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SACRED BOOKS OF THE BUDDHISTS
TRANSLATED

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS

AND EDITED BY

F.

MAX MOLLER

PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF
HIS

MAJESTY CHULALANKARANA, KING OF SIAM

VOL.

II

HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW COPENHAGEN

NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN
BOMBAY
CALCUTTA

MADRAS

SHANGHAI

First Edition 1899
Rcfrriutcd
1923

PRINTED

IN

GRBAT BRITAIN

DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA

TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI
BY

T.

W.

RHYS DAVIDS

HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW COPENHAGEN NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI

131 \t>% &4> /2-92/ / .

1 00 (The irony in this text.. Silas. . . 175 . 3-26.... . Version .. .. . . . Introduction . .) Text 5.CONTENTS PACK.. ix Brahma-gala Suttanta. . .. .. Introduction ..) Text 3... .. . . 57-59. . 166.. Introduction (Index to Suttantas.. .. .. Doctrine of sacrifice. PREFACE Note on Note on Abbreviations i.. 164. the 56 paragraphs repeated in the other 65 Ambattha Suttanta. ... . *• / 2. 160. .. .. .. ix the probable age of the Dialogues this . . . Introduction. . - . . . . ... Samaa>a>a-phala Suttanta. . .. .)-. Introduction . 137 (The Arahat the true Brahman...) Text . xx xxiv xxv r Text (The • . Lokayata. SOA'ADAiVDA SUTTANTA. (Caste) 96 108 K Text 4.. 144 Kutadanta Suttanta.. . .

ascetic and wandering mendicant... .. . Tevigga Suttanta. . ..272 . Buddhist Idealism. . Text Index ok Subjects and Proper Names..) . 285 28* * Tent 13. 223 Porri/APADA Suttanta.. .. 331 . Introduction. .244 2(ft Subha Suttanta. .. . 190. Introduction. in the texts. . . . The Sambodhi. Index ok Pali Words . 208 Indian religieux in the Buddha's time. ... Buddhist Agnosticism. Kassapa-Sihanada Suttanta. . (The Soul) . ..) .. Lohik/sta Suttanta.. .. Introduction .. ... . Mahali Suttanta. . Introduction.. (The Indeterminates ... Introduction Text 11.. 2<>S \ 300 321 32N Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the Buddhists .. (Union with God) .... . 220... .. Introduction . 193.. Text 12. .. 241 I Text 10. Introduction (Iddhi. ..186 186.. . Text 9. . .27(1 272... Names Text 7. . 274. .) 197 c7aliya Suttanta 205 8.. 206 (Method of the Dialogues.. • 267 Kevaddha Suttanta. . .Vlll DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA... 206 Tapasa and Bhikshu.. PAGE 6... . (Ethics of Teaching) ..

West of There are two Chinese works. every day is adding to the number of facts on which an approximate estimate of the date may be based. Incidentally they contain a large number of references to the social. NOTE ON THE PROBABLE AGE OF THE DIALOGUES. details given on pp. translations India. contain exposition of what the early Buddhists con- We India. In the first place the numerous details and comparative tables given in the Introduction to my translation of the Milinda show without a doubt that practically the whole of the Pali Pifokas were known. which contain. in the Digha and Mag^ima Nikayas. in different recensions. The Pali text. the a full sidered the teaching of the Buddha to have been. do not But know for certain what that time exactly was. the intro- . and religious condition of India at the time when they were put together.PREFACE. xliv tend to show that the work was composed in the extreme North. of Indian books taken to China from the North of Dialogues of the Buddha. / and regarded as final authority. xliii. constituting. political. And the ascertained facts are already sufficient to give us a fair working hypothesis. at the time and place The geographical when that work was composed.

in the form in which we now have it. A. the Katha Vatthu (according to the views prevalent. that absolutely impossible. Then again. at the court of Asoka. the son of Moggali. and recorded. S. at the Council of Ra^agaha. J.. if an entry be found in the books kept by a man in the ordinary course of his trade.d. at Pa/aliputta. . which entry speaks against himself. at the end of the fourth century a. in their commentaries. in the middle of the third century B. nearly if not quite as we now have them in the Pali.of my R. for . has added important details. — Kawiipura in South India. Now at the time when they made this entry about Tissa's authorship of the Katha Vatthu the commentators believed. I venture to submit. by at in Tissa. and it was an accepted tenet of those among whom they mixed just as it was. among the theologians in Europe. therefore. the in the North of India.X DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. immeactually It is. diately after his decease. were known at a very early date in the North of India. i See the authors quoted in the Introduction to Professor Takaku-ui. 1 vol. there is still one conclusion that must be drawn the Nikayas. duction and the opening chapters of the Milinda For the reasuns adduced {loco citato) it is evident that the work must have been composed at or about the time of the Christian era. — — translation. They also held that it had been recited. and at Anuradhapura Ceylon. a recognised rule of evidence in the courts of law that. mutatis mutandis. Whether (as M.C. the commentators can have invented this information It is modern Patna. Sylvain Levy thinks) it is an enlarged work built up on the foundation of the Indian original of the Chinese books or whether (as I am inclined to think) that original is derived from our Milinda. at the corresponding date in the history of their faith that the whole of the canon was the word of the Buddha. in an article in the 896. 1 . by Dhammapala and Buddhaghosa) was composed. ii .. then that entry is especially worthy of credence. under these circumstances.

XI about Tissa and the Katha Vatthu. is to the passage translated below. attributing the first scheming out But they felt compelled of the book to the Buddha. are not 'sects' at all. a refutation by Tissa of 250 erroneous opinions held by Buddhists belonging to schools of thought different from his own. from other sources. 339 the as we now have them. They found it in the records on which their works are based. in the modern European sense of Some of the more important of these data are collected in two articles by the present writer in the Journal of the Royal 1 They ' Asiatic Society' for 1891 and 1892. . Arnold C. to know something of the growth of the language. The best they could do was to try And this they did by a story. The in text of the Katha Vatthu now prepared for lies before us Pali Text a scholarly edition. Katha Vatthu fits in with what we should expect as and in possible. the word. to have great weight attached to it. It purports to be Society by Mr. on the ground that authorship. 278. in Pali. to hand on. Now the discussions as carried on in the Katha Vatthu are for the most part. and probable. And to what authority ? Without any exception as yet discovered. an the We — ' We We appeal to authority. and on both sides. the North of India. and to be familiar with what sort of are beginning questions are likely to have arisen. and Thus on p. have. and not from any other passage where . to the Pi/akas. to explain it away. on p. in the time of Asoka. a connumber of data as regards the different siderable often erroneschools of thought among Buddhists are beginning called the Eighteen Sects V ously to know something about the historical development of Buddhism. the record of Tissa's And this deserves. it is evidence against themselves. of In all these respects the the different Pali styles. evidently legendary.PREFACE. as they found it. They dared not alter it. Taylor. appeal and it is quite evident that the quotation is from § 6 our Suttanta.

506 = M. 1. Vatthu. 554 = Vim. 172. I. II. = Dhp. 71. 9-2 3- more quotations from the older Pi/aka books in the Katha Vatthu. 344 = A. 362. Vatthu. =M. 440 = S. we find. VIII. N. 6. 522 525 528 549 404 = M. 481 = D.Xll THE DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 156.84. 554 = S. S. 33. M. 23). 457 = A. suttantakini. c. therefore. 490. 369 = M.. 70. C. P. 588. 25. 9. 164. the expressions dhammakathika. p. XXXIV. I. 54. VI. P. Ind.' II. 602 = Dh. 4. 227 = Kh. be considerably older. 348 = A. 84. II 141. and pa#/£a-neka' Epigr. II. 85. = M. P. 389.2 7* 565 = D. p. 126. 483 = D. 494 = S.7. the Suttanta. = S. I. II. 93. (M. VII. and ' Z. as the very name of the Kevaddha (with a difference of reading : found also in our MSS.447. G. Hultsch have called attention x to the fact that in inscriptions of the third century b. I. I. They must themselves. 5i3 = A. 426 = D. I. 8 9= P. pe/aki. 92. I. D. 94.).43351 =Kh. I. 58 . as descriptions of donors to the dagabas. But this is enough to show that. V. 484 = A. 345 = S. I. about three or four times as many as are contained in this list. p. other instances of quotations The Katha Katha — The following are The Nikayas. Thirdly. are many I in any question that was being discussed. 505 = M. 457 = D. IV. the same words might occur. 33345 = A. P. 2. 393 (nearly).' xl. IV. and were considered to be final authorities There 496. 6. I. I. I. all the Five Nikayas we?e extant . II. I. P. = M. 485 = S. 591 597. 72. 197. I.. 50. is given. I. 1. 169. I. = A. 206 = J. Hofrath Biihler and Dr. 413 = S. Sutta. 233. pp. 111. &c. Nikayas. at the time when the KatJid Vatthu was composed. IV. 347 = Kh. P. suttantika. 83. 459 = M.

some considerable time before the date of of ' ' — 1 . but only of the So again the Dialogues Nikayas. having been known before the expression 'the Pi/akas' came into use As he points out. and as guardians of the Suttantas or of the Nikayas (which were not yet written. containing Suttantas. Xlll The Dnamma. of about the same date. xi. the terms are conclusive proof the existence. in our MSS. as reciters of the Pi/aka. and yika. 4. suttantas. determined. the title of the old work Pe/akopadesa. the Suttantas. Simple as they seem. supports his view.' that a single Pi/aka.zgiti Suttanta). in the sense of the is. Neumann thinks that Pe/aki does not mean knowing the Pi/akas. the exact force of these technical designations is not. 3. frequently and to meditate upon seven selected passages. of a Buddhist literature called either a Pitaka or the Pitakas. Ariya-vasani from the Digha (Sa?.' but knowing the Pi/aka. the Pi/akas.PREFACE. on Asoka's Bhabra Edict he recommends to the communities of the brethren and sisters of the to hear i. Order. not of the three Pi/akas. K. Dr. These are as follows : — 2. 1 . and were only kept alive in the memory of living men and women). But it should be recollected that the Katha Vatthu. Fourthly. and to the lay disciples of either sex. Anagata-bhayani from the Ahguttaralll.. Vinaya-samukkawsa. as yet. . Reden des Gotamo. tika one who knew precisely the Dialogues by heart ? This was no doubt the earliest use of the term. x. the inscriptions. are the only parts or passages of the canonical books Was then a suttancalled. 105-108. uses the word suttanta also for passages from other parts of the scriptures. Muni-gatha from the Sutta Nipata 206-220.' pp. However this may be. which is an exposition. the Nikayas Dhamma. and divided into Five Nikayas. the five Nikayas must have existed for some time before the brethren and sisters could be described as preachers of the Dhamma.

these passages Nos. 7. . 1 I. ' pp. Moneyya Sutta from the Iti Vuttaka 67 = A. 5.' II. 272. xxxv). as being especially characteristic of Asoka's ideas. Rahulovada = Rahulovada Suttanta (M. in great part. Of No. p. as certain. xxxvii foil. out of the seven having been found in the published portions of what we now call the Pi/akas. probably. I. 639. vol. the four great Nikayas contain a number of stock passages. What is perhaps still more important is the point to : We which M. and on the other of the Dhammapada. 414- 420). raises the presumption that when the now unpublished portions are printed the other two will also. E. include extracts from each of the Five. It is clear that in Asoka's time there was acknowledged to be an authoritative literature. The particular verses selected by M.. ' 'Journal of the Pali Text Society. The others may satisfactorily identified. 314-322. Upatissa-pasina. Fifthly. Many of these are also found in the prose passages 2 by numerous details : — 1 Asiatic Society. an anthology of edifying verses taken. 2 Inscriptions de Piyadasi. Senart. and in the portion of them called the Five Nikayas. which are constantly recurring. and in which some ethical state is set out or described. 6. probably a collection of books. 'Journal of the Royal Compare Milinda' (S. from the Five Nikayas.' 1896. be identified. and supported the very clear analogy between the general tone and the principal points of the moral teaching.XIV DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. Senart has called attention. containing what was then believed to be the words of the Buddha and that it comprised passages Five already known by the titles given in his Edict. B. for the reasons I have set out 2 also and 6 have not yet been be regarded elsewhere K occurs in the tenth book of the Ahguttara. on the one hand of the Asoka edicts as a whole. have no evidence that any other Buddhist literature was in existence at that date.' 1898.

It follows that this poem. but even before the Suttantas were put together. These should be distinguished from the last. and also the Vimana Vatthu. lived two hundred years after the Buddha. in their present arrangement. . of whom nothing is otherwise known. several of the relate conversations that took place Dialogues purport to between people. and older. the Sawyutta Nikaya (III. in each of the thirteen Suttantas translated in this volume. must be subsequent to that event. must therefore be older. A at two or more places. and This Suttanta. and also the Peta Vatthu in which it is found. not only the Sutta interpolation. Dhammapala. as ethical sayings or teachings. certain poems now found only in a par.PREFACE. these poems. 3. There is a story in Peta Vatthu IV. There are also entire episodes. There is great probability that such passages already existed. XV of the various books collected together in the Fifth. than the final settlement the text of these two Nikayas. Sixthly. not only before the Nikayas were put together. come under one or other of these two divisions. containing not only ethical teaching. but names of persons and places and accounts of events. of Seventhly. Most of the parallel passages. But they are also probably older than our existing texts. There is no reason at all to suspect an It follows that. but after the Buddha s death. itself. number of them are found the Khuddaka Nikaya. king of Magadha. in identical terms. informs us that this king. 1 about a King Pingalaka. 13) quotes one and both the Suttanta in the Dialogues by name and the Anguttara Nikayas quote. cotemporaries with the Buddha. who began to reign about forty years after the death of the Buddha. in his commentary. found in both Pali and Sanskrit Buddhist texts. by name Saawyutta and chapter. which are found. One Sutta in the Anguttara is based on the death of the wife of Muuda. with which the Peta Vatthu really forms one whole work. but the date of the compilation of the Anguttara. ticular chapter of the Sutta Nipata.

to have a considerable number of Buddhist Sanskrit Texts in the near And this is just what. Oldenberg at p. Miss C. from their contents.XVI DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. Eighthly. These books are evidently. of any one of the twenty-seven canonical books. is so great a desideratum. to that borne by the works of the" Christian Fathers to the Bible. they contain numerous verses. 46 of his edition. and to have been added to the collection at the time of Asoka's Council. are later than the date of Pingalaka. They are independent works and seem to bear to the canonical books a relation similar. know the real titles. No one of them is a translation. numerous sentences in prose. several Sanskrit Buddhist texts have now been made accessible to scholars. Most fortunately we may hope. given in the MSS. or even a recension. found in the Pali books. to be from older texts. although it is evidently only a round number. And about half a dozen instances have been already found in which such passages are stated. or inferred. We . and some complete episodes. There is also included among the Thera Gatha.' 1899. by l Dhammapala the commentator to have been com* posed by a thera of the time of King Bindusara. of our knowledge of the history of Buddhist writings. Quoted by Prof. of nearly 200 more 2 And the catalogues in which the names occur give us a considerable amount of detailed information as to their contents. in many respects. . the father of Asoka. and are quoted as authorities. and the zeal and scholarship of Professor d'Oldenbourg and his co-workers. themselves. in the present state future. owing to the enlightened liberality of the Academy of St. is very far wrong. the very latest compositions in all the Five Nikayas. . But though they do not reproduce any complete texts. some whole poems. another book in the Fifth Nikaya. Hughes is preparing a complete alphabetical list of these works for the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. And there is no reason to believe that the commentator's date. Petersburg. verses said. • ' 1 all r .

with such historical accuracy. and one whole book quite as late. taken by itself. and a late one. is not an impudent forgery. some Buddhist in The the fact that the commentators point out. a working hypothesis It is also literature. In the next we are asked to accept propositions implying that they were capable of forging extensive documents so well. that not only II. as peculiar. that certain passages are nearly as late. in XV11 accordance with these as to the history of the facts. concocted by some Buddhist in Ceylon. And a healthy and reasonable scepticism is a valuable aid to historical But can that be said of a scepticism that criticism. and a concocted by evidence drawn from Ceylon. involves belief in things far more incredible than those In one breath we are reminded of the it rejects ? sectarian narrowness. Pali Pi/akas are not therefore Indian books at all that they are all Ceylon forgeries. and the passages they mention.PREFACE. with so great a literary skill did expressing the ancient views. And late one. are the same as those we now have. It is possible to construct. the even the senile imbecility of the literary incapacity. So the evidence drawn from the Katha Vatthu may be disregarded on the that there is nothing to show that that work is ground ground not an impudent forgery. : ' ' ' Ceylon Buddhists. possible to object that the drawn from the Milinda may be disregarded evidence that there is nothing to show that that on the work. b .' Each of these propositions. as Asoka. has the appearance of careful scruple. and should be the or the Southern Recension rightly called Sinhalese Canon. excepting only the elaborate and stately introduction and a few of the opening chapters. is no proof that the rest It may even be maintained that the are older. the scholastic dulness. with so delicate a discrimination between ideas current among themselves and those held in centuries before. the inscriptions may be put aside on the ground that they do not explicitly state that the Suttantas and Nikayas to which they refer.

The Buddha. for though writing was widely the absence of books known. in a sort of Pali. therefore the Kathd Valthu itself must be later than the rise of that school. followed the literary habit of his time by embodying his doctrines in set phrases. just elsewhere would lead one to suppose likely. The hesitation will seem the more reasonable if we consider that to accept this literature for what it 2 and for the that is. a performance. But the earliest of any extent were the Asoka Edicts.XV111 DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. that is. the commentary on the Katha Vatthu mentions the Vetulyaka. as North Indian purports to be most part pre-Asokan not only involves no such incredible. the lack of writing materials made any lengthy 3 such sutras were the written books impossible — — recognised form preserving and communicating in Sanskrit. of the day. . like other Indian teachers of his time. man taught by conversation. of These As is well known. A highly educated to the education current at the time). which Prof. The blunder is on the part of the European professor. but European scholars have not been able to point out 1 It is not una single discrepancy in their work reasonable to hesitate in adopting a scepticism which involves belief in so unique. and they had to be written on this ! stone. — — . would a priori absurdity. sutras. particular ones were not opinion. and therefore so . Minayeff made so much of. is as to the real place of origin of these documents 3 records Very probably memoranda were used. from the modern European point of view. (according he speaking constantly to men of similar education. but in the ordinary conversational idiom that is to say. on which he In enlarged on different occasions in different ways. not of the Ceylon No critical scholar will accept the proposition that because pa/^its. In the books themselves the reference is to the Middle Country (Ma^Aima Desa). they deceive their contemporaries and opponents. To them the country to the south of the 1 How suggestive Vindhyas simply did not come into the calculation. is a mare's nest. but is really just what one what the history of similar literatures expect. 2 North Indian. the single instance of such a discrepancy.

for the canonical books. in the following and several of them had their centuries. numerous fragments have been preserved in the Hinayana Sanskrit texts. remained the only authorities our present Pali Nikayas. About 100 years after the Buddha's death there was a schism Each of the two schools kept in the community. the by Buddha died these sayings were collected his Four Great into the disciples their final They cannot have reached form Other sayings and till about fifty years afterwards. And to this Nikaya as late as the time of Asoka. 1 . as represented in Chinese translations of the fourth and — .PREFACE. For a generation or two the books as originally put We — And they together were handed down by memory. 1 at On the often repeated error that a Sanskrit canon was established Kanishka's Council. were put into a suppleknow of slight additions made mentary Nikaya. have been lost except only in India. as they were being taught. Sanskrit was not used for any Buddhist works till long afterwards. first century after the Christian Era. into others different arrangements of the canonical books. and of early episodes. xv. the developed doctrine found in certain short books in it*— notably in the Buddhavawsa and Kariya Pi/aka and in the Peta. but to the disciples. b 2 ' . see my Milinda. Of the stock passages of ethical statement. used in the composition of them. are separate books. XIX When together Nikayas. ii. and of the Suttas now extant. of these two schools broke up. so far as we know. at the Council of Kanishka. xvi. pp. himself. extant. differing Even as late as the also no doilbt in minor details. by a running commentary. an arrangement of the canon still in Pali (or possibly some allied dialect). were doubtless accompanied from the first.and Vimana-Vatthus show that these are later than the four old Nikayas. these books. And some of the Suttas. most of them ascribed not to the Buddha verses. and of the used in other schools. among many others then But they all. and'-never used at Each all.' vol.

as we have expressed them in the Pali. Subject to what has been said above. in the last work he published. 1 these slight is There and imperfect nothing to add. the accepted opinion. in remarks. memorial and the entirely is subordinated to this primary necessity. probably for the sixth. in language and contents and tone. That of course was not their object.C.' cannot fail to throw much light on the history. . which in style and method. Btihler. They are not We books the modern sense. to the able and lucid exposition of Prof. centuries a. for instance. to add a few words on the method followed in this version. so great a value Hofrath Dr. century B. are expressed in short phrases not intended to convey to a European reader the argument underlying them. in spite of the limitations of our space. These are often repeated with slight variations. the opinion that these books. and religious life of 1 India. And it is this which gives to all they tell us. are good evidence. more and more. careful and detailed comparison of these remains with the Pali Nikayas. after the method adopted in Windisch's Mara und Buddha. and method of arrangement. certainly for the fifth.d.XX fifth DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. of the social. on that point. as aids to memory help the modern reader very much. . of the canonical books. It is necessary. But neither the repetitions nor the variations introduced — and necessarily introduced. in . They are sentences intended to be learnt by heart whole style. to the history of 'the Vinaya. The leading ideas in any one of our Suttantas. that will probably become. either directly or by implication. political. bear all the marks of so considerable an ' A antiquity. Oldenberg in the Introduction to his edition of the text. and on the method of composition. talk of Pali books. For the object they were intended — No reference has been made.

As they stand they were never intended to be read. and in the passage on the rejected forms of These groups and asceticism. must have been accompanied from . XXI to serve they are singularly well chosen.PREFACE. There is locutor). no elaborate logical argument. rendering each item in repeating all the lists and groups as they stand. It is no doubt partly the result of the burden of such memoria tecknica. Ideas were formulated. in his words. Other expedients were adopted with a similar aim. the lists. and as it were in contrast with the contrary placed proposition (often at first put forward by the interThere the matter is usually left. And a version in English. and even owing not seldom simply to our ignorance. without commentary. by the teacher to his pupils. and aptly introduced. Without such a comment they difficult. are often quite unintelligible. proposition statement of this is often so curt. he usually accepts the The as maintained by the Buddha. by a single English word. not in logically co-ordinated and lists were sentences. always historically valuable. of course. — — . that the leading theses of each Suttanta are not worked out in the way in which we should expect to find similar theses worked out now in Europe. The choice is offered to the hearer and. are put forward. so of the exact force of the technical terms used re-stated . the repetitions. often intrinsically interesting. first own by a running verbal commentary. enigmatic. would quite fail to convey the meaning. but partly also owing to the methods of exposition then current in North India. and always The inclusion of such memoria tecJmica makes the Four Nikayas strikingly different from modern treatises on ethics or psychology. as yet. but in numbered groups drawn up such as those found in the tract called the Silas. of these curious old documents. given. both translated below. A proposition or two or three. again. with slight additions or variations.

These considerations will. and groups. holds such and such an expression to be the least on the — — and quote parallel passages inappropriate rendering from other Nikaya texts in support of his reasons. I am afraid. are of no use to scholars. I trust. But I have . as to the points he would leave to explain themselves. was the point of view from which it was put forward. meet with the Each scholar would approval of my fellow workers. make a different choice as to the points he regarded most pressing to dwell upon in his commentary. and . it supports or controverts. ambiguous. each word in which is usually a crux. at the time. and wherever he ventures to differ from the Buddhist explanations. in his opinion. inadequate. can hope to make progress in the interpretation of the Bare versions history of Buddhist and Indian thought. and give It is only by such discussions that we his reasons. the current views In regard to technical terms. he should And in regard to the mnemonic lists give the Pali. and often contradictory. inaccurate ideas. in North India. be considered that my choice in these respects has not been happy. or a comparison of other Nikaya passages on the subject. where reasons were necessary. the stage of opinion into which it fits. that a knowledge of the state of opinion particular point. should state the fact. It may. as handed down in the schools. is necessary to remove the uncertainty. He should explain the real significance of the thesis put forward by a statement of what. in considering the limitations of his space. and even to the general reader they can only convey loose. of course. would seem therefore most desirable that It a scholar attempting to render these Suttantas into evolved in the process of a European language expressing a very different.XX11 DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. he : should give cross-references. and especially that too many words or phrases have been left without comment. for which there can be no exact equivalent. should give the reasons of the set of conceptions He should state why he faith that is in him.

Rhys Davids.' April.PREFACE. 'Nalanda. 1899. XX111 endeavoured. . . • W. T. to emphasise those points on which further elucidation is and to raise some of the most important of desirable those historical questions which will have to be settled before these Suttantas can finally be considered as having been rightly understood. in the notes and introductions.

.ABBREVIATIONS. 1.

1 . while rejecting those theories themselves it endeavours to retain all the philosophic truth which previous thinkers had grafted on to the theosophies the corollaries of the soul theories while rejecting those theosophies themselves. We ' ' — — ' .' The Buddhist scheme endeavours. 53 and set out more fully in the list the 'American Lectures. we attach as much weight to this question as did the author or authors of these ancient and authoritative Buddhist books. pp. 1896. far wrong if. to include all the truth which previous thinkers had grafted on to the old savage theories of a semi-material. . in other words. in our endeavours to understand the real meaning of the original Buddhism. after it leaves the body. or to arrange the future. Summed up below. And necessarily so. into which its argument fits. and the first question in the Milinda. going out always from various forms of the ancient view of a soul a sort of subtle manikin inside the body but separate from it. since the Buddhist philosophy is put together without this ancient idea of soul.' As there pointed out the discussion which thus opens this series of dialogues forms also the first question in the Katha cannot be Vatthu. and continuing. as a separate entity attempt to reconstruct the past. All such speculation is condemned.' pp. 31-33.INTRODUCTION TO THE brahma-^Ala sutta. . 38-43. 52. — — : 1 2 in 'American Lectures on Buddhism. pp. The reasons given for this position are threefold firstly. has been set out in some detail in the opening chapter of my 'American Lectures. that such speculators about ultimate things. The Suttanta sets out in sixty-two divisions 2 various speculations or theories in which the theorisers.' London. subtle. permanent entity inside the body. The phase of beliefs which this Suttanta is intended to meet.

see only one side of the shield 1 secondly. A. empirical opinion (di///zi). and the sensations arising from evanescent 3 they belong. of the will 4 And thirdly. R. not to that of the higher wisdom (pa«»a). in Schopenhauer and what Buddhism rejected He himself.. it lays special stress upon the regulation. . On the other hand. to be that The reconciliation will probably be found what Buddhism took over. the paper on below. holds a position somewhat similar to the modern Agnostic Secondly. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. feeling the cultivation. Upanishads. in the first place. If I am to take the results of my own philosophy as the standard of truth. . So that Buddhism. inaccurate authorities. 188. for instance below. to the realm of phenomena hastily formed.' However this question may be decided and its discussion. and have preserved for us in the Upanishads. and of intellect. thirdly. that such speculaand tions do not lead to emancipation. 53. is about the same as that part of the Upanishad doctrine which is found. and especially with more knowledge and detail Dr. with more or less of modification. 54. at the necessary length. I should be obliged to concede to Buddhism the pre-eminence over other ' (systems of philosophy). below. to Arahatship l that such theories are really derived from the hopes. who however knew both systems only from second-hand and . 1898. pp. &c. S. it is maintained by Professor Deussen that Schopenhauer's position is analogous to that of the . 188. says. 42. ' The Will in Buddhism. past or the future. it distinguishes between a lower and a higher wisdom 6 Several scholars. And who can doubt but that some. in European phraseology. 44. altogether is not to be found in Schopenhauer. 187. p. the feelings. if not all of them. is a very pressing want it is certain from the details given in our Suttanta that there were then current in Northern India many other philosophic and theosophic speculations besides those the priests found it expedient to adopt. have maintained that the position of Buddhism in the history of Indian philosophy is analogous to that of Schopenhauer in European philosophy. of this Suttanta. — — . pp. in other words. from the Upanishads. may also have had their influence on the new doctrine ? There was always much philosophising in India outside the narrow and inexact limits — — 1 2 3 4 5 See See See See See the fable quoted below. Karl Neumann.' J. — . pp.XXVI either in the I. by a competent student of philosophy. while acknowledging the importance of position. have insufficient evidence.

the evidences of such philosophy as the priests wished to exclude from notice 1 . in their Pali and Sanskrit works. six are of course not mutually exclusive . the attempted restriction of all philosophy to the six The Dan-anas. in opinion. and this. XXV11 of the so-called six Dar^anas and we have to thank Buddhist scholars for preserving. birds. ghosts. . and the omissions in the classification of philosophy under these six heads. is late mediaeval.INTRODUCTION. and the very use of the term. horses. and sparrows. . 1 his beetles. Professor Cowell has been good enough to inform me that. render it rather like a classification of animals into men.

.

