimȌǡ is a softwaie piogiam anu uatabaseǡ pioviues estimates
of aveiage climatic conuitions at any location on eaith baseu on the FA0CLIN uatabaseǤ The piogiamme
can cieate climatic mapsǡ extiact uata in vaiious foimats fiom the uatabase foi fuithei piocessing anu
can uisplay giaphs showing the annual cycle of monthly climate anu the ciop calenuaiǤ The tool pioviues
giowing season chaiacteiistics baseu on a compaiison of iainfall anu potential evapotianspiiation anu
estimates of monthlyǡ ͳͲǦuay anu uaily values of common climate vaiiablesǤ The piogiamme incluues the
cuiient upuateu veision of the FA0CLIN uatabase of almost ͵Ͳ ͲͲͲ stations woiluwiueǡ but useis can
also piocess theii own uata anu piepaie maps at any spatial iesolutionǤ Computei application piogiams
ȋin Niciosoft ExcelȌ aie incluueu in the CBǦR0N to help simplify complex calculationsǤ
Access anu uownloau the tool atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀclimpagȀuata̴ͷ̴enǤasp
Faim Auaptive Bynamic 0ptimization ȋFAB0Ȍ iefeis to a combination of methouology that helps to
iuentifyǡ analyze anu piioiitize the climate ielateu vulneiabilities anu iisks anu optimize the auaptation
piactices to effectively iesponu to climate vaiiability anu changeǤ The appioach combines the histoiical
climate uata anu mouein uata tiansmission anu infoimation souices foi iealǦtime analysis of impactsǤ It
pioviues oppoitunities to geneiate viable options foi faim uecision making to manage the iisks anu
oppoitunities at the faim levelǤ The foui majoi components of the FAB0 methouology aieǣ exploiing
knowleuge on local situation of faimeisǯ uecision pioblemsǡ analysing the vulneiability anu climate iisks
to optimize the management optionsǡ ueciue appiopiiate auaptation piactices ielevant to local situation
anu facilitate local action by communicating climate infoimation anu suitable auaptation piactices to
Auuitional infoimation asǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀclimpagȀaw̴ͷ̴enǤasp
FA0 Rain Fall Estimate ȋFA0ǦRFEȌ foi Afiica is a new inuepenuent methou to estimate the iainfall
amountǡ paiticulailyǡ foi ceitain iegions wheie the coveiage of the weathei stations is scaiceǤ FA0 RFE is
baseu on the Neteosat Seconu ueneiation IR channel combineu with uata coming fiom ECNWF global
foiecast mouel anu E0NETSAT NPEǤ A local calibiation is peifoimeu using the giounu gaugesǡ uiiectly
ieceiveu as SYN0P messages anu aftei a uata valiuationǤ FA0ǦRFE offeis ͳͲǦuay anu monthly iainfall
totals foi whole of Afiica anu foi foui iegionsǤ The impoitance of the FA0ǦRFE is that it can be
implementeu at national level to impiove iainfall estimate pioviueu by National Neteoiological SeivicesǤ
FA0 is now suppoiting the tiansfei of the methouology to Suuan Neteoiological AuthoiityǤ
Auuitional infoimation asǣ httpǣȀȀgeonetwoik͵ǤfaoǤoigȀclimpagȀFA0ǦRFEǤphp
CLINPAu ȋClimate impact on agiicultuieȌ is a web poital biinging togethei the vaiious aspects anu
inteiactions between weatheiǡ climate anu agiicultuie in the context of foou secuiityǤ CLINPAu contains
uataǡ mapsǡ methouologies anu tools foi bettei unueistanuing anu analysis of the effect of the vaiiability
of weathei anu climate on agiicultuieǤ The web poital coveis six majoi thematic aieasǣ auvice anu
wainingsǡ climate changeǡ climate inuicatoisǡ uata anu mapsǡ hotspots anu natuial uisasteisǤ 0sei
fiienuly uiopǦuown menu pioviues access to all publicationsǡ tools anu methous ielevant to all the
thematic aieasǤ
The poital can be accesseu atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀclimpagȀ
Piotection against animal anu plant uiseasesǡ pests anu foou safety thieats anu pieventing theii spieau
is one of the keys to fighting hungeiǡ malnutiition anu poveityǤ The Emeigency Pievention Systems
ȋENPRESȌ has the manuate to auuiess pievention anu eaily waining acioss the entiie foou chainǤ Its
mission is to piomote the effective containment anu contiol of the most seiious epiuemic pestsǡ uiseases
anu foou safety thieats thiough inteinational coopeiation involving eaily wainingǡ eaily ieactionǡ
enabling ieseaichǡ anu cooiuinationǤ This is uone thiough the following systemsǣ
x ENPRES Animal Bealthǣ animal uiseasesǡ incluuing aquatic animal uiseases
x ENPRES Plant Piotectionǣ plant pests anu uiseases incluuing ueseit locust anu foiest plant pests
anu uiseases
x ENPRES Foou Safety
The poital can be accesseu atǣ www.fao.org/foodchain/prevention-and-early-warning/en/

FA0 launcheu a piogiamme in ʹͲͲ͵ focusing on the iole of local institutions in uisastei iisk ieuuction
ȋBRRȌǤ It auuiesses BRR as an integial pait of sustainable uevelopmentǡ while applying an agiicultuial
peispective as entiy pointǤ The piogiamme assists countiies in theii effoits towaius bettei planneuǡ
