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TEST I - ANSWERS

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QUESTION 1 [10 marks]
1a). Name the following three cubic-crystal unit cells. (1½ marks)

Simple cubic (sc) Body-centered cubic (bcc) Face-centerd cubic (fcc)

b). Name and draw the 3 types of solids, classified according to atomic arrangement.
(3 marks)

Amorphous Polycrystalline Single Crystal

c). What is the meaning of direct and in-direct semiconductor? [3 marks]

k = crystal momentum
parameter

EC min p = momentum of the


electron

∆k = 0 EC min = Min. value in


∆k ≠ 0 conduction band
∆p = 0
∆p ≠ 0
EV max = Max. value in
valence band
EV max

Direct Semiconductor In-Direct Semiconductor

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d). Find the percentage of the dopant in the valence level. Consider the value of Boron (2.75
x 1017 cm-3) doping in Silicon with EV – EFp is equal to -0.013 eV. [2½ marks]

−1
pa   N   −( EFp − Ev )
= 1+  v  exp  
p + pa   4N a   k BT
 
−1
pa   9.84 ×1018  − 0.013 
= 1+  17 
exp  
p + pa   4(2.75× 10 )  0.026 
pa
= [ 1+ (8.945)(0.6) ] = 0.1557× 100= 15.57% ( in the dopant ( acceptor) level)
−1

p + pa
∴ in the valence l evel ⇒ 100− 15.57 = 84.43%

QUESTION 2 [10 marks]


2. An n-type Si semiconductor at T = 300 K with an impurity doping concentration of
nn = 6.25 x 1014 cm-3.

a). Find the impurity concentration (i.e the majority and minority carriers density) by
using the intrinsic value, [2
marks]

−3
Majority carrier density n n = 6.25
x 10cm14 and
ni2  (1.5 x10 10) 2 −3
Minority carrier density n p = =  14
= x 3.6cm
 10 5
nn  6.25x 10 

b). Find the resistivity of the charge carrier density of the material. [2 marks]

1 1
ρ= = = Ω 10 cm
. .µ
nn q n (6.25
x 10 cm 14 3−
)(1.6x 10 C−)(1000
19
cm /Vs 2)

c). Find the intrinsic Fermi level for the majority carriers density [2
marks]

 nn 6.25 10x  14


EFn n −Ei =k BT ln=
  (0.026)ln = 0.276
10 eV
 ni  x1.5 10

d). How fast the electrons move under the influence of the electric field, ε = 8 V/m with
the average time between collisions of 0.5 ns. [4 marks]

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q.τ qτ. 1.6 ×
10 −19×0.5 ×10 − 9
µn = = = = 87.912 m 2/ Vs
mn me 9.1 ×10 −31
8V
vdrift = µn ε. = (87.912m /Vs
2
)( =) 703.30m /s or 70330 cm /s
m

QUESTION 3 [10 marks]


3. What is the Metallurgical junction?
The interface separating the ‘n’ and ‘p’ regions [1
mark]

4. An abrupt GaAs pn junction with built-in potential barrier Vbi = 1.4 V and Na = 1020
cm-3 at 300 K.
a). Calculate the dopant (acceptor) Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level in
GaAs pn junction.

 Na  
10 20
EFi −EFp = k BT = 
ln 0.026 ln =  0.8223
6
eV [2 marks]
 ni  1.84
x 10

b). Calculate the dopant (donor) Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level in GaAs
pn junction.
1 1
Vbi = 1.4V = (E Fn− E Fi+) (E−Fi E Fp
=) −(E Fn [+E Fi ) 0.8223 ]
q q [2 marks]
∴EFn− E Fi= 0.5777eV

c). Calculate the value of the charge carrier (donor).

( E −E ) 0.5777
 −
n =N =
d n i exp  Fn= Fi× (1.84 10 )exp
= 6
×  8.2131
 10
cm 15 3
[2 marks]
 kT   0.026

d). Explain of the situation when the value of xn >> xp, with respect to the dopant. [1
mark]
The space width, xn is fill up with ‘holes’ whereas the xp is fill up with ‘electrons’, the
electrons move faster than the holes. As a conclusion it takes less width to fill up the
region for the same amount of dopant otherwise. In ideal situation:
x p N a = xn N d
In order to have xn >> x p
N a >> N d

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e). Find the value of xp if the value of xn is given as 4.51 x 10-5 cm. [2 marks]

x pN a =x nN d

x p =x nN d N/ =
a (4.51 10cm −5)(8.2131
× × 10cm −
=/10cm
15 3 − 20
× −
) 30.0003704 ×
10cm or5 −
3.704 10cm 9

List of Equations

 ( E − Ei ) 
Electron density, n = ni exp  F 
 kT 
 ( E − EF ) 
Hole density, p = ni exp  i 
 kT 
Conductivity of the electron, σ = n.q.µ n

q.τ
Mobility of the electron µ=
mn
v
Electric Field of the electron ε=
µn
−1
Fraction of electrons tied to the donor levels, nd   N   −( EC − Ed )  
= 1 +  C  exp  
n + nd   2 N d   k BT 
1/ 2
 2ε V  N  1 
xn =  S bi  a  
 e  N d  N a + Nd 
Space charge width, 1/ 2
 2ε V  N d  1 
x p =  S bi   
 e  N a  N a + Nd  
Quantity Symbol Value
Electron mass. me 0.91 x10-30 kg
Boltzman constant. kB 1.38066 × 10-23 J/K (R/Nav)
Elementary charge. e 1.6 × 10-19 C
Thermal voltage at 300K. kBT/q 0.026 V

µn Dn µp Dp
Si 1000 35 480 12.4
GaAs 8500 220 400 10.4
Ge 3900 101 1900 49.2

Typical mobility and diffusion coefficient values of T=300K (µ=cm2/Vs and D=cm2/s)

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Effective densities and intrinsic carrier concentrations of Si, Ge and GaAs.

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