The in dispraise of the Doctrine. And Suppiya the with about five hundred brethren. afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist university. Thus they two Doctrine. tradiction 1 one to the other. 3 Suppiya was a follower of the celebrated teacher Sa«^aya.] I. the capital of Magadna.DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. step by The whole of this Sutta was translated into English by the Rev. i. 35). DIGHA NIKAYA. ' was about seven miles north of Ra^agaha. [COLLECTION OF LONG DIALOGUES. Blessed One was between Ra^agaha once going along the high road and Nalanda 2 with a great company of the brethren. in to praise of the Buddha. gave utterance. to praise of the Order. holding opinions in direct con- But young Brahmadatta. Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon. B II. whose views are set out and controverted in the next Sutta. were following. . the modern Ra^-gir (Sum.] I 1 . in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1846 (reprinted by P. Daniel Gogerly. to praise of the many ways. 3 was going along the high road between mendicant too Ra^ragaha and Nalanda with his disciple the youth Now just then Suppiya the mendicant Brahmadatta. in dispraise of the Order. Grimblot in his Sept Suttas Palis/ Paris. was speaking I. his pupil. BRAHMA-^ALA SUTTA [The Perfect Net. in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha. 2 Nalanda. p. teacher and pupil. Thus have heard. 1876).

should so clearly have perceived how various For see how while Suppiya are the inclinations of men the mendicant speaks in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha. and with him the company of the brethren. So do these two. I. and the Order. teacher and pupil. There was another garden so named at Anuradhapura in Ceylon. at the his young disciple Brahmadatta. 2. young Brahmadatta. his own disciple. follow step by step after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren. This was so named. 225). 224. went to the pavilion. rest-house. And in the early dawn a number of brethren. in the pavilion and this was the trend of the talk that sprang up among How wonderful a them. as they rose up. says Buddhaghosa sapling. and had in it a rest-house adorned with paintings for the king's amusement. he who knows and sees. the Buddha Supreme. And when he had sat down he said What is the talk on which you are engaged sitting here. ' . and took his seat on the mat spread out for him. 'the mango (pp.' mentioned in Asoka's Bhabra Edict (see my 'Buddhism. ' ! ' : And 1 he said : It was. in as many ways. the Blessed One put up at the royal restthe Ambala/Z^ika pleasance x to pass the night. the [2] 3. in praise of them. and how strange that the Blessed thing One. 131). the Doctrine. is it. and what is the subject of the conversation between you?' And they told him all.I. to the east of the Brazen Palare (Sum. Now in house . And so also did Suppiya the mendicant. 41. speaks. these two carried on the same discussion as before. assembled. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. on realising what was the drift of their talk. after the other which was famous as the scene of the Exhortation to Rahula starting with falsehood. no doubt. as they were seated there. 42). a well-watered It sapling by the gateway. and with him And there. Now the Blessed One. Ambala/Mika. the Arahat.' and shady park so called from a mango was surrounded with a rampart.' pp. 4. giving utterance to views in direct contradiction one to the other. brethren. after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren. step.

such a thing is not found among us. If you. Sir. The Vagga B 2 or Section containing the Silas. that would stand in the way of your own self-conquest.. if outsiders should speak against me. that is so. saying : or that reason this is not the fact. on that account. must almost certainly have existed as a separate work . you should unravel what " is false and point it out as For this wrong. is not in us. if outsiders should speak in praise of me. or feel illwill. But also. how far that speech of well said or ill ? That would not be so. in the It tract that first is now follows." It is in respect only of 7. when others 5. that an unconverted man. or against the Doctrine. that is not so. And what are such trifling. of mere morality. " Gotama 1 Putting away the killing of living things. in praise of the Order. Brethren. and displeased. the recluse holds aloof from the destruction titles These occur. the first called therefore the Sila tract itself MSS. of matters of little value..] ' 8. you should not on that account either bear malice. should be angry and hurt.you theirs ' ' feel ' angry would you then be able is to judge at that. When outsiders speak in praise of me. or be lifted up in heart. in praise of the Doctrine. [3] or against the Order. you should acknowledge what is right to be the fact. or of the Doctrine. on that account. when praising the Tathagata. or suffer heart-burning.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. minor details of mere morality ' ' that he would praise [4] ' ? [The Moralities \ Part I. trifling things. is in us. you should not. such a thing is found among us. at the end of the sections of the forms a part of each of the Suttas in the The division third. or of the Order. to be so that also would stand in the way of you your self-conquest. If. division." 6. ' speak against us. be filled with Were pleasure or gladness. of this collection of Suttas. brethren.' But when outsiders speak in dispraise of me. or of the Order. saying: "For this or that reason this is the fact. or of the Doctrine. would speak.

what is given. Certain paragraphs from this tract occur also elsewhere. in Magg/iima. in English. but has hofiich below. into French by Burnouf (also in Grimblot. Silas recur below. and expecting that gifts will come 2 only he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart. § 9). Gotama the recluse lived He takes aloof from grasping what is not his own. in each of which it recurs. What he hears here he repeats not elsewhere to raise a quarrel before the time first when the discourses. and full of mercy. So in Maggfcma. It is the opposite of pori. Nos. the only difference is in the refrain. far off." . he dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life. life. from the vulgar practice. See. urbane (applied to speech. for instance. ' ' : ' ' ' . 212 foil. Dr. a slightly different connotation. The 17 whole of this tract has been translated into English by Gogerly (in Grimblot.). Or he might say " : Putting away the taking of what has not been given. note). the sword aside. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from calumny. 8. in each Sutta. he breaks not his word to the world. Gotama He holds himself aloof. and in Mahavagga V. 2 Neumann has waiting for a gift which is a possible rendering but patikankhati has not yet been found elsewhere in the sense of The usual meaning of the word expresses just such waiting for. Buddhisiische Anthologie. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. the translation of p. 3 we have most of § 18 and so on. the recluse is chaste. of He has laid the cudgel and.' that word had not acquired. 3 Gama-dhamma. Neumann misses the point here. 179 we have the whole of the short paragraphs." ' ' Or he might say: " Or he might say " Putting away lying words. pp. below. 1 When the This refrain is repeated at the end of each clause. Putting away unchastity. 'from the village habit. and into German by Dr. from the context. when speaking in praise of the Tathagata. Neumann (in his § . the "pagan'" way.I. 3. : He speaks truth.' a trifling matter as we have been led. I. 67 foil. pp. and ashamed of roughness. 100 in the text. swerves faithful and trustworthy. to expect. . were put together. from the sexual act 3 . ' Or he might say " : Putting away slander. might speak ' l . we have in Magghima II. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from false9. see page 1. the practice of country One might render the phrase by 'pagan' if folk. from the truth he never hood.)." . 76 and 77." It is thus that the unconverted man.

Samarambh& cannot 'planting' as Dr. singing. Neumann renders . clearly divided. 23. ' . 1 Pori. lovely." [5] fitly illustrated. ' : Whatsoever word is blameless. on He speaks. He abstains from accepting silver or gold. 10. He abstains from accepting uncooked grain. right time. scents. or ornamenting himself with garlands. He abstains from wearing. and unguents. impassioned for peace. He refrains from being a spectator at shows at fairs. urbane \ pleasing to the people. those who are divided. in accordance conversation. and it. He abstains from accepting women or girls. recluse holds himself aloof from vain In season he speaks. against the people here what he hears elsewhere he repeats not here to raise a quarrel against the people Thus does he live as a binder together of there. a peacemaker. a speaker of words that make for peace. See note above on at § 8. and at the the discipline of the Order. He abstains from accepting bondmen or bond- women. and music. reaching to the heart. He abstains from accepting raw meat. beloved of the people such are words he speaks. on religion. pleasant to the ear. VI. words worthy to be laid up in one's heart. language. A. adorning. with nautch dances. 295." Or he might . not eating at night. an encourager of those who are friends. II. refraining from food after hours (after midday). a lover of peace. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from ." Or he might say " Putting away frivolous talk 2 Gotama the.say " Putting away rudeness of speech. Sampha mean occurs alone in the Hemavata t Sutta.with the facts.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. words full of meaning. 2 Sampha-ppalapa. harsh — ' : . He abstains from the use of large and lofty beds. to the point. 3 Gat. Or he might say: "Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from causing injury to seeds or plants 3 He takes but one meal a day.

just as we say in English a copper/ and the word is actually so used in the nth and 12th Bhikkhunf Nissaggiya Rules The most ancient the oldest reference in Indian books to coins. He abstains from cheating. brethren. abstains from accepting elephants. ka»/sa meaning ' . BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. abstains from cheating with scales or bronzes 1 or measures. ' He might say. were either of bronze or gold.' Childers sub voce has counterfeit metal/ and Neumann is has Maass/ Buddhaghosa obliged to take ka/wsa in the meaning ' — ' of ' gold pot. Gogerly trans' ' lates weights. abstains from accepting fowls or swine. cattle. fourth which is doubtful. ii. abstains from accepting sheep or goats. putting in bonds." Such are the things. dacoity. the crooked ways of bribery. murder. horses. when speaking in praise of the Tathagata. and fraud. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. Buddhaghosa (p. and there is no authority for On the whole the coin weight or mass. It may mean graftings/ if the art of grafting was then known in the Ganges valley.I. He He abstains from buying and selling. He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste. which an unconverted man. continue addicted to the injury of seedlings 2 and growing plants whether propagated from roots or cuttings or joints or buddings or seeds — Gotama the 1 Kawsa-ku/a. 2 Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the But it is only the vegetable kingdom without explaining the terms. abstains from maiming. explanation seems to me to be the simplest. highway robbery. while living on food provided by the faithful. The context suggests that kawzsa (bronze) may here refer to coins. coins. and violence.' which seems very forced either . which were of private (not state) coinage. He abstains from the acting as a go-between or He He He messenger. and mares.' Here ends the A'ula Slla [the Short Paragraphs on Conduct]. 79) explains the expression here used as meaning the passing off of bronze vessels as gold.

has always been Literally shows. and curry-stuffs recluse holds aloof from such use of things stored up. while on food provided by the continue addicted to the use of things stored stores." — 13. songs (4) Singing (gltaw). continue addicted to visiting shows . 199. and Dr. and he was followed by Gogerly. The Sanskrit sama^ya. IV. Burnouf. recluse holds aloof from such injury to seedlings and growing plants.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. 267 (both times sama^o here). and it is in the first of the fourteen In the Sigalovada there are said to be six dangers to wit. II. all sorts of articles to is too limited a translation. to wit. 319) seems to (p. acold word (at least in its Pali form). recitations. 300.' p. 'the puppet shows of heresy' (Ma^-Vimana LXXXIV. [6] faithful. only found here. while living on food provided by the 2 that is faithful. and acrobatic shows. 107.— and theatre was already approve this. dances of (3) Instrumental music (na^aw) (2) (vaditaw). 69). I. as na/a-sama^a. And in the Vinaya passages we . This word has only been found elsewhere in the phrase di/Z/^i-visukawz. 8. Shows at fairs (pek4 . This word. in modern cording to the Petersburg Dictionary. p. kham) 1 is a. p. pp. and Serissaka ' ' ' ' Am it wiparita-dar^awa. 665.' 2 Visfika-dassanazw. Neumann Weber (Indian Literature. . drinks. a relish. equipages. con- juring tricks. has only been found The Pali occurs in other old texts such as Vinaya dictionaries. Buddhaghosa (p. singing. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. 26). IV. But it is most unlikely that the known in the fifth century b. and Neumann's In its secondary meaning the word means use' too extensive. clothing. ibid. 192). 486 . The gfcma. of foods. to say. a dainty. something nice. 150.c.' Clough first translated it so in his Sinhalese Dictionary. 3 ' Sinhalese renders ' is a very interesting Now quite simply. 83) gives a long list of ' curry-stuffs If he is right then Gogerly's raw grain included under this term. the same word as samara Sigalovada Sutta. up l Gotama the bedding. perfumes. undoubtedly Edicts of Asoka. referred to took part.' rendered theatrical representations. music. 84) explains it. at such a saraa^o. 85. in the very same context as it does II. dancing." ' 12. Or he might say living " : Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. pp. myself (in 'Buddhist Suttas. (1) Nautch 3 . And Buddhaghosa (p. Dancing cannot mean here a dancing in which the persons It must be ballet or nautch dancing.

adopts it. Gogerly's guess seems better than Burnouf's or Neumann's. but gives as examples The negative anakkhanaw* the Bharata and the Ramayawa. and to show that he derives the word from vi + ta/a. saraw) (kumbhathunaw) sama^o 4 . Who were the people who took part? Were they confined to one village? or have we here a survival from old exogamic communistic Later the word means simply 'fair. (5) Ballad 1 . Buddhaghosa has no explanation of the word.' as at dancings together? is ' ' Gataka ' III. 503.' His own explanation is. meant to be etymological. Gogerly's rendering funeral ceremonies. acrobats.' . The Sinhalese has striking a drum big enough to hold sixteen ' ' gallons. 'royal bard. ' ' has 'rapid 1 movement in dance-figures' (ranga-ma«</alu). fair Many . BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. occurs 2 Mag^ima I. But it does not agree so well with the context and it seems scarcely justifiable to see.g (nyo>. ago. 'act') belongs to the stock of common Aryan roots. I think. ' and had special seats and This last detail of high .' vetala. 506 that this word means a sort of music. 506. Neumann Vetala-pa/7/£a-vizrasati) by reanimating corpses. This would bring the word into connection with the Sanskrit vaitaThe other explanation connects the word with lika. recitations (akkhana?^) (6) Hand music (pa #is2 . Buddhaghosa is here obscure and probably corrupt. but this side of the festival which is here in the mind of the author The Sinhalese is nevertheless a very inadequate rendering.' at Gataka V. These ballad recitations in prose and verse combined were the source from which epic poetry was afterwards gradually developed. and means What was the meaning of this carrying on together ? carrying on. that high officials were invited. and adds is only found here and hand-sounds. that it took place at the top of a hill. and the derivation is quite uncertain.' supposed to play pranks (as in the stories of the Dr. and hired mourners. ' sacred places) points to a religious motive as underplaces (that The root a. And at Vinaya IV. 541 : the bout I have played with quarterstaves at the fair. learn that at a not only amusements but also food was provided . whence our lying ihe whole procedure. (7) The chanting of bards (vetala^) 3 (8) Tam-tam playing . 285 kumbhathunika are mentioned in connection with dancers. * It is clear from Gataka V. this as that 'playing on cymbals'.' And it is no doubt with which (7ataka I. seems to me now quite out of the question.8 1. a reference to beliefs which can only be traced in literature more than a thousand . ' The word ' bodies to life by spells. in this ancient list. but some say raising dead Buddhaghosa explains it is also called pawita/azrc.' which I previously followed. 394 may be compared. 'a demon. years later. and means literally 3 Buddhaghosa says deep music.

that is to say. (9) Fairy scenes (So1 . continue addicted to games and recreations . 5 ele- roll-calls. Weber has pointed out (Indische Studien. list The verbal form 180 (repeated at nibbu^^ati II. Our text cannot be taken as evidence of real chess in the fifth century B. wrestling (13-16) Sham fights. horses. rows of squares 7 (2) . phants. (10) Acrobatic feats by Aa^rtalas (Ka. 180 (repeated at II. boxing. (Pa/ibhawa-^ittaw at Vinaya II. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. n da 1 a -v a m- (12) staff 3 . 38 It is quite likely that the name of given to music and love-making. IV.ht. All these recur in the introductory story to the 50th Pa&ttiya (Vinaya IV. I. The Sinhalese Sanna says that each of these games 5 . 10). goats. fairies much II. with or with ten. Bouts at quarter4 . 298.. and our word Milinda 232. Gotama the recluse holds aloof from visiting such views — manoeuvres. while living on food provided by the 6 faithful. rams. or nude paintings. cocks. re- shows. bulls. (1) Games on boards eis. Vinaya III. 42 is the nude in art. bhanagarakaw) 2 and quails. heads of dancers.£a//d?ala-bamboo' washings. buffaloes. 107). 6 All these terms recur at Vinaya III. 7 Chess played originally on a board of eight times ten squares was afterwards played on one of eight times eight squares. On the last compare Buddhaghosa on Mahavagga V. here one of the rare cases where we can correct our MSS.) III.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. meaning he assigns to the strange expression . against the But I follow him in the general authority of the old commentator. Nibbuddhawz. 151. But I now think that the passage at Gataka IV. sa-dhopana#z) (11) Combats of . 153) that Sobha is a city of the Gandharvas. 61. but it certainly refers to games from which it and draughts must have been developed. 541. occurs in the at 10).' 3 4 See Gataka at III. 29. and the Sinhalese version." 14. and that we have . The same games 1 Buddhaghosa seems to understand by this term (literally 'of Sobha city') the adornments or scenery used for a ballet-dance.C. of the text. 358. and so do all the MSS.' 2 Buddhaghosa takes these three words separately. 390 is really decisive. 1. a frequently used scene for a ballet became a proverbial phrase for But the Sinhalese has 'pouring water over the all such scenery. Sum.

over (3) Keeping going drawn on the diagrams and striking ground so that one steps only where one ought to the wet hand on the ground or on a wall. Neither gives any details. Turning summer- (5) Throwing . (8) be ? and showing the form required shall it 6 horses. 8 The ranslator agrees with Panga^traw. p. and six visible lie on the stone outside the board. pure and simple. 1889. see Gataka I. S. 2 Parihara-pathatfz. or flour-water. 4 Khali kd. In the gambling-scene on the Bharhut Tope (Cunningham. and J. 1885. See explanation Vinaya I. (6) Hitting a short stick with a long one 6 the hand (7) Dipping Playing with toy windmills made of palmleaves u . 6 4 Gha/ikaw. loses \ (4) —elephants. How purisa) just our 'men. matter. No. He who shakes the heap. 9) there is a board marked out on the stone of six times five little cubes with marks on the sides squares (not six by six). PI. for pieces 1 is poru (from Akisa/w. T. or putting them into a heap.' Si/ra-kelimaya On flour-water as colouring Salaka-hatthaw. who Mokkha/fcika. Something like 'tip-cat.' The Sinhalese says the steps must be made hopping. tive So the Sinhalese. 2. 11 Almgulikaw. 206. 220. From Sanskrit vrz'ka. meaning is 'a die. T. compares ^ingulayitva at Ahguttara III. made toy ploughs (11) saults 10 (12) . or red dye. Either removing the pieces or men from a heap with one's nail. P. was played with dice and pieces such as kings and so on. 49. See Morris in the J. Buddhaghosa has an alternaof turning over on a trapeze. P. dice 4 . p. but gives this also. 1885. 275. calling out ' go 2 . S.. 15. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. What ' Games with balls 7 . played by imagining such boards in the air '. Morris in J.. toy pipes of leaves 8 with (10) Ploughing 9 . 106. 50. Spellicans. . S. * Vankaka/ra. p.IO I. P. &c. 7 Akkha/ra. A Compare Eggeling's note as in his Satapatha-Brahmawa III. XLV. in each case without shaking it.. 7. (9) Blowing through . usual See Jaurnal of the Pali Text 10 Society. compares the Marathi pungi. 1889. with the fingers stretched out in lac. in Sinhalese. The Sinhalese for this toy is pat-kulal. T.' But the Sinhalese Buddhaghosa. s Santikd. p. Unfortunately the method of playing is not stated. 205.' very like blindfold chess ! — The word kind of primitive 'hop-scotch.

' bequeme * Pallanko. And even the asandi is allowed. &c. and perforated which probably means that the frame was of wood and the seat was of interlaced cane or wickerwork. s i^ Samyutta III. is allowed in the Buddhist Order by Vinaya II. 170 (where the reading ^inditva seems preferable. that is (2) figures carved Divans with animal on the sup5 . fellow's thoughts. century b. p.' At Gat.-Brah." 15. with short legs and made square (for sitting. (13) Playing with toy measures made of palm- I I leaves. Lehnstuhl. ' 88). 35.' Burnouf une chaise longue. 192 = II. ports (Pallanko) six. Sat. Buddhaghosa merely says 'a seat beyond the allowed measure. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. made of common sorts of wood. 27 and 209 must be accordingly corrected. in spite of the use of a divan . All these from No. 149. It is important evidence writing was known in India that such a game fifth the date at which in the should be known I. vol. The asandi is selected as the right sort of seat for up and watch the stars. 163 = Ahguttara 4 Asandi. 169. continue addicted to the use of high and large to say 3 settees. = r < t = the king in both the Va^apeya and Inauguration ceremonies because . not lying on). air. while living on food provided by the faithful. (Asandi) 1 4 . stuffed The ' couch translates • ' large cushion' at 'Vinaya Texts.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. (14. its I.' It is noteworthy that. 105). 55 Ma g§ ^ima I. 15) Playing with 1 toy carts or toy bows (16) Guessing at letters .' and Neumann ' renderings ' at III. (1) Moveable and six feet long high. 266. 3 The following 18^. (18) ities — Mimicry of deform- [7] Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such games and recreations. I. Ill. Gogerly large couch.c. list recurs Vinaya I. 307 (where the reading must be corrected). as the only rule as to measure in seats is the 87th Pattttiya in which the height of beds or chairs is limited to eight 'great' inches (probably about eighteen inches). as children's games. by Vinaya II. are mentioned for in the Ma^^ima. 2 Akkharika. 10 inclusive. the asandi is used as a bier. i. couches .' II. The diminutive asandiko. 208 a man lies down on an a s an di so as to be able to look ' At Digha I. if the tall legs be cut^down.' but that must refer to height. of be It is there said to height (Eggeling. The Sinhalese Sanna adds a long chair for supporting the whole body. and is read in the quotation at Sum. or on a back 2 playfellow's (17) Guessing the play- traced in the .

209) which might be utilised for pillows. larger than life size (' Indian Antiquary. found at Pollonnaruwa. (18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope. be uncertain as to the exact meaning of ka/Missaw inclusive. are found only in this list. embroi(8) Coverlets dered with figures of lions. 197). Compare the similar seat in Griinwedel. horse. 95). so that Nigrodha's action in the passage just quoted (Mahlvawsa 25) was really a breach of the regulations. 209.(Tulika). &c. Ill. &c. (Pa/alika). (7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool . are often. and sihasana is used of Du/Ma Gamini's throne. All except might be used in laymen's houses ('Vinaya Texts. 163 it is laid down that vale. (10) Rugs with fur on one side (Ekantalomi). in. (14. XX.' III. (11) Coverlets embroidered with gems (K a tth\ ssaw). 170 the possession of a pallanka was allowed to the Order if the animal figures were broken off (the translation in Vinaya Texts. must be altered accordingly. or Buddhisl as personages of distinction. 135. ibid. but an actual stone lion. As there is a doubt about the No 7 . 'Buddhistische kunst/ pp. 'Budh Gaya. i. and all might be possessed by the Order if used only as floorexcept again No. But the Lion throne of Nissanka Malla. and and Buddhaghosa seems to some of them. members of the Order were not to use a complete pallanko even in laymen's houses. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. (3) lets Goats' hair coverwith very long fleece '. tigers. in later sculptures. At Mahavaw/sa 25 sihasana and pallanko are used of the same seat (Asoka's throne). (Vikatika). &c). with fur on (9) Rugs Elephant. p. 137.' Plates XI. with animals carved on precisely the sort of seat its on which supports being here objected to.' vol. reading va7e for { By Vinaya II. 312). 1 The words from gonako down to also kuttakazra. is not a pallanko. Mitra. (Gonako) (4) Patchwork counterof panes (5) many colours (A'ittaka). p. (19) Carpets with awn- both sides (Uddalomi). (17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together (A/i- na-pave«i). represented silting (Griinwedel. it is the Buddha himself. (6) Woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers (Kuttakaw). 7.' III. 157. (13) (Pa/ika).12 I. spelling it may be noticed that the Sanna reads gonakam and . 124.16) and chariot rugs. the cotton wool of coverings (ibid. By Vinaya II. (12) Silk coverlets White blankets (Koseyyawz). as at Vinaya IV.

90) takes this word (literally street-talk ') in the sense of talk about streets. 297.' III. heroes . cosmetics. 189.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. rouge. and long-fringed white robes Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such means of adorning and beautifying the person 2 . sunshades. in the R. 60. The use of sunshades is permitted by 'Vinaya Texts. See Buddhaghosa here and at Vinaya Texts. A. continue addicted to such low conversation as these : tales of war. bathing. Ill." uttara-v£^adaw). 8 Visikha-katha. while living on food provided by the faithful. Or he might " say : Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. whether ill or well situate. and about . turbans. Ill. shampooing it. &c. 274. (which repeats each gonakawz and uddalomiwz both times. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. Out of the twenty items here objected to. 16. and countries tales about women [8]. Buddhaghosa (p. 2 This is not quite accurate. equipages. and the use of sunshades) were allowed in the Order. diadems. 88. Sambahana/H. and halls attached to them. while living on food provided by the continue addicted to the use of means for adorning and beautifying themselves: that is to say. of battles Tales of kings. . Bathrooms.' III. and practised by Gotama himself. There are elaborate regulations for the provision of hot steam baths and the etiquette to be observed in them and instances of the use of the ordinary bath in . and whether the inhabitants are bold or poor. three (shampooing. bracelets. eye-ointments. 132-3. cities. S." faithful. Rubbing in scented powders on one's body. . of terrors. Perhaps rubbing the limbs with flat pieces of ' wood. shampooing by ibid. 68. streams or rivers are frequent. reed cases for drugs.' III. villages. walking-sticks. necklaces. of robbers. and bathing it. town. perfumes talks about relationships. garlands. and drinks. ' . rapiers. garlands. — . gossip at street corners : 3 . or places whence uddalomiw 1 sentence) has and the MS. Patting the limbs with clubs after the manner of wrestlers l The use of mirrors. whisks of the yak's tail. clothes. embroidered slippers. ings 1 3 above them (Sa(20) Sofas with red pillows for the head and feet. are permitted by 'Vinaya Texts. and is referred to ibid. — ' 1 7. of ministers of state talk about foods . beds.

expression but I see to no 3 Lokakkhayikd. and first what ought to come last 7 . literally 'the put together is to me. I do. ' 114. in Suttas 76-78 in the Magg^ima.' vol. you are not . iii. .' or the text (of the Scriptures) is on my This last. Buddhaghosa specially such speculations as are put forth according to the Lokayata system by the Vitawdas (also called Lokayatikas).' side.' vol. water desultory talk about the creation of the land or sea 3 speculations or about existence and non-existence 4 Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low conis . who am " the right. that's all quite " am You upset. §§ 10.' &c. of whose system very little is. They are of this Sutta. and to these Digha I.14 I. 151." are putting last what ought to come first. p." " How in I should you " ? know about this doctrine and It is I discipline " You have fallen into wrong views. 188.' ' The ' seems somewhat forced. literally if 'difference-talk. or the context is on my side. while living on food provided by the faithful. . 3. These expressions all recur at Ma^g^ima II. . 20. amounts to the same as the version adopted above. known. idiom is only found here." 6 speaking to the point." 1 8. The commentator about deceased relatives or ancestors. confines this to boasting talk 2 Nanatta-kathawz. and may mean either as rendered above. i. fetched ghost stories ' ' z — . Vinaya ' to them in my Milinda. 6 The S ah it am me. taken as meaning refers desultory this . 120. p. 4 This list of foolish talks recurs be added. given that which is of use is on my side. and Attha Salini. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans.' or merely by the Sanna. 7 . I have collected other references at Texts. p. better explanation. These are materialistic See the note theorisers. probably referred to below in chap." 1 Pubba-peta-katha." " What you've excogitated so long. versation. 3. " continue addicted to such as phrases 5 : — the use of wrangling You don't understand this doctrine and discipline. so far. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. iii may now and 5 Vinaya I. at ' ' ' 7 Putting the cart before the horse. 11.

aropito for aropito. It is the phrase used. On the use of this idiom compare the Commentary on the Then Gatha.' These are also referred to without explanation at Cataka IV. on kings. that you may be freed from this disputation It is Mag^ima the only parallel passage seems to support this view." Set to work to clear your views V " V 4 Disentangle yourself if you can Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such wrangling — phrases. Or he might say " . Aropito te vado. take this young men. read kuhana). On this idiom compare the opening paragraphs of the Katha Vatthu and the Commentary on them (especially pp. Kshatriyas. and also Milinda' 228. 4 So the author of Milinda in making his hero Nagasena use just such a phrase (Mil. I think. 297 (where we should. 31. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. ministers of state. . 165. going on errands. or Go there. . 9. and Mahava/wsa 158. by an opponent who takes up the challenge. bring that from thence Gotama the recluse abstains from such servile faithful. ' : ' — duties. but not in this connection. says Buddhaghosa. 99 = Ahguttara I.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. 6 6 Kuhaka\ Lapaka. 10 1. " " " " J 5 Your challenge has been taken up You are proved to be wrong 2 . Gataka V. yutta I. while living on food provided by the faith5 droners out (of holy words for pay) 6 ful. ' : . Compare Itivuttaka. Pamokkha occurs besides at Samtexts are quoted against one." 19. It is literally 'you are censured. where it is said to be wrong to learn the Seriptures for the sake of the advantage of being freed from discussion or debate where 3 ' 10V ' . There is a misprint here in 'Issue has been joined against you' the text. when some one 1 has offered to hold debate (maintain a thesis) against all comers. So Buddhaghosa. p. But Gogerly and renders. Brahmans." Whereas some recluses and Brahmans.' A'ara vada-pamokkhaya. and acting as go-betweens to wit. saying with you. Depart. while living on food provided by the continue addicted to taking messages. Gataka 349. 2 Niggahito si. are tricksters 20. 30. 'Astonish the world with the three sorts of trickery. III. I> I 33. No. p. 168. come hither. 27) is making him commit a breach of • propriety. 2. would be a possible rendering.

Longer Or he might say Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. See the note Compare Milinda and 299. in this sense. 'scarers away' (? of Commentary and Sanna give no in this five list. gives 4 no better Office). Nemittaka. I think. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood.' says Buddhaghosa. literally 'marks. 1 &c. at the India words m. ghosts. ' —and Gotama . prosperity. 5 in this list). It is not found. and the Commentary (fol. but the context there is as undecisive as it is here.' the next paragraph. literally 'limbs. [9] 21. 4 other celestial portents in °. the 3 Nippesika. 124. (or the reverse). help. while living on food provided by the faithful. took three pearls in his closed hand. and seeing a fly which had been caught by a house-lizard (the Sanna says by a dog. though the nemittika. The diviner. though slightly different.' or 'signs. But this is only another instance of a change not infrequent (as Ed. and so on. nimittara IV. 'How many?' a dog bark thrice. they say (Pandi in the Sanna).' perhaps the meaning is simply 'in free ' sugar') getting (mutta)." Here ends the ' Maxima " : Sila [the Paragraphs on Conduct]. on Gat 2 'interpreters of signs and omens. &c. or help. the portents of the great ones. hearing Compare Mil. and planets (see the note on § 26).' 16). The word corresponds to the Sanskrit Utpata. The latter looked this way and that for a sign.' Buddhaghosa distinguishes this from lakkha«ara (No. 5 Nimittawz. moon. Angara. thunderbolts falling. and from anga-vi^a (No. 178. from thunderbolts and — :- . Miiller has shown. such as these (1) Palmistry prophe(2) Divining by means of omens and signs 6 sying long life. and the story 6 Uppado. and asked a diviner what he had in it. ever hungering to add o. said 'three.a in the recluse holds aloof from such .' at once 'pearls' (also mutta in says the king. the been found All the bad omens).*6 diviners \ to gain 3 I. feet. The Great Ones here mean. is d vouched for . from drawn (3) Auguries marks on a child's hands. anywhere in the texts. Buddhaghosa tells a story in illustration. answered note to the last section on at Mahavarasa 82. King Pa«</u. the spirits or gods presiding over the sun. by low arts. But word has only in this list recur at A.exorcists 2 deception and patter. di of the Tumour MS. by overwhelming authority. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. and the « Pali). Ill.

72. 87. ' 'Neu und Vollmondsopfer.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY.. will have such and such a result.' pp. 9. 18. if offered in a fire of such and such a wood. 1 the other Childers should therefore have kept this uppado Comp. oblations offer- mouth 7 . I. At Gat. XVI.-veda VI. 176..-veda VIII. 114. 297-301. 5 and 6) are included in this 'low art. poured into the fire from such and such a sort of spoon.' pp. &c. or so on. This contradiction is another confirmation of the opinion expressed by me in 1880 in 'Buddhist Birth Stories. 8 Compare the passage in Hillebrandt. 7 No instance of this can be traced in the books of the Brahmans. No. The allied lucky to wear clothes gnawed Mangala Gataka. 17 the red powder between the grain and the husk. pp. and of oil 6 . nine homas here objected to mav also be compared with the seven at Ath. C .' Gat. butter. into the fire out of one's (8) Offering 5 . from a spoon (9-13) Making ings to gods of husks. Buddhaghosa confines its meaning to that given above.' 6 See Hillebrandt. 5 Dabbi-homaw. and The Grundriss. Gat. No. I. Musika^^inna/rc. and the one or two cases where Burmese scribes have (wrongly) corrected to up pat a is another instance to be added to those referred to in the Introduction to Sum. ghosa's sense at D. 374. I. Perhaps charms to avert bad dreams (Ath. of ghee. Telling people that an oblation of such and such grains. 2 Lakkha«a/«. The commentator on this word as used in the very same connection at Gat. I. Telling people that a sacrifice. lxiii foil. superstition of thinking it unby mice is laughed out of court in the 163. The word Aggi-homa»z. &c. that Childers was wrong in ascribing the (7ataka 3 Commentary I. to Buddhaghosa. 31. . I. will have such and such a result. I of their habit of putting an easier reading where the more difficult one is really right. in Biihler's 'Grundriss. (4) Prognostication by 1 interpreting dreams (5) Fortune-telling from marks on the body 2 (6) Auguries from the . 77 mocks at the dream interpreters. 46. On the theory of dreams compare Mil. 374 adds that it means also the knowledge of good and bad marks on such persons and things as are mentioned here in our next paragraph. 171. . 71.. Grammar. word separate from Supinawz. marks on cloth gnawed by 3 mice . 56. * occurs in BuddhaGat. p.' ' 1 Ritual-literatur in Biihler's II. of husked grain ready for boiling. of Pali (15) Drawing blood from one's right knee as a sacrifice to the eods 8 . pp. (14) Sacrificing by spew- ing . 120= A. 37). 114. 4 (7) Sacrificing to Agni mustard seeds. 374 the word is masculine.

1

8

I.

BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA.
Advising on cuslaw 3 tomary
(18)
.

Looking at the knuckles, &c, and, after
(16)

muttering a charm, divining whether a man is well born or lucky or not !
.

(19)
(20)

Laying demons
4
.

in

a cemetery

Laying ghosts
to
in

6
.

(17) Determining whe-

(21) Knowledge of the

ther the
is

site,

for
2
.

a pro-

charms
lodging
(22)

posed house or pleasance,
lucky or not
on
it

be used when an earth house °.
7
.

Snake charming

p. 176,

18,

3,

is

the use of blood for sorcery. In one passage, Rig-vidh. Ill, one's -own blood that is to be used. But the specific

interpretation given here the Brahmanical books.
1

by Buddhaghosa cannot be

paralleled

from

Anga-vi^S. Buddhaghosa
1.

thus separates this from the

angam

of No.

In both the passages Gat. II, 200, 250 the knowledge is simply that of judging from a man's appearance that he is rough or bad, and it is the good man in the story (in the second case the Bodisat
himself)

who

is

the

anga-vi^a-paMako.