longǦteim uisastei iisk pievention anu piepaieuness stiategiesǡ which auuiess the ioot causes of
vulneiability of local stakeholueis to natuial hazaius in a uemanu iesponsive anu sustainable wayǤ
The poital can be accesseu atǣ
EXǦACT is a lanuǦbaseu accounting systemǡ measuiing C stocks anu stock changes pei unit of lanuǡ
expiesseu in tC0
eȀha anu yeaiǤ This exǦante CǦbalance appiaisal will guiue the pioject uesign piocess
anu the uecision making on funuing aspectsǡ complementing the usual exǦante economic analysis of
investments piojectsǤ EXǦACT will in fact help pioject uesigneis to select pioject activities with highei
benefits both in economic anu climate change mitigation teims anu its output coulu be useu in financial
anu economic analysis of the piojectsǤ It is an easy tool to be useu in the context of exǦante
piojectȀpiogiam foimulationǡ it is cost effectiveǡ it iequiies a minimum amount of uataǡ anu it has
iesouices ȋtablesǡ mapsȌ which can help finuing the infoimation iequiieu to iun the mouelǤ Alsoǡ EXǦACT
woiks at pioject level but it can easily be upǦscaleu at piogiammeȀsectoi levelǤ
The poital can be accesseu atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀuocsȀupȀeasypolȀ͹͸ͺȀexǦact̴flyeiǦnovͲͻǤpuf
NASSC0TE is a stepǦwise pioceuuie foi auuiting peifoimance of iiiigation managementǡ analyzing anu
evaluating the uiffeient elements of an iiiigation system in oiuei to uevelop a moueinization planǤ The
moueinization plan consists of physicalǡ institutionalǡ anu manageiial innovations to impiove watei
ueliveiy seivices to all useis anu cost effectiveness of opeiation anu managementǤ Nasscote is founueu
on a iigoious on site appioach of the physical watei infiastiuctuie ȋcanals anu netwoiksȌ anu intiouuces
seivice oiienteu management as a noimal piacticeǤ
Auuitional infoimation atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀwateiȀtopics̴iiiig̴masscoteǤhtml
AquaCiop is the FA0 ciopǦmouel to simulate yielu iesponse to watei of seveial heibaceous ciopsǤ It is
uesigneu to balance simplicityǡ accuiacy anu iobustnessǡ anu is paiticulaily suiteu to auuiess conuitions
wheie watei is a key limiting factoi in ciop piouuctionǤ AquaCiop is a companion tool foi a wiue iange
of useis anu applications incluuing yielu pieuiction unuei climate change scenaiiosǤ AquaCiop is mainly
intenueu foi piactitioneis such as those woiking foi extension seivicesǡ goveinmental agenciesǡ Nu0sǡ
anu vaiious kinus of faimeis associationsǤ It is also of inteiest to scientists anu foi teaching puiposesǡ as
a tiaining anu euucation tool ielateu to the iole of watei in ueteimining ciop piouuctivityǤ
Auuitional infoimation atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀniȀwateiȀaquaciopǤhtml
TECA is an FA0 initiative that aims at impioving access to infoimation anu knowleuge shaiing about
pioven technologies in oiuei to enhance theii auoption in agiicultuieǡ livestockǡ fisheiies anu foiestiy
thus auuiessing foou secuiityǡ climate changeǡ poveity alleviation anu sustainable uevelopmentǤ TECA
also pioviues webǦbaseu communication tools to bettei uocumentǡ shaie goou piactices anu customize
its use to each useiǯs chaiacteiisticsǤ It is inteiactiveǡ anu has a gieat potential to impiove linkages
among extension staffǡ ieseaicheisǡ faimei oiganizations anu othei stakeholueis involveu in agiicultuial
Auuitional infoimation atǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀteca
The FA0 Best Piactices Web site pioviues a seiies of summaiies that intiouuce some best piactices in
FA0̵s aieas of expeitiseǤ It also pioviues links to fuithei iesouices with suppoiting technical
infoimationǤ The piactices have been uiviueu by themeǤ They have been auopteu successfully in moie
than one iegion anu aie inteiuisciplinaiyǡ ieflecting the complex natuie of the pioblems auuiesseuǤ
FA0 Best Piactices Poitalǣ wwwǤfaoǤoigȀbestpiacticesȀinuex̴enǤhtm
The Woilu 0veiview of Conseivation Appioaches anu Technologies ȋW0CATȌ is an establisheu global
netwoik of Soil anu Watei Conseivation ȋSWCȌ specialistsǡ contiibuting to sustainable lanu management
ȋSLNȌǤ W0CATǯs goal is to pievent anu ieuuce lanu uegiauation thiough SLN technologies anu theii
implementation appioachesǤ The netwoik pioviues tools that allow SLN specialists to iuentify fielus anu
neeus of actionǡ shaie theii valuable knowleuge in lanu managementǡ that assist them in theii seaich foi
appiopiiate SLN technologies anu appioachesǡ anu that suppoit them in making uecisions in the fielu
anu at the planning level anu in upǦscaling iuentifieu best piacticesǤ
Auuitional infoimation atǣ wwwǤwocatǤoig
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00153 Rome, Italy