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Un-interruptible power supplies (UPS) play an important role in interfacing
critical loads such as computers, telecommunication links, data-processing systems,
life supporting systems and industrial controls, etc. to the power grid .Among the
various UPS topologies, on ±line UPSs provides maximum protection to such loads
against any utility power problem, as it protects against power blackout. However,
because of multiple power conversion stages, on-line UPSs have been most complex
and expensive type of systems.? Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) ensure
continuous power flow to critical loads in the event of disturbance surges or AC line
failure, and have been used for a wide variety of loads, including telecommunication
systems, medical systems, industrial control systems etc.

Generally, an UPS system requires the normal utility AC line input current to
have a low total harmonic distortion (THD) sinusoidal current with unity power factor.
A UPS is required to deliver a well-regulated sinusoidal output voltage with low THD
to the load, regardless of whether the utility AC power source is normal or not. Online
and offline UPS systems are the two major UPS schemes. Online UPS systems are
generally preferred because of high reliability and good voltage regulation.

Presently, a UPS is often implemented with an MCU. But MCUs have


significant price/performance limitations that can be rectified by implementing the
UPS using a hybrid MCU with efficient digital signal processing capability. This has
not been possible until recently, due to performance and the cost of the processors
required to the job. The 56F8300 series of digital signal controllers has the required
performance, peripherals, and price targets to enable UPS designs to implement
advanced features.

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An Uninterruptible Power Supply, or UPS, is an electronic device that provides


an alternative electric power supply to connected electronic equipment when the
primary power source is not available. Unlike auxiliary power, a UPS can provide
instant power to connected equipment, which can protect sensitive electronic devices
by allowing them to shut down properly and preventing extensive physical damage.
However, a UPS can only supply energy for a limited amount of time, typically 15 to
20 minutes. Although its use can extend to a virtually unlimited list of applications, in
past years the UPS has become even more popular as a means of protecting computers
and telecommunication equipment, thus preventing serious hardware damage and data
loss.

Generally, an ideal UPS should be able to deliver uninterrupted power while


simultaneously providing the necessary power conditioning for the particular power
application. Therefore, an ideal UPS should have the following features [1]:

^? egulated sinusoidal output voltage with low total harmonic distortion (THD)
independent of the changes in the input voltage or in the load, linear or
nonlinear, balanced or unbalanced.
^? On-line operation, which means zero switching time from normal to backup
mode and vice versa.
^? ÷ow THD sinusoidal input current and unity power factor.
^? High reliability.
^? Bypass as a redundant source of power in the case of internal failure.
^? High efficiency.
^? ÷ow electromagnetic interference (EMI) and acoustic noise.
^? Electric isolation of the battery, output, and input.
^? ÷ow maintenance.
^? ÷ow cost, weight, and size.

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The following table shows some of the characteristics of the various UPS
types. Some attributes of a UPS, like efficiency, are dictated by the choice of UPS
type. Since implementation and manufactured quality more strongly impact
characteristics such as reliability, these factors must be evaluated in addition to these
design attributes.

Off ÷ine UPS ÷ine Interactive UPS On ÷ine UPS

Practical Power 10KVA and below 10KVA and below 1KVA to


atings 6400KVA

Voltage ÷ow Design Dependent High


Conditioning

Cost per VA ÷ow Medium High

Efficiency Very High Very High Medium

Benefits ÷ow cost, high High reliability, High Excellent voltage


efficiency, compact efficiency, Good conditioning, ease
voltage conditioning of paralleling

÷imitations Uses battery during Impractical over ÷ow efficiency,


Brownouts 10kVA Expensive under
10kVA

Conclusions Best value for Most popular UPS Well suited for
personal workstations type in existence due N+1 designs
to high reliability,
ideal for rack or
distributed servers
and/or harsh power
environments

 

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AC line and load voltage must be in phase in order to use the static switch. This can be
achieved easily by locked-phase control loop.

There are three operating modes related to this topology:

^? Normal mode of operation.


^? Stored energy mode operation.
^? Bypass mode operation.

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During this mode of operation, the power to the load is continuously supplied
via the rectifier/charger and inverter. In fact, a double conversion, that is, AC/DC and
DC/AC, takes place. It allows very good line conditioning. The AC/DC converter
charges the battery set and supplies power to the load via the inverter. Therefore, it has
the highest power rating in this topology, increasing the cost.