So

at Gat.

by
1

anga-vi^a 2

that the Bodisat prophesies that a

man

will

V, 458 it is be cruel.

Vatthu-vi^a.

house,' having misread

Childers (Diet., p. 559) has 'pool' instead of sara for ghara (s and gh are nearly alike in

by Buddhaghosa in his Its success deMahd-parinibbana Sutta I, 26. pended on the belief that the sites were haunted by spirits. See
Sinhalese).

The

craft is further explained

comment on

the

further below, § 27.
3

Khatta-vi^a.

into the familiar khetta.

The Burmese MSS. correct the Khetta-vi^a indeed occurs

rare
at

khatta
Ill, 9,

Ud.

just possibly there (in connection with writing, arithmetic, ' tables, &c.) be correct in the meaning of land-surveying, mensuration.' his explanation is corrupt, evidently Buddhaghosa, though

and may

understands the phrase in a sense similar to that of khatta-dhamma at Gat. V, 489, 490; Mil. 164 (see also 178); and his gloss nltisatthaw/ is probably nearer the mark than Sahkara's (on JC/o.nd. Up.
It is the craft of government, VII, 1, 2), which is dhanur-veda. then lying in great part in adhering to custom. The Sutta only follows the Upanishad in looking at all these crafts as minor matters, but it goes beyond it in looking upon them as a low way, for a Brahman, of gaining a livelihood. 4 Siva-vi^a. It is clear that siva is used euphemistically, and we may here have an early reference to what afterwards developed
'
'

into

the cult of the

god

.Siva.

Buddhaghosa gives an
(Joe. eit).

alternative

explanation as knowledge of the cries of jackals. 6 Bhuta-vi^a. Also in the JfMndogya. list
6

same as bhuri-kammawz, explained the same way by Buddhaghosa on § 27 below. 7 One method is described at Gat. IV, 457, Ahi-vi^a.

Bhuri-vi^a.

It is the

in

8.

MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY.

1

9 a

has yet to live. (29) Giving charms to ward off arrows 6 The animal (30) the wheel 6 (28) Foretelling Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts."
. . .

The poison craft l 2 (24) The scorpion craft 2 (25) The mouse craft 3 (26) The bird craft 4 (27) The crow craft
(23)
.

.

number of years

that

man

.

22. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,

by low arts, such as these Knowledge of the signs of good and bad in the following things and of the marks
:

qualities

to wit, denoting the health or luck of their owners 7 gems staves, garments, swords, arrows, bows, other
,

in

them

weapons,
girls,
,

women
,

8
,

men
,

8
,

boys
,

8
,

8

girls

,

slaves, slave9
,

elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, oxen, goats 9 9 9 9 10 tortoises, and sheep fowls quails iguanas earrings

other animals Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts."
23.

,

'Or he might say: "Whereas some

recluses

Perhaps such charms against snake bite as Ath.-v. V, 13 ; VI, 12, 56 ; VII, 88, are included. 1 Buddhaghosa says curing or giving poison, or poison spells (compare Ath.-v. VI, 90, 93, 100). 2 These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these
creatures.
3 4
5

Understanding

their language. Divining by the appearance and the cawings of crows. Compare the Amba/Ma-vi^a" at Sum. 255 and below,

p.

96 of

the text, § 23.
8 7

Miga-£akka;«. Understanding the language of all creatures. The whole of this low art as applied to gems has been collected
'

'

in

a series of manuals

now

edited by L. Finot in his 'Lapidaires

Indiens,' Paris, 1896. 8 The art in these four cases

them show they
they dwell.
9

will

is to determine whether the marks on bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which

The

art in these five cases is to say
in here very oddly.

whether

it is

unclean or not

to eat them.
10

This comes

the

same

reading,

and takes the word

in its ordinary senses, not

But the old commentator had even

as amulet.

C 2

20

I.

BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA.

and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as soothsaying, to the effect that [10] The chiefs will march out. The chiefs will march back. The home chiefs will attack, and the enemies'

retreat.

gain foreign chiefs suffer defeat. The foreign chiefs will gain the victory, and ours will suffer defeat * Thus will there be victory on this side, defeat on that Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.'' Or he might say " Whereas some recluses and 24. Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of livelihood, by such low arts as foretelling will be an ration of the sun or the (1) There of the moon. moon. eclipse There will be an (2) (5) The sun or the moon of the sun. will return to its usual path. eclipse (3) There will be an (6) There will be aberof a star (Nak- rations of the stars. eclipse 2 shatra) (7) The stars will return There will be aber- to their usual course 3 (4)

The enemies' chiefs will The home chiefs will

attack,

and ours will retreat. the victory, and the

'

:

.

.

Throughout these paragraphs the plural is used. This cannot be honorific, as the few great kings of that time are always spoken of in the singular. Yet all the previous translators, except Burnouf, translate

1

by the singular

— 'the

king
'

will

that

we have

to understand

chiefs/

march out,' &c. and not the king
'

It
'
:

is

evident

absolute monarchies, but republican institutions of .a aristocratic type, were in the mind of the composer of the paragraph. 2 Nakkhatta, translated by Gogerly and Neumann a 'planet.'

and that not more or less

Buddhaghosa explains

it

by

'

Mars and

so on.'

This may apply to

planets, but also to stars in general, and I know no other passage where the meaning of the word is confined to planets. Burnouf has
'constellation,' but
s

what can the

Patha-gamana and uppatha-gamana.
a note he has been the author means

(in
'

eclipse of a constellation mean? Prof. Kielhorn says kind enough to send me on this section):

What

by these words

I

do not know.

But

MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY.
(8)

21

There
1
.

will

be a

fall

rising

and

setting, clear-

of meteors
(9)

There
2
.

will

be a junbe an
thun-

gle

fire

(10)

There

will

ness and dimness, of the sun or the moon or the stars 3 or foretelling of each of these fifteen phe,

earthquake.
(11)
der.

The god will

they will betoken such and such a
result

nomena
"

that

[11]

(12-15) There will be 25. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these
:

disturbances. Foretelling a pestilence. Foretelling a healthy season. 4 Counting on the fingers
:

Foretelling Foretelling Foretelling Foretelling Foretelling Foretelling

an abundant

rainfall.

a deficient rainfall. a good harvest. scarcity of food.
tranquillity.

uppatha-gamana would
mean
sion.
1

be literally "aberration, the going away from one's proper path"; and patha-gamana therefore should be " I am sure the two words could not following one's proper course."
conjunction and opposition ; nor, I think, ascension and declenIt is curious that Buddhaghosa has not explained them.' Ukka-pato. See Gat. I, 374; Mil. 178.

lightning,' according to Neumann; atmosphere,' according to Gogerly, whom Burnouf follows. But Buddhaghosa's words are only explicable of a jungle fire. Compare Gat. I, 212, 213, 374. 3 Burnouf takes these four words to refer to four occurrencesGogerly and Neumann take them as only two. Buddhaghosa seems
'

2

Disa-daho.

'Thunder and

fiery confiscations in the

to imply four.
* da. There has been great diversity in the various guesses madfe at the meaning in this connection of mudda, which usually means seal or seal-ring.' Gogerly has conveyancing,' and so also Childers Burnouf takes this word and the next as one compound in the sense of foretelling the future 'by calculating diagrams'; and Neumann has Verwaltungsdienste,' administrative services. Buddha'

Mud

'

'

'

;

'

ghosa

is

very curt.
is

He

says only

hattha-mudda gawana. Hatthaat

mudda

found elsewhere only

Gat. Ill,

528, where hattha-

22

I.

BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA.
l
.

Counting without using the fingers 2 Summing up large totals
.

Composing

ballads, poetizing
4

Gotama
arts."

Casuistry, sophistry the recluse
26.
'

3
.

holds aloof
"
:

from such

low

Or he might say
earn their arts, such as

Whereas some

recluses

and Brahmans, while
faithful,

living on food provided by the living by wrong means of livelihood,

by low

aiuddaw karoti means 'to beckon,' and at Vin. V, 163, where it is said of the polite member of the Order that he makes no sign
with
I,

his

hand, nor beckons.
I,

(On hattha-vikara compare
II,

Mil.

207,

547=Vin.
later

i57=Vin.
text,
is

much

impossible. it is called

and mentioned as a craft at Vin. IV, 7 (where honourable), at M. I, 85, and several times in the Milinda (pp. 3, 59, 78, 178 of the Pali text), and muddiko as the person who practises that craft at D. I, 51 and Vin. IV, 8. The
than

our

Both these passages are 216.) the sense of beckoning is here

But

mudda

comment on this (quoted in my translation of the Milinda, 91) shows that the art there was simply arithmetic, using the joints or knuckles of the fingers as an aid to memory. And this is no
Sinhalese
I,

doubt the meaning in our paragraph. Ganana. Buddhaghosa's comment on
1

this

is

a££^iddaka-

evidently calculation not broken up by using the fingers, mental arithmetic pure and The accountant who uses this method is called gawako simple.

gawana,

in contradistinction to the last.

It is

Buddhaghosa's comment on the fetter (D. I, 51 ; Vin. IV, 8). passage is given by Minayeff at Pat. 84, but with a wrong reading,
akkhi*rc/aka.

He who has the faculty Satfzkhanazra, literally 'counting up.' of doing this can, on looking at a tree, say how many leaves it has, But the first words of his comment are doubtful. says Buddhaghosa. He may perhaps mean calculating masses by means of the rosary. Burnouf skips this word, and Neumann has simply counting.' 3 Kaveyya/rc. The word recurs, in a bad sense, at A. I, 72
2
'

=

III,

Buddhaghosa enumerates, in the words of A. II, 23c, four kinds of poetry, and explains them in nearly the same words as found in the Manoratha Purani on that None of the four refer to sacrificial hymns. Impromptu passage. rhyming, ballad singing, and the composition of poems are meant. 4 Lokayatazrc. Usually rendered 'materialism.' But it is quite See Miclear that this meaning is impossible in this connection.
linda 174.

107, and also at S. I, 'drunk with prophecy, inspired.'

no

in

the

phrase

kaveyya-matto,

MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY.
(1)

23

day
the
is

for

Arranging a lucky marriages in which

for

bride or bridegroom

brought home '. (2) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom
is

Fixing a lucky time expenditure of money [or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent
(6)

the

throwing dice]
(7)

3
.

Using
Using Using

charms
lucky
4
.

to

make people
(8)

sent forth

2
.

charms
unlucky.

to

(3) Fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace [or using

make people
(9)

charms

to
to

charms

to
.

procure

har-

procure abortion. (10) Incantations
bring on dumbness.
(11)

mony]

3

(4) Fixing a lucky time for the outbreak of hostilities

Incantations

to

keep
fixed.

a

man's

jaws
to
his

[or

using charms to
3
.

make

discord]

(12)

Incantations

(5) Fixing a lucky time for the calling in of debts [or charms for success in

make a man throw up
hands.
(13)

Incantations
.

to

throwing dice]
1

3
.

5 bring on deafness

Compare the Sinhalese bin a marriage in which the bridegroom brought into the house of the bride's family. 2 Compare the Sinhalese diga marriage in which the bride is sent out to live in the bridegroom's family. We have no words now in English to express this difference between marrying and giving in marriage. 3 Sa/ravadanawz. Childers calls this a magic art, following
is

Burnouf who

The

fact

is all

or sorcery,

it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pali or

calls

Sanskrit, and the tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in which the use of the word had not survived to later
times.

The

general sense

may be

sufficiently clear, but for absolute

certainty of interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in

a connection which shows the meaning. Ath.-v. Ill, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a family, compare VII, 52 and there are several charms in the Atharva-veda for success in gambling. 4 Subhaga-karanazw. Many such charms are preserved in the
;

XVI, 4 9). 5 (for instance, X, 3 would be useless to seek in the Atharva-veda, which (with the one exception mentioned in the notes to the next section) gives only the charms which are supposed to bring benefits, for instances of
; ;

Atharva-veda
5

;

It

24
(14)
lar

I.

BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA.
(17)

Obtaining oracuanswers by means of
'.

The worship
4
.

of of

the

Sun
(18)

the magic mirror

forth (19) Bringing flames from one's mouth. possessed (20) Invoking Siri, the (16) Obtaining oracu6 lar answers from a god goddess of Luck Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts."
2
.

(15) Obtaining oracular answers through a girl

the Great

The worship One 5
.

But we have here direct evidence that these malevolent practices. black magic, as was indeed inevitable, was as fully trusted in the We need not sixth century B.C. in the valley of the Ganges as white. be surprised that the malevolent charms are not recorded.
the mirror

Buddhaghosa says they made a god appear in and answer questions put. It is a later conception to discard the god, and make the mirror itself give pictures of the
1

Adasa-pa«Ao.

hidden events.
2
3

The mirror is of metal (Par. Dip. 235). Kumari-paw^o. Through a girl of good family and Deva-pa«^o. Also obtained through a girl, but
or temple prostitute. patriarchal regime of the
It
is

repute.
this
find,

a

deva-dasi

instructive

to

time even

under the

sixth century b. e., that men thought they could best have communications from the gods through the medium of a woman.
4 Adi££upa/Manam. Such sun-worship is ridiculed in the Gataka of the same name, No. 173. 6 Buddhaghosa explains the Great One as MahS Brahmi. This seems to me very doubtful. It is at least odd to find Brahmi introduced in this connection. We may grant that the Buddhists mighl have put sun-worship into a list of sorceries, but there was no ceremonial cult of Brahma and little or none of Brahma. And however much the new gospel might hold the speculations of the dominant theosophy in contempt, that would scarcely explain their being ranked Burnout avoids this by rendering the as privates in this regiment. phrase generally serving the great,' and Neumann has practising Neither of these guesses seems happy. Ma hat in comsorcery.' position is elsewhere always maha in Pali, and we possibly have here
'

'

a sandhi for mahati-upa//^ana/w, in the sense of worship of the This would Great Mother, the Earth, with covert allusion to mahf. give excellent sense, as the worship of the Mother Earth was closely A god or goddess is associated in the popular mind with witchcraft. certainly meant, and one so associated would be best in place here. It is perhaps worthy of note that in the oldest portion of the Taittiriya Upanishad, Sun, Moon, Earth, and Sri occur together in a set of mystic groups, and Sun, Moon, Brahma, and food are all identified

by a word-play with Mahas (Sikya-valli 4-7). e See Milinda 191, and Gat. II, 410.

208. 1889. T. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. 2 virility . 53-55- . (11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives. Making a man imlucky 3 . Administering (18) 6 drugs through the nose . The ceremony referred Is this is to a place sacred to the carrying out of the Mother Earth? vi^a or craft mentioned 2 in the list at § 21. Consecrating sites Ceremonial rins(8) ings of the month. people's (16) Oiling ears (either to make them grow or to heal sores on them). castration.and vossa-kammawz. 4. VI. (10) Offering sacrifices. P.MINOR DETAILS OF MERE MORALITY. I. (1 7) Satisfying people's (4) (5) Causing 2 . Vassa. VII. while living on food provided by the faithful. but p. S. § 21. is. Or he might say " : Whereas some and Brahmans. charms (3) Repeating while lodging in an earth house l (2) . The idea of the second is not. ' 25 recluses [12] 27. laid See Mil. These constitute the vatthu-vig^a. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV. Giving medical (20) ointment for the eyes. of course. (15) Purging people to relieve the head (that is (22) Practising Practising as as a a surgeon. of * B Bathings.. 1 Bhuri-kammara. Paying such vows. by low arts. (21) Practising as an oculist. 113 to cause impotence). potent (6) Fixing on sites for dwellings 3 . 101 to give virility. that of other people. Morris discusses the etymology of these words. VI. colly- ings . bath(9) Ceremonial 4 (19) Applying rium to the eyes. 511 and the rules down in 'Vinaya Texts. (23) doctor for children. in the J.' II. such as these :by giving drugs to make (1) Vowing gifts to a if a certain benefit be people sneeze). god granted. 8 Vatthu-kammawj and -parikirawaw. making a man's desire to fail by a spell. 138. only found in this list. (7) eyes (soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them).

' Here end the Long Paragraphs on Conduct. 1 1 19. difficult to realise. It is when. hath set forth and it is of them that they. a delusion. On anuddi/7^i see also The Gogerly in the 'Ceylon Friend. 146. 1886. N. an offhand illoccurs. brethren. a purgative is first given and then a tonic to counteract the other. — man. 11-25 must not be mistaken.. S. 113. should speak. have a connotation of contempt considered opinion. hard to understand. ultimate beginnings of things. Ill. for instance." These. 28. reconstruct whose speculations are concerned with the ultimate 3 past and who on eighteen grounds put forward various of Nos. to set free from its effect. profound. and anudi/Mi in all the seven passages where it a mere view.26 (24) I. tranquillising. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. other things. brethren. V. ' There are. The Greek 86$a has had a similar history.' II. 2 The corresponding Sanskrit terms occur at Divyavadana. comprehensible only by the wise 2 These things the Tathagata. ' And what ' are they the ? 29. p. . 352. 25 is curious. who would rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with the truth. sweet. T. Compare Gat. that the objection was to recluses and Brahmans practising medicine as a means of livelihood. There are recluses and Brahmans. who .' 1875. might speak. P. It is from the numerous examples in the Vinaya (see especially 'Vinaya Texts. and from the high praise accorded to (Jivaka and other physicians. S. having himself realised them and seen them face to face. of mere morality. pp. 133. use of pa/imokkha in No. and Morris in the J. 160. p. and dogma or speculation is a better rendering than view or — belief. and compare attanuddi/Mi at Mil. 45. the minor details. . They might do so gratis for themselves or for their coreligionists.' di/Mi almost always. . brethren. are the trifling matters. 3 These phrases recur S. 492. of which the unconverted Administering and drugs. subtle. p. roots ' (25) Administering medicines in rotation * Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. when praising the Tathagata. and sufficiently 1 The Buddhist view clear laymen might do so for gain. As in cur colloquial expression a 'viewy man. 25. 41-144). not to be grasped by mere logic. No doubt the reading there ought to be nipu/zo.

or four. do those venerable ones do so ? 31. 1 Sassata-vada. or in several hundreds or thousands or " laks of births There I had to the effect that such and such a name. of earnestness. reaches up to such rapture of heart that.' The history of this word has yet be written. living on such and such food. rapt in heart. or ten.' have chosen caste (though it is not caste sense) because it no doubt refers to the iattaro va»»a literally 'colour. some recluse or Brahman by means of ardour. with reference to what. Vessas. or three. or forty. Brahmans. with such and such a span of years. do those venerable ones do so ? There are. ' And about what. or a thousand. On the meaning of gotra^a (the gentiles of Roman Law) in the later law-books see 2 to West and 8 ' Biihler. brethren. 180-190. — — . of exertion. Va»«a.THE ETERNALISTS. R. or twenty.' mentioned so often in the Suttas. and Suddas were not castes. each consisting of many subdivisions (by customs as to connubium and commensality) which afterwards hardened into castes. was of such and such a lineage 2 and caste 3 lived on such and such food. 'In the first place. in such and such a lineage and caste. It is true that these Khattiyas. A. in full detail both of condition and of custom. 1897. And when I fell from thence I was reborn here. or five. ' G otr a. See J. And when I fell from thence I was reborn in such and such a place under such and such a name. but four divisions of the people. he calls to mind his various dwelling-places in times gone by in one birth. literally cow-stall. of careful thought. some recluses and Brah30. or in two. or thirty. It probably meant at the time this Sutta was written a family or lineage traced through the father." Thus does he recollect. proclaim that both the soul and the world are eternal. or fifty. had such and such a span of years. ' Hindu Law I of Inheritance/ p. experienced such and such pains and pleasures. mans who are Eternalists \ and who. on four grounds. of application.' Beruf. 171.. experiencing such and such pains and pleasures. [18] And about what. and Neumann in its strictest Gogerly renders it 'appearance. 27 assertions regarding it. S. brethren. or a hundred. with reference to what. pp. his various dwelling- — — .

giving birth to nothing new. as a pillar firmly fixed these living creatures transmigrate and pass though away. to turn). the period of the gradual disintegration and conformation of a world. starting from what. brethren. as a pillar and though these living creatures transfirmly fixed and pass away. In this case. means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought.28 I. [16] And in the fourth place. 32. from va//. can reach up to such rapture of heart that. [14] And he says to himself " Eternal is the soul and the world. and in full detail both of condition and of custom. is the first state of things on account of which. on what ground is it.' (rolling up and evolution. another. giving birth to nothing new. and the later Sarikhya notion of pralaya is closely allied. yet they are for ever and ever. and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal. and maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal. some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists. is stedfast as a mountain peak." This. But both are Indian rather than Buddhist. fall from one state of existence and spring up in another. my various by that is it that dwelling-places in times gone by I know this that the soul is eternal and that the world.] 34. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. . fall from one state of existence migrate . ' ' . . [15] [The third case put is in all respects the same save that the previous births thus called to mind extend o /er a still longer period up to forty world aeons. Neither the idea nor the word occurs in books known to be before Sa/«varta the Buddha. rapt in heart. Needless to add that the length of this period cannot be 1 Saw«va//a-viva//a/« It is expressed in figures. I can call to mind. starting from which. [The second case put is in all respects the same save that the previous births thus called to mind extend over a still longer period up to ten world aeons \] 33. brethren. . that those venerable ones are Eternalists. yet they are for ever and Because I. brethren. is found in the Maha Bharata and the Ramayawa. : places in times gone by. by that be so ? ever. some recluse or Brahman and spring up in And why must — — . is stedfast as and that a mountain peak.

all 2 samadhi. they do so in these four ways. 54. and in four ways maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal. 9." This. . N. brethren. 96. I. and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived at. 198 and S.' says Buddhaghosa. some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists. ' ' 36. 1 This phrase recurs below. 188 = 422. Sila. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this. is the fourth state of things on the ground of which. giving birth to nothing new. S. starting from which. 4 Mil. 611. them. ' himself by himself. Without depending on any one = = . and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those specula2 and having that knowledge he is not puffed tions) 3 up.ISTS. II. M. brethren. their sweet taste. brethren. mans who are Eternalists. 251. says Buddhaghosa. See the 108. M. and thus untarnished he has. the Tathagata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. are those recluses and Brah35. and p. the rising up and passing away of sensations. 10. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in ' and these living creatures. is stedfast as a mountain peak. I. . Now of these. 20. . 347.ttam. else. Nirvana.kka. thus insisted on. . [17] That does he know. Ill. §§ 14. phrases A. the other things known to a 3 Buddha. realised the way of escape from as they really are. their danger. though they and pass away. and ~Pa. for instance. how they cannot be relied on and not grasping after any (of . in his own heart them 4 has understood.906. &c. fall from one state of transmigrate existence and spring up in another. . common 117. iii. is addicted to logic and He gives utterreasoning. These. and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal. will have such and such a result. says Buddhaghosa. firmly fixed . 252 182. yet they are for ever and ever. as a pillar ] . Sum. 20. I. beaten out by his argumentations and based on his sophistry " Eternal is the soul and the world. or in one or other of the same. 8. ance to the following conclusion of his own.THE ETERNAI. chap.

lising. brethren. 'Now there comes also a time. when. . partly eternal and partly is it not. difficult to realise. what is conclusion 2. after there comes a time. pro37.30 those things I. in arriving at this it ? Now or later. have mostly been reborn in the World of beings Radiance. 3. continuing in glory a long long period of time. ' that these venerable ones depend that they start from. which the Tathagata. traversing the and thus they remain for air. should speak. 'These found. Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. 'There are. radiating light from themselves. and nis-r 1 sara«a/» in the third. some recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists with regard to some things.' . 78 in Grimblot) has made a sad mess of this paragraph. 77. 1. quite 2 brethren. tranquil. sweet. * Not of course the four speculations. comprehensible only by the wise. are those other things. subtle. hath set forth and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with the truth. regard to others Non-Eternalists who on four grounds maintain that the soul and the world are and in . Chapter II. having himself realised and seen face to face. sooner the lapse of a long long period. when. 'And what upon. this And when this happens world-system passes away. is set free *. hard to understand. misunderstanding the grammatical construction of the first clause. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. and there they dwell made of mind. brethren. men are eager for) he. brethren. . the Tathagata. but the higher knowledge which has led him to reject them. and misinterpreting paramasati in the second. feeding on joy. Gogerly (pp. not to be grasped by mere logic.

Would that they that so ? . the one who was first reborn 5. appointing to each Maker. the Lord of all. 142-144. his span of years has passed or his merit is exhausted. No. the Supreme One. too. and Gat. the 1 _^ S. Ancient of days. the Great Brahma. either because it is empty. the the Mighty. brethren. behold came. falls from that World of Radiance. appointing to each his place. continuing in glory time. 1 1 This string of epithets recurs at M. " so long alone. These other beings are of my creation. either because their span of place other years had passed or their merit was exhausted. feeding on joy. 326-331 . ' : O ! ! ' A ' And on my mental aspiration.. the All-seeing. When this of mind. and comes to life in And there also he lives made the Palace of Brahma. think thus: This might come ' ! must be Brahma. the Palace of Brahma appears. the Creator. and three recensions of it have been preserved (M. and in all respects like him. named Baka. and thus does traversing the air. the Ruler. 327 in the course of the as coming to story of the Brahma. the All-seeing. and appear in beings fall from the World of Radiance. he remain for a long long period of Now there arises in him. but happens And some being or other. I. Brahma. radiating light from himself. . [18] On this. the Ruler. Mr. the Father of all that are and are to be *. 405). who is represented The story was a favourite the very conclusion set out in our section. The omission in the Dialogue of all reference to the Kesava Birth Story may be a sign of greater age or it may be due simply to the fact that it is not required for the argument there. the Maker. a dissatisfaction and a longing would that other beings might come to join me in this " And just then. I..ETERNALISTS AND NON-ETERNALISTS. from his dwelling there 4. all that are — — . the Creator. the Chief of all. sooner or later. the Great thinks thus to himself: the Mighty. And why is while ago I thought. the Chief of all. one. his place. " I am Brahma. the Lord of all. the Palace of Brahma as companions to him. the Supreme." the beings " 'And those beings themselves. the Ancient of days.' Crow evidently considered himself the Maha Brahma of the period. the Father of . this 3 1 world-system begins to re-evolve. I.

maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not. And having come hither he might go forth from the household life into the homeless state. brethren. And having thus become a recluse he.32 I. and Non-eternalists as to others. This. the Maker. ' to be. Buddhaghosa on this has a curious note. loss of their self-control they fall from that state -. to be. he calls to mind his last dwelling-place. was here and we came see. A man. the Ruler. is the first state of things on [19] account of which. the Mighty. gods in the great glory. being Eternalists as to some things. the Supreme One. the Chief of all. the Great Brahmd. are delicate in body. And it might well be. he is stedfast immutable eternal. and more glorious. 7. should come hither. of a nature that knows no change." we been created by it was he who 6 On this. the Father of all that are and are he by whom we were created. by reason of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. appointing to each his place. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. after that. as And why ? first. the Ancient of days. that some being on his falling from that state. But we who were created by him have come hither as being impermanent mutable limited in duration of life. the one who first came into existence there is of longer life. and he will remain so for ever and ever. brethren. some recluses and Brahmans. reaches up to such rapture of heart that. the Lord of all. rapt in heart. brethren. brethren. the Creator." For ages they pass their time in the pursuit of the laughter and sport of sensual lusts. the All-seeing. and more powerful than those who appeared after him. 287). and are him. He says to himself: "That illustrious Brahma. ' ' 1 In consequence thereof their self-possession is corrupted. 'And what is the second ? There are. having gone without food . And we must have Because. The gods. though of Khio^/a-padosika. but not the previous ones. and through the 1 in the list of 2 They are not mentioned elsewhere except Maha Samaya (p. starting out from which. certain gods called the " Debauched by Pleasure .

. brethren. to think) the word has only been found at S. having lost our self-control through being debauched by pleasure we have come hither as 8. ' 3$ might well be. from ^Myati. [20] But we from that state." And what is the third ? There are. brethren. that some days even.' Buddhaghosa takes it here in the sense of envy. lust after. ' ' V state. brethren. they die Whether this be really away from that state. and tells a tale. 269. their bodies become feeble. There may have been confusion between the two homonyms. and being thus irritated. too long to quote. and And those gods fall from that their minds imbecile. Even there it is almost certainly merely taken from this passage.^Myati. -are not debauched by pleasure are stedfast. and they who fell will remain so for ever and ever. 'Now it might well be. II. for the sake of the Buddhaghosa identifies this class with the retinue of the argument. 10. to bum. so that ours got to mean to consider in such a way as to be excited. certain gods called " the De2 bauched in Mind They burn continually with envy one against another. mutable. so that it looks very much as if both these classes or . p. in all which passages it has the connotation of covet. I. become a recluse. 118. — . and being thus debauched. 2 Upani^Myanti.titles of gods were simply invented. of a nature that knows no change. 143. Only found here and in the list in the Samaya Sutta. immutable. And having come hither he should. but only his last one. it is at least in harmony with the irony of the Buddha's talk. to show the In the sense of 'consider' (from quarrelsome nature of these gods.' II.THE SEMI-ETERNALISTS. may restore his strength by the use of clear But the gods can't play tricks with themselves and if pass they lose their heads and forget their meal-times. D . in irony. ! — ' ' burn. and acquire the power of recollecting his last birth. as in the last case. limited in duration of life. Four Great Kings that is the regents of the four quarters. to for seven broth and so on. that some being. it Now on his falling ' — — being impermanent.. 11. The poor gods implied in the text or not. And he would say to himself: " Those gods who 9. 1 Mano-padosika. from that state. should come hither. their hearts become ill-disposed towards each other. eternal. Elsewhere found only at Vin. 193. N. III.

being. eternal. rise to the succeeding one than it passes away. should come hither and having become a recluse should. unstable." ' fell from that state. on his falling from that state. And being thus envious and corruot our bodies became feeble. brethren. some recluses his argumentations which is called eye : the third case. beaten out by This. who fly away from one tree only to alight on another. 'And he would say to himself: "Those gods who are not debauched in mind do not continually burn with envy against each other.I. since no sooner has each mental impression given Not perceiving that. and knows no change. and our minds . starting from which. on the ground of which. being constantly excited by envy against one another. . acquire the power of recollecting his last birth. or consciousness is a self which is permanent. nor their bodies feeble and their minds imbecile. and they will remain so for ever and ever. limited is and based on his sophistry " This and ear and nose and tongue and is a self which is impermanent. of a nature that knows no change. or mind. the but organs of sense break up (and sense impressions pass away) they fail to see that the same thing holds even more strongly in the case of thoughts. heart. as in the other cases. is the fourth state of things. ' 1 And what is ' V * 1 Buddhaghosa explains that these speculators perceive how . mutable. become evil disposed one towards another. In this case. when this individuality is broken up. and we hither as being duration of life. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. brethren. goes (as a unity) elsewhere. Therefore fall not from that state are stedfast. so their hearts do not . eternal. subject to change. imbecile. to the following conclusion of his own. but only his last one. 12. immuthey they table. not body But this which is called eternal. the fourth ? 3. stedfast. and it will remain for ever and ever This. they conclude that the mind. [21] But we were corrupted in mind. brethren. and depending on the analogy of birds. and have come in impermanent. some recluse or Brahman isHe gives utterance addicted to logic and reasoning.

These. and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are in some respects eternal. profound. D 2 . stood. brethren. and not grasping after any is (of those things quite set free. forth concerning these that they who would the Tathagata in accordance with the rightly praise . set forth the infinity or finiteness of the world. tranquillising. 'These. not to be grasped by mere logic.' There are. arrived at. sweet. ' knows of these. are those recluses and Brahmans who are Semi-eternalists. brethren. 1 And Antanantika. the Tathagata. and it is truth. are those other things. how they cannot be relied on. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those and having that knowledge. the Tathagata these speculations thus arrived at. and in some not. thus insisted on. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this. he is not speculations) and thus untarnished he has. subtle. their danger. has under. they do so in these four ways or in one or other of the same and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is . heart. the rising up and passing away of sensations. which the Tathagata. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who [22] 15. brethren. Now that trust in them. certain recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists 1 and who in four ways 1 6. as they really are. realised the way of escape from them. ' men are eager for) he. 14. will have such and such a result. should speak. in his own puffed up. brethren. their sweet taste. and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are eternal in some cases and not in others. having himself realised and seen face to face. That does he know. 35 and Brahmans are Semi-eternalists. hath set difficult to realise. hard to understand. ' .THE EXTENSIONISTS. comprehensible only by the wise.

