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Physical Preparation of Elite

Athletes

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Physical Preparation of Elite Athletes

• Performance Culture
• World Class Performance Philosophy
• High Performance Player
• Player Lifecycle
• Building Blocks for Working with Elite Players
• Human Performance Laboratory
Physical Preparation of Elite
Athletes

Vision

To build a pathway for the next generation of


Manchester United players and be recognised as the
most consistently successful Club in the Premier
League

Objective
To Create an environment that promotes total quality,
attention to detail and a winning mentality in every
single facet of athletic Performance.
Performance Culture

• Understand the Performance environment – What is it?


– The way we do things round here
• Results driven – “Quick Wins”
• Performance sport is about risk management
• Training environment
• Evidence based practice & methodology
• Elite athletes are about being different – exceptions to the rule
• Implementation based on knowledge / experience / insight – art & science
World Class Performance Philosophy

• Understand the coaching process.


• Understand the training process.
• Attention to Detail.
• Resources – manpower.
• Focus on what really makes a difference.
• Be Individual in Approach.
• Look for trends – potential for effect.
• Feedback Driven – empower athlete with knowledge.
Human Performance Organisational Model

Head of Sports Science


Dr. Tony Strudwick

Head of Human Performance


Dr. Richard Hawkins

Head of Strength & Head of Elite Physical


Physiological Development Development
Dr. Gary Walker Dr. Marcello Iaia

HUMAN PERFORMANCE LABORATORY


Nutrition Consultant
Mark Ellison

Talent
Conditioning
Support
Sports Science Support University Consultant Physiological Assessment
David Kelly Dr. Warren Gregson Robin Thorpe

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High Performance Player

• Remain injury free.


• Capable of sustaining high performance work rates.
• Capable of playing 50 games.
• Window of opportunity (22 – 32)
• Capable of playing a game every 4 days over a 5 game period.
• Ability to demonstrate sound recovery on objective markers.
• Demonstrate Seasonal Match Availability of 90%.
• Demonstrate Seasonal Training Availability of 85%.
• Achieve Baseline Targets for Sports Science Department.
Example – 85% Training Availability

Monitoring Philosophy High Performance


Player Functional
Monitoring screening

Sound Recovery Baseline Targets

Programming

Planning High intensity


Conditioning

Monitoring Conditioning

Goal Achieve 85% Seasonal Training Availability

Measures of Success Recovery time, recovery time variance against expected date, green, yellow, red days

Defined monitoring processes (inc when & how), definitions of recovery protocols, planning strategies,
Processes strength and conditioning pathways, functional assessment protocols, baseline target procedures, dirt
tracking protocols, player medical record tracking, protocols for liaison with medical and coaching staff.

Organisational Structure
A diagram showing organisational processes and protocol pathways. By clicking on any process in the
organisation chart you can see a list of staff responsibilities.
Roles
Building Blocks for Working with Elite Players

• Information Platform.
• Analysis of Performance.
• Competition Programme.
• Training Programme.
• Planning.
• Monitoring
• Systematic Development.
• Individualization.
Building Blocks for Working with Elite Players

Individualization

Systematic Development

Monitoring

Planning

Training Programme

Competition Programme

Analysis of Performance

Information Platform
The Information Platform

• Fuel Required to feed the implementation of the process;


• Data collection
• Data Warehousing
• Data Analysis
• Information Dashboards
• Performance Intelligence.
• Integration of match, training, performance and injury data – Prescriptive
driven.
• Ability to communicate to multiple channels;
• Manager
• Coaches
• Medical department
• Chief Executive
The Information Platform

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Analytics

By analytics we mean the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative


analysis, explanatory and predictive models, and fact based
management to drive decisions and actions. The analytics may be input
for human decisions or may drive fully automated decisions. Analytics
are a subset of what has come to be called Performance Intelligence –
a set of technologies and processes that use data to understand and
analyse team performance.

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Performance Intelligence and Analytics

OPTIMIZATION What’s the best that can happen?

PREDICTIVE MODELING What will happen next?

Analytics
FORECASTIN G/EXTRAPOLATION What if these trends continue?
Degree of Intelligence

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Why is this happening?

ALERTS What actions are needed?

Access & Reporting


QUERY/DRILL DOWN Where exactly is the problem?

AD HOC REPORTS How many, how often, where?

STANDARD REPORTS What happened?

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Analysis of Performance

• Performance expressed in terms of result, time, score, position etc.