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When the AC input voltage is outside the preset tolerance, the inverter and
battery maintain continuity of power to the load. The duration of this mode is the
duration of the preset UPS backup time or until the AC line returns within the preset
tolerance. When the AC line returns, a phase-locked loop (P÷÷) makes the load
voltage in phase with the input voltage and after that the UPS system returns to the
normal operating mode.

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The UPS operates in this mode in case of an internal malfunction such as over
current. This mode is also used for fault clearing. It should be mentioned that the
output frequency should be the same as the AC line frequency in order to ensure the
transfer of power. In some cases, there can be a maintenance bypass as well. A manual
switch usually operates it.

The main advantages of on-line UPS are very wide tolerance to the input
voltage variation and very precise regulation of output voltage. In addition, there is no

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The minimum components needed to design an Online UPS are the rectifier, the
battery bank and the inverter. The rectifier converts the distribution line¶s AC
(Alternating Current) power to DC (Direct Current) power, the form of current suitable
to store energy in a battery bank. At all times, this DC is also fed to an inverter, which
reconverts the DC power to an AC waveform connected to any equipment utilizing AC
that a user considers as mission critical. If the AC supply fails for any reason, the
inverter will continue to draw power from the batteries.

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When a sinusoidal input signal is connected to a full wave rectifier, conduction will
occur only during the peaks of the signal [8]. This causes a two-fold inconvenience to
the electricity distribution line:

‡ Insertion of harmonics to the lines

‡ High current peaks, which imply greater losses on the distribution

These effects are aggravated by the long distances the electric distribution networks
usually span. From the electrical utility¶s point of view, the best possible load is the
pure resistive: The current waveform should be a pure sinusoidal waveform identical
to the voltage waveform and of the same frequency and phase. In order to show a
resistive load to the utility lines, the input current to the UPS is controlled (i.e.,
modulated) to make it match a set point. This set point depends on the input voltage
waveform, and its amplitude is dependent on the equipment¶s power consumption.

M1 MM $

If a rectifier is connected to the AC line supply, then the DC voltage will be equal to
the peak voltage of the line. (i.e., in a 120 VMS line, the peak will be 120¥2, 170V).
If the battery bank is configured for 12 or 24 VDC, the UPS works by using DC/DC
converters. For an online UPS, two power DC/DC converters are required. One
converter operates as the battery charger, and the other boosts the battery voltage in the
absence of line input and generates the appropriate DC required by the inverter.

-  - "--#

This UPS can operate in the Free unning mode or in the ÷ocked-to-÷ine mode. If the
AC main line frequency is at the nominal value of 50Hz or 60Hz 5%, the P÷÷ locks
the inverter output to the line. If the AC main line frequency runs out of limits for any

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reason, the UPS will automatically switch to run locked to the internal frequency
reference. The UPS will also work in the Free unning mode if commanded to operate
as a frequency converter. For example, it can connect to a 60Hz AC main line
frequency and output a signal of 50Hz frequency, and vice versa. The purpose of phase
locking the inverter to the line input is to enable the automatic bypass feature and to
avoid signal ³mixing´ at the rails.

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High-power control requires switchable electronic devices, precluding their use
in the active region, where power dissipation in the device is very high. For this
reason, control is made by pulse width modulation, where the duty cycle of a signal is
modified, and then a linear filtering device passes the desired signal value to the
analog components. PWM is then used to implement inverters, PFCs, and DC/DC
converters.

M  ! &  M   !

The control system for a UPS must accomplish the following functions:

‡ Control strategies for inverter, PFC, P÷÷, and DC/DC converters. Every control loop
starts at an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) in order to sense the signals, and
ends at a Pulse Width Modulator as an actuator.

‡ Deciding when to activate or deactivate a component.

‡ Detecting failure conditions and implementing any required action.

‡ Enabling Monitor and Control (M & C) communications.

Compared to traditional analog controls, today¶s low-cost and high-performance


controllers provide a better solution in performance and cost. A single MCU includes a
powerful processor core and such peripherals as PWMs, Timers, and Analog-to-
Digital Converters. A single 56800E device is able to assume the monitoring and real-
time control required by an Online UPS.


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^? No analog circuitry. Thus no offsets( i.e. installation & maintenance cost


saved)
^? High speed DSP control allows for real time harmonic cancellation.
^? Flexible configuration for many power sizes.
^? Sophisticated switching algorithm saving overall system costs.
^? Features may be upgraded in the same hardware, to fulfill different incoming
needs.

