Classification of permanent reference stations for GNSS
This is a document written by Andreas Engfeldt (Lantmäteriet), Casper Jepsen (Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen), Gunnar Hedling (Lantmäteriet) and Svein Ola Thorsen (Statens Kartverk) on behalf of the NKG project Nordic Positioning Service. First it contains a table overview of the different station types in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Then comes the classification into four classes as a matrix table with distinguished features and some necessary comments. The classification was done at a meeting in Copenhagen on October 18-19, 2005. It was then sent on a review to four experts (Lotti Jivall (Lantmäteriet), Oddgeir Kristiansen (Statens Kartverk), Jan Johansson (Onsala Space Observatory) and Markku Poutanen (Finnish Geodetic Institute)) and what could be seen in this document is the slightly modified classification.

1. Introduction

2. Current stations, 2006-05-12
C – station D – Navigation without DM About 50 GPS- 2 Farvannsvesendet Referencen + about 28 GPSNet.dk Norway 13 SATREF 35 CPOS + 8 “ESEAS”* Sweden The 21 first 80 Simplified Göteborg 10 Sjöfartsverket SWEPOS SWEPOS Positionerings stations & 3 stations System (4 more SWEPOS stations) + stations single reference stations in several municipalities * ESEAS = European SEA level Service, already included and stations which soon will be included Class Country Denmark A– ”IGS/EUREF” 3 primary + 3 ESEAS* B – station with DM 2 (BLAH & KMS3) + 1 ESEAS*

3. Classification table
Item 1 1.1 1.2 Monument Environment: - securing environment by legal means (with written long-term contracts) - station coordinates monitoring Class A X Class B X Class C (X) Class D -

minimum 12 months. .2 1.3 1.1 1.a platform for absolute gravity measurements should be established in connection to the monument. . .6 1.1 1. Antennas: .monitoring ground water level .2 2.extreme stability in space/time . .4 1.2.2 1.stability documented by time series.terrestrial measurements between benchmarks and pillar at least every third year .analysis of GPS data.monument construction must be documented . rms per coordinate.2 3.if relocated: six months overlapping relocation period . min every 2nd year. .Dorne Margolin antenna element and choke-rings .monitoring radio disturbances .1 1.4 X X X X X X X (X) X X - - 1 After removal of trends.1 2.documented geological preconditions .6.3 2.5 2.3 3.daily solution .at least four times a year .6 X 1-2 mm1 X X (X) (X) < 5 mm (X) - < 5 mm - > 5 mm - 3 3.4 2.thermal expansion controlled by heating or construction documented for this effect. . Monument: .direct well measurements (within 100 meters) .5.5 1.monitoring local drainage and regional water supply production.7 2 1.monitoring of antenna surroundings.2.if an antenna splitter is used it must be documented.spare antenna available within one week X X (X) (X) X X (X) (X) (X) (X) X (X) X X (X) X (X) X X (X) X - 1.1 3.the antenna must be acknowledged by IGS and have calibration values from IGS/NGS. 2 x rms in height .2006-12-06 N G K .multipath monitoring .

at least every 30th second .3 7 7.4 7.spare receiver of same brand/type available within one week .meteorological measurement equipment Documentation if available: .the receiver must have at least 3 serial ports.real-time data on redundant communications routers .every 1 second .6 5.6 7.8 7. . .1 X (X) X X (X) X (X) X (X) - (X) X (X) (X) (X) (X) X (X) (X) (X) X X (X) (X) X (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) X (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) X (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) - X (X) - - . X X X (X) X X (X) X (X) X (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) X - 4 4.data available at least one year Station security and environment .station must have an IGS-logfile. .other.local storage of raw data either in a local PC or internal memory. mentioned in IGS receiver-antenna table .the station is equipped with firealarm/alarm/webcamera .11 8 8.1 6.if a radome is used it must be documented and compliant with the IGS guidelines Receiver: . USB or an Ethernet port.external oscillator Data rate / data storing .5 7.lightning protection of building .5 5.UPS or alternatives .limited access to the station .lightning protection of antenna . .1 7.7 7.2 6.2 7.dual frequency.9 7.2 5.lightning protection of electronics .1 5 5.1 5.stable temperature for the GNSS receiver .redundant communications.3 7.indoor climate logging .10 7.the station is manned. minimum 12 channel geodetic receiver.3 5.7 6 6.4 5.2006-12-06 N G K Radomes: .redundant receiver .

1 Daily quality test with TECQ in near real time.2 See 1. but only as an option.external frequency .2 See above.2006-12-06 N G K . Exceptions are unaccessible areas like i. 1. 5. (some reservation). but also that one has the right to cut down trees around etc.4 8.meteorological equipment .6 Good to know the expansion coefficient of the pillar material.5. 2.2 For class A and B it is required that data is stored every second and it is also good if the same thing happens for the class C stations.2. 6. Gipsy etc. 1.lightning protection .1 Shall be post processed with an advanced geodetic software (Bernese software. This is extra important for Denmark and the parts of Sweden where open bedrock is rare.6. Receiver 5.2. type .2. 1.2 and 5. 1.1 and 6.3 It is good from a data availability point of view to have a redundant receiver.5 Before a class A station is established it is preferable that the geological conditions are studied.2 Other public institutions may have a ground water monitoring within a radius of 20-30 km from the station. 1.1 2. For class C it is instead required that data is .6 8.4 Lantmätereiet has one receiver with an option to measure disturbance on the GNSS frequencies.6. It is a requirement to have access to a similar receiver within a week if the regular receiver should break down.3 8. Observe that Ethernet is needed on the station. Monument environment 1. length.e. 1. Corresponding items can be applied to 3.UPS X (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) - 8. Data rate / data storing 6.1 Wells further away than 100 metres from the pillar/station doesn’t count as ”direct”. Monument 2.5 8. Arctic or Jan Mayen (where no GPS site still doesn’t exist).).7 4. Gamit.1 To be classed as a A station it is not only demanded that one has the rights to the ground where the pillar stands.signal splitter . 2. Comments to the Classificationtable (3) 1. The receiver can in need be borrowed/rented.4 (spare antenna).antenna cable.2 8.

i. The format should be RINEX.e.2 and if data should be used to calculate land uplift/sinking.2. 7. . Documentation if available 8.9 The oscillator in the GNSS receiver works best in a stabile temperature. GNSS receivers must be in a locked space to be counted as “limited access”. 8.1 It is important that all class A stations have an IGS logfile and that it is maintained. without any fences around. but the two ways we recommend are with an air conditioner or that the receiver is placed in a naturally cool basement.3 For how long data shall be available depends on many things. To achieve a stabile temperature can be done in a many different ways. 6. Station security and environment 7.1. The GNSS antenna shall be out of reach to the public. 7. but a receiver specific format will also do. 1.2006-12-06 N G K stored at least twice a minute.

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