• Performance has a number of component parts;
– Technique, physical, tactical, strategic, event related, psychological
– Equipment, medical, social
• Coaches ensure explanations for performance couched in stable controllable
factors (tactics, fitness) rather than unstable factors (opposition tactics,
physical condition.
• Integral to coaching process.
Analysis of Performance

Pre-event management • Event strategy


• Performance expectations

• Strategy rehearsal
• Pre-start checklist Performance
• Selection amendments Analysis

Event management
Goal derived expectations Confirmed strategy

Emergent strategy
Performance
Analysis Detailed tactics • Observation
and decisions • Recording
• Analysis
• Role Input

Performance
Analysis

Post-event management
Feedback

• Athlete support role


• Forward administration
Adapted from Lyle 1998
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Analysis of Performance

Physical performance continues to speed up

2000-2010

• Doubled amount of high intensity runs


• Sprint distance increased by 60%
• Top speed achieved up to 9.7 m/s

ProZone – Premier League


Competition Programme

• The competition framework determined by success in cup competitions and


is therefore difficult to predict.
• Competition scheduling very significant on planning and periodising the
yearly programme.
• Preparation for competition programme involves a full range of activities;
– Recovery
– Strategy discussions
– Individual preparation
– Rehearsal
– Training
Planning – Guidelines for Field Based conditioning

Physical Physiological Training


Useful For Training Mode Training Code
Quality Stimulus Protocol

Improving the Interval running


2-7 repetitions of 4- 6v6-10v10
ability to exercise
General endurance Aerobic moderate 10 min @ 80-90% Blue
for prolonged Small to medium
Hrmax. Rest: ~1 min
period of time pitch area

Improving the Intermittent


Football specific/ ability to sustain & 4-8 repetitions of running
high-intensity perform repeated Aerobic high 1-3 min @ 90-95% 2v2-4v4 big pitch
Endurance high-intensity Yellow
Hrmax. Rest: 1-1.5 area
exercise
min 5v5-8v8 specific
rules, big pitch area

Improving the 3-18 repetitions of


Repeated ability to produce Anaerobic 5-30 s @ maximal/ Straight, shuttle and
short/long sprints power rapidly and (Speed endurance) near maximal multidirectional Red
perform maximal
Intensity. Rest: 2-6 specific runs
runs repeatedly
19 exercise time
Planning – 1 Match per Week

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

Injury
Aerobic Leg Strength
Prevention
low/light
Speed Quick Recovery
Aerobic
Playing endurance Aerobic feet/reaction
Quick moderate/high GAME
Squad moderate/high Core/Upper
Feet/reaction (short)
TT/Game (short) TT/Game Body
TT/Game TT/Game
TT/Game

Injury Injury
Leg Strength Quick
Prevention Prevention
Speed feet/reaction
Non Aerobic high Aerobic endurance
Aerobic GAME Aerobic
Playing moderate/high Short speed
moderate/high Moderate
Squad TT/Game (short) TT/Game
(short)
TT/Game
TT/Game
TT/Game
TT/Game

Leg Strength Quick Injury


TT/Game feet/reaction Prevention
Elite Aerobic high TT/Game
Speed Aerobic high
Group Core/Upper endurance Short speed Aerobic high
TT/Game Leg Power
Body TT/Game
TT/Game TT/Game TT/Game
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Planning – 2 Matches per Week

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

Aerobic Short Speed


low/light
Recovery Quick Recovery
Aerobic
Playing feet/reaction
Quick GAME moderate/high GAME
Squad Core/Upper Core/Upper
Feet/reaction (short)
Body TT/Game Body
TT/Game TT/Game

Leg Strength Quick Speed


feet/reaction
Aerobic
Non Aerobic high Speed Aerobic
moderate/high GAME
Playing GAME endurance Short speed moderate/high
(short)
Squad TT/Game (short)
TT/Game TT/Game
TT/Game
TT/Game

Leg Strength Quick Injury


TT/Game feet/reaction Prevention
Aerobic high TT/Game
Elite Speed Aerobic high
Group Core/Upper endurance Short speed Aerobic high
TT/Game Leg Power
Body TT/Game
TT/Game TT/Game TT/Game
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Monitoring

• Obtain physiological measures during match-play and


Training.
• Determine the physical capacity of elite players.
• Determine readiness to perform (freshness).
• Integration of sophisticated technology:
– Heart Rate Telemetry
– Prozone Analysis.
– Global Positioning Satellite.
– Accelerometers.
– Power Output.
– SmartSpeed.
Monitoring
Player Available
to Perform

Player’s age/ history


Fitness status
Physiological profile
Psychological profile
Player External conditions
Workload

Training Game

External Internal Physical No. Games/ Days Per


Load Load Demands Min Played Game

What a player does


Distance How a player responds
Speed Heart Rate
Accel/ decel Rate of Perceived Exertion
Total work Metabolic response
Metabolic power
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Monitoring & Intervention

Injury Risk

Reduction of Risk Reduction of Risk


Player Recovery
Readiness/Wellness

On-Field Off-Field
Monitoring

Training Match-Play FMS Activation/


Warm-up

Individual
Pre-habilitation
Exercises
Internal External Match Strength &
Load DPG Power
Load Availability
Assessment

Performance
Reliability

Upper Body
Leg Strength
Core
Quantifying Work Loads (G.P.S.)

• Global Positioning Satellite (GPS).


• Small device worn on athlete’s back.
• Searches for satellites to determine position.
• Records position, time, body movements, impacts and heart
rate continuously.
• Cutting edge technology for work loads.
• Identify performance trends, over or under training or
stagnation.
Physical Loading – Elite Sport Issues

• Too much volume / too little intensity / insufficient recovery.