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Per cycle access: 1-8 instructions 1-4 instructions

.Software Can be linked with MAT÷AB Can be linked with


compatibility: GUI

Compound instructions perform ISC instructions


Performance: multiple Operations. perform single
eg:multiply+load+modifies the operation. Eg: Add,
address register. load or store.

SIMD: ÷imited SIMD features. No SIMD support.

DSP chips used are TMC62X, Black Microprocessors used


fin,?TMS320F2407A etc are P4,powerpc etc

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The output of the UPS PWM inverter is sampled and converted to an rms
voltage that is processed in a negative feedback loop. The actual inverter output is
compared to a software rms reference value to determine the error voltage. The error
voltage is then passed through a proportional integral (PI) control to eliminate any
steady state errors present. The result is the necessary error compensation signal. A
harmonic distortion correction signal is then subtracted from the error compensation
signal and the result is applied to the input of PWM inverter.

The above mentioned harmonic distortion correction signal is generated in the


negative feedback loop. The Digital Signal Processor detects the harmonic distortion
signal within the output voltage waveform and determines the amplitude of real and
imaginary parts of the harmonic components [7]. This process will be described for the
cancellation of the 5th harmonic, however, any harmonic whose frequency is below
half the sampling frequency can be cancelled in the same manner.

An uninterruptible power supply or (UPS) is the best way to protect your


computer hardware and documents from power fluctuations. It also lets you continue
to work during brief power failures. You can sometimes find wattage and volt-
amperage of your computer equipment in the manual or on a sticker on the chassis
.Whether you need EMI and FI protection depends on the quality of your electricity
and the amount of other electronic equipment in the vicinity of your computer. Mains
power is continually plagued by surges, sags, spikes, transients, EMI, FI and even
complete failure, all of which affect sensitive electronic equipment. The key benefits
to having UPS protection and support are: Avoiding costly hardware damage-
Avoiding date corruption and loss Avoiding costly and inconvenient down time
Enabling remote monitoring and control of power requirements Enabling unattended
orderly shutdown in the event of mains failure .There are basically three types of
UPSs: Standby, ÷ine-interactive, and On-÷ine. Standby : sometimes called off-line
with this type if power supply, power comes directly from the A/C outlet until the
voltage sages or the power fails .After the power sags or fails, a battery powered
inverter almost immediately turns on the continue to supply you with power Batteries

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are charged, as necessary , when direct A/C power is available .Even while power is
coming directly from A/C outlet, the UPS provides protection from voltage spikes and
surges .Standby units are the low coat solutions in the UPS family. ÷ine-interactive:
Just like the standby units, line-interactive UPSs provide protection form spikes and
surges, as well as supplying auxiliary power if voltage sag or a blackout occurs. Unlike
the standby units, line-interactive UPSs provide automatic voltage boost when the
power dips, without accessing the batteries[9].This feature provides continuous lined
conditioning, promotes longer battery life, and eliminates electronic noise that can
cause minor application errors and loss of date. On-line: On-line UPSs provide the
highest quality of power protection by using a double-conversion technique. The UPS
takes the incoming A/C power and recreates it by converting the voltage to D/C, then
conditioning the power to eliminate noise, sags, or surges, and finally, converting it
back to A/C before it exists the UPS. Since the power runs continuously through the
inverter, there is no transfer or switching time to battery mode in event of a blackout.

Each frame of the converted digital output from the A/D converter passes to a real and
imaginary component harmonic detectors for phases a, b and c. For example, the
harmonic distortion waveform (Aa5) is processed by a signal correlation function in
order to detect the real and imaginary values of the 5th harmonic

 
     
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The distortion signal may be represented more simply as

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Where Ȝa5r is the real component of Aa5, and Ȝa5i is the imaginary component of Aa5.

Once the harmonic distortion signal (Aa5, Ab5 and Ac5) is detected by the signal
correlation function, the amplitudes of the real and imaginary components of the 5th
harmonic are computed by averaging the amplitude components.

The amplitude components are then applied to a PI compensator to generate the


harmonic distortion correction signal necessary to cancel harmonic distortion from the

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output voltage. The resulting harmonic distortion correction signal is then subtracted
from the error compensation signal and applied to the input of the PWM inverter to
produce an output voltage waveform free of harmonic distortion. The same technique
can be applied to eliminate still higher harmonics like 7th, 9th etc.

60Hz Sine
ms set
ms Voltage
PMW Output
Compensator (PI)
Inverter Filter

5th Harmonic
A/D
Converter
PI
eal Harmonic
Compensator
Detector

Signal Correlation
Function Amplitude?
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PI
Compensato Imaginary???
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r  ?

