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QUESTION 1 [10 marks]

1a). Name the following three cubic-crystal unit cells. (1½ marks)

b). Name and draw the 3 types of solids, classified according to atomic arrangement.

(3 marks)

k = crystal momentum

parameter

electron

∆k ≠ 0 conduction band

∆p = 0

∆p ≠ 0

EV max = Max. value in

valence band

EV max

Page 1 of 5

d). Find the percentage of the dopant in the valence level. Consider the value of Boron (2.75

x 1017 cm-3) doping in Silicon with EV – EFp is equal to -0.013 eV. [2½ marks]

−1

pa N −( EFp − Ev )

= 1+ v exp

p + pa 4N a k BT

−1

pa 9.84 ×1018 − 0.013

= 1+ 17

exp

p + pa 4(2.75× 10 ) 0.026

pa

= [ 1+ (8.945)(0.6) ] = 0.1557× 100= 15.57% ( in the dopant ( acceptor) level)

−1

p + pa

∴ in the valence l evel ⇒ 100− 15.57 = 84.43%

2. An n-type Si semiconductor at T = 300 K with an impurity doping concentration of

nn = 6.25 x 1014 cm-3.

a). Find the impurity concentration (i.e the majority and minority carriers density) by

using the intrinsic value, [2

marks]

−3

Majority carrier density n n = 6.25

x 10cm14 and

ni2 (1.5 x10 10) 2 −3

Minority carrier density n p = = 14

= x 3.6cm

10 5

nn 6.25x 10

b). Find the resistivity of the charge carrier density of the material. [2 marks]

1 1

ρ= = = Ω 10 cm

. .µ

nn q n (6.25

x 10 cm 14 3−

)(1.6x 10 C−)(1000

19

cm /Vs 2)

c). Find the intrinsic Fermi level for the majority carriers density [2

marks]

EFn n −Ei =k BT ln=

(0.026)ln = 0.276

10 eV

ni x1.5 10

d). How fast the electrons move under the influence of the electric field, ε = 8 V/m with

the average time between collisions of 0.5 ns. [4 marks]

Page 2 of 5

q.τ qτ. 1.6 ×

10 −19×0.5 ×10 − 9

µn = = = = 87.912 m 2/ Vs

mn me 9.1 ×10 −31

8V

vdrift = µn ε. = (87.912m /Vs

2

)( =) 703.30m /s or 70330 cm /s

m

3. What is the Metallurgical junction?

The interface separating the ‘n’ and ‘p’ regions [1

mark]

4. An abrupt GaAs pn junction with built-in potential barrier Vbi = 1.4 V and Na = 1020

cm-3 at 300 K.

a). Calculate the dopant (acceptor) Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level in

GaAs pn junction.

Na

10 20

EFi −EFp = k BT =

ln 0.026 ln = 0.8223

6

eV [2 marks]

ni 1.84

x 10

b). Calculate the dopant (donor) Fermi level with respect to the intrinsic Fermi level in GaAs

pn junction.

1 1

Vbi = 1.4V = (E Fn− E Fi+) (E−Fi E Fp

=) −(E Fn [+E Fi ) 0.8223 ]

q q [2 marks]

∴EFn− E Fi= 0.5777eV

( E −E ) 0.5777

−

n =N =

d n i exp Fn= Fi× (1.84 10 )exp

= 6

× 8.2131

10

cm 15 3

[2 marks]

kT 0.026

d). Explain of the situation when the value of xn >> xp, with respect to the dopant. [1

mark]

The space width, xn is fill up with ‘holes’ whereas the xp is fill up with ‘electrons’, the

electrons move faster than the holes. As a conclusion it takes less width to fill up the

region for the same amount of dopant otherwise. In ideal situation:

x p N a = xn N d

In order to have xn >> x p

N a >> N d

Page 3 of 5

e). Find the value of xp if the value of xn is given as 4.51 x 10-5 cm. [2 marks]

x pN a =x nN d

x p =x nN d N/ =

a (4.51 10cm −5)(8.2131

× × 10cm −

=/10cm

15 3 − 20

× −

) 30.0003704 ×

10cm or5 −

3.704 10cm 9

List of Equations

( E − Ei )

Electron density, n = ni exp F

kT

( E − EF )

Hole density, p = ni exp i

kT

Conductivity of the electron, σ = n.q.µ n

q.τ

Mobility of the electron µ=

mn

v

Electric Field of the electron ε=

µn

−1

Fraction of electrons tied to the donor levels, nd N −( EC − Ed )

= 1 + C exp

n + nd 2 N d k BT

1/ 2

2ε V N 1

xn = S bi a

e N d N a + Nd

Space charge width, 1/ 2

2ε V N d 1

x p = S bi

e N a N a + Nd

Quantity Symbol Value

Electron mass. me 0.91 x10-30 kg

Boltzman constant. kB 1.38066 × 10-23 J/K (R/Nav)

Elementary charge. e 1.6 × 10-19 C

Thermal voltage at 300K. kBT/q 0.026 V

µn Dn µp Dp

Si 1000 35 480 12.4

GaAs 8500 220 400 10.4

Ge 3900 101 1900 49.2

Typical mobility and diffusion coefficient values of T=300K (µ=cm2/Vs and D=cm2/s)

Page 4 of 5

Effective densities and intrinsic carrier concentrations of Si, Ge and GaAs.

Page 5 of 5

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