160) there are four things the number of are infinite space. reaches up to such in heart. on what ground. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. 2 only that the conclusion is that he imagines the world limited in the across upward and downward directions. brethren.36 I. brethren. . And he says thus to himself: "Finite is the world. brethren. 'The third case is similar. either the infinite. dwells in the rapture of heart that he. but infinite be wrong." perceiving it to be finite by This. Buddhaghosa says nothing. man. are Those recluses wrong 19. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his own. the number of world-systems. by traced round it means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. rapt in heart. [24] or the second. do these venerable ones maintain this ? some recluse or Brah17. nor is it is This. The second case is similar. conclusion is: [23] "Infinite is the world without a . but I do not find them there. 1 Pariva/umo. Neither is the world finite. wisdom of a Buddha. brethren. so that a path could be 1 And why is this so? Since I." 4 first. only that the 1 8. that Buddhaghosa (Ats. can reach up to such rapture of heart that. finite. — ' ' limit. is the first case. by means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. the fourth case. starting out from what. beaten out by his argumentations and based on his finite nor yet insophistry: "This world is neither Those recluses and Brahmans who maintain finite. are wrong. 2 According — to . or the third conclusion. and Brahmans who say it is so that a path could be traced round it. Had this doctrine living creatures. some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. 'In the fourth case. Only found here. and the formed part of the original Buddhism we should expect to find these £att&ri anantani in the chapter on the 'Fours' in the Ahguttara. 'In the first case. I dwell in the world that I know this. rapt world imagining it finite. he declares both the former conclusions to 20.

brethren. Now of these. realised the way of escape from them. are those recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists. should speak. subtle. that these speculations thus arrived at. having himself realised and seen face to face. 37 'These. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. recluse or in its real nature. . the rising up and passing away of sensations. which the Tathagata. up. thus insisted on. hard to understand. brethren. nor the evil. 'There are. brethren. And he thinks " : 1 neither know . hath set and it is concerning these that they who would forth the rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with . difficult to realise. some recluses and Brahmans who wriggle like eels and when a question is put to them on this or that they resort to equivocation. and in four ways maintain For whosoever that the world is finite or infinite. the Tathagata knows 22. other things far beyond (far better than those speculaand having that knowledge he is not puffed tions) and thus untarnished he has. of the recluses and Brahmans are such. their danger. their sweet taste. ' sweet. and maintain this. These. profound. • and this in four ways.' 23. and he knows also them. the Tathagata. do those venerable ones do so ? Now ' some Brahman does not understand the good 24. they do so in these four ways or in one or other and outside these there is no way in of the same which this opinion is arrived at. ' . . how they cannot be relied on. has understood. are those other things. starting out from what. to eel-wriggling.THE EEL-WRIGGLERS. not to be grasped by mere logic. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in That does he know. is quite set free. as they really are. 21. brethren. tranquillising. on what ground. will have such and such a result. in his own heart. truth. In the first place. comprehensible only by the wise. brethren.

by chance. as it really is. nor the other This is the first case. This is the second case.38 the good. . ' ' ' : subtle. circumstances I might be wrong and my having been wrong might cause me the pain of remorse and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me 1 . 115). he will neither declare anything to be good. . 'grasping. Either of these states of mind will be the fuel to keep the fire burning. 3 Buddhaghosa explains that if. . And I don't deny your position. and says: " it V ' ' . And what is the third ? 26. declare the good to be good. in his ignorance. [The same. he will be filled with approval of the wise. pronounce evil. Now there are recluses and Brahmans who are clever. as in § 24). he will be puffed up by the But if he should blunder. who go about. methinks. . by illwill or resentment. vexation and illwill when his error is pointed out. . as it I. breaking to pieces by their wisdom 1 'Either in self-training or in the attainment of bliss in heaven. [The same. really nor the this to were I to . stances I might fall into that grasping condition of heart which causes rebirth and my so falling might cause me the pain of remorse and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me.' says 8 Buddhaghosa (p. reading] And he thinks " I neither know the good." Thus fearing and abhorring the being wrong in an expressed opinion. to equivocation. he resorts to put eel-wriggling. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. nor the evil. But I advance no different opinion. experienced in controversy. he should. evil. reading] '.' . is. . take I don't take it thus." [26] Thus fear3 he will ing and abhorring the falling into that state neither declare (&c. hair-splitters. And what is the second ? " Under these circum25. the state technically called Up ad an a. Buddhaghosa gives examples of these five equivocations. [25] That being be good or that to be so. And I don't say it is neither the one. I don't the other way. nor to be bad but on a question being to him on this or that. I might be influenced therein by my feelings or And under these desires.

472." Thus fearing and abhorring the joinder of issue. 'In this case. And I don't think it is thus or don't say so. of good and bad actions. And I don't say there neither is.THE EEL-WRIGGLERS. /?. I would say so. (2) There world. (1) There are Chance Beings (so called because theyspringinto existence. he resorts to equivocation. And I don't thus. is dull. another world. he will neither declare (&c. as m§ 24). y. (2) There are no such beings/ (4) There neither nor is is. ing a. 2 1 at ' Vinaya Texts. result. and in like manner about each of such propositions as the follow2 . is not another and seem therefore to come without a (3) There both is. another (3) world. cause). Sampayati. brethren. if I thought there were. I might be unable my And that might cause me the pain of remorse and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me. (4) There neither nor are not. See the note compare M. and is not. point out errors. And world. [27] to explain . when a question on this or that is it is — well. — his stupidity. And I don't think it is otherwise.' 317. 96. And on their doing so. 39 Were I to pronounce this to be good. (1) There is fruit. This is the third case. my 1 . and cussions Such questions are called elsewhere the common among Brahmans. nor is not. stupid. these men might join issue with me. I. There both are. basis of dis- . such beings. call upon me for reasons. such beings. ' ' And what is the fourth ? 27. either here or in another world. that put to him. not. the speculations of others. III. 85. without the intervention of parents. are. and are not. But I another world. or that to be evil. deny it." Thus does he equivocate. to wriggling " like an eql If you ask me whether there is another some recluse or Brahman by reason of his dullness.

(4) There nor neither is. 486.40 (2) (3) I. a question . BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. is quite set free. or perhaps come. R. and does not. but its ' ' meaning 2 is. when Brahmans who wriggle like eels is put to them on this or that. is not. the Tathagata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. in which they do ' so. truth l continues to exist after death.) shows that gata was used elliptically in the sense of 1 gone to the furthest point aimed at among the followers of the other sects that arose at the same time as Buddhism. to the truth. ij6-ii8. tranquillising. how they cannot be relied on. 1898. This is on the whole. (2) There is not. A man who ' 1 . difficult to realise. brethren. are those recluses and [28] 28. Ill. The use of sammaggato\D. . I. 140. That does he know. &. (4) He (1) to the nor does not. they do so in these four ways. and is not. There both is. and he knows also other effect things far beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. 55. A.. the identical answer put below (p. to eel-wriggling and that in four ways. penetrated 2 This. clear enough. such and such an on the future condition of those who trust in them. Bela/Maputta. Jan. The exact derivation and history of the word Tathagata may be doubtful. I. brethren. both does. M.) and of gatatto (D. and not grasping after any (of those things . the rising up and passing away of sensations. S. and who. of these. I. &c. ' men The word here used is Tathagata. These. their danger. has neither does. thus insisted on. their sweet taste. or in one or other of the same there is no other way . resort to equivocation. are eager for) he. and compare S. brethren. 57 of the text) into the mouth of Sangaya.. will Now have such and such a result. is the fourth case These. hard to understand. For whosoever do so. S. (3) He He does not. 57. 171. in his own heart.' See Chalmers in the J.c. are those other things. in. has understood. as they really are. 29. 467. N. . and thus untarnished he has. realised the way of escape from them. profound. brethren. 'he who has gone. the Tathagata.

so long do they last. brethren.' It is explained by Buddhaghosa on our passage (Sum. occurring at Gat. having himself realised and seen face to face. some recluses and Brahare Fortuitous-Originists 1 and who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arise without a cause. should come hither and having come hither he might go forth from the household life* into the homeless state. 5 throws light on its use here. rapt in heart. They spring into being in this wise. comprehensible only by the wise. As soon as an idea occurs to conscious Beings 2 them they fall from that state. There mans who i ' . which the Tathagata. truth. And dying in this existence without it were better. and neither sensations nor ideas nor predispositions nor consciousness. hath set forth and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with the . sees the disadvantage attached to thinking. He says to himself: 30. The derivation is doubtful. he calls to mind how that idea occurred to him. This adhi^^a (which must be distinguished from the other adhi££a. but " Fortuitous not more than that. 1 Adhi^a-samuppannika.' 2 Asa««a-satta. Ill. starting out from what. 301) recurs at M. So long as the power of the Ghana lasts. derived from adhiyati. brethren. . should speak. I. And having thus become a recluse he.THE FORTUITOUS-ORIGINISTS. And on what ground. belief all sorts An is Have done with this of mental terrors arise. not to be grasped by mere logic. and says to himself: It is by dwelling on it in thought that physical ' pain and thinking. by reason of ardour and so on (as in the other cases) reaches up to such rapture of heart that. brethren. do they do so ? There are. I. . Some one of the Brahman ascetics having practised continual meditation and associated with words arrived at the Fourth Ghana. It is there meaning 'neither self-originated. 442 in the sense of = 'habitual. where it is opposed in the sense of 'occasional' to abhi/zha at M. certain gods called Un31. 118) as 'springing up without a cause. subtle. Then an idea occurs to them the idea of rebirth in this world and he — — they straightway die. I. that a being. 443. Now it may well be. nor created by others. reborn among the Unconscious Ones. who have form only.' ' are. 4 I sweet.' Udana VI. 2 18 IV. on falling from that state.

brethren. brethren. subtle. and based on his sophistry " : The soul ' and the world arose without a cause. and thus untarnished he has. I have come to be. Having not been.' and it is • [30] 35. has understood. is quite set free. ' difficult to realise. their sweet taste. comprehensible only by the wise. and maintain that the soul and the world arise without a cause. not to be grasped by mere logic. Now of these. 33. the Tathagata knows 34. that these speculations thus arrived at. thus insisted on. starting out from which. is the first state of things on account of which. 32. as they really are. which the Tathagata. ' . having himself realised and seen face to face. 'And what is the second ? In this case. some recluses and Brahmans become Fortuitous-Originists. is the second case. These. profound. how they cannot be relied on. brethren. That does he know. sweet. some recluse or Brahman is He gives utterance addicted to logic and reasoning. should speak. hard to understand. are those other things. Brahmans who things. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. These. brethren.42 in origin I. brethren. but now am. the Tathagata. tranquillising. will have such and such a result. hath set forth . and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. concerning these that they who would with the rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance truth. their danger. beaten out by ' his argumentations. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. realised the way of escape from them. to the following conclusion of his own. And why so ? are the soul and the world. Because formerly I was not." [29] 'This." This. brethren. in his own heart. the rising up and passing away of sensations. whose are the recluses and reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of speculations are concerned with the . BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA.

men truth. profound. . have such and such a result. brethren. difficult to realise. and the word chosen It is not the usual word. and not grasping after any (of those things . whose speculations are concerned with the future. is quite set free. the rising up and passing away of sensations. are those other things. recluses and Brahmans who [3l] hold the doctrine of a -conscious existence after death 2 and who maintain in sixteen ways that 1 See I. Conscious-maintainers. brethren. how they cannot be relied on. brethren. 12 of the text). their sweet taste. 2 Literally who . 29 ' (p. as they really are. in his own heart. 43 ultimate past.THE BELIEVERS IN FUTURE LIFE. realised the way of escape from them. has understood. comprehensible only by the wise. for death adds to the force of the phrase. are eager for) he. recluses and Brahmans the future. thus insisted on. do so in one or other of There is none beside. There . and who on eighteen grounds put forAnd ward various assertions regarding the past l those who do so. ' that these speculations thus arrived at. 1. hard to understand.' These summary epithets are meant to be contemptuous. And on account of what. Now of these. which the Tathagata. not to be grasped by mere logic. That does he know. having himself realised and seen face to face. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. tranquillising. brethren. These. are After-deathers. the Tathagata knows 36. starting out from what. these eighteen ways. sweet. subtle. hath set forth and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with the ' .' are. do they do so ? 37. and thus untarnished he has. the Tath&gata. are. their danger. and he knows also other will things far beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. all of them. 'There who arrange ' 38. should speak. and who on forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future.

the Tathagata. 40. (12) has sciousness. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. says Buddhaghosa. neither has. meaning literally 'shambles. says Buddhaghosa. form. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. do so in one or other of these sixteen ways. has one mode of their sweet taste. (7) is 3) is is both. and conscious. . (u) has limited con- They . form. altogetherhappy. the rising up and passing away of sensations. 'Now of these. and has not." consciousness. but aghatana (so read in place of execution. in his own heart. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. 1 * So the A^ivakas.44 I. 'These. (4) sciousness. thus insisted on. is quite set free. ordinary phrase would have been param- marawika. (2) (3) has. has understood. . brethren. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. 39. subject (1) has form \ (10) has various modes 2 is formless of consciousness. So the Niga«//fas. their danger. all of them. realised the way of escape from them. as they really are. nor has not. (14) able. neither. brethren. will have such and such a result. There is none beside. And those who do so. are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death. not say of the soul to decay. That does he know. how they cannot be relied on.' The the text). (9) (16) is neither. And how do they do so ' ? : " The soul after death. the Tathagata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. altogether miser- (8) is (15) is both. and thus untarnished he has. ( 1 infinite con- (5) is finite. (6) is infinite. is the soul after death conscious. and who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious.

There are. are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. brethren. [32] Chapter ' III. profound. . And those who do so. tranquillising. comprehensible only by the wise. and who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. not. (3) has. (5) is finite. are those other things. sweet.THE BELIEVERS IN FUTURE LIFE. i. should speak. not to be grasped by mere logic. nor has (8) is neither. ' There is none beside. recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. (i) has form. realise. 'They say not subject to decay. and thus untarnished he has. and who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. Now . form." These. all of them. hath set forth and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance with the truth. brethren. That does he know. of these. and he knows also other far beyond (far better than those speculations) things and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. brethren. having himself realised and seen face to face. in his own heart. of the soul "The soul after death. Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. (6) is infinite. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. will have such and such a result. (4) ' (7) is both. ways. and has not.' difficult to . : (2) is formless. hard to understand. subtle. and unconscious. neither has. do so in one or other of those eight 3. the Tathagata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. brethren. And how do they do so ? 2. which the Tathagata. realised the 4. thus insisted on. 45 'These. form.

their danger. the soul is completely annihilated. 42). feeding on solid But I know That you neither know of nor perceive. should speak. destroyed. this soul has form.] . comprehensible only by the wise. 5-8. 236. Sato sattassa. But the — 1 §§ p. are those other things. 'Jaina Sutras. the Tathagata. and is the offspring of father and mother. For there is a further soul divine. how they cannot be relied on. do they do so ? 10. hath set 1 difficult to realise. whole soul. brethren. havinof himself realised and seen face to face. the annihilation of And on account of what. Thus is it Sir. 47. Sir. . [33] [Similar sections for those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious. who in the cutting off. [34] There are. Comp. and it is 1 * 9. having form. profound. really are. tranquillising. is quite set free. the rising up and passing away their sweet taste. forth concerning these that they who would with the rightly praise the Tathagata in accordance truth. is built up ing view of the four elements. befood. Jacobi. 11. recluses are Annihilationists. the follow" Since. such That I do not deny. who and Brahmans seven ways maintain . subtle. a soul as you describe." that some maintain the cutting off. is not then completely annihilated. 339. brethren. 19. the destruction. on the dissolution of the body and does not continue after death and then. 'In the first place. 'To him another says: "There is. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. 2 9-18 are discussed by James UAlwis in 'Buddhist Nirvana. These.' II. the annihilation of a living being. some recluse or Brahman puts forth the following opinion. Sir. starting out a living being 2 from what.46 I. Insert the word sato in the text (as in §§ The KaMa Upanishad I. . sweet. . . 41. longing to the sensuous plane. way of escape from them. 20 alludes to such belief. brethren. hard to understand. as they of sensations. has understood. Sir. It is cut off.' 17. the destruction. which the Tathagata. not to be grasped by mere logic.

then [35] But I the soul is completely annihilated. by paying no heed to ideas of difference.THE ANNIHILATIONISTS. having form. is cut off and destroyed. with all its. Sir. Sir. of opposition to muscular effort It appears from M. the annihilation of a living being. such a soul as you describe. * Compare the 4th Vimokha. is cut off and destroyed. Sir. the annihilation of a living being. nor perceive. that Thus 14. D. This you neither know of not deficient in any organ. that the soul is completely annihilated. Sir. by the dying out of ideas of resistance. And since this soul. it that To him another says: "There is. is not then completely annihilated. then is it. ceive. Sir. Sir. But the a soul as you describe. does not continue after death. of the body. See Rh. For there is a further soul divine. whole soul. I. That I do not deny. off is since this soul. But the whole soul. That I do not deny. The idea of resistance." some maintain the cutting off. made of mind. such 12. 13. on the it. is know and have experienced it. And on the dissolution ot the body. "There is. major and minor parts complete. that the soul Thus is it that some is completely annihilated. is not then completely annihilated. Sir. is cut and destroyed. Sir. Having no sense of reaction to touch. pa/igha. For there is a further soul. the destruction. but refers 213. But the whole soul. the annihilation of a living being.' pp. the destruction. such a soul as you describe. is here not ethical. 164 that this was pretty much ' 1 the view put forth by Gotama's first teacher A/ara Kalama. 'To him another says: That I do not deny. the destruction. which by passing beyond ideas of form. does dissolution not continue after death. conscious that space is infinite. to the senses. is not then completely annihilated. . Sir. 'To him another says: "There is. Buddhist Suttas. it. then is it. reaches up to the plane of the This you neither know of nor perinfinity of space — ! . and have experienced 47 And since this soul." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. on the dissolution of the body." maintain the cutting off. does not continue after death. But I know and have experienced it. 52.

Thus destruction. pra«a. off is But I This you neither know of nor perknow and have experienced it. does not continue after death. this last of these seven to be considered as believing in all the sorts of soul held by the others. the destruction. then that the soul is completely annihilated. is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further soul. and 3 Though is it is theorisers no doubt . consciousness. Sir. 'To him another says: "There is.48 I. 1 Compare been much the not explicitly so stated. But the a soul as you describe. For there is a further soul. Sir.' and reaches up to the plane of This you neither ideas nor the absence of ideas 3 ' . this is excellent. manas. 2 Compare the 6th Vimokha. the annihilation of a living being. does not continue after death. such a soul as you describe. 1-5. But the whole not then completely annihilated. since this soul. was Gotama's second teacher. vi^«a«a. This seems from M. then is it. The Buddhist modification of these theories omits the souls. 15. mind. Sir. 'To him another soul. Uddaka. reaches up to the plane of the This you neither know of infinity of consciousness \ nor perceive. the 5th Vimokha. knowing that consciousness is infinite. Sir. which having passed beyond the plane of the infinity of space. reaches up to the plane of no obstruction ceive. That I do not deny. For there is a further soul. 16. whole soul." that some maintain the cutting off. is says: "There is. described in the Taittirfya Upanishad II. such That I do not deny. realises This is good." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. Sir. which by passing quite beyond the plane of no obstruction. know and have experienced on the dissolution of the body. But I And since this soul. 165 to have same as the view held by Rama. And 2 . knowing that there is nothing. which by passing quite beyond the plane of the infinity of consciousness. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. made respectively of anna. I. and ananda (food. breath. is it on the dissolution of the body. the it. is cut and destroyed. is cut off and destroyed. it. and joy). so that he believes in seven. the annihilation of a living being. Sir. whose son and pupil. One may compare the five souls each more subtle than the last. that the soul is completely annihilated.

is cut off. other. But the oldest Pi/aka texts say very little about it. And relying on what. The text shows that the four Arlipa Vimokhas of the Buddhist theory were regarded by the early Buddhists as derived from closely allied speculations. buddhi." the destruction. in this visible world. then is it. 'These. brethren. But experienced of the body. each the series of seven set out in our text to explain the persistence of the general idea in all the Indian systems. higher. recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. brethren. There 1 is none beside. it. 'There are. manas. in full enjoyment and posses' : mind (produced by stages of mediattainment of which. and expressed in almost identical phraseology. 17. for which alone he can be rightly praised. [36] And whosoever do so they. do they do so ? starting 20. does not continue after death. destroyed. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation. and the later Vedanta has a similar series.THE PERFECT NET. [Repetition of § 40. or planes of existence. the annihilation of a living being. the annihilation of a living being. There is sufficient truth in the idea of Centuries afterwards find a we the gradually ascending series of seven. but the details and the application are strikingly different. nor perceive. above p. the following view may " Whensoever the soul. lated. the and the history of Buddhist speculation on the matter has yet to be formulated. ahahkara. 44. older than Buddhism. are the recluses and Brahmans who are Annihilationists and in seven ways maintain the cutting off. of a living being. the destruction. do so in one or other of these seven ways. leads to rebirth in corresponding worlds. named after those stages of meditations. lihga-jarira. indriya.] 19. And since this soul. out from what. treats instead of various states of tation). Sir. 8. II. set out in the Sahkhya texts. somewhat analogous conception in more subtle than the last (Sthula-jarira. that the soul is completely annihiThus is it that some maintain the cutting off. Hereon. all of them. setting forth that knowledge of a Tathagata. brethren. E . neither 49 I know and have on the dissolution know of. during this life. and atman). some recluse or Brahman have the following opinion.

are Nirvana. of a living being. 121) explains Nirvawa as the suppression of pain . has the soul attained. born of fluctuate. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest And why not ? Sensuous delights. in the visible world. ticular soul happens to be at the time. Sir. 1 Buddhaghosa here (Sum. But whensoever." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. And why not ? Because inasmuch as that state involves reasoning and investigation it is stamped as being gross. Sir. in this visible world. has the soul attained. transitory. And loathing arise out seclusion. their very nature is to s lamentation. as opposed to domanassa. then. 'To him another says: "There is. dukha. in this visible Thus do some world. In this visible world means in whatever world the parmental. of a living being. then. To him another says: "There is. [37] But whensoever the soul. . 22. putting away sensuous delights and evil dispositions. without reflection or investigation. such a soul as you describe. of a living being. I. Sir. to the highest Nirvana. accompanied by reflection. in this visible Thus do some mainworld. in the visible world. That I do not deny. All its functions is added from the enjoyed himself. such 21." tain the complete happiness. a state of elevation of mind. accompanied by investigation. That I do not deny. the soul. On pari^areti compare ' ' V. they involve pain. to the highest Nirvana V maintain the complete happiness. enters into and abides in the Second 6v£ana. to the highest Nirvana. II. in the garden. Sir. pain.. the soul has attained. the state of joy and ease. uyyane pari^aresi. enters into and abides in the First Ghana. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvana. 'the king indulged himself. sorrow. then. born of serenity. 290 raga. indulges all its functions. sion of the five pleasures of sense. grief. a soul as you describe. in the visible world. internal calm of heart. pain.50 I. and of their inconstancy and change. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. being bodily. Sir. the state of joy and ease. Sir. Sir. suppressing both reasoning and investigation.' ' ' Commentary.

in the visible world. ' 1 often mentioned in the Gataka commentary as practised by pre- Buddhistic recluses. Sir. who The text shows that the four Guanas were regarded by the early The very words used are identiBuddhists as older than Buddhism. make up the Eight Attainments (Samapattiyo). 51 23. such That I do not deny. by putting away ease. to the Thus do some maintain the comhighest Nirvana. of a living being. without pain and without ease then. by absence of the longing after joy remains in equanimity. in this And those who do visible world. in this Thus do visible world. 'To him another says: "There is. state involves a constant dwelling of the mind on the ease it has enjoyed it is stamped as gross. . by by the previous dying away both of putting away pain. brethren. But the a soul as you describe. of a living being. ' 25. Sir. to the highest Nirvana." plete happiness. cal the only modification introduced in Buddhism being the omission These four. the — — has the soul attained. together with the lour Arupa Vimokhas of the souls. Sir. in this visible world.' and so enters into and abides in the Third 6*^ana then. joys and griefs has entered into and abides in the a state made pure by self-possession Fourth cTMna and equanimity." some maintain the complete happiness.THE PERFECT NET. soul does not by that alone attain to the highest And why not ? Because inasmuch as that Nirvana. These. of a living being. And why not ? state involves the sense of joy. soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Because inasmuch as that Nirvana. Sir. Sir. But whensoever. But the soul as you describe. That I do not deny. Sir. and experiences in the body that ease of which the Arahats speak (when they say) the man serene and thoughtful dwells at ease.' (see note on § 19). E 2 . are the recluses and Brahmans hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. [38] But ' — ' : soul. it is stamped as being gross. in the visible world. 1 whensoever. mindful and self-possessed. has the soul attained. To him another says " There is. such a 24. the soul. of exhilaration of heart. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation.

do so in one or other of these five ways. brethren. whose speculations are concerned with ' both. who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are eternal (2) those who are Semi-eternalists. and who on forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future. 'These. [Repetition of § 40. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. for which alone he can be rightly praised. 44. who when a question is put to them on this or that resort.] 26. 28. for which alone he can be rightly praised. [Repetition of none beside. all of them. for which other. to equivocation. of them. do so in one or other of these forty-four ways. all I. mans who : : (3) those who are Extensionists.52 so. and arrange the future. higher. [Repetition other. There is p. knowledge of a Tathagata. in four ways. whose speculations are concerned with the future. are the recluses and Brahreconstruct the past.] 'Of these. above 27. setting forth that 30. and those who do so. knowledge of a Tathagata. setting forth that other. There is none beside. And those who do so. to wriggling like eels : (5) those who are Fortuitous-Originists. 44. higher. who in four ways maintain the infinity or the finiteness of the world: (4) those who are Eel-wrigglers. do so in one or other of these sixty-two ways. $ 40. those recluses and Brahare Eternalists. brethren. above p. brethren. higher. are the recluses and Brahmans the future. above p. There is none beside. 44. who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arose without a cause : . and who in sixty-two ways put forward propositions with regard to the past and to the future.] [39] 29. do both. who arrange mans who or who These. who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not [40] 32. all of them. knowledge alone he can be rightly praised. of § 40. setting forth that of a Tathagata.

from the ten: : : : — . the basis. . of future lives). and despair. It is. the destruction. 71. all of them. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation. To them on account of the sensations arises craving.' S. in this visible world. the necessary condition. on account of the craving arises the fuel (that is. 15-19 and Mil. . Dh. of a living being That opinion of theirs is based only on the personal sensations. 381 (Asl. who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious (8) those who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. receive those sensations through continual contact in the spheres of touch.THE PERFECT NET. (6) 53 those who : in any of these eighteen ways recon- struct the past (7) those who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death. not worried at what at M. 36 na asati paritassati. who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious (9) those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious (10) those who are Annihilationists. : ' dency to become arises rebirth. 58 foil. paritasita compare M. sorrow. I. neither perceive. M. the food. IV. Ill. such a condition of things could not be. lamentation. [41. 'is is not': paritassana. who maintain in seven ways the cutting off. the annihilation of a living being (1 1) those who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. ' . brethren. from the fuel results becoming. S. 8. On vipphandita. [43] 'That they should experience those sensations without such contact. 'fidgetiness' or worry. [44] They.42] 'Those opinions of theirs are therefore based upon contact (through the senses). who know not. and are subject to all kinds of craving45 foil. Gat. on the worry and writhing consequent thereon ! of those venerable recluses and Brahmans. pain. when a brother understands. 1 On I. 495. and grief. 253. and from rebirth comes death. 253). 136 486. 400. I.

lations are concerned with both. On the so long do gods and men behold him. that which binds it to rebirth has been cut So long as his body shall last. are entrapped in the net these sixty-two modes this way and that they plunge about. flounder. [45] . to avoid repetition. that is the speaker himself. the danger. beyond the end of his life. Buddha. whose specuarrangers of the future. BRAHMA-GALA SUTTA. form which. On the dissolution of the it to rebirth is ' . who put forward various propositions with regard to the past and to the of future. neither gods nor men shall see him. in this net. brethren. and the way of escape from the six realms of contact. won the truth 2 stands before you. 2 Tat hag at a. . but they are included ' in it. ' For whosoever. the attraction. caught in it. past . but that which binds . about as they may. them all ! . so long do in twain. all the mangoes that were hanging goes on that stalk go with it just so. as they really are. beyond. as when has been cut. all of them. whether recluses or Brahmans. last. brethren. — they are included and caught. are thus reconstructors of the past or or who are both. and about the caught" just so is it with these speculators and the future. as when lad should drag a tiny pool of water with a fine-meshed " Whatever fish of size may net he might fairly think one will be in this net flounder be in this every : pond.' 1 life. gods body. a skilful fisherman or fisherJust. that he gets to know what is above. flounder as they may. but they are in it this way and that they may 72. they will be included in it. neither gods nor men In the text the first of each of the eleven classes of theorisers. 'The outward form. beyond the end of his shall see him. and men behold him. dissolution of the body. the stalk of a bunch of manJust.54 I. though the outward form of him who has won the truth stands before you. they. So long as his body shall cut in twain. brethren. brethren. the three of these four propositions are repeated The fourth is put in the 1 have adopted for all the four. brethren. the origin and the end. [46] of him who has 73. .

and as the Net of Truth. Ananda said to the Blessed ! and wonderful ' And venerable Strange. Lord. Sutta. this. 74. and as the Supreme Net. you may remember this exposition as the Net of Advantage.THE PERFECT NET. ' 55 the When he had thus spoken. and glad at heart the And on the delivery of brethren exalted his word. Here ends the Brahma-^ala . it this discourse the thousandfold world-system shook. even as the Glorious Victory in the day of battle !' Thus spake the Blessed One. is what name has this exposi- One ' : tion of the truth ? Ananda. and as the Net of Theories remember .

of having injunction. The answer is a list of such advantages. the summary here given of their doctrines is of great importance as evidence of the sort of — — . that they are not to the point. is interesting evidence of the views held by the authors of the Dialogue as to beliefs current at the time. asks whether the members of the Order. The question is that are referred to in so many words. Each of the six teachers goes off into a general statement of his theory But as the works. The replies are no less interesting from the fact. derive any corresponding advantage.INTRODUCTION TO THE sAmaawa-phala sutta. his Dharma. from theirs. The Rules themIt is only certain ethical precepts selves are not discussed. of all these teachers save one Nigant/ia. who have given up the world. after pointing out the derived from their occupations by a long list of advantages ordinary people in the world. visible in this life. in Dialogue was composed. which the king explains how he had put a similar question to the founders of six other orders. especially as compared with the later lists of a similar kind referred to in the notes. pointed out by the king. the practical rules of canon law by which life in the Order is regulated. Nata-putta have been irretrievably lost. for the enunciation of the Vinaya. each one mentioned being said to be better and sweeter than the one just before described. if instead of answering the question put. and gives the six replies he received. as to the use. any. a larger and wider one than the desirability of any particular It is as to the advantage. The list of ordinary occupations given in the question is interesting evidence. of social conditions in the Ganges valley at the time when this And the introductory story. his ethical and philosophical view of life the second puts forth his justification for the foundation of the Order. arranged in an ascending scale of importance. King A^atasattu of Magadha. — any Order at all. The first Dialogue deals with the most fundamental conceptions that lay at the root of the Buddha's doctrine.