• Heart rate response is not total picture of sport/game
requirements.
• Load isn’t just cardiovascular.
• Mechanical - Muscular
– Concentric
– Eccentric
• Neurological
Technology Solution

• Objective Quantification Workload:

• Body Load
– G-Forces
– Daily/weekly totals
– Recovery time / load volumes.

• Impact Load
– Number of contacts
– Impacts/min
Physical Loading

• Marked  in injuries
• Junior athletes - performance
output logged for comparison with
senior players.
• Reflection of how advanced the
junior player is compared to senior
counterpart
• Recent suggestion that the best
indicator of future senior football
success maybe performance
output during match-play with
testing being much less indicative
Physical Loading

• Using this to measure total loading


results in a much better planning of
future training loads and intensities
• Coach is better able to periodise an
athletes training programme for
physical and skill related activities
• Des Hasler (Manly Sea Eagles
Rugby League)
• % Loading to each session
– 25% Neurological
– 55% Cardiovascular
– 20% Musculoskeletal
Monitoring - Example
Systematic Development
Performance
Organisational Model
Management
Structure Processes

Quality
Research
Control

Meeting Operating
Protocols Procedures

Performance
Feedback Recruitment

Monitoring Performance
Protocols Analysis

Performance Athletic
Targets Performance
Data Medical
Management Provision
Systematic Performance Model

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High
Performance
Assessment Development Performance Player
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
2
Regeneration
AIMS

AIMS
AIMS
• ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • …….
• ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • …….
• …… • …… • …… • …… • …… • ……
M P M P M P
• …….T T • ……. • …….T T • ……. • …….T T • …….
• ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • ……. • …….
• …… • …… • …… • …… • …… • ……

DEVELOP
DEVELOP

DEVELOP

ACTION
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM
ENGINE

Working together to achieve


Players’ Values Staff Values
excellence. Our purpose, UPHOLD UPHOLD UPHOLD
philosophies & processes 1. Ability. 1. Creating winners
are defined & connected 2. Attitude. 2. Leading by example
using an OrgWheel 3. Application. 3. Appearance
4. Seeing individuals
5. Setting high standards
Individualisation

• Understanding the demands of match-play.


• Developing player profiles to understand injury risks.
• Managing risks on a team and individual basis using pro-active monitoring and
intervention.
• Implementation of preventative strategies:
• Manipulating the demands of training, playing load and individualising recovery
• Specific practices to decrease likelihood of injury:

• Functional Movement Assessment


• S & C Impact Model – Identification of physical strengths & weaknesses and
individualised off-field conditioning approach.
• Activation / Warm-Up
Individualization - Action Planning

1st Team On-Field Playing Time


Adherence to Recovery Protocol
Position Specific Core Skill: Heading
Hydration Status Position Specific Core Skill: Distribution
Body Composition Position Specific Core Skill: Tackling
Athleticism: Relative Upper Body Strength Position Specific Core Skill: Control

Athleticism: Relative Leg Strength Position Specific Core Skill: Possession Retention

Athleticism: Relative Upper Body Strength Position Specific Core Skill: Turning

Athleticism: Absolute Upper Body Strength MUFC Basic Pre-requisities: Aggression

Athleticism: Absolute Leg Strength MUFC Basic Pre-requisities: Will to Win

Athleticism: Top Speed


Match Data: Speed off the Mark
Athleticism: Acceleration
MUFC Basic Pre-requisities: Game Sense

Athleticism: Leg Power Position Specific HI Running

Prehab: Injury / Illness Susceptiblity Position Specific Total Distance

Prehab: Programme Adherence Position Specific Recovery Time

Lifeskills: Club Ambassador & Club Apps. Position Specific Ability to Penetrate

Lifeskills: Downtime - Level of Trust Training Adherence


Outstanding Matchwinner Potential: Relative to Posn AVA Personality: Compatability with club culture
AVA Personality: Compatability with playing position
Good Off-Field Leadership / Teamship
Robustness
On-Field Leadership / Teamship
Target

Fair
Performance data > analysis > action
Minimum
Reconditioning Timeline Processes
Entry and exit requirements: Laboratory testing strategy

Stage 2
Reconditioning –
Level 1 Core + CV Stage 4
Reconditioning – Stage 6
Keiser Strength Reconditioning –
Power Development
Stage 8
Performance Assessment Stage 10
Full Training
Assessment

1 2 3 4
HP
5
Return to
High Performance
Stage 9
Stage 7
Return to Play
Stage 5 Reconditioning –
Stage 3 Return to Training/ Repeated Sprints
Reconditioning – Reconditioning
Stage 1 Primal Strength Return to Play
Injury –
Rehab Plan
Return to Training
Reconditioning
Rehabilitation
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Physical Preparation of Elite Athletes

• Performance Culture.
• World Class Performance Philosophy.
• High Performance Player.
• Player Lifecycle.
• Building Blocks for Working with Elite Players.
• Human Performance Laboratory.
• Thankyou.
A Working Model for Preparing Elite Players

Delivery

Monitoring Implementation

Internal External
Decision
Traning Training Communication
Making
Load Load

Planning Management

Programming Resources

Competition Training Human Equipment