5th Harmonic   ?Correlation?


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ms
Voltage

Fig-5.1 Basic block diagram of DSP control with PWM inverter control circuit

Hence, the DSP controlled inverter and harmonic conditioners operate to provide
Sinusoidal load voltages even under varying non-linear load conditions while
preventing higher operating temperatures due to additional harmonic currents.

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^? 5    6 with the DSP, the number of electronic


components is halved, thereby reducing processing time and failure probability
and increasing reliability and eliminating the use of redundant current and
voltage sensors.
^?  : the DSP controls the electrical values directly, guaranteeing extreme
precision and stability of output voltage and avoidance of noise due to
distorting loads.
^?  $ &  6 DSP controls the UPS in its entirety and outputs
on a serial interface all the supervision reports, for automatic shutdown of
servers, for communication on a ÷AN network, the Internet and Intranet and
for IT maintenance which is carried out without switching the equipment off.
^? §   6The control software provides users with operating and
historical data in the form of clear read-out monitors, aiding them in taking any
decisions. More over the control system upgrade can be implemented in
software, making the latest features available to any compatible UPS without
changes to the hardware.
^? &    Battery charging to enhance the Battery life
Battery test facility Inverter output short circuit protected ectifier output
short circuit protected Immune to everse Phase sequence Auto retransfer
facility Alarms can be stored in the memory DSP and Dual microprocessor
based system.

^? $  : Technology Inverter adjusts the PWM pulse train to
the Power Switches with greater precision and ensures stability of the output,
with changing non-linear loads. The IGBT based inverter operates at high
frequency thus reduced filters and high efficiency.
^? 0  &    6 The IGBT charger and primary full bridge
converter, unlike phase-controlled rectifier, minimizes the harmonies being
inducted into the line, thus improves the input power factor high. With the
optional harmonic filters, power factor is enhanced to levels close to unity.

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The conventional methods of UPS control and with using DSP, how
the UPS control can be made more users friendly, its advantages are
discussed in the paper.

No doubt, DSPs are going to lead the market of control inverters in


near future and already big players in the market like Texas Instruments,
Eaton group, Intel etc are in the arena to make use the technology in a full
swing.

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  M!
[1] ³|      
        ´ by Annette
Von Jouanne and Prasad N.Enjeti sen IEEE member, from IEEE transactions on
Industrial Electronics,   !" #$"%&"$''(.

[2] ³        |  )   ´ by Ned Mohan, Tore M.
Undeland, William P. obbins

[3] ³    |          *´ Jim yan, aheen
Industrial estate, Ireland.

[4] ³+  *  *        

           ´


Hirachi, K., Sakane, M., Matsui, T., Kajima, A., and Nakaoka, M.: Proc. IEEE Power
electronics specialist conf. (PESC), $''," # -./ -,

[5] ³+ &    *           *  


 
  ´ Chen, J.F., and Chou, C.÷.:IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
$'',"$."0,1"#, 2/,,-

[6] ³|    *      3      &  


´. Krishnan, .: Proc. IEEE Industrial electronics, control, and instrumentation
Conf. (IECON), $'',"#,2-/,-!

[7] ³ *  


    *   &4" Kamran, F., and
Habetler, T.G.: ³´, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., $''-"$!"0!1"# $./ $-

[8] ³   
  *     ´. Joos, G., ÷in, Y.,
Ziogas, P.D., and ÷indsay, J.F.: Proc. IEEE Applied power electronics Conf. (APEC),
$''5"#,'-/(.,

[9] ³|     


     ´, Von Jouanne,
Enjeti, P.N., and ÷ucas, D.J.: IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron#"$''(" !"0$1"#$5$/$5,

[10] ³ + |+ *  *   3    
    ´ Kazerani, M., Ziogas, P.D., and Joos, G.:IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron. $''$"!-"0$1"#25/2-

[11] Salmon, J.C.: IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,$''!"-"0 1"#,.'/,5.

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[12] ³T  3    6              
  &   ´ Spiazzi, G., and ÷ee, F.C.: µImplementation of single-
phase power factor- correction circuits in three-phase application¶, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., $''2" "0!1"#!(,/!2$

[13] ³               


 *    &   &       *    
   +   ´, De Souza, F.P., and Barbi, I.:. Proc. IEEE Power
electronics specialist Conf. (PESC), $'''"#!-2/!'5

[14] ³ *   *      3  * ´, Singh, B., Haddad,
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