3. would. whatever the views or opinions he held. § 43 x . The training in all those lower kinds of mere morality The set out in the very ancient document called The Silas.INTRODUCTION. And it would be premature to discuss our six paragraphs until the whole of the available evidence is made It is noteworthy that in at least two accessible to scholars. 57 The six paragraphs are short and speculation they favoured. which he claims for such a recluse: i. are the advantages. in the Introduction to the Brahma-^-ala. man whom. you would treat as slave or servant what treatment would you mete out to him The king confesses that he after he had joined an Order ? would treat him as a person worthy of honour and respect. in a constantly. under ordinary circumstances. of other references to these six theories are found. to the question raised by the king. The following. The Buddha shows the advantages of the life of a recluse. case with the accounts given by early Catholic writers of opinions they held to be heretical. in accordance with the remarkable tolerance of that age and country. takes (as is so The very often the case) the form of a counter-question. The answer which the Buddha is represented to have given. or the association he had joined. And neither in question nor answer is there any reference It is taken for granted. And these are not the only instances of the preservation in the Pi/akas of ancient dialectical varieties. the versions of these six But a number sets of belief are neither adequate nor clear. cf these answers some of the expressions used seem to be in a Prakrit differing in dialect from the Pali of the Pi/akas. visible in this life. The honour and respect shown to a member of a religious order. that any one who had devoted himself to the religious life. ascending order of merit. as pointed out in the notes. And the same note runs all through the Dialogue. The details of it may be summarised here as follows ' — ' ' — ' : — is a.' importance of this document has been discussed above. specially to the Buddhist Order. 1 a-d (though not referred to here) are the . in his turn. And most of what he says would apply as much to his strongest opponents as to the members of his own Order. Mercy and Details kindness to all living things the fact . As is the obscure. alike by the Buddha and the king. both in the Buddhist and in the Cain records.' not necessarily of a follower of his own. be treated with equal respect and courtesy. and this is just what we should expect.

of heart from the Five Hindrances to ilKtemper. absence of fear. . Suttas. . . k. prophesying as to war and its results (6 58) astrology or the reverse (§ 59). g. as a emancipation. m. and the four bad acts of speech. 0. of seven kinds § 47. Not frequenting shows. Not laying up treasure. §44. . so often referred to in the The three others (of the mind). 4. 7. The constant self-possession he thus gains § 65. of which twenty-two are speci- §51. The . Not practising trickery and mystery under the guise religion. 8. peacefulness. courtesy. § 49j. The emancipation . 142. with simplicity of . p. such as auguries (§ 56) advising as to the best sorts of various things (§ 57) . h. The joy and peace that. worry and flurry and perplexity §§ 68-74. opposites of the three bad acts of the body. confidence of heart. . i. kaya. or worship(§ 60) ping gods (§ 61). p. 3. and freedom from trickery and violence § 45. c. 6. Not using sophistical and rude phrases when talking of /. using spells. good sense in e. SAMAiVWA-PHALA SUTTA. . of which twenty-seven instances are given § 52.and va£i-du££aritani. life . f. of twenty different kindi . . Not gaining a living by low arts. Not using fied . § 53. . Abstinence from luxury of twelve different kinds. Truthfulness. 5. Not using luxurious §5°- rugs. . Not playing games. . of §55. Not acting as go-between § 54. Not injuring plants § 46. II. making up the ten given in my manual. speech. §64.58 b. . toilet luxuries. Chastity. and d. foretelling famine or plague arranging marriages. The power of being content with little. § 66. of twenty-six specified kinds § 48. eighteen being mentioned by name . fills his whole being result of the sense of this § 75. laziness. Honesty. are omitted here because they belong to the higher morality. and in the Abhidhamma. (§ 62).. — self-mastery covetousness. &c. talking vain things. resulting from the consciousness of right doing § 63. Not higher things n. The habit of keeping guarded the door of his senses. various sorts of medical trickery .

INTRODUCTION.
9.
;

59

10. 11. 12.
a.
h.
c.

The practice of the Four Guanas §§ 75-82 *. The Insight arising from knowledge («a«a-dassana)
;

;

§§ «3, 8 4-

The power of projecting mental images §§ 85, 86. The five modes of mystic Insight (a bhi««a) §§87-96 The practice of Iddhi. The Heavenly Ear hearing heavenly sounds.
;

Knowledge of others' thoughts.

d.
e.

Memory
Eye).

of his

own

Knowledge of other
13.

previous births. people's previous births (the Heavenly

realisation of the Four Truths, the destruction of the Asavas and attainment of Arahatship §§ 97, 98. Now it. is perfectly true that of these thirteen consecutive propositions, or groups of propositions, it is only the last, No 13, which is exclusively Buddhist. But the things omitted, Ine union of the whole of those included into one system, the order in which the ideas are arranged, the way in which they are treated as so many steps of a ladder whose chief value depends on the fact that it leads up to the culminating point of Nirvana in Arahatship all this is also distinctively Buddhist. And further, the whole statement, the details of it, the order of it, must have soaked very thoroughly into the minds of the early Buddhists. For we find the whole, or nearly the whole, of it repeated (with direct reference by name to our Sutta as the oldest and most complete enumeration of it) not only in all the subsequent dialogues translated in this volume, but also in many others. In these repetitions the order is always the same, and the details (so far as they occur) are the same. But one or other of the thirteen groups is often omitted, and the application of those of them that remain is always different that is to say, they are enumerated in support, or in illustration, of a different
;

The

proposition.

A

comparison of some of these other applications of the

of suggestion as to its real meaning here. the point is as to caste. The Kshatriya caste is the most honourable, but wisdom and conduct are higher still. What then is the right conduct, what the right
list is full

In the

Amba//^a

Vimokkhas
but
it

that though the Four Arupa mentioned they are to be underThis may be so: stood (thus making up the Eight Samapattis).
1

Buddhaghosa

(p.

219)

says

are

not

explicitly

looks like a later writer reading his own opinion into the older They are put into the text at Po///$apada, pp. 183, 184, and it is difficult to see why they should not have been also inserted here, if they were really implied.
text.

60
wisdom

II.

SAMAiViVA-PHALA SUTTA.

? The conduct (Tarawa) is all the above paragraphs from 2-9 inclusive; the wisdom (vi^a) is the rest, 10-13 "•

In the

Sonadanda

the question is:

'What

is

the true

Brahman?' Sonadanda

After, by his usual Socratic to acknowledge that the only

method, leading two essential re-

quisites are goodness and intelligence, these last are explained as above (2-9 and 10-13). In the Ku/adanta the question is as to the right sort of

Aftei rejecting animal sacrifice we have generosity each better than the last), faith, training in the precepts, and 2-13, set forth as each of them a better sacrifice than the last. In the ^aliya the question is whether the soul is the same as, or is other than,, the. body. The answer is a countersacrifice.

(of various kinds,

question.

the

Buddha asks, at the end of each subdivision, whether men who do that would be likely to trouble themselves as to

Repeating our sections 2-13 (omitting

ii

and 12).

speculations about the soul? And the answer being, of course, 'No,' rejoins that neither does he. In the Po///zapada the question is as to the way in which The Buddha's various recluses attain to mystic trance. answer is that it is by training; and the training should be first in morals (our groups 2 and 3) then in the things mentioned in our groups 4-9, and then in the Four Arupa Vimokkhas. The Dialogue then takes up other questions,

omitting our groups 10-13. In the Key add ha. the talk is on miracles, mystic powers. And the Buddha, disparaging all others, calls attention to our

groups 2-13. In the l^ohikka. the question is as to who is the right sort of teacher and the answer is that it is the one whose pupil
;

carries out our

groups 2-13.

the question is as to the way by which one The can attain to union with God (Brahma-sahavyata). answer gives our groups 1-8, and then adds the Four In the

Tevi^a

Brahma-viharas.
In

the shorter of

the two

Hatthipadopama

Suttas

1 Possibly Nos. 1 1 and 1 2 are meant, both here and in all the other Suttas, to be omitted. The wording is ambiguous. Buddhaghosa, who talks here (see p. 268) of Nos. 10-13 as me Eightfold pa«»a, apparently means to include them (he could not otherwise But the argument of the Mahali seems to exclude them. get eight). The texts always jump from the last words of 10 to the last words of 13.

as in the Mahali No. 12 is excluded, it is clear that at least there And there is no difference between only Nos. 10 and 13 are meant. the phraseology in the Mahali and that used in the other Suttas.

Now

INTRODUCTION.
(No. 27 in the

6

1

the question discussed between a as to the ascendancy of the Buddha over the other teachers of the time. The Buddha himself giving afterwards the full reason, repeats our group 2 (omitting however clauses/" to p inclusive 1 ), then repeats our groups 6> % 4< 5> 7? 8, 9, then omitting groups jo and 11, quotes two only, the last two (omitting. the first three) 2 of the five

Ma^7?ima),
ascetic
is

Brahman and an

Abhi««as
In the

in

group

12,

and concludes with group 13

in full.

Maha Ta/zha-sankhaya Sutta
we have the same sequence

Ma^/zima),

(No. 38 in the our group 2

to p), then 6, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9. The rest is (omitting omitted. In the next Sutta, the longer of the Assapuras, after a summary in different words of most of the contents of our group 2, we have our group 4, then two paragraphs not in our Sutta, then our groups 5, 7, 8, 9, and the last two only out of group 1 2, and then (as a climax) our group 13 all enumerated to show what is the true Brahman, the true samara. Then again in the Sakuludayi, No. 79 of the Ma^/zima, it is declared to be not for the sake of realising happiness that recluses take up the celibate life in the Order under the Buddha, but for the sake of those matters set forth in our 3 of the two last of the Abhiw/as, and groups 2-9 inclusive above all for the sake of the attainment of Arahatship. Besides the differences pointed out above between the Suttas preserved in the Digha, and in the Ma^/zima, respecdifferences due, I think, solely to the difference in tively the subjects under discussion there are also a few verbal ' various readdifferences, amounting to scarcely more than ings/ due, perhaps, to the divergent traditions of the Digha bhazzaka and the Ma^/nma-bha«aka (the students and repeaters of the two collections in which the Dialogues are

f

,

handed down to

us).

However

this

may

be,

it

is

clear that the

sequence of the paragraphs
1

in

our Sutta

is

sum and the regarded as of
he saw

From which we may

no

difference between himself

infer that, as respects those matters, and the other teachers.

2 So that the power of Iddhi, of hearing heavenly sounds, and of knowing other people's thoughts, are apparently supposed to be common ground between the Buddhists and the other sects. They

are included in our Sutta because they are supposed to be part of the advantage of life in an Order in any Order, that is, not only the

Buddhist.
3 Maxima II, 37, 38. Perhaps the pe is meant to be supplied from the twenty-seventh Sutta just quoted the difference, however, as we have seen, is not of great importance.

62

II.

SAMAJV/VA-PHALA SUTTA.

great importance, not as a statement of Buddhist ethics, or of Buddhist philosophy, or of the Buddhist religion, but as a statement of the advantages that may be looked for as the result of life in an Order. And further that the statement has to be slightly modified and shortened when the question is the narrower one of life in the particular community which we call the Buddhist Order.
difference is interesting— in the scheme for the BudOrder the «a«a-dassana, the power of projecting a mental image (apparently of oneself, which seems like the earliest germ of the modern Yoga ideas about the astral body), the powers of Iddhi, the power of hearing heavenly sounds (something like hearing the music of the spheres), and the power of knowing the thoughts of others, are all omitted. In the abstract given above, I have called these last three, together with the power of calling to mind one's own, and

The

dhist

previous births, the Five Abhi««as, or this is in accord with the passages on which Childers's article sub voce is based. But these powers are not so called either in our text, or in any other Dialogue yet The use of the word abhi««a in this technical published. sense would seem therefore (to judge from the published texts) to be a sign of the later date of the book in which it occurs *. In the oldest portions of the Pi/akas the word is always used in the general sense of insight, and if any special limitation is hinted at, it is simply the insight of Arahatship that is emphasised (as in Dhammapada 423, which is a quotation from Iti-Vuttaka, No. 99, and is quoted also at Ariguttara I, 2 165) The Eightfold Path is not mentioned in our Sutta. This is not merely because it is not possible always to mention
other peoples',
Intuitions.

And

-

1

The

is in

na

oldest case of the technical use of the word, so far as I know, the introductory story of the Maha Vibhariga on the fourth ParaThis is later than the Old Commentary on the (Vin. Ill, 87).

Patimokkha, from which

Abhi»«a is used in the divisions containing the Fives and Sixes exclusively in its ordinary sense (III, 277, 451 comp. IV, 348). And this is the more instructive as what were afterwards called the Six Abhi»«as are actuary given in full (IV, 17-19, §§ 6-1 in the
;

it incorporates many passages, and this again is later, of course, than the Patimokkha itself. Neither the Five nor the Six Abhi««as are given as groups among the groups of Fives and Sixes in the Ahguttara. The word

1)

same words

6 of the M-Agg/i\mz, translated in my Buddhist Suttas'), and very nearly as in our Sutta, here under discussion. But they are not called Abhiw«as. 2 Compare also A. I, 100; II, 249; III, 3, 9, 277.
'

as in the

Akahkheyya Suita (No.

INTRODUCTION.
everything.

63

not come within the special the Order. To enter upon the Path to Arahatship, to walk along it, is not peculiar to members of the bhikshu might reach the goal either along that Order. 1 open also to laymen ) or by the process set out in our path, Sutta. are two quite distinct methods of training, of They which our Sutta deals only with one It is essential, in order to understand Buddhist ethics, to bear in mind that there are (and must be in such a system)

The Path does
life in

advantages of

A

several

different

lines

along which
:

both speculation and

These are edifying teaching run. 1. The course of conduct laid

Buddhist layman, contained
found
2.

in

in the various

The

nikayas rules as to the outward
.

2

down for the ordinary the Gahapati-vaggas

conduct of the memthe Patimokkha and in

bers of the Order,
the

laid

down

in

Khandhakas

3
.

3.

The system of

self-training in

higher things

Of this our present prescribed for members of the Order. Sutta is a striking example. 4. The method of self-training laid down for those who have entered upon the Path to Arahatship. (The Four Truths, the Eightfold Path, and the Asavas.) In the first of these Buddhism goes very little beyond the In the second a very great deal current ethics of the day. has been simply incorporated from the rufes found expedient
previous recluses, both Brahman and non-Brahman, though there are numerous differences, both of the positive regulations Even the included, and also of things deliberately omitted. third, as we have seen, cannot be considered, except in a very limited sense, as exclusively Buddhist. It is in the fourth that the essential doctrines of Buddhism are to be found. All four have, no doubt, become welded together into a more or less But to understand the whole, the relation consistent whole. of its various parts has to be kept constantly in view. This will explain an apparent contradiction. The last Sutta quoted, the Sakuludayi, states that the aim of the religious or celibate life as led in the Buddha's Order, is the attainment, in order, of the various things set out in our Sutta (groups 2-9, 12 and 13).

by

1

For a

list

of twenty-one laymen Arahats see A. Ill, 451

;

and

there are other instances recorded.
2

A

which
3

this is in the Sigalovada Sutta, an abstract of given in my Manual, pp. 143 foil. Translated in Vinaya Texts' (S. B. E.).

good summary of
'

is

64

II.

SAMAiWA-PHALA SUTTA.

other passages other things are stated to be the aim. the Sa;#yutta (IV, 51) the Buddha himself is represented as explaining that the celibate life (the brahma£ariya) is led by his followers for the sake of the complete understanding of pain (dukkha-pari«/za). Further on in the same book (VI, 253 = V, 6, 27) this is three times repeated, with the suggestive addition that there is one way to this, to wit, the Noble Eightfold Path. Again, in the Ariguttara (IV, 7) the higher life is said to be for the sake of getting rid of, of cutting through, seven Bonds

Now in
1

Thus

in

which prevent one from attaining Arahatship. The argument on pp. 88, 99 (though the word brahma-^arinya does not And further on in occur) comes to much the same thing. the same book (IV, 272) the object is stated to be for the sake
of getting rid of five particular sorts of envy.

Nagasena is therefore quite right when he says that the object of renouncing the world to live in the Order is for the sake of righteousness and peace 2 and in another place that 3 it is to the end that sorrow may All these pass away explanations belong to the Path, not to the rules of the Order. They are not really inconsistent with the other aim that our Sutta sets out* And they are only additional proof, if such were needed, that it is no more possible to sum up in a single phrase (as some writers have tried to do) the aim of Buddhism, or the object of life in the Order, than it would be to sum up in a similar way the aim of Christianity, or the object for which men enter a Christian Order. The aims are necessarily as various as the character and circumstances of the various individuals who take them up. And Nagasena does not hesitate to add and to add in speaking to a king that some had joined the Order in terror at the tyranny of kings, some in fear of robbers, some because they were harassed by debt, and some perhaps merely to gain a livelihood. This also would apply to other Orders both in India and elsewhere, and is quite consistent with our Sutta, which only purports to set forth the advantages the early Buddhists held to be the likely results of joining, from whatever motive, such an Order as their own.
;
.

1

That

is,

of course,

'

the best course of
'

'

life

with the connotation

of celibacy.

The German

Wandel

'

is

a

We
2
3

good rendering of ^Tariya.

have no expression so good. See Sawyutta V, 16, 17. Milinda I, 31 (of my translation).
Ibid.
I,

51

;

compare

I,

101.

II.

sAmaaova-phala sutta.
*.]

[The Fruits of the Life of a Recluse

The Blessed One was [47] 1. Thus have I heard. once dwelling at Ra^agaha in the Mango Grove of Civaka the children's physician 2 with a great company of the brethren, with twelve hundred and fifty of the Now at that time the king of Magadha, brethren. 3 on the A^atasattu, the son of the Videha princess held on the fifteenth, on Komudi (white Uposatha day,
,
,

first part of this Sutta, and Burnouf's of the whole of it, have been reprinted in Grimblot's These versions, of remarkable ^lerit for the Sept Suttas Palis.' time when they were made, are full of mistakes which the sincepublished editions of the Commentury, and of numerous allied texts,
1

Gogerly's translation of the

translation
'

enable us now to avoid. I have not thought it necessary to point out the numerous passages, occurring indeed in nearly every sentence, It should be in which the present translation differs from theirs. mentioned here, however, that Burnouf has missed the whole point of the dialogue by misundei standing the constantly repeated phrase

sandi/Mikaw samawwa-phalaw from which

this

title

is

taken.

He

throughout as meaning 'foreseen and general fruit' which is grammatically impossible as regards sand i////ikaz«, and This last word rests on a false derivation as regards samawwa. means, of course, samawaship, being a samawa, living as a samawa, a recluse, a religieux.' 2 Givakassa komarabha££assa. Buddhaghosa (Sum. I, 133) naturally follows the compilers of the Khandakas (V. I, 269) in But see brought up by the Prince.' interpreting the adjective as which shows that the more likely the note at Vinaya Texts,' II, 174
renders
it
' '
'

;

the bringer-up of children (child-doctor). Several cures, however, wrought by him are recorded ; and the patients are always adillts. There is no other reference at all to his being a child-doctor,

'

'

meaning

is

and the Khandaka which gives the other interpretation ancient document.
3

is

a very

(p.

See the note in my 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 1. Buddhaghosa 139) says she was the daughter of the king of Kosala.
II.

F

may well in him. 2 The same lines recur. at Gat. V. [48] of Afita of the terms garment of hair. was seated on the upper . 141). on calling upon But when he find peace. shall be able to satisfy our hearts 2 ? 2. shall had thus spoken A^atasattu the king kept silence. and of the Niga^a of the Nata And still. friends. with the rainy season. 262. friends. Sire. SAMA2V#A-PHALA SUTTA. 14th. Then other five ministers spake in the of Makkhali of the cow-pen. Both.66 II. silence. your heart. a certain minister said There is. (p. a hymn 1 of joy. the full night. to each. who. of Pakudha Ka^ayana. mean . A^atasattu the king kept clan. saying: pleasant. ghosa the etymology of which puzzlH Childers and also Buddha- is^-yotsnS. It years. but in a different order. The each month. and 15th day of the month. the teacher of a school. friends. on the 7th. who has long been a recluse. Dosina. 85. Let your Majesty pay be 3 that. water-lily). for the compilers of our Sutta. revered by the people. began in Savana (middle of July to middle of August).Gogerly and Burnouf take this to 'to a certainty. 3 Appeva nam a. when we call upon him. when the terrace roof of his palace surrounded by his ministers. gave utterance to moon day of the fourth month 1 at moon was full. 105. is the moonlight night is the recluse or Brahman whom we may call upon to-night. lating Komudi as the name of the month. the head to the king an order. is the moonlight night! soothing. on that sacred day. friends. friends. There were three Uposatha days in that is. because ber) is called Komudi (from Kumuda. of a following. 205. I. II. is the moonlight night! ! grand a sign. And the king. 179. is the moonlight night ! ' ' : and well stricken a visit to him. old ! 1 How How How How How Who lovely. is the moonlight night beautiful. Sire. well of known and of repute as a sophist. When he had thus spoken.' 1 This is interesting.' but compare D. same 3-7. Pura^a Kassapa. of Sa^aya of the Bela/Ma clan. I. Burnouf is wrong in transthat flower is supposed to bloom then. full moon night of Kattika (middle of October to middle of Novema white water-lily). as it shows that the year. a man of experience.

And the king. the teacher of gods and men. with a great company of the brethren. in silence. with knowledge of : ' And the king said to him : the worlds. fully awakened. when close upon the Mango Grove. Very good. one on each and himself mounted the state elephant and he went forth. have the riding-elephants made ' • ready. Go on. friend Qvaka. the physician's Mango Grove. shall find peace. the attendants 9. Sire. : ' 1 . Sire.' said Qvaka the physician in assent to the words of the king. in royal pomp. 8. . ' excited. and the hairs on his body stood erect. [49] 6J Now at that time seated. And this is the good report that has been noised abroad as to Gotama the Blessed One " An Arahat. abounding in wisdom and goodness. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. and had word The elephants. 10. Then the king had five hundred of his women mounted on the she-elephants. And anxious and he said to c7ivaka [50] You are playing me no tricks. I play no trick. and the state elephant the king was wont to ride. is the exalted One.' caparisoned. £lvaka the physician was not far from A^itasattu the king." Let your Majesty pay a visit to him. do you say nothing ? why 'The Blessed One. friend Qvaka.' 1 Then. in so large an assembly of the brethren. with twelve hundred and fifty brethren. Sire. a blessed Buddha. the all-awakenedone. O king. on calling upon him. is now lodging in our Mango Grove. are brought to the king Do now what seemeth to you meet. F 2 . neither deceive you nor would I betray you to the foe. happy. from Ra^agaha to Givaka. 6ivaka ? You are not deceiving me ? You are not betraying me to my foes ? How can it be that there should be no sound at all. not a sneeze nor a cough. It may well be that. bearing torches. was seized with a sudden fear and consternation. your heart.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. And he had five hundred she-elephants made ready. O king. Sire ! ' : . the Arahat. ' But you. among twelve hundred and fifty of the brethren ? Fear not.

calm as a clear ! . 1 Pakkhandino. and then on foot. and wish that he. heroes. horsemen. mahouts. sitting against the middle pillar. garland-makers. in a later and much longer list). and stood respectfully on one side. he broke out: 'Would that my son. with some differences of reading. king. and was apparently uncertain to Buddhaghosa. : ' ' ' O lake.' 13. and facing the East. seated in perfect silence. and All like kind there may be. . might have such calm as this assembly of the brethren now has Do your thoughts then go where love guides ' ! ' them ' ' ? love the boy. And as he stood there and looked on the assembly.68 II.' 1 if he give me opportunity to set forth desire. [5l] and said to the Blessed I would fain question the Blessed One on a One I ' : certain matter. 331. warriors in buckskin. 'rushers forth/ The exact meaning of some of these military terms is still uncertain. go There. G*fvaka.' Ask. Then the king went up. champions. and then said to Givaka to the door of the pavilion But where. camp followers. There a number of ordinary crafts : — archers. barbers. on his elephant as far as the path was passable for elephants. marshalls. and the stretching fqrth his joined palms in salutation to Order took his seat aside. Udayi Bhadda. you 14. the question. Then the king went on. bath attendants. high military bearers. and also in the Ahguttara (IV.' 1 1. as the names of the constituent elements of a standing army. weavers. accountants. confectioners. cooks. whatsoever others of basket-makers. Sir. camp officers of royal birth. home-born slaves. 107). Udayi Bhadda. is the Blessed One ? That is he.' 1 2. potters. They all recur. ' O king. with the brethren around him. military scouts \ men brave as elephants. arithmeticians. washermen. the lamps straight on are burning. standard charioteers. in the Milinda (p. might enjoy such calm as this assembly has. in the pavilion hall. SAMAJVJVA-PHALA SUTTA. Then the king bowed to the Blessed One. whatsoever are.

who takes what is not given. king. Sir. visible in this very world. to him who trembles or causes others who acts.' ' ' And after went to Pura^a Kassapa 2 with him the greetings and compliments exchanging of friendship and courtesy. that you have put 15. They keep up gifts. 1 seated myself beside him. to him who mutilates or causes another to mutilate. [52] Then I speak. and have bliss as their heaven. this important and constantly then possible. 1 made a sad ' mess of it He has Is ' (the king himself) whether the members of the Order derive from their life any benefit corresponding to that which the craftsmen derive from theirs.' . to him who causes grief or torment. O king. O to tremble. Lord.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. and their parents and children and friends. 'Once Lord. declare to me any such immediate result. to you. 'Then Pura^a Kassapa said to me: 'To him king. the visible fruits of their craft. or others like him. such a result (of their actions) as foreseen and as the general But the king asks the Buddha to tell him fruit of their conduct ? Burnouf has repeated clause. or who speaks lies. are. the same question to other recluses or to Brahmans ? — 1 ' O ' ' I ' do. to him thus acting there If with a discus with an edge sharp as is no guilt. who commits dacoity. or highway robbery. who breaks into houses.' tell Then us how they answered it. 2 According to Buddhaghosa (p. to him who kills a living creature. 142) he was one of the teachers who went about naked. or adultery. 16. the object of which is gain on high. Sir. of the life of a recluse ?' fruit. 69 these enjoy. or causes another to act. to the craftsmen just mentioned) in this world. Do you admit to us. or robbery. that one should declare to them (that is. . Can you. to recluses and Brahmans. gifts that lead to rebirth in that redound to happiness. if you do not mind. in this very world. to him who punishes or causes another to punish. and put to him the same question as I have now put. in happiness and comfort. They maintain themselves.' I have no objection where the Blessed One. 17.

bank of the Ganges giving alms. I behaved in each case as just And the answers of the five were thus :] 2 set forth. Akiriyawz vyakasi. V. there would be no merit thence resulting. Lord. I arose from my seat. when asked what was fruit. as if a man.' But the corresponding word in the subsequent sections summarises the theory of the teacher 1 On this theory compare A. no increase of guilt would ensue. it occurred to me I think of giving dissatisfaction to any recluse or " So I neither applauded nor Brahman in my realm ? blamed what he said. 8 In the text the framework of the interview is repeated each time in the same words as above. in this present state of being. in self-mastery. Lord. did Pura^a Kassapa. there would be no guilt thence resulting. of striking and slaying. expound his theory of non-action. in control of the senses. . questioned. in speaking truth there is neither merit. The answers all recur in the Ma. I. a razor he should the living creatures on the flesh. 62 .II. offering sacrifices or causing them to be offered. and neither accepting nor rejecting that answer of his. of the life of : a recluse. one mass. and departed thence. [53] In generosity. there would be no guilt thence resulting. Then. oppressing and having men oppressed. Were he to go along the south bank of the all make earth one heap." Thus. I. no increase Were he to go along the north of guilt would ensue. mutilating and having mutilated. and ordering gifts to Ganges men be given. ['In the same manner I went to five other and receiving to this same question put an answer not to the point. 513 foil. teachers. Gogerly interprets this 'he replied by affirming that there are no future rewards and punishments. 235.' Burnouf has simply ' m'a donne* une r£ponse vaine. expound his theory of non-action 1 Just.gg^ima I. when asked what a mango was. is. and though dissatisfied I gave utterance to no expression of dissatisfaction. no increase of merit. should explain what a bread fruit . SAMA2\WA-PHALA SUTTA. the just so did Pura/za Kassapa. " How should such a one as Lord. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. nor increase of merit. Only the answers differ. 19.

There is no such thing as power or energy. 284.' II. Ill. for the rectitude of beings they become pure without The attainment of any reason and without cause. 53 recurs at S. 69 to Pura«a Kassapa. whether animal or vegetable. Buddhaghosa gives details of these four classes of living beings. 209. are M. The explanation is very confused. 493 and G. See also Git I. by the necessary conditions of the class to which they belong. every Gaina-Sutras. 8. and also Buddhaghosa here. 33. 82. 68. IV. in. on this earth. the cow-pen 1 he said king. 398.69. either proximate or remote. There is no cause.524. two. They are bent this way and that by their fate. by their individual nature and it is according to their position in one or other of the six classes that they experience ease or pain. to give the sense in which the Buddhists supposed Gosala to have taken the words. or on the acts of another. 291 .I. and Professor Jacobi renders them accordingly Every sentient being. 74. are referred to by Hoernle. and makes the terms by no means mutually exclusive.' and in the Appendixes. Some of the Gaina passages. II. 111.' II. 384. the beginning of the answer down to the end of p. all souls (in plants) 2 are without force and power and energy of theii own. does not depend given either on one's own acts. 211. See Senart. thrice mentioned in the Asoka Edicts as receiving royal gifts it is certain that it retained an important position for several centuries at least. 211. as the worst of the sophists. IV. 238.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. 130. A. from men down to plants. 286. all creatures (with one. 483.31. V. 'Inscriptions de Piyadasi. 276. every insect. no cause. ' ' . 7 1 20. or more senses). condition. of any character. showing how they are meant to include all that has life. 1 There this about : 1. V. 68. sabbe pa«a. I. As the sect is 165. 'Uvasaka dasao. 198. for the depravity of beings they become depraved without reason and without cause. whose followers were called A^fvakas. from the Buddhist point of view. or on human effort. p. sabbe £"iva. : is a good deal in both the Buddhist and the A Gain texts Makkhali Gosala. They are frequently used in the same order in the Gaina-Sutras. and the first part of the answer is ascribed at ibid. all beings (produced from eggs or in a womb). From 2 Sabbe satta. 'When one day I had thus asked Makkhali of " There is. . All animals. S. The principal Pi/aka passages pp. or human strength or human vigour. and the rest of it at ibid. 108 foil. either ultimate or remote. : O . xxv. 250. 516. living thing. in our version.' This is much better but we have. . 66. III. 212. I. sabbe bhuta. . and who was regarded.

six classes (or distinctions among 2 . and of dreams. ' ' . prophet time. p. ' should hope By this virtue or this performance of duty. cannot be altered in the course of transmigration there Though the wise ' : — — . sixty-two periods. the half a Karma . or this penance. as it were. ascetic time. seven sorts of gods. by neither of them can do it. and prostrate ' 1 time 3 Shakspere's * with (very necessary) comments on each. or this righteousness will I make the Karma (I have inherited). ' " There are sixty-two paths 1 . There are five hundred sorts of Karma.' Ag\v&. erect time. . "There are fourteen hundred thousands of the principal sorts of birth. and of men. three thousand purgatories. that has matured The ease and pain. and again six thousand others. with a measure. trial time. and again five (according to the five senses). shall at last make an end of pain. word. wandering in transmigration. to get gradually rid of Karma hope. men) eight stages of a prophet's existence forty-nine hundred sorts of occupation 3 forty-nine hundred sorts of wandering mendicants. of thought). [54] and again three (according to act. thirty-six places where dust accumulates. and again six hundred. and of great lakes. vol. and thought) and there is a whole Karma and a half Karma (the whole being a Karma of act or word. Compare the corresponding theory of the Gains as given in the Uttaradhyayana Sutra in Jacobi's Gaina-Sutras. 383. ii. and seven of production by grafting. measured out. forty-nine hundred regions dwelt in by Nagas. 213: and that of Purawa Kassapa quoted in Aiiguttara III. two thousand faculties. and of devils. One may compare Seven Ages of Man. seven sorts of animate and seven of inanimate production. and seven principal and again seven hundred minor sorts of Pa^uz'as 4 of precipices. 2 Buddhaghosa gives the details babyhood. I think this is the right reading. learning time. (or modes of conduct). but don't know what it means.72 ' II. SAMA##A-PHALA SUTTA. playtime. mature' though the fool should the same means. The Siamese edition reads a^ivaka. that is not yet mature. " There are eighty-four hundred thousand periods during which both fools and wise alike.

and in viggi. on the bier as a fifth. Ill. I had thus asked A^ita of the garment of hair. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. as the view of a typical sophist. Buddhaghosa gives here no explanation of this word. the windy to the air. and who having understood and realised. transmigration exactly for the allotted and only then. There is king. S. walk perfectly. than it can unwind. 515 (compare Dh. 305 says it means the man who has attained the highest fruit. 1 This answer recurs S. of the grasp of truth. take his dead body away . 'When. neither ball of string is and no farther. expound his theory of purification through transmigration. as alms or sacrifice or offering. Just as when a cast forth it will spread out just as far. [65] 23. There are in the world no recluses or Brahmans who have reached the highest point 2 who : O . thinkers the and 3 Indriyani. did Makkhali of the cow-pen. neither father nor mother. the heat to the fire. the aim (common alike to the orthodox Ved&ntist Brahmans and to each of the various schools of independent. wandering term. one day. but has actually reached. that is. and wise alike. 307. can be neither increase nor decrease excess nor deficiency. but the Gataka Commentary on Gat. him returns and relapses to the earth. M.to (S. make ' their wisdom known is to others. The four bearers. 733. in " A human When being he dies the earthy built up of the four elements. 1364).-ga. Gato is used here in the same sense as it has in Tathagato. till utter forth eulogies. . 743). just so both fools J$ thereof. the fluid to the water. and his faculties 3 pass into space. by themselves alone. 2 Sammag-gato. and the mind as a sixth. 1362. make an end of Thus. shall pain. nor beings springing into life without them." ' in then. neither fruit nor result of good or evil deeds. Ill. 1215. N. that is. five senses. he said 1 " There is no such thing. Lord. Arahatship. There is no such There is thing as this world or the next.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. the recluses) of the conquest over ignorance. diss ting. I. but there his they reach the burning-ground men bones are bleached. who has not only attempted to go to. 730. in gatatto (in NigawMa paragraph below). both this world and the next.

The phrase is omitted in the parallel passage in the Gaina Sutrakrnahga. And since he is thus tied with this fourfold restraint. knower or exWhen one with a sharp sword cleaves a head plainer. and after death they are not. pointed out by Jacobi. xxiv. 'When. fire. did Pakudha KaiMyana. in twain. Ahutiyo. no one thereby deprives any one of life. king. neither do they vary. empty mere idle there is profit therein. See Buddhavazwsa XXVII. is restrained with a He lives restrained as regards fourfold self-restraint. one day. 1 ' ' ' . are cut off. they trench not one upon another. Lord. . Niga»//*a of the Nata clan. I had thus asked the [57] 28. did A^ita of the garment of hair. When. he said: king (a man free from bonds). Lord. They move not. "A . one day. water. a doctrine of lie. SAMAiViVA-PHALA SUTTA. on the dissolution of the body." Thus. hearer or speaker. causer of slaying. KathaVatthu 550. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of O Ka^ayana. I had thus asked Pakudha [56] 26. they are barren (so that nothing is produced out of them). 10. and air So there is neither slayer nor soul as a seventh. restrained as regards all evil all evil has all water and he lives suffused with the he washed away Such is his fourfold selfsense of evil held at bay. It is and his offerings 1 end in ashes. and pain. as a pillar firmly fixed. Fools and wise alike. and the earth. It is an fools. expound his theory of annihilation. And what are the seven ? The four elements and ease. when men say ' ' The following seven things.74 II. annihilated. neither created nor caused to be created. Graina-Sutras/ II. nor avail aught as to ease or pain or both." Thus. are neither made nor commanded to be made. stedfast as a mountain peak. he said " : — — ' a recluse. O . when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. this talk of gifts. Nigaw///a. expound the matter by expounding something else. talk. a sword has only penetrated into the interval between seven elementary substances.

Professor Jacobi (' Gaina-Sutras/ II. that is. Gogerly has caught the general sense fairly enough. [58] 31. another world. I thought there were. and wrong as to two of the words. 85-91 of my translation). And to him. to the attainment. The first of the Four Restraints is the well-known rule of the Gains not to drink cold water. . if would say But . but his version is very free. therefore called is 75 NigawMo (free from bonds). to the summit. as to all the others. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. any result. and it gives no idea of the oracular form in which the original is couched. And if you ask neither is. nor is not. of his aim) Yatatto (whose heart is kept down that is. show his manner of prevarication. he said another world so. on the ground that there are souls in ' ' ' ' it. 27 of the text) into the mouth of the Eel-wriggler. for these vows were See the discussion in the Milinda quite different. the Gatatto (whose . — I : well. heart has gone. of the Nata clan. And I don't And I don't think it is otherthink it is thus or thus. did Sa^aya of the Belaya clan. expound his theory of the fourfold he. But this surely cannot be so.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE bond. after I death — to 1 The series of riddles in this difficult passage is probably intended to be an ironical imitation of the NigawMa's way of talking. 2 The text repeats the whole paragraph put above (p. don't say so. did the NigantAa. one day." Thus. 'Thus. each or any of these questions do 2 give the same reply . Lord. . (II. xxiii) thinks the 'Four Restraints' are intended to represent the four vows kept by the followers of Parjva. I expressed neither approval nor dissatisfaction. of good or bad actions or whether a man who has won the truth continues. 1 bond. or of the there I Belaya is 'When." [59] 33. and 7/kitatto (whose heart is fixed) 1 . me about the beings produced by chance or whether there is any fruit. Lord. And I don't deny it. but neither accepting nor not. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. Burnouf's rendering is quite wide of the mark. is under command). And I don't say there wise. I had thus asked Sa^aya " If you ask me whether clan.

in preaching annihilation at death. and departed thence \ And now. SAMAiWVA-PHALA SUTTA. I would fain put you may think most Now O king. The . I arose from my seat. Would that I were like him. only one of these six theories of life on which independent evidence is at present accessible is that of the NigawMa (the Gain But no attempt has yet been made to summarise it. worked by Karma and Makkhali The theory of Pakudha seems to exclude responsibility the Niga7/Ma simply begs the question. anxious to make himself agreeable in what he does and says. and sattu. Answer it as to you. "Strange is it and wonderful. this result of merit! Here is this king of Magadha. what was said. fit. — possession of the five pleasures of sense a very god.76 rejecting ' II. Suppose among the people of your household there were a slave who does work for you. O ' a question [60] 35. able to show ?' ' I can. A^atahe is a man. that I too might earn merit. it out in a manner It is very much to intelligible to Western readers. or set theory). rising before him and retiring earlier to rest. I put the same question to 34. — — 1 Of these six teachers Purawa denies the evil Karma . what do you think. a man who watches your Suppose he should think. Why should not I have my hair and beard shaved off. A^ita. Can you show me any immediate fruit. But the king lives in the full enjoyment and every look. such as those who follow each of the occupations I have mentioned are. each of them. in this world. the Blessed One. working for him. by asserting that a NigawMa has attained the end. watching his very looks. methinks and here am I a slave. keen to carry out his pleasure. . And to that end king. shuts out the possibility of any effect to be rejects both Karma and its effect. and Saw^aya gives no answer at all. rises up in the morning before you do and retires earlier to rest. be hoped that this want may soon be supplied by one or other of the excellent scholars familiar with the texts. Lord. anxious to make myself agreeable in deed and word. of the life of a recluse. this issue of meritorious deeds. who is keen to carry out your pleasure. the son of the Videha princess so am I. in a bad act and vice versa .

Lord. Lord. to the end of § 36.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. after a time. a fruit higher and sweeter than these?' . 77 and don the yellow robes. suppose your people saying: "If it please your majesty. he should do so. and going forth from the household state. is there not. visible in this world. content with mere food and shelter.' delighting in solitude. in this world. and so on (all as before) has now donned the yellow robes. king. is the first kind of the fruit. should dwell restrained in act and word and thought. and a lodging place. And having been admitted into an Order. some fruit. I O a question. who worked for you.' This then. but gives up his little property and his position in his clan. Lord. formerly your slave. delighting in solitude?" Would you then say " Let the man come back let him become a slave again. or ' I O visible in this world. and medicine for the sick all the requisites of a made ready. &c. And should tell you of this. who pays taxes and thus increases the king's wealth. Lord. ' — — 4 But what do you think. Nay. is O king. and dwells restrained. [as before. visible in this world. and work for me"?' 36. the case now put being that of a free man who cultivates his land. of the life of a recluse ? I can. of the life of a recluse. And we should have robes and a bowl. and rise up from our seat out of deference towards him.' ' Can you. show me any other fruit. and has been admitted into an Order. there. and press him to be seated. and enters an Order. which I maintained to arise from the life ' of a recluse. renounce the world ?" And suppose. rather should we greet him with reverence [el]. of the life of a recluse?' Certainly. content with mere food and shelter. show me any other fruit. That being so. recluse And we should order watch and ward and guard to be kept for him according to the law. visible 37.] Can you. [62] 39. a householder. and beg him to accept of them. that is so. And to that end I would fain put king. do you know that such a one. : .

a fully awakened one. in all its bright perLet then cut off hair and beard. SAMAiViVA-PHALA SUTTA. . consummation. in all its purity. a Buddha. origin. O king. Gahapati. ryot. the Brahmas. having sees. a path for the dust of passion. or small. 40. both in letter. a teacher for gods and men. But it seems more in accord with the next paragraph refer them to the life. princes and peoples. he makes The truth. or a man of inferior birth in any class listens to that truth and on hearing it he has faith in the Tathaga'ta (the one who has found the truth) and when he is possessed of that faith. Give ear therefore. be great they many or be they few. lovely in lovely in its his its knowledge known to others. : ' has renounced for the all man who ! How difficult is it worldly things. he clothes himself in the orange-coloured robes. and let me go forth from the household life into the homeless 1 state. ' O king. abounding in wisdom and goodness. who knows all worlds. there appears in the world one who has won the truth. by himself. a Blessed One. can. he considers thus within himself " Full of hindrances is household life. above of and the Maras. facethe gods. and give good heed. in all its fullness and in all its purity 2 41. thoroughly knows and as to face universe. make known." long. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. not life. it this its its known it. doth he proclaim. let me my me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes. dwells at home to live the higher life fection in all its fullness. happy. the spirit and in the the higher life doth he *. — including the worlds were.78 'I II. Suppose. and I will speak. an Arahat. . forsaking his portion of wealth. Free as the air is the life of him who . forsaking his circle of relatives. and the world below with —and recluses and Brahmans. 'A householder or one of his children. He. O king. lovely in its progress. Then. he cuts off his hair and beard. before be it 1 to the to 2 Buddhaghosa applies these last two adjectives to the truth. which Buddhaghosa takes here in the sense of peasant.

a sense of ease without alloy. And endowed with this body of morals. V. 400. is the Bhikshu guarded as to 64. And how. and he sees in the least of those things he should avoid. O king. that the Bhikshu becomes righteous. O king. as a sovereign. that the Bhikshu. holds aloof from the destruction killing of life. and alter in each case the words of the refrain accordingly. and full of mercy. so far as concerns his self-restraint in side conduct. . so worthy of honour. and ashamed of roughness. O king. 'When self-restrained . in the words already translated above in the Brahma-^ala Sutta. Only for 'Gotama the recluse' one should read 'the Bhikshu'. sees no danger from any that is. 424-6. the doors of his senses 2 ? [69] 63. The cudgel and the sword he has laid aside. sees no danger from any side [70] that is. 367. ' himself with deeds in act and king.] ' And then that Bhikshu. §§ 8 to 27. and trains himself in.' On compare M. O king. And how. he dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life* This is part of the goodness that he has. takes restrained according to the rules of the Patimokkha. danger He adopts. 79 forth from the household life into the state. he has thus become a recluse he lives by that restraint that should be binding on a recluse x Uprightness is his delight. K. ' In this. He good encompasses Pure are his means of livelihood.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. being thus master of the minor moralities. duly crowned. . Asl. 268. putting away the of living things. the following important and constantly repeated paragraph I. O king. O ' [Here follow the whole of the Silas (the paragraphs on minor morality). 180. Just. Mil. I think. the precepts. this to a mean ' Buddhaghosa. . ' ' 1 Patimokkha-sa/ravara-sawzvuto. good is his word. Thus is it. &c. he experiences. within himself. Mindful conduct. whose enemies have been beaten down. guarded the door of his senses. so far as enemies are concerned. 463-4. and self-possessed he is altogether happy. is his conduct good ? 43. so is the Bhikshu confident. and he goes homeless 42.

. king. &c. the Bhikshu in going forth or in coming back keeps clearly before his mind's eye the immediate object of is wrapt up therein (all that O — Na nimittaggahi hoti nanuvyaw^anaggaht. within himself.' Buddhaghosa gives. he experiences. when he hears a over it. The phrase nimittaw gawhati means either to seize upon anything as the 1 object of one's thought to the exclusion of everything else (see. for instance. the general conclusion that the object seen. 2 Avyaseka. the perception of the detail that he or she is smiling. to flow in over him so long as he dwells unrestrained as to his mental (representative) . &c. When. so worthy of honour. says Budwhen ' dhaghosa).80 1 II. that the Bhikshu becomes guarded as to the doors of his senses. He and he . covetousness and dejec-' give tion. 9). king. O king. heard. O keeps watch upon his representative attains to mastery over it. or when he cognises a phenomenon with his mind he is not entranced in the general appearance or He sets himself to restrain that the details of it. is a man or woman. in like manner. he sees an object with his eye he is not entranced in the general appearance or the details He sets himself to restrain that which might of it 1 occasion for evil states. ' self-possessed ? 1 In this matter. I. sound with his ear. covetousness and dejection. 65. his faculty of sight. or to seize upon the outward sign of anything And so keenly as to recognise what it is the mark of (Vin. as an instance of the nimitta.mastery upon And so. or feels a touch with his body. or smells an odour with his nose. 183. Ill. as regards the senses. a sense of ease into which no evil state can enter 2 Thus is it. and Buddhaghosa's note on it given in the ' Vinaya Texts. of the anuvyaw^ana. SAMAAWA-PHALA SUTTA. And enfaculty. or tastes a flavour with his tongue.' II. dowed with this self-restraint. literally 'with no besprinkling' (of evil. which might give occasion for evil states. O king. 17). talking. is the Bhikshu mindful and faculty. Vin. And how. the object is a person of the other sex this phrase is the idiom used for our falling in love with. and he attains to . to flow in over him so long as he dwells unHe keeps watch restrained as to his sense of sight.

' ' — v . on what I find I feel no need of wages. O king. No man can call me servant. Whithersoever he may go forth. 31). if it likes. seer. in this famous passage. in going or standing. Buddhaghosa it. in sleeping or waking. What is above added in brackets explains the principal points of what is implied. but that there is a psychological explanation sufficient. 26). 1 small volume might be written on the various expansions of this text in the Pi/akas. or in looking round in stretching forth his arm. whithersoever he may Thus is it fly. its ethical significance. to-night. has many pages upon it here. in masticating or in again swallowing. and the real facts underlying the mere phenomenon of the outward act). he keeps himself aware of all it really means l Thus is it. in the Buddhist theory. or of gain. . x.or sitting. — — So let the rain pour down now. or in drawing it in eating or drinking. behind the action (going. And how. O king. O king.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. (Matt. that the Bhikshu becomes content 2 . with sufficient food to keep his stomach going. and I wander So said the Exalted One At will.) there is no soul ego. whether or not conducive to the high aim set before him. O king. 168. my 'American Lectures. in speaking or in being still. : ' — By underlying any action is meant that. that the Bhikshu becomes mindful and self-possessed. In this matter.' p. vi. do all to the glory of God (1 Cor. that can be called a (Abbhantare atta nama aloketa va viloketa va n' atthi). G . no actor (goer. according to the A ' the Buddhist analogue to St. And so also in looking forward. Paul's Pi/akas. &c). &c. is the Bhikshu content ? [7l] 66. of itself. the act is 81 it itself. without the real fact ' ' the soul-theory. and deals with it also at length in the Visuddhi Magga and elsewhere. (Dhaniya Sutta 8. o'er all the earth.) And see the context in II. the Bhikshu is satisfied with sufficient robes to cherish his body. these he takes with him as he goes just as a bird with his wings. . 2 'Consider the fowls of the air/ &c. seeing. Several whole Dialogues are devoted to and various Suttas in others of the oldest texts. or whatsoever ye do. in obeying the calls of nature. O king. carries his wings with him as he flies. Whether therefore ye eat or drink.

' his mind of lusts. conThen just. &c. cross-legged. But the Dhamma Sangam 11 56. — keeping his body intent. purifies his heart serene within. 211). he remains with a heart . at the foot of a tree. and this is confirmed by Gat. he purifies his alight mind of weakness and of sloth. Even Burnouf (who frequently uses desire for words ' meaning lusts or excitement ') has here cupidite? So Buddhaghosa here (p. ' O tracting a loan 4 . when his meal is done. literally 'whose ideas are light. after . in a mountain glen. he chooses some lonely spot to rest in the woods. 212) says 'taking goods on interest'. and with temper. 69. 436. he remains free from fretfulness. V. which is certainly wrong. and rendering abhig^M in defiance both of the derivation and of the traditional explanation ' of the word. Putting away flurry and worry.82 ' II. Putting away wavering. he purifies himself of irritability and vexation of spirit. on at on his way a hill side. Neumann . in a rocky cave.) translates Moving the light/ which may be the right connotation. master of this so excellent body of moral precepts. Putting of heart and mind 2 keeping his ideas away torpor 3 mindful and self-possessed. 67. IV. 3 Neumann Aloka-sa«»i. he and no remains as one passed beyond perplexity in suspense as to what is good. from mind of malevolence. in a charnel place. Inam a day a. and purifies 68. he seats himself. erect. gifted with this so excellent selfrestraint as to the senses. or on a heap of straw in the open And returning thither after his round for alms field. Gogerly renders 'banishes desire from him. endowed with this so excellent mindfulness and self-possession. samaMa-phala sutta. Then. and his intelligence alert. n57 A explains it as torpor of mind and body.' leaving out loke altogether. has 'oppressed by debt. and his 1 Abhi^^aw loke pahaya. filled with this so excellent content.' ('Reden des Gotamo. as when a man. should set a business on foot. Putting away the hankering after the world \ he remains with a heart that hankers not.' but Buddhaghosa (p.' I. 434. 256. Burnouf has 'being aware of his in the Pali 2 ' ' ' ' ' visual sensation * (de son regard). he purifies his longer mind of doubt. Putting away the corruption free of the ill- wish to injure. and . king.

as if a man. subject to another. and without any confiscation of his goods when he realised his former and his present state. arrived safe. . . in pain. a free man. 'Just so. become his own master. but it has gone so well with me that 1 have paid off what I owed. and his strength come back to him then. . on realising his former and his present state. he would be of good cheer at that. in a prosperous. on the borders of his village. O king. not his own master. 83 business should succeed. as if a man were bound in a prison house. where no food was. safe and sound. he would be glad of heart at that Then just. on realising his former and his present peace he would be of good cheer at that. Then .THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. but there should be a surplus over to maintain a wife. . glad of heart at that 74. [73] 73. he would be glad of heart at that 71. rich and were to find himself on a long road. he would be 70. and his food should digest. in security and then. desert. glad of heart at that ' : — just. he would be of good cheer at that. O to disease. emancipated not subject to others. and there were no strength left in him and after a time he were to recover from that disease. 'Then just. unable to go whither he would and after a time he should be from that slavery. but much danger and after a time were to find himself out of the desert. and after a time he should be set free from his bonds. would be glad of heart at realise [72] " : that : — king." of good cheer at that. O king. 72. O king. he would be of good cheer at that. Then would he I used to have to carry on my business by getting into debt. O king. 'Then just. and he should not only be able to pay off the old debt he had incurred. when he realised his former and his present state. free to go whither he would then. : — . and have a And he would be surplus over to maintain a wife. as if a man were a presand very ill. and his food would not digest. : — ' . so long as these : — g 2 . the Bhikshu. he would be stale. as if a man were a slave.

taking 'world' in the sense of all the hindrances to spiritual progress. of the objects of thought. From the beginning of § 68 the text. separation from the world. all of which are implied. 360-3 physically of the body. will so knead it together that the ball of lather. being separate from the world. . reasoning and investigation going His very body does he so pervade. ' therewith. O taking up the unctuous moisture. The Dhamma Sangawi 1152 gives eight. pervaded by it. But when these five Hindrances lost on a desert road. Hindrances are not put away within him looks upon himself as in debt. and especially of the five chief ' ' ' Vivek a. SAMAMVA-PHALA SUTTA. and in that peace his heart is stayed l Then estranged from lusts. intel'separation' of the lectually. as referring to the Five Hindrances (Nivarawa) . discrimination . dispositions. 'And gladness springs up within him on his realising that. have no word in English heart. Buddhaghosa has nothing here. but compare Asl.84 five II. 'Just. and M. though here split up into paragraphs for the convenience of the reader. I. 71. leading on to the GMnas. Vin. as a skilful bathman or his will scatter perfumed soap powder in a metal apprentice basin. and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease. have been put away within him. and secure 75. and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace. diseased. 166. and then besprinkling it with water. given in § 68. — We Hindrances (Nivara«a) just above set out. a free man. 1 it is drenched with it. rid of disease. he looks upon himself as freed from debt. 84. I.' The stress is upon suggesting these three. aloof from evil 75 a. [74] 76. drop by drop. within and without. out of jail. permeate. 294. and suffuse with the joy and ease born of detachment. Mil. ' — . . is a favourite passage The five similes are to recurring M. 2 I. permeated by and there is no leakage possible. 'seclusion'. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused . gives six hindrances. ethically. and joy arises to him thus gladdened. is really one long sentence or paragraph of much eloquence and force in the Pali and the peroration. he enters into and remains in the First 2 Rapture a state of joy and ease born of detachment on the while. be taken. in order. in prison. drench. in slavery. king.

equanimity/ translated unsatisfactory. 505"). born of the serenity of concentration. king.. impartial. visible in this world. ' 85 This. king. O king. composed. king. becomes equable 2 he experiences in his body that ease self-possessed " The man which the Arahats talk of when they say serene and self-possessed is well at ease. and with no inlet from the east or west. and suffuse the pool with cool waters. looking on rival with equal mind. Asl. * in this world. is an immediate a recluse. And his very body does he so pervade. O king. Senart in p. p.. Just. Imperturbable. drench. permeate. Upekhako. holding and mindful and aloof from joy. Then further. drench. 32 foil. from the north or south. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. — ' ' O ' O ' O . ' unsusceptible. and there would be no part or portion of the pool unsuffused therewith. the Bhikshu. permeate. when no reasoning or a state of elevation l of mind." and so he enters into and abides in the Third G/iana. of the heart within. fruit of the life of higher and sweeter than the Bhikshu suppressing all reasoning and investigation enters into and abides in the Second G/i&na. S. stoical. and the notes 2 1884. 78.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. tolerant. fill. a tranquillisation And his very body does he so pervade. a state of joy and ease. Then further. investigation goes on. and all The ten kinds of Upekkha. 172. Mahavastu I. as if there were a deep pool. can corrected from the Pali at Asl. 169. are all possible renderings. 79. Still the current of cool waters rising up from that spring would pervade. This. P. is an immediate fruit of the life [75] of a recluse. and the god should not from time to time send down showers of rain upon it. and suffuse with the joy and ease born of concentration. visible the last. . with water welling up into it from a spring beneath. 554. yy. states mental literally 'looking on. Compare T. in J. : ' 1 Ekodibhava. into English now be from Sinhalese by Spence Hardy (Manual. and higher and sweeter than the last.' that is.

not suffused therewith. that there were no spot in his whole frame not in contact with the clean white robe just so. or of the blue. red or white or blue.86 II. it built up of the four elements. visible in this world. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. as if a man were sitting so wrapt from head to foot in a clean white robe. there so suffusing even his body with that sense of purification. it springs from father . king. than the last. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. not rising up above the surface of the water. of heart. of heart. is an immediate fruit of the life of ' O a recluse. and suffuse with that ease that has no joy with it. lucent. drawing up nourishment from the depths of the water. any dejection. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. king. 'Just. the Bhikshu. born in the O water. are so pervaded. &2. This. as when in a lotus tank the several lotus flowers. and higher and sweeter further. he had previously felt. king. so suffusing even his body with that sense of purification. king. SAMAAWA-PHALA SUTTA. ready to act. does the Bhikshu sit there. permeate. of translucence. and suffused from their very tips down to their roots with the cool moisture thereof. without pain and without ease. cultured. a state of pure self-possession and equanimity. supple. trans83. grasps the fact: "This body of mine has form. and imperturbable. devoid of evil. whether of the red lotus. [76] sits 'And he O — O ' O ' firm. king. drenched. and higher and sweeter than the last. grown up in the water. 81. by the passing away alike of any elation. of translucence. enters into and abides in the Fourth putting 'Then away O GA&na. king. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. by the alike of ease and of pain. 'Just. made pure.. he applies his mind to that insight that comes and bends down He is from knowledge. or of the white. This. that there is no spot in the whole plant. permeated. 80. With his heart thus serene.

as he admitted transmigration. I. II. If or red. They are also familiar technical terms of the Indian shampooer. 256 foil. blue. cut. it is continually renewed by so much boiled rice and juicy foods. parimaddana). clear. ready to act. ' ' firm." 84. the body. bound up. a man. translucent. were to take it into his hand. Vi«»S«a. O king. the Buddha meets and refutes at length this erroneous representation of his view. § 16 of the text). as if there were a Veluriya gem. calls up from this body another body. O king. bright. and impertuibable. S. But it still survives. 'Just. made pure. therefore. Even an admirer of the Buddha (one Sati. he applies and bends down his mind to the calling up of a mental image. he would clearly perceive how the one is bound 3 up with the other This. Gat I. having form. who had eyes to see. was not really bound up with. The double meaning must have been clearly present to the Indian hearer. 500 . cultured. &c. . devoid of evil.). or white. 87 and mother.i7. 3 In spite of this and similar passages the adherents of the soul theory (having nothing else to fasten on) were apt to fasten on to the Buddhist Vinnana as a possible point of reconciliation with their own theory. and the words are. it is subject to erasion. and disx and therein is this consciousness 2 of integration mine. too. excellent in every a string. on that does it depend. lucent. of the purest water.' says Buddhaghosa (p. abrasion. In perhaps the ' 2 all most earnest and emphatic of all the Dialogues (M. have meant that the V inn an a.) The words for erasion. excellently without a flaw. but that it formed the link in transmigration. and are so used above (p. 146. a member of the Order) went so far as to tell the Buddha himself that he must. is an immediate fruit of the [77] life of a recluse. 1 He This is a favourite description of the body. (See M. And it . 7. are cunningly chosen (u££Aadana. abrasion. or orange-coloured. The five senses. dissolution. 83. did not really depend upon.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. 221). . really untranslatable. I. sensations arising from objects. visible in this world. trans85. supple. or yellow should be threaded. through way. its very nature is impermanence. and higher and sweeter than the last. with eight facets. IV. With his heart thus serene. and emotions and intellectual processes. I know two living writers on Buddhism who (in blissful ignorance of the Dialogue in question) still fasten upon Buddha the opinion he so expressly refused to accept.

feeling no obstruction. as a boy. Pi/akas of concrete instances of any of these except the last . and that the scabbard is like the sword. Sud. . as if penetrates up through water he walks on water without breaking . — . 86. It is from the sheath that the reed sheath another. he goes. but the skin which the snake sloughs off. 'Just. 4 . 145). strong health.P. whatever the sword's shape.88 II. and compare 237. so will the image. of mind. 43. M. 1 and imperturbable. Buddhaghosa explains that the is not a basket (as Burnouf renders it). SAMAiV/VA-PHALA SUTTA. The Iddhis of Gotama when at home. pleasant music. to the further side he of a wall or rampart or hill. He is supposed in the simile to do so in imagination. visible in this life. 87. 341. or having become many becomes one again he becomes visible or invisible firm . The Kara«</a The four Iddhis of a Iddhi. Sutta in my 'Buddhist Suttas. length of life. this the sheath. and higher and sweeter than the last. 290. if the Bhikshu have his ears unpierced. at Asl. 93. the the reed. prosperity. O king. mostly intellecThere are no examples in the tual. I. And similarly were he to take has been drawn forth a snake out of its slough. Worldly Iddhi is distinguished from spiritual at A. 2 This old simile occurs already in the Satapatha-Brahma/za IV 3. or draw a sword from its scabbard 3 This. ready to act. He adds that of course a man could not take a snake out of its slough with his hand. Ill. A. parts. as if a man were to pull out He would know: "This is a reed from its sheath. 3 1 16. . but see S. as if through air and down through solid ground. made pure. comfortable lodging. he applies and bends down his mind to the modes of the Wondrous Gift 4 [78] He enjoys the Wondrous Gift in its various modes being one he becomes many. having all (his own body's) limbs and not deprived of any organ *.S. cultured. O king.' pp. translucent. supple. made V . 3. king are personal beauty. 289. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. soft clothing. I. were the possession of a beautiful garden. 340. IV. Buddhaghosa gives nine sorts of Iddhi. 259-261). and so on. and good food (A. devoid of evil. literally 'well-being. point is the similarity. Buddhaghosa explains that. The reed is one thing. 'With his heart thus serene. and popularity (M. 91.

This O king. as if on solid ground he travels cross-legged even the Moon and in the sky. lucent. so potent. visible in this life. He discerns The passionate mind to be passionate. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. as a clever potter or his apprentice could make. this of chank horns.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. ready to act. and higher and sweeter than the last. But calm and secure he can tell the difference. so mighty though they be. trans89. 'Just. if if 1 The point of the comparison. as before). and higher and sweeter than the last. With his heart thus serene. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. he applies and bends down his mind to the Heavenly Ear. 90. and the peaceful mind peaceful The dull mind to be dull. Could succeed in getting out of properlyprepared clay any shape of vessel he wanted to have or an ivory carver out of ivory. . or a goldsmith out of . says Buddhaghosa (223)." This. 'With his heart thus serene (&c. ' — gold. With that clear Heavenly Ear surpassing the ear of men he hears sounds both human and celestial. and of drums 1 . is that he is in trouble and has lost his way he might be in doubt. cultured. does he touch and feel with his hand he reaches in the body even up to the heaven of Brahma. The angry mind . devoid of evil. and the alert mind alert . this is the sound of a tabor. of other men. to be angry. made pure. supple. . . whether far or near. 88. O king. as if a man were on the high road and were to hear the sound of a kettledrum or a tabor or the sound of chank horns and small drums he would know: "This is the sound of a kettledrum. he knows them. Just. O king. 91. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge which penetrates the heart. like the birds on wing the Sun. Penetrating with his own heart the hearts of other beings. ' [79] ' firm and imperturbable. 89 through. O king. and the calm — mind calm [so] .

and higher and ' sweeter than the last. as before). visible in this world. young and smart. 'colour. . the evil disposition. would know it had not. each of which takes countless years to accomplish. . to be mean. The narrow ] . Just. 2 This is based on the Indian theory of the periodic destruction and renovation of the universe. and the enslaved mind stedfast to . through many an aeon of dissolution. and the wavering be wavering The free mind to be free. or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty or a hundred or a thousand or a hundred thousand births. directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the memory of his previous temporary states. he 93. king. When I passed away from that took form again in such a place. if it had a mole on it. I my life. know that it had. and the narrow mind .90 II. O king. This. on considering attentively the image of his own face in a bright and brilliant mirror or in a vessel of clear water would. is an immediate fruit of the life [8l] of a recluse. SAMA2VWA-PHALA SUTTA. He recalls to mind his various temporary states in days gone by one birth. There I had theDhamma Sangam Unless the interpretation given in 1292. 1597 ('occupied with rebirth in heaven. as a woman or a man or a lad. attentive mind to be attentive. such such my caste 3 such my food. such my my family. The mean mind lofty . or two or three or four or five births. in this case only. experience of discomfort or of ease. limits of state. 92. ' enslaved. and if not. 3 Vanwa. and such the ' — . many an aeon of evolution.' 1 Sa-uttara and anuttara. is put first. 1293. and occupied with Arahatship') reveals a change in the use of terms. 1596. With his heart thus serene (&c. and the lofty mind The mind mind to be stedfast. many an aeon of both dissolution and " evolution 2 In such a place such was my name. and the wandermind wandering ing The broad mind to be broad.

as if a man were to go from his own to another village. directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the fall and rise of beings. 1 ' sweeter than the ' last. and from that one should return home. as before). and held my peace thus. is an immediate fruit of the life This. . Rupa. from that other village. my brethren. such was the When I passed away from that state limit of my life. holding to right views. well doers in act and word and thought. With his heart thus serene (&c. the world of lust. And now. Visible in this world. he 95. they. I have returned back again home . 91 such and such a name and family and caste and food and experience of discomfort or of ease. B hum is." O king. " I took form thus does he call to mind again here — temporary state in days gone by in all their details. after death. he sees beings as they pass away from one form of existence and take shape in another he recognises the mean and the noble. There I stood in such and such a way. sat thus. not revilers of the noble ones. . and formless worlds (the Kama.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. With the pure Heavenly surpassing that of men. are reborn in some unhappy state of suffering or woe. on the dissolution of the body. " : wrong views. in all their modes. spake thus. and higher and his and : . 94. and held my peace thus. passing away according to their deeds Such and such beings. the world of form. holding to wretched. acquiring for themselves that Karma which results from wrong views. the well favoured and the ill favoured. spake thus. Thence I came to that other and there I stood in village such and such a way. Then he would know " From my own village I came to that other one. and Arupa Lokas). revilers of the noble ones. sat thus. [82] of a recluse. in act and word and thought. See the note below on § 102 at the end of this Sutta. three The three villages correspond to the three stages of being. O king. my brethren. the happy and the Eye 2 . 'Just. 8 1 — the the Dibba-/takkhu. But such and such beings. and from that one to another.

the well favoured and the ill favoured." This. king. I. I. are sometimes the three here mentioned (M. and the instance of SSriputta is quoted. but speculation. VJtisaw^arante is Buddhaghosa's reading. 23. 1 10. IV. Deadly Floods. on the dissolution of the body. 224) that the sphere of vision of the Heavenly Eye did not extend to the Formless Worlds. 256. . S. mann They has Illusion ( Wahn) . On the Dhamma-^akkhu. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of He knows the destruction of the Deadly Floods 3 . 'With his heart thus serene (&c. § 21 of the text. Compare M. 167. and higher and sweeter than the last. 250). Just. 97. as if there were a house with an upper terrace on it in the midst of a place where four roads meet. and a man standing thereon. they. : ' O O a recluse. and with eyes to see." Thus with the pure Heavenly Eye. &c). Unfortunately. Bumouf has defilement (souillures). acquiring for themselves that Karma that results from right views. 155. 9 (p. is an immediate fruit of the life of 96. . and those are walking to and fro in the street. and walking hither and thither along the street 2 and seated in the square in the midst. P. Then he would know " Those men are entering a house. S. This paragraph forms the subject of the discussion in the Katha Vatthu III. The Siamese has Vithi/w. the Eye 1 ' for the 8 Truth/ see below. the happy and the wretched. A. 8 NeuAsavas. p. The mere knowledge of the general fact of the action of Karma is there distinguished from the Dibba£akkhu. I. should watch men entering a house. but not the Heavenly Eye. 279. the Heavenly Eye . away according ' to their deeds l . as before). are reborn in some happy state in heaven. theorising (Di/Mi) is added as a fourth in the M. after death. who had that knowledge. As he was an Arahat it follows that the possession of the Heavenly Eye was not a necessary consequence of Arahatship. SAMAAWA-PHALA SUTTA. another untranslatable term. and elsewhere. visible in this world. surpassing that of men. and those are leaving it. king. Buddhaghosa adds (p. and take form in another he recognises the mean and the noble. and coming forth out of it.92 II. passing . and those are seated in the square in the midst. [83] he sees beings as they pass away from one state of existence.

as if in a mountain fastness there were a pool of water. with life a future and Arupa 8 A viggas ava. just above summarised. What had to ' . 2 in with special reference to the taint of hankering after the sensuous plane (Kama Loka). the gravel and the pebbles and the shoals of fish. sense indeed Buddhaghosa's statement (at Asl. in the special reference to the taint of hankering after Bhavasava." He knows as it really is: "This is the Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods. with in the plane of form and the formless plane (the Rtipa that is." He knows as it really is " This is the cessation of the Deadly Floods. in heaven. It is therefore impossible to be sure what is the simile that underlies the use of the word in its secondary. and serene and a man. translucent. thus set free." [84] He knows as it the origin of pain. and he knows really : is " : This is really is: "This : : : : . ." " These are the Deadly Floods. life a future world. Kamasava. : : in its concrete.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. . p. as it 93 is pain. thus seeing. thus knowing. " After this present life there will be no beyond 98." To him. unless we ought to consider. The higher life has been ! be done has been accomplished. Subhuti in quoting the above passage from Buddhaghosa (in the Abhidhana Padtpiki SiUi." He knows as " This is the cessation of pain. that parivas 1 . Loka's) special reference to ignorance of the Four Great Truths. and with eyes to see. that is. and not of flood or the word has not been yet found . Perhaps after all it is the idea of overwhelming intoxication. as they move about or lie within it he would know " This fulfilled. 48) that wellseasoned spirituous liquors were called asava be taken literally. the heart is set free from the Deadly Taint of Lusts \ is set free from the 2 Deadly Taint of Becomings is set free from the Deadly In him. ethical sense. there arises Taint of Ignorance 3 the knowledge of his emancipation. clear. 43) reads parivas throughout for taint or ooze. : " Rebirth has been destroyed. O king." He knows it really is " This is the Path that leads to the as it really is He knows as they really are cessation of pain. Just. standing on the bank. primary. should perceive the oysters and the shells." He knows as it really " is This is the origin of the Deadly Floods.

either of previous Buddhas. pool is clear. to the Truth. 5 Ariyanaw. king said to the Blessed One most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. and higher and sweeter than the last. 9. Lord. transparent. A. 2 Because. That is. or were to reveal that which is hidden away. as long as life endures. visible in this world. Lord. this is really Arahatship. is custom 3 that whosoever in the discipline of the noble ones . visible in this world. ' lying still 1 . or were to bring a lamp into the darkness so that those who have eyes could see external forms just even so. that all the rest led up. Nirvana and it was to this. and serene.' p. in many a figure. But inasmuch as you look upon it as in acting thus. for the sake of sovranty. A. or perhaps . has the truth been made known to me. 60. and to the Order. the Blessed One as my refuge. has taken his refuge in them. that May the Blessed righteous man. by And now I betake myself. And there is no fruit of the life of a recluse. O king. And when he had thus spoken. sin. as Buddhaghosa points out. we accept your confession as to that. I." This. V. 279. Compare for sippi-sambuka Gat. Lord. may restrain myself. . that righteous king so acknowledge it as One accept it of me. that do ! a sin. is an immediate fruit of the life [85] of a recluse. For that. Ill. to the Blessed One. O king.94 H. to Arahatship. A^atasattu the Most excellent. from this day forth. that is higher and sweeter than this V 99. Lord. Lord. 1 the words 'Pali Mis- cellany. Sin has overcome me. Trenckner.' The simile recurs M. weak and foolish and wrong that I am. 'Verily. of the Arahats. and there within it are the oysters and the shells. I put to death my father. and confess it according to what is right. I. and the sand and and the shoals of fish are moving about or gravel. ' : — as one who. May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple. O king. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. 395. SAMAJWVA-PHALA SUTTA. 197. to the end that in future it I was sin that overcame you 100. in that.

even as he sat there V Thus spake the Blessed One. 52.THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE. and keeping him on the right hand as he passed him. and said ' Do. . 95 fault. looks upon his fault as a it. that righteous man. for entering on the Path that ends in Arahatship. and there is much to do. and rightfully confesses shall attain to self-restraint in future. brethren. The Dhamma-/£akkhu (Eye for the Truth) is a technical term conversion. not long after A^atasattu the king had gone. was deeply affected. brethren. SamazHa-phala Sutta is ended. and bowed to the Blessed One. § 61). A^atasattu the king said to the Blessed One Now. § 95) which sees other people's previous births. 102. and righteous king. ' Here ends the Discourse on the Fruits of the Life of a Recluse. the king had not put his father to death. departed thence. and below the Eye of Wisdom (pa«/Ia-^akkhu) which is the wisdom of the 1 for Arahat (Itivuttaka. Lord. : seemeth to thee fit' the king. It is higher than the Heavenly Eye (dibba-^akkhu. arose from his seat. pleased and delighted with the words of the Blessed One. The brethren were pleased and delighted at his words. p. When he had thus spoken. p. 82 of the text. We O king. we would fain are busy. then would the clear and spotless eye for the truth have arisen in him.' go. If. above.' ' 101. Now the Blessed One. addressed the brethren. he was touched in heart. whatever Then A^atasattu : This king.

and of caste as a whole. with an education in keeping with their social position and disparage him for neglecting the humble and the wretched. social. Both views are equally unhistorical. and which settles all disputes regarding the caste. but in constantly varying degrees. ' ' ' . It is sufficiently evident from the discussions on the matter (mentioned in the notes to the end of Chapter I) which deal the comparative frequency of of Brahman pretensions that this was a burning question at the time when the Dialogues were composed. . But the difference.INTRODUCTION TO THE AUBATTNA SUTTA. Other writers gird at the Buddha because most of the leaders of this Order were drawn from the ranks of the respectable and the well-to-do. No other social problem is referred to so often and Brahmans would not be so often represented as expressing astonishment or indignation at the position taken up regarding it by the early Buddhists unless there had really been a serious difference on the subject between the two schools. and the benefits of the . of these restrictions. It is well known that the population of India is now divided into a number of sections (we call them castes '). and political points of view. by representing him as having fought for the poor and despised against the rich and privileged classes. has been gravely misunderstood. the members of which are debarred from the right of intermarriage (from the ccnnnbium) with those outside their caste. Some writers on Buddhism do not hesitate to ascribe to Gotama the role of a successful political reformer. though real. from the right of eating together (of cotnEach such mensalily) with the members of other sections. caste has also a council or committee by which it is governed. have been often grossly exaggerated. This is one of several Suttas celebrated verse quoted at the with the subject of caste. The disastrous effects. and also. and as having gone far to abolish caste. from the ethical. or to mitigate. for not using his influence to abolish. the harshness of caste rules.

them that we have the key to the origin of caste. but were similar in kind. in the history of a nation such customs seem. at the time of Gotama. may have differed from those of the Aryans. H . taxation. As a matter of fact they are never quite the same in successive man's visible frame. system ignored. Kolarians and the Dravidians were probably quite the equals of the Aryans in social organisation. and so on. fact of the existence. Their custom of endogamy and exogamy. if any. Both the spirit. have long known that the connnbium was the cause of a long and determined struggle between the patricians arid the plebeians in Rome. And the Aryans much from them. was familiar enough to some at least of the tribes that preceded the Aryans in India. are not only Indian or Aryan. though centuries. But it is always tending to vary as to the degree of importance attached to some particular one of II. It is quite a mistake to look upon Both the all these tribes as far below the Aryans in culture. of modern Indian caste usages. customs. of eating together. has yet to be drawn up. their ideas as to puiity and the reverse. and no doubt universal. among other Aryan tribes Even without the Greeks. especially in matters probably adopted relating to land tenure. and to a large degree the actual details. Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions as to intermarriage. is still confused and inaccurate. to have been in existence also at the time when Buddhism arose in the valley of the Ganges. It is in We — . And an accurate statement of the corresponding facts. even as it now The theories put exists. to be fixed and immutable. Russians. Germans. now. no change is at any moment perceptible. and the result of constant minute variations becomes clear after the lapse of time. The numerous and complicated details which we sum up under the convenient (but often misleading) single name of caste are At any moment A That solely dependent for their sanction on public opinion. restricted to certain classes. are identical with these ancient. but world-wide phenomena. forward to explain the facts are loose and irreconcilable. of such restrictions among the modern successors of the ancient Aryans in India. opinion seems stable. is really never the same for two consecutive moments. or even generations. and as to the right of eating together. government. as it now exists. Our knowledge of the actual facts of caste. and so on. Rules of endogamy and exogamy privileges. village community. 97 in And we are entirely unwarranted supposing the system. it would have been almost certain that they also were addicted to It is certain that the notion of such usages similar customs.INTRODUCTION. to a superficial observer.

still to-day. Some of them. . And such workers were called Chaliyas. no doubt quite imperceptible at the time to among whom the changes were taking place. or even largely. the details. Europeans. on a large scale. Ceylon they gave up the government cultivation of cinnamon. and accepted service as coolies. became reabsorbed among the Goigamas. the Goigamas. By the time that the families of Chaliyas were numerous enough to afford mates for the male or female coolies. This was an instance of a change precisely "contrary But to that which happened when the caste gradually arose. This last statement may be illustrated by the case of the When the Dutch started cinnamon cultivation in Chaliyas. . in its two thousand five hundred of years. not two separate and striking revolutions. in the struggle of motives. When the English took arisen. And the caste survives though the members of it are now no longer exclusively. were naturally stronger at first among the Goigamas of good social position. therefore. Ceylon who belonged almost exclusively to one caste. were enough to cover the whole series with the generations results. still all did not succeed in returning some Chaliyas left. however. what we call a new caste the caste of the Chaliyas. In other words. ordinary peasant work. can doubt but that the history of in consequent Who ancient India. as to the size and complexity of the particular groups in which each detail ought to be observed. and it became a mark of superiority not to have a relative married to a worker in the cinnamon gardens. became averse to giving These feelings their daughters in marriage to such coolies.98 III. employed and many ol them have become in cinnamon gardens wealthy and honoured. . but a long series of slight changes the public opinion. and through its wide territory. The peasantry. regarded it as unworthy of a free man to work for hire. thinking this bad form. a constant succession similar variations and that similar variations are recurring . The others. in ever lessening numbers. AMBATTHA SUTTA. and there are. And very people Three or four after all the changes were not so very slow. the Chaliyas found it impossible And thus. as they gradually returned to declined. The number of the Chaliyas consequently Numbers of them. What had happened in this case was. would be found to cover. by private individuals. The gardens were carried on. if we had only access to the necessary evidence. found the pressure of poverty too strong for them. the size of one group had been diminished by the very considerable number of persons engaged in a new and had despised trade. they wanted labourers. under the very eyes of to find wives elsewhere.

and others besides. There is no evidence to show that at the time when the conversations recorded in the Dialogues took place (that is to say. on opinion restrictions of a more or less defined kind. In a few instances. lasted longer in India than in Europe. But they are phases of the extension and growth not explanations of the origin. — H 2 . And all India.C. in the sixth century B.Brahma«a. the other Aryan people. nor was there a governing council for each. But of castes. among the preponderating majority there is little or no conclusive evidence.and Sudda). of the priests our evidence tends to show that at least in the wide extent of countries close upon a territory covered by the Pi/akas hundred thousand square miles in area the struggle was being decided rather against the Brahmans than for them. between the peoples dwelling in the valley of the Ganges and their contemporaries dwelling on the shores of the Mediterranean. and had a theological legend in support of their contention. all among the lower classes of the people. are real factors. tracing their ancestry (whether rightly or wrongly) to the same source. the gradual extension of the institution to the families of people engaged in certain trades. The point of greatest weight in the establishment of the great the supremacy. There were distinctions as to marriage endogamous and exogamous groups.Sudras (Khattiy&. and plexions) the non-Aryan . to what would now be called caste-divisions. the priests. even in Europe. The fourth was distinguished from the others by race.Vessa. these amounted. All these factors. in difference in the subsequent development was still being hotly debated. probably. The priests put themselves first. no But public doubt. But it is clear from the Pi/akas that this was not admitted by the nobles. the system has. in the modern sense. still insists in considerable circles. There was a common phrase current among the people. as regards the barriers in question. not on political power or wealth. belonging to the same sect or tribe. both as to marriage and as to eating together.INTRODUCTION. 99 to the fact that the particular set of people who way to the top based its claims on religious grounds. The remaining three were distinguished from each other by Owing worked their — . And it is also clear that no one of these divisions was a caste. which divided all the world into four va«#a (colours or comthe nobles.) there was any substantial difference. And in India the problem still remains to trace in the literature the gradual growth of the system the gradual formation of new sections among the people. — — — — . of the system. There was neither connnbium nor commensality between all the members of one va««a.

i). and formed evidently a numerically insignificant portion of the populace. active. Other old texts 2 insert between these two three further names the Vewas. 2 Assalayana (No. na/a-putto. AMBATTHA SUTTA. without regard to his colour (vanna) so also. or a Pukkusa. — . Further exemplified by the number of people described as keva//a-putto. the Nesadas. determined by birth. well-trained mind should be selected as donee without reference to the fact of his belonging to any one of the four classes of society (vanna). And this enumeration of the populace was not complete. They no doubt formed castes in hina-gatiyo. It is plain that this passage distinguishes the last two from the four vanna. . for those who gained their living by these trades. II. 6. P. sometimes as makers of sunshades. as distinct from these low tribes (the hina-^atiyo). the man of strong. assaroha-putto. well-trained ox is selected by preference. &c. when presenting gifts. social position. 93 in the . 19 Sa/rcyutta I. though we have no information as to their marriage customs. and cartmakers. the workers in rushes 3 bird-catchers. . active. and the Rathakaras. it is implied that there was no hard and fast line. As they are excluded weavers. 162 in oxen. certain low occupations (hina-sippani) mat-makers. Petavatthu II. Thus in Anguttara 1 the argument is that just as there is no real difference I. and the strong. By these are meant aboriginal tribesmen who were for they are called hereditary craftsmen in these three crafts low tribes. the modern sense. there And were insensible gradations within the four classes. potters. 85 = P. outside the towns in which ordinary people dwelt. and the boundary between them was both variable and undefined. &c. that is to say. resembling in many points the modern low castes. and always when mentioned in the Pi/akas following after the above four. Vina) Ma^/zima) Anguttara a IV 6-10. leather-workers. and therefore from the vSudras. though in a general rough way the classification corresponded to the actual facts of life. . They are represented in the £ataka book as living in villages of their own. 12. 93 IV. suda-putto. 1 Compare . Outside these classes there were others. and barbers. In the last passage quoted in the previous note there are mentioned. 3 Sometimes explained as carpenters. in spite of the fact that they can be arranged in classes by difference of colour (vanna). from the list of those distinguished by birth (ga\. or of his being a Kandala.IOO III. sometimes as basket-makers. There would be a natural tendency for the son to follow the father's craft 4 . 4 . — — .

67 . and not badly treated. and certain hereditary crafts of a dirty or despised kind. in the Buddha's time. We find. castes. &c. 72. II. 93.' I. more exactly upon the gotta rather than upon the ^atij. in any proper or exact use of the term. I.INTRODUCTION. Individuals had been captured in predatory raids. III. IV. . however. . there were also We only hear of them quite occasionally. as to intermarriage of people admittedly belonging to the same va«. and reduced to slavery (Gat. and a And there was a social code. developments of slavery as rendered the Roman latifnndia. I. which raised barriers. 200) or had submitted to slavery of their own accord ('Vinaya Texts. in fact. probably. . who were all freemen. At the one end of . were already. and the emancipation of But we hear nothing of such later slaves is often referred to. been yet made ready. quite roughly into four classes social strata of which the boundary lines were vague and uncertain. rendered disgraceful the use of certain foods. or the plantations of some Christian slave-owners. In the face of this set of circumstances Gotama took up — — 1 See also A. 168). III. 437 Vin. scenes of misery and oppression. 141 (translated above) . The key-stone of the arch of the peculiarly Indian caste organisation the absolute supremacy of the Brahmans had not yet been put in position. as domestic slaves. 145. 343. not seldom broken through. based on fortiori of others. the idea of impurity. servants. D. But they were not castes as yet. Children born to such slaves were also slaves. Cy. 238. Besides the above. 206. . I. and their numbers seem to have been insignificant l What we find then. For the most part the slaves were household servants. I. did not exist. 132. IOI centuries afterwards they had become castes./a. 217 60. IV. had not. . Dhp. 220) or had been deprived of their freedom as a judicial punishment (Gat. 224. no usages which cannot be amply paralleled in the history of other peoples throughout the world in similar stages of social evolution. for they followed all sorts of occupations) were putting forward caste claims that were not yet universally admitted. 191 Sum. Gat. 385. The caste-system. is caste in the The great mass of the people were distinguished making. 226. 36. At the other end of the scale Brahmans by birth (not necessarily sacrificial priests. There were social customs about the details of which we know very little (and dependent probably. which prevented familiar intercourse and (such as commensality) between people of different rank . — — the scale certain outlying tribes. . and they were then on the border line. in the houses of the very rich. I. 5.

102 III. So Sunita. to a girl of good family through intercourse with a slave (so that by the rule laid down in Manu 31. had been slave girls. occupation. was of the sons of the fisherfolk. particularly abhorred. AMBATTHA SUTTA. as regards his own Order. they were actually outcasts). in two phases. Nanda was a cowherd. Whether the Buddhist Order differed in this respect from the other similar communities which are mentioned in the Buddhist books as having already existed when the Buddhist Order was founded. one of the brethren whose verses are chosen for insertion in the Thera Gatha. The facts speak for themselves and the percentage of low-born members of the Order was probably in fair proportion to the percentage of persons belonging to the despised ^atis and sippas as compared with the rest of the population. and even then an occupation. But that very silence is valuable evidence. afterwards a low caste. Thus of the Theris mentioned in the Theri Gatha we know the social position of that is. . the propounder of a deadly heresy. and sweeps away all barriers and disabilities arising from the arbitrary rules of mere ceremonial or social impurity. who had formerly been a barber. Puwza and Punnika. it is true. One of the most distinguished members of his Order. and to suggest that the supposed enlightenment or liberality was mere pretence. More instances could doubtless be quoted already. and others will become known when more texts are published. is still matter of controversy. and social status. It meets us. The Buddhist books are mostly silent on the matter. the very one of them who was referred to as the chief authority. one of the despised occupations. Sumangalamata was daughter and wife to workers in rushes. a distinct position. on the rules of the Order. and Subha was the daughter of a smith. It does not show much historical insight to sneer at the numbers as small. was a Pukkusa. It is most likely that this is just about the proportion which persons in similar social rank bore to the rest of the population. And the few passages in print confirm this. — We . there should be no allusion to it in the Pi/akas. if there had been much difference. he ignores completely and absolutely all advantages or disadvantages arising from birth. over which alone he had complete control. of whom five are mentioned above of the whole number were base-born. 8£ per cent. one of the low tribes. The two Pa#//zakas were born out of wedlock. It is scarcely likely that. was Upali. after Gotama himself. A^apa was the daughter of a deer-stalker. In the first place. Sati. on account of its cruelty. sixty. but it forms one consistent and logical whole.

Sudras becoming Samaras. So in the Gataka (III.INTRODUCTION. But the Buddha certainly adopted. . 'Sociale Gliederung im nordostlichen Indien.' be admitted. and the tribes below the . There is one point. there is express mention of . in such wise that the existing rights of third parties should not be encroached upon. by public opinion. 77). I. ' ' . who become Samaras 1 (not Buddhist Samawas) On the other hand.' pp. not the Buddhist). E. S. by a constant inculcation of reasonable views. 50. that is the Khattiyas. Translated by Fausboll. one of the Are you a freeman 2 ? questions asked of the candidate is Whenever slaves were admitted to the Order. that the existing orders.. 3H1) we hear of a potter. To what extent the .Sudras. it is just possible that in these passages the custom afterwards followed in the Buddhist Order is simply put back to earlier times. 77) it is taken for granted that a slave would join an Order (that is any order. he strove to influence that public opinion. I : have been emancipated. 199) that no runaway slave in the form of words to be used at * ' the chapter held for admitting new members. there is a rule (trans. 51. Secondly. It is impossible to avoid the inference from the passage just referred to (in the Sama««a-phala. B. and is an anachronism. a similar privilege. and Vessas) were certainly justified. The low-born. admitted slaves to their ranks. Now among a number of rules laid down to regulate admission to the Buddhist Order. lated in shall ' Vinaya Texts. were accorded. 2 8 'Vinaya Texts. as if it were a recognised and common occurrence. long before the time of the rise of Buddhism. and the Madhura Sutta of the Ma^^ima. 392. And S. 230. however. on which the observances depend. they must have previously obtained the consent of their masters. the Buddha questions of caste adopted the only course then open to any man of sense that is to say. Brahma^as. the most rational view current at the time. p. or most of them. 1 See Fick. in which he seems to have restricted (and for a valid reason) the existing custom. p. And in the Aggarc/za Sutta of the Digha. and at IV. however earnest in their search after truth.. E. as regards all such matters as we may now fairly call outside the Order. were no doubt excluded from any community of hermits or religious recluses in which Brahmans had the upper hand.' I.Sudras. is at present doubtful. in becoming Samaras. in communities other than the Buddhist. above. B.. 40-42. and probably extended. pp. 103 have seen how in the Sama«#a-phala Sutta (above. and also. But all the twice-born (the Dvi§"as. Thus in the Amagandha Sutta 3 of the Sutta think. of a KandiLla.

quadrupeds. especially in ancient times. . translated below. it Nipata (certainly one of the very oldest of our documents) is laid down. which it would take too long to set On the general out here. no special insight. As to other details also. prepared or given by this or that person. This is a particularly interesting passage. A. Gotama followed the same plan.104 HI. As his answer the Buddha reminds his questioners of the fact that whereas. For question. in this matter. he had opinions./adaWa Sutta. And in the early Buddhist texts (always ready to give credit to others. — tion is again to adopt. and even anxious wherever possible to support their views by showing that others. is claimed on to the wise. account of a view that would have put an end to so many The Buddha's posifoolish prejudices based on superstition. that make a man a Brahman that the — ' ' — . had held them) these views are not referred to as part of the doctrine of either earlier or We may heads — contemporary teachers. within living memory. and historical.. R. presumably his own. in the case of plants (large or small). Herein. ethical. S.' as pointed out by Mr. so many in the West. and no such marks. that defilement does not come from eating this or that. p. fish. Chalmers \ Gotama was in accord with the conclusion of modern biologists. 1 J. but from evil deeds and words and thoughts. however. serpents. . the sensible position already put forward by others. that " the A)itliropidae are represented by the single genus and species. and birds. as in the So. there are many species and marks (due to the in the case of species) by which they can be distinguished man there are no such species. In other words the Buddhists put forward this view as having been enunciated long ago with the intended implication that it was a self-evident proposition which was common ground No originality. Man" a conclusion the more remarkable as the accident of colour did not mislead Gotama' as it did so many of his contemporaries then and even. class the utterances on this point under three biological. He goes on to draw the conclusion that distinctions made between different men are mere matters of prejudice and custom that it is wisdom and goodness that make the only valid distinction. insects. 1894. in eloquent words. . In the Vase////a Sutta of the Sutta Nipata (several verses of which have been inserted also in the Dhammapada) the question. 396. is as to what makes a man a Brahman. AMBA7TffA SUTTA. they are not found elsewhere. being one of the few in which sayings of previous Buddhas are recorded.

(p. 1 known ' Literally are the best colour' (va««a. 340. Arahat . in many respects one of the most 3 It is a kind interesting and instructive of all the Dialogues A Brahman might object that all this We . Brahma What do you. i. born of Brahma. a dialogue. heirs of ' : — . the point raised is whether the Brahmans are right in their exclusive claims. 17. And lastly. secondly. 338-348. Robert Chalmers. pp. and are his legitimate heirs. There was no difference between them in this respect. &c. between the king of Madhura and Ka££ana. with valuable introduction and notes. 2 This Madhura Sutta has now been edited and translated. . It was this claim to especial connection with the mysterious powers of a supernatural kind. agninyazw The reading vol. maintained that it was birth that made a man a Brahman. Thirdly. with reference to the wellclassification into four va««as. 3 The larger portion of this Sutta (from the beginning of the genesis part down to the election of the first king) is also preserved in the Mahavastu. on becoming a religieux. so widely believed in. IO5 and that it is only the is therefore the true Brahman ignorant who had. The Brahmans are the legitimate sons of God (of Brahma). born from His mouth. originally. ^-§94. receive 2 equal respect and honour from the people points out . In the Madhura Sutta. ignores the important point that the Brahmans were. whatever his va««a. referred to above). a man./«as would find members of each of the other three to wait upon him and serve him. whatever his va««a. Ka^ana The Brahmans are the most distinguished of the four divisions into which the people is l classified every other division is inferior. he — how a wicked man (whatever his va««a). The Buddhist answer actual facts of life how ! Sir. would be equally subject to punishment for his crime. will be reborn in some state of woe and a good man in some state of bliss. The Brahmans are the white division all the rest are black. not those who are not Brahmans. a criminal. is say to this ? " ' first to remind the king of the a prosperous member of any one of the four va. The Brahmans alone are accounted pure. neither of which was a caste. See Senart's edition. . for so long. specially made by Him. shortly after the Buddha's death. by Mr. in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. would.) represents the Pali agga##aw. Then.INTRODUCTION. . on joining an order. The " Brahmans say thus. that formed their chief weapon in the find the Buddhist reply to that in the Agga««a struggle. in accordance with the doctrine of Karma acknowledged by all good men (not ^»nly by Buddhists). Similar arguments frequently recur. Sutta of the Digha.

Then the earth rose in the midst of the waters. Gotama replies that they make these claims in forgetfulness of the past. virtue to keep their households going. AMBA7T#A SUTTA. and delicate rice appeared. And the highest of them all was acknowledged 1 The words here are quoted in the Milinda. giving light from themselves. And thereupon the fine-tasting earth ceased to be so. except only in . But all were alike in origin. And these were the first Brahmans. Then some prided themselves. and time began to run. beautiful as honey in taste and colour and smell. And some abandoned their (dhamma). now become men. homes and became the first recluses (samawas). . And others they chose to restrain the evil dispositions which led to the evil doing. and then sun and moon and stars appeared. eating thereof. started occupations of various kinds. The claims have no basis in fact. There was thick darkness round about them. Then certain others. 229 of my translation. of Buddhist book of Genesis. . p. and sweet creepers. And then also their bodies became more coarse and material. How feeding on joy. nor measures of time. and differences of complexion (va««a) became manifest among them.I06 III. and the only distinction between them was in virtue. Then successively fine moss. the beings. met together. and maintain their wives. differing from the others in no wise except in virtue (dhamma). passing through the air. beings were at first immaterial. It is righteousness (dhamma) and not class distinction (va««a) Do that makes the real difference between man and man 1 we not daily see Brahman women with child and bearing can they then say that sons just like other folk ? are born of God ? And as to their origin. nor stars. instead of gathering it each evening and morning and the And when lusts rights of property arose. and were infringed. nor sex. i. and thefts committed. and neither sun nor moon. These were the first Kshatriyas. lost their brightness. and each time the beings ate thereof with a similar result. and despised others. differing from the others in no wise. . vol. and the beings. Then differences of sex appeared and households were formed and the lazy stored up the rice. were felt. and chose certain men. In it the pretensions of the Brahmans are put forward in the same terms as those just quoted above from the Madhura Sutta. to restrain the evil doers by blame or fines or banishment. when the they evolution of the world began. . on the ground of their finer complexion. And these were the first vessas.

they very nearly prevailed the evolution of social grades and distinctions would have gone on in India on lines similar to those it followed in the West. who had lived the life. and is much nearer to the actual facts than the Brahman legend it was intended to replace. . Indeed a continual note of good-humoured irony runs through the whole story. by others. and the caste system of India would never have been built up 1 . But it reveals a sound and healthy insight. are much to be desired. 1 caste. 107 to be the Arahat.' Dr. Fick also in his Sociale Gliederung im nordostlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit has collected the evidence found in the Gataka book. and by the highest knowledge was set free We may not accept the historical accuracy of this legend. ' ' ' Epics. and analysed it Similar monographs on the Pi/akas. entitled Les Castes dans l'lnde. with its fanciful etymologies of the names of the four va«#a. had gained his end. and on the present actual facts of caste in India.INTRODUCTION. and on the with great skill. Had the Buddha's views on the whole question won the day and widely shared. Senart on the origin of on the Brahman views about it. ! — — . who had made himself so by the destruction of the Four Mental Intoxications (the Asavas) and bybreaking the bonds that tied him to rebirths the man who had laid aside every burden. as they were. and the aroma of it would be lost on the hearer who took it au grand se'rieux. There is an admirable little book by M. had accomplished all that had to be done.

one's [A young Brahman's rudeness and an old FAITH. which is the probable meaning of ra^a-bhoggaw. But brahma in Pali . If Buddhaghosa's interpretation of brahmadeyyaw? is correct. and ra^a-bhoggara at Vin. p.] 1. either with or without the land tax. II. and the first part* of the compound (brahma) has always been interpreted by Brahmans as referring to themselves. Now the Brahman Pokkharasadi heard the news: 1 . 1 the king had full proprietary (zemindary) rights as well.a full gift. . pp. See the Introduction to the Mahali Sutta. Now at that time the Brahman Pokkharasadi was . his share would be. and to the rights only. with about five hundred brethren. would remain to them. in. i. The grant would be. The land revenue. 131 of the text. The whole string of adjectives recurs below. payable of course in kind. 200).' 2 His full name was Pokkharasadi Opamaw7o Subhagavaniko (M. So Buddhaghosa but he gives no further details as to the terms of the grant. one half. with much grassland and woodland and corn. 620. Compare Divyavadana. dwelling at Ukka///za. a spot teeming with life. use of the common and waste and woods. would be a tithe. 114. If . AMBATTJfA SUTTA. The Blessed One. 222. Thus have I heard. arrived at a Brahman village in Kosala named and while there he stayed in the U'/7dI/'/C'/^anankala nankala Wood. Ill. granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala as a royal gift. of his own The rights of the peasants to the other half. 127. or of the tenancy. then the grantee would also be the king's representative for all purposes judicial and executive. on a royal domain. as the first part of a compound never has that meaning and the word in our passage means literally '. with power over it as if he were the king 2 2. where the second is the gotta (gens) name and the third a local name. Elsewhere the word has only been found as applied to marriage. when once on a tour through the Kosala country with a great company of the brethren.III.

in [88] 'And good that. lovely both in the spirit and in the letter. has now arrived. an Amwas a pupil under Pokkharasadi the Brahman. such is the high reputation that has That Blessed One is an Arahat. in the Atf/zakathas and Zikas. (compare Cat. And he was a repeater (of the sacred words) knowing the mystic verses by heart. the Brahmas. 363. given (in S. He. one who had mastered the Three Vedas. doth he proclaim. at I4v£7zanankala. and is staying Now regarding that there in the Iiv£Mnankala Wood. 366) there were Amba/Mas who were not Brahmans by birth. lovely in its in its consummation. also Pali texts' And it is quite unnecessary to suppose a silent reference to it here. interpretation of dreams and of lucky signs. all its is it fullness and to pay visits to in all its purity. the phonoand the legends logy. thoroughly knows and sees. venerable Gotama. as it were.' 3. Athabbawa Veda. with knowledge of the worlds. its princes and peoples. who went out from a Sakya family to adopt the religious of the life. he makes his knowledge known its recluses — to others. and having known it. is do not acknowledge the Atharva as a Veda. ' IO9 They say that the Samawa Gotama. with a great company brethren of his Order. Buddhaghosa (p. the ritual. 1 According to Cat. IV. by himself. for granted. but witchcraft or sorcery. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. 2 The fourth is not expressly mentioned. IV. abounding in wisdom and goodness. a Blessed One. the Atharva. lovely in its origin. the higher life doth The he make known. and the world below with : — — and Brahmans. and so probably not the Veda. And the whole point of the 'Tevigga. 927) as the name of a mystic art (together with as the astrology. face to face this universe. The fourth place is quite sufficiently filled as suggested in the translation. Arahats like ba////a \ at that time a young Brahman. of the Sakya clan. including the worlds above of the gods. been noised abroad a fully awakened one.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. and the exegesis (as a fourth) Now '-. but farmers. and the Maras. with the indices. a Buddha. and three only. truth. the forth). The Athabbawa. The Pi/akas always take three Vedas. IV. Sutta (translated in full in my Buddhist ' . 247) But the older says we have to supply the fourth Veda. a teacher for gods and men. It only occurs. happy. progress.

163. 120 (of the text). the protector of his people. 620. and 1 . the Gem. And the inference from both our passages is that the knowledge is scattered through the Brahman texts. AMBATTHA SUTTA. in our mystic verses thirty-two bodily signs of a great man. which we have just had at § 3. Divyavadana One or two of the details are not quite certain. [89] And these are the seven treasures that he has the Wheel. Four Vedas are referred to in the Milinda. and no other become a sovran of the world. if a man has. learned in the idioms and the grammar. that he could say of him What I know that you know. a conqueror. pp. and the Atharva-veda. — ' : ' : not. But how. so far as I know. at p. — — Suttas ') is this three-.' 4. Many of the details of the Buddhist list (see the note below on p. a righteous king. A. the Treasurer. and find out whether the reputation so noised abroad regarding him is in accord with the facts or not. 114. as yet. dear Amba//^a. III. fold division. the Horse. the Woman. 117. and the . &c. 10. and what you know that I know.ITO as a fifth. 3. in those portions of the pre-Buddhistic priestly literature that have survived. bearing rule even to the shores of the four great oceans. shall I know whether that is so or not?' 1 There have been handed down. Ambai^a. he will become one of two 2 If he dwells at home he will things. Sir. at p. course) on the Maha-purusha theory as held in early times among the Aryans in India ? . and upon a curious chapter in mythoWho will write us a monograph (historical of logical superstition. whether the Samawa Gotama is such as they say or versed in Lokayata sophistry. signs which. No such list has been found. go to the Samawa Gotama. not four-. in the theory of the so recognised an signs on the body of a great man authority in the system of the threefold Vedic knowledge as expounded by his master. and a collection of the older Brahman passages would probably throw light upon them. And Pokkarasadi told Amba/Ma the news. See below.I.' ' 5. and said Come now. Mil. 1 This is the standing description in the Suttas of a learned Brahman. possessor of the seven royal treasures. 2 The knowledge of these thirty-two marks of a Great Being (Maha-purusha) is one of the details in the often-recurring paragraph giving the points of Brahman wisdom. 106 of the text) are very obscure. the Elephant.

And when he had gone on in the chariot as far as the road was practicable for vehicles. 2 is his lodging where the door is shut. and knock on the cross-bar. heroes. . and a pupil of the The Blessed distinguished Brahman Pokkharasadi.' said Amba^a in reply. 7. 'Very good. Sir. to the I^/^anankala Wood. and proceeded. with a retinue of young Brahmans. is of distinguished family. 1 For the details of these seven see further my ' Buddhist Suttas. mighty in frame. Amba^Ma. meaning word never has in the older . And the Blessed One the door. And opened the other young Brahmans also went in and they exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and 9. Now I. am a giver of the mystic verses. he got down. One will not find it difficult to hold conversation with such/ And they said to Amba/Ma There.' the pp. often rendered 'monastery.' a texts. and said Where may the venerable Gotama be lodging now ? We have come nither to call upon him/ 8 Then the brethren thought This young Brahman AmbaU/ia. and rising from his seat and paying reverence to Pokkharasadi. beating down And he dwells in complete the armies of the foe. But if he go forth from the household life into the houseless state. ascendancy ruling it in righteousness without the need of baton or of sword. and enter the porch gently. 251-259. then he will become a Buddha who removes the veil from the eyes of the world. he mounted a chariot drawn by mares. : ' : .PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. I I I And he has more than a Adviser as a seventh 1 thousand sons. And Amba/Z/za went up to them. and give a cough.' did so. Amba#/£a. over the wide earth from sea to sea. and went on. 2 Vihara . you have received them from me/ 6. go quietly up ' : ' . Then Amba/Z/za . Now at that time a number of the brethren were walking up and down in the open air. into the park. on foot. and Amba/Ma entered in. The Blessed One will open the door for you.

to the Blessed One the Blessed One said to him Is that the way. the x with them I would offscouring of our kinsman's heels — you But you must have been wanting something.112 III. 103. And ii. And is S. scoffing.' on one another's this Neumann. as you now do. (§§ That this is the implication is clear from the text. It is proper to speak with a Brahman as one goes along only when the Brahman himself is walking. compliments of politeness and courtesy. ' : . menial black fellows. when you came here. that you would hold converse with aged teachers. ' . sham friars. Then Amba///£a was displeased and angry with the Blessed One at being called rude and at the thought that the Blessed One was vexed with him. This young Brahman Amba/Ma is ill bred. 90. And may well have been the meaning. walking about. his fault as that much of his teacher. Amba/Ma. Buddhaghosa refers p. AmTurn your thoughts ba///£a. . were admitted to it. moving about the while or standing. and teachers of your teachers well stricken in years. fidgeting about the while. jeering. still others. says 'treading the expression to the Brahman theory that the . after all. rather to the object you had in view when you came. cit. and standing to a Brahman who stands. or standing up. But with shavelings. therefore. said something seats. For though Gotama and the majority of his order were well born. though he prides himself on his culture what can this come from 2 except from want of training ? 12. D. 2 334 . Gotama. pp. 1J7. he said. with me thus seated ? ' : ' there. not so I. and seated to a Brahman who has taken his seat. and Amba/Wa is certainly represented as giving vent to caste prejudice when he calls the brethren black fellows. and took their But Amba^a. or reclining to a Brahman who reclines. sitting [80] 10. or other of a civil kind in an off-hand way. 1 Bandhupadapa^^a. 521.Sudras were born from Brahma's heels. AMBATTHA SUTTA. and sneering at the Blessed One Rough is this Sakya breed of yours. IV. 91 10-13) below. Gotama. and below.' Compare ' M I. and rude touchy is this Sakya breed of yours and ! 1 talk as I now do ' to . 'Certainly not. heels. of low caste. loc.

and went into the Sakyas' Congress Hall 2 Now at that time there were a number of Sakyas. S. is neither fitting. [9l] I 1 5 Menials. is neither fitting. methinks. Childers is quite wrong about this word. Amba/Ma. § 2 of the Pali text). I. menials as they are. 1 Ibbha. I . ' The 84) Pa&ttiya (Vin. . which is ra^agaraka. But in what then. 1. nor esteem. 23 of we have the congress hall — meeting of the clan. I. it was I myself that was the and not one of them even subject of their jokes offered me a seat. V. tickling. 1894. 118. 457 a similar one of the Sakyas at ATatu' maya the translation) in my 'Buddhist of the Mullas of Kusinard. 2 Santhagara. nor is it seemly Thus did the young Brahman Amba/^a for the first time charge the Sakyas with being menials. 343. esteem. have the Sakyas 13. It is the hall where a clan mote was held. it seems to have meaning given above. and all referred to in connection with a public . Chalmers (J. nor pay honour to Brahmans/ Thus did the young Brahman Amba/Ma for the second time charge the Sakyas with being menials. as we had above (p. 233 that of the LUMavis of Vesali all of them called Santhagara. nor give gifts to. R. making merry and joking 3 and together. nor value. Literature of India.' p. 56 (VI. It never means a royal rest house. 353. nudging one another with their fingers for a truth. I. that the Sakyas. That. nor give gifts ' ! they neither to. Introductory Story tells how a Bhikshu to the 52nd was inadvertently made must there mean the II. 3 Anguli-patodakena. nor value. mere menials.' It to laugh immoderately in this way. But Buddhaghosa's interpretation is confirmed both by the context and by the derivation. ' had some business or other . Gotama. IV. A.. venerate. I. at Suttas ' M. 343) renders this 'nought but men of substance. Here. old and young. nor I given you offence ? Once. nor is it seemly. and at M. Gotama. That. should neither venerate. Thus at M. and at A. violent. P. Gotama. 147 we have this identical hall of the Sakyas at Kapilavatthu.' and he has been followed by Frazer.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. seated in the hall on grand seats. IV. nor pay honour to Brahmans. mere menials 1 . and at M. and is used exclusively of places for the assemblies of the householders in the free republics of Northern Kosala. ' ' to go to Kapilavatthu on of Pokkharasadi's. 228 and Vin. 1 10 done to death by being = 111. 4 and Git IV. p.

16. AMBATTHA SUTTA. nor esteem. on the father's and the mother's side. 2 On . What if I were to ask him as to his own lineage. 'There are these four grades nobles. in It is not fitting for you to take offence Kapilavatthu. the people. there the Sakyas are at their own home. attendants on the Brahmans. nor give gifts to. 13 this famous old king see the legends preserved Mahavastu I. But the Sakyas trace their line back to Okkaka the king 2 I ' .' Yes.. the 15. little hen bird though say what she likes in her own nest. 'Long — — 1 Va««a.' Thus did the young Brahman Amba/Ma for the third time charge the Sakyas with being menials. be. at so trifling a thing. II. that the Sakyas. on the borders of a lake where a mighty oak tree grew. I. Amba/Ma. it would appear that the Sakyas were once your masters. Sum.I 1 4 14. nor value.' And he said to him 'And what family do you then. [92] So. and the workAnd of these four.' 1 Gotama. but tradesfolk. Gotama. Karanda. King Okkaka. can a quail. Amba/Ma. 258. verily. 'Why she be. ago. nor is it seemly. nor pay honour to the Brahmans. and Sinipura from the land. III. mere menials. banished his elder children Okkamukha. should neither venerate. Amba^a. V. in the M. three the nobles. that is neither fitting. and that you are the offspring of one of their slave girls. Then the Blessed One thought thus: 'This Amba/7/£a is very set on humbling the Sakyas with his charge of servile origin. Hatthinika. B. menials as they are. the Brahmans. And — — — : ' long to ' ? am a Ka«hayana. . And being thus banished they took up their dwelling on the slopes of the Himalaya. 311 . the tradesfolk. wanting to divert the succession in favour of the son of his favourite queen. 348 Cat. Amba/^a. and the work-people are. but if one were to follow up your ancient name and lineage. .

on the borders of a lake. are the children now ? There is a spot. I. people call devils " " And ! He was the origin. There do they dwell. And called Disa. and could not grow the Terai) has been introduced to enable the word play to be I.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. Now Okkaka the king asked the ministers at his " " l ' : married their own (sakahi) sisters. that if one were to follow up your ancient name and lineage. 'Tis a black thing (kawha) soon as he was born. dirt. " And that is that is born. ! 1 2 " Wash ' me. H5 And line ' Where. When he had thus spoken the young Brahmans Let not the venerable said to the Blessed One ' : 1 2 26 in 125 and Gat. And lest they should injure the purity of their line they have court 1 through fear of injuring the purity of their they intermarried with their sisters.' 17. But see S. V. a devil has been born devils." now. of this Now black fellows said: "This fellow spoke as they (kawhe). it would appear that the Sakyas were once your masters. Amba/Ma. the ancestor of the Ka/mayanas 4 Amba/7^a. Ka«hayana is Buddhaghosa the regular form of patronymic from Ka«ha. I 2 . 396. 2 The oak (which doesn't grow in the text. of the Kawhayanas 3 And thus is it. Sammanti. why they are known as Sakyas. 'dwell. 3 * The Pali Saka means a herb. Amba//-£a. Set me free. Sire. Amba///fo. gives further details as to his subsequent life. mother. and that you are the offspring of one of their slave girls. Bathe me. Sirs. on the slopes of the Himalaya." so then they called devils " just as So shall I be of use to you. = Sum. no sooner was it born than the little black thing said. adequately rendered.' not in Childers in this sense. mother. mother. on the father's and on the mother's side.' Then did Okkaka the king burst forth in admiration [03]: "Hearts of oak (sakya) are those young fellows! Right well they hold their own (parama" 1 sakya) That is the reason. where there grows a mighty oak (sako). Now Okkaka had a slave girl She gave birth to a black baby.

140. 87. I. 33. 6. Comp. 187. . since if all spoke at once. too sternly with this reof being descended from a slave girl. an able reciter. a learned man. is able to give answer to the venerable Gotama in these matters. back ' ? And when he had thus spoken Amba/7//a remained And the Blessed One asked the same question again. or go away. &c. 87. 250. But as you think so. Then the Blessed One said to Amba//^a the Brahman Then this further question arises. 2 A««ena a««am pa/i£arasi. Then the Blessed One said to him ' : You Buddhaghosa (p. [95] And still Ambatt/ia. It is answering one thing by alleging another. among the is a Buddhists. And he is able to give answer to the venerable Gotama in these matters. . A. see M. — — . I. he is Gotama. 26. 19. Up. were talking together. even though If you do not give unwillingly. and of good family. 3 This curious threat which never comes to anything. He proach is well born. Buddhist passages are M. 54 . 21. a very reasonable one which. I. Brzhad Ar.' ' Gotama humble Amba/Ma We ' : . 493. V.' 18. . versed in the sacred hymns. as to whence the Ka^hayanas draw their origin. 1 . a clear reply. Gat. then your head will split in pieces on the spot 3 What have you heard. Ill. let Amba/Ma himself speak 1 do think so. For this idiom. Then the Blessed One said to them: 'Quite If [04] you thought otherwise. it could not well be brought to a conclusion. and is apparently never meant to frequent forni A of expression in Indian books. AMBATTHA SUTTA. Amba/7/2a. teachers of yours or their teachers.' 198 Mil. 72 . In the text Gotama repeats the whole speech of the Brahmans. 263} says that Gotama's object was to confine the discussion to a single opponent. and we will hold our peace. not in Childers. remained silent.' 20. 2 and 9. I.Il6 III. I. Vin. . Amba#/fo. when Brahmans old and well stricken in years. then it would so. 94 Sum. and who the ancestor was to whom they trace themselves . you should answer. I. 231 Dhp. Dhp. or go off upon another issue 2 or remain silent. silent. be for you to carry on our discussion further. and is prc-Buddhistic. 92. 264. 85 A.

and that the ancestor to whom they trace ust so. listened to in awe. did said. Amba////a. does not. We did girl not suppose that the Samara Gotama. startled. whence Upanishad. Amba/Ma ? What have you heard. says 2 Upanisidati. and agitated. with the intention. is Gotama hath That themselves back. into tumult. answer a reasonable question put by a Tathagata (by one who has won the truth). Indra. Gotama. becoming seeking safety and protection and help from the Blessed One.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. . Amba^Ma. even up to the third time of asking. a mystery. he had thus spoken the young and uproar. And the Blessed One perceived the spirit bearing the thunderbolt. and so did Amba/Ma the Brahman. terrified. his head splits into pieces on the spot. when Brahmans old and well stricken in years. say. is is Amba/^a not of the . crouched down beside him in awe 2 What was it the Blessed One said ? and said . And when fell ' : Brahmans and said Brahman .g'ira-pant: to wit. were talking together. as to whence the Kawhayanas draw their origin.' 22. there and then to split his head in pieces. [96] 'They Va. was not a man to be trusted ' ! 23. all fiery. dazzling. I 1 7 21. 1 And the Blessed One thought: Buddhaghosa. teachers of yours or their teachers. and turmoil . For whosoever. if he did not answer. 1 and who the ? ancestor was ' to whom they trace themselves back J even as the venerable the origin of the Kawhayanas. they good they say he is descended from a slave standing and the Sakyas were his masters. his family. and aglow.' : Say 1 once again What do you it ! ' think. This is no time for you to hold your peace. . ' had better answer. I hear. And Amba//^a on aware of it. secret. now. whose words are righteousness itself. they say. Low born. Now at that time the spirit who bears the thunderbolt l stood over above Amba//^a in the sky with a mighty mass of iron.

1 = * All this. V. Sir. The Amba//#a charm had only power to stop the arrow going off. as in B. these Brahmans. nor his land. Sir let the in . nor could he take it off the string again 2 Then the ministers and courtiers went to Kawha " the seer. 265). Dekkan. The king shall suffer no harm. That He went into the Ka^ha became a mighty seer 1 . not a hair of him shall be touched. and returning to Okkaka the king. This is the old mystic word s wast i." Let the king. AMBA7Ttf A SUTTA. arrow fly." The king shall suffer no harm. and said Let the king go safe. was known as the Amba//£a charm. ' : . the ministers told this to Okkaka. But should he shoot the arrow upwards. go safe. and the country too and . O Brahmans. he demanded his daughter To him the king in Madda-rupl in marriage.I I 8 III. Sir. Faustum fac regem." Then. Let me And he said to set him free from their reproach. 3 Sotthihotu.' them Be not too severe in disparaging Amba////a go too ' : the Brahman on the ground of his descent. says Buddhaghosa. But let the king aim the arrow at his eldest son. 3 The effect of course of the charm which. The prince shall suffer no harm." " The king shall suffer no harm. and the god shall rain. Buddhaghosa tells us (p. I. he fitted an marriage But neither could he let the arrow to his bow. not to work such results as these. king go " safe 3 . 17 (verse 90). " . the god would not rain for seven years as far as his realm extends *." Rishi. magician being no doubt implied. " Who forsooth is this fellow. But should he shoot the arrow downwards. far. who answer said son of my slave girl as he is asks for my daughter : — — and. II. and the country too. go safe." " Let the king. angry and displeased. 8i C7at. was brutum fulmen. mystic sage. Compare Merlin. • let the " god rain. in their depreciation of Amba/y/ja as the offspring of a slave girl. there he learnt mystic verses. then would the earth dry up "as far as his realm extends. nor the land either. . We have lost the use of such expressions.

' 25. and said " : the lesson given him. used in sacrifices. or not.' slave-girl ancestress. think you.' Why not that ? Because he is not of pure descent on the mothers ' 1 . Gotama/ But would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the feast offered to the dead. a 'Then what think you. [97] gave the man his daughter Brahmans. on special occasions.' But would he be shut off. See Gat. ' 1 ' ' ' 1 1 ' ' ' ' ' side.' But would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not?' They would. Amba^a ? Suppose Brahman youth should have connection with a Kshatriya maiden. they would. You should not. Mil. terrified at so.' But would the Kshatriyas allow him to receive the consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya ? Certainly not. or of food sent as a present ? Yes. or of the food boiled in milk 2 or of the offerings to the gods. and from their intercourse a son should be born. Amba///£a ? Suppose a young Kshatriya should have connection with a Brahman maiden. Now would the son thus come to the Kshatriya maiden through the Brahman youth receive Literally place the arrow (which shoe) on his son. I 1 9 Let the king aim x at his eldest son. He And the king did will suffer neither harm nor terror. he would. 186. Gotama. from their women?' He would not be shut off. and from their intercourse a son should be born. be Madda-rupi to wife. and no harm was done. too severe to disparage Amba////a in the matter of his That Ka?ma was a mighty seer. Now would the son thus come to the Brahman maiden through the Kshatriya youth receive a seat and water (as tokens of respect) from the Brahmans ? O ' Yes. Gotama." But the king. . 249. I. Gotama.' 2 1 ' had a barb shaped It is like a horse- and also Th£lip&ka.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. Then the Blessed One said to Amba/7/&a: 'What 24.

or not. they would. Gotama. Gotama.' But would the Kshatriyas allow him consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya ? Certainly not.' It is other. among ' the Brahmans ' ? Certainly not. . for some offence * or other.' But would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the feast offered to the dead. II. 189. or of food sent as a present ? ' ' ' Certainly not. Gotama. And what think you.' Compare the idiom cut him dead.' 26. or men with men. 267) says 'offence/ but compare Mil. Amba/^a ? Suppose the Brahmans. 242. or of an offering to the gods.' [98] But would he be shut ' off. whether one compares women with women. literally 'killing him with (the proceeding called) the Ash-basket. or of food boiled in milk. (as a seat and water tokens of respect) from the Brahmans 1 ' ' ? Yes. or of the food boiled in milk. AMBA7T77A SUTTA.' Or would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the food offered to the dead. Then. he would. Gotama. from their women 1 ? would not.' Pakararae. Gotama. Gotama.120 III. were to outlaw a Brahman by shaving him and pouring ashes over his head 2 were to banish him from the land or from the township. Gotama/ But would the Brahmans teach not?' ' ' him their verses or 1 They ' would.' ' 1 He to receive the ' ' Why ' not that ?' ' Because he is not of pure descent on the father's side.' ' 1 also mentioned at A. 2 Assa-pu/ena vadhitva. Perhaps 'in consequence of some regulation or Buddhaghosa (p. Amba/Ma. Would he be offered a seat or water ' . or of food sent as a ' present ? Yes. the Kshatriyas are higher and the Brahmans inferior. or of the offerings to the gods.

' he be shut off. Gotama ? 'And would he be shut women ? • ' ' off. 1897. and this Brahma was one of the five. S. and the Brahmans inferior. and banished him from the land or the township. not indeed the actual words here imputed to him. So that. shaven as to his head. S. Gotama. 344. banished from land and township. who remained always pure and innocent. or of the offerings to the gods. Sanaw-kumara l who uttered this stanza 2 28. as referee in a dispute on a point similar to the one here discussed. 1894. but others of a very similar import. or not. 585-588. Moreover it was one of the Brahma gods. A..' But what think you.' — — ' . R.. We either have in our 2 For note 2 see next page. even when a Kshatriya ' ' He has fallen into the deepest degradation. A. virgin. would he. See the whole article in the J. pp. Gotama. he would. 185 (Bombay edition) there is an interesting passage where Sanat-kumara (the Sanskrit form of the name Sanazw-kumara) is actually represented by the Brahmans themselves as having uttered. among the Brahmans. p. See the passages quoted by Chalmers in the J. ' ' ' offered to the dead. Hofrath Buhler has pointed out that in the Mahabharata III. the Kshatriya would [oe] have fallen into the deepest degradation. R. Gotama.' And would he be allowed to partake of the food ' ' He 27. Amba///za. Amba/Z^a ? If the Kshatriyas had in the same way outlawed a Kshatriya.' And would the Brahmans teach him their verses ? ' ' ' They would. or not. still jt holds good that the Kshatriyas are higher. Gotama. ' . from their would be shut off. ' 121 Or would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not?' ' And would women ? ' ' Certainly not. or of food sent as a present ?' He would. cut dead with the ash-basket.' But thereby. be offered water and a seat ? Yes. or of the food boiled in milk. : S an a w-kumar a means 'ever common ground to Brahmans and 1 ' According to the legend Buddhists there were five mind born sons of Brahma. from their would not.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL.

is described at length also in the Assalayana. II. Amba///za. or the little in their own a favourite one.' Kiel. cit. But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness. p. loc. he is the best among gods and men. in the Aggawza Sutta.' Paris.. Chalmers.122 " III. S.' The next line might also be rendered when perfect. 'referring back to their gotras' according as we derive the word with Childers from -y/sar. I. renders it 'record their kiwkara-pa/isarini. It occurs also at M. ' Sociale Gliederung Buddha's Zeit. or with Biihler from \/smar. 4 This question of caste. It occurs also in the description (Maha Sudassana Sutta) of the ideal woman as Biihler. referring to the Kshatriya. On the facts of ' caste as disclosed in the Gataka in Indien zu book 1897 see Fick's . But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness. or one Mahabharata. and Madhura Suttas. and below gotras. 1894." Here ends the First Portion for Recitation 4 . and on the general history of caste in India see Senart's 'Les Castes dans l'lnde. besides being often referred to in isolated passages. J. 3 Either 'tracing back their gotras' or Gotta-patisarino. full of meaning and not void thereof. text a quotation from an older recension of the either the Brahman editors of the of the two — composers of our Sutta favour. 284. 341 and foil. The Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk who put their trust in lineage. I. 358 . S. The verse is 153. Amba^Ma. A. The first has been translated into German by Professor Pischel and the last into English by Mr. . say " The Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk . R.." 1 Now this stanza. ill not ill said. 2 —have twisted the legend a same legend. And I too approve it I also. all in the Ma^fcima. he is the best among gods and men. Ka««akathala. : sung by the Brahma Sanaw-kumara. AMBATTHA SUTTA. 1896. was well sung and not well said and who put their trust in lineage 3 .' &c.

I 23 Chapter ' II. is the righteousness." or " You are not held It is where the talk is of marrying. and his renunciation of the world : then come The Silas. 62. or to the pride of social position. It comes to much the same result. 268. bondage to the notions of birth or of lineage. as omitting the word 1 — — . under Morality 1 (Sila) i The introductory paragraphs (§§ 40-42 of the Sdmanna-phala. 63 of the text) on the appearance of a Buddha. But what. there is no reference to the question either of birth. ' ' : or of giving in marriage. Gotama. that reference is made to such For whosoever. p. Ambattha. seems to have had a different reading hoti silasmi^ from that preserved in our text. or of lineage. wisdom and in conduct. pp. and what the wisdom spoken of in that verse ? In the supreme perfection in wisdom and righteousness. above. 4-12 (§§ 8-2 7 J of the text. It is only by having got rid of all such bondage that one can realise for himself [loo] that supreme perfection in ' 2. 1. but is better. Amhattha.' But what. 1. pp. or of the pride which says "You are held as worthy as I." II. as worthy as I. is that conduct. at the end of each clause. they are far from the best wisdom and righteousness. his preaching. It runs here. Only the refrain differs. Gotama. or of connection by marriage. are in things as that. and what that ' wisdom ? \Here follow. the conversion of a hearer. Buddhaghosa. through the whole of this repeated passage : This is reckoned in him as morality I ' idam p'assa bhikkhu.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL.

above. § 65. Then under Conduct 2. p. The paragraphs on Memory of one's own previous to notice that these are put. 88. 1 3. §§ 68-74. 84. 5. above. 71 of the text. (Ka. 70 of the text. each of them {{higher and better than the last') is here. is reckoned to him as conduct' Guarded is the door of his 3. above. 71 of the text. 7. the Five Hindrances. 90. above. Rapt Contemplations' The refrain at the end of above. 6. of the text. 73-76. above. 4. of the text. AUBATTHA SUTTA. p. 70 4.ra. 79 of the text. above. The paragraph on §6 7 . The paragraph on Confidence. to be read not as higher fruit of the a recluse. P' 77 °f tne iex^ #87. of course. The paragraphs on Insight arising from Knowof the ' ledge (iVa/za-dassana^). above. the Heavenly Ear (Dibbasota). and it is higher and sweeter than the last! 1 o. 69 of the The refrain frotn here onwards is: This text. 86. $ 63. but as higher conduct. p. The refrain from here onwards is This is reckoned in him as wisdom. above.na). 89. The paragraphs on Mystic Gifts The paragraphs on (Iddhi). 8 The paragraphs on the Four . p. 1 under wisdom. life of Under Wisdom 9. § 64. The paragraphs on Knowledge of the hearts of others (A"eto-pariya-#a«a#z). above. pp. 76 : text. Solitude. 79 fjfj $9i. 71-2 of the text.124 III. not It is important under conduct. 1 2. §§ 75-82. The paragraph on Mindful and ' self-possessed'. above. §§ 85. p. The paragraph on Content. 77 of the 11. text. 1 92. 1 . The paragraph on ' ' sensesl above. p. p. §§ 83. p. The paragraphs on the Mental Image. but . (Vigga). p. The paragraphs on pp. §66.

he turns out have fallen of themselves to be a servant unto him that hath attained worthy only — to ' wisdom and righteousness. above. wisdom and goodness [101] there are Four Leakages 2 And what are the four ? In case. with his yoke on his shoulder (to carry fire-sticks. needles. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. vowing to himself: "I will henceforth be one of those who live only on fruits that " then. should plunge into the depths of the forest. a secondary sense. he only on bulbs and roots and fruits turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him who — hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. Amba/Ma.] Such a man. and eight of the so that it cannot fill up. a 1 divisions of conduct. p. § 95. II. is used in its . as in this passage. ' Now. The word aya-mukhaff*. verily.' concrete sense at D. a water-pot. TAe paragraphs on the Destruction of the Deadly Floods (Asavanaw khaya-wa^aw). 96. Apaya-mukhani. ' And is said to be perfect in conduct. above. vowing to " I will henceforth be one of those who live " then. p. 5 The paragraph on of the the Divine Eye (D ibba^akkhu). duct. and both words at A. 1 25 births (Pubbe-nivasa-anussati-wa/za). I. p. above. 'outlets. and to this ' . 85 of the 6. Amba/7//a. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves^ taking a hoe and a basket with him. perfect in wisdom and conthere is no other perfection in wisdom and conduct higher and sweeter than this. 1 g . Ambatlha. 82 1 text. and 'outlet' occurs figuratively. 93. verily. 299. himself: should plunge into the depths of the forest. in case any recluse or Brahman. §§ ' 97.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. in the Sigalovada Sutta.' supreme perfection in 3. 166. p. Amba/Ma. There are therefore eight higher wisdom. the rest of a mendicant friar's outfit). 81 of the text. 98 *. any recluse or Brahman. 94. inlet. in 74. leakages. perfect in wisdom. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. And again. text.

II. Amba/Ma. P. he turns out worthy only to be a servant — unto him ness. 6. Such service paid to a god has already been condemned in the tract on the Silas. S. 1 pp. town. to 2 supreme perfection in righteousness and conduct Now what think you. T. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves. Amba/Z/za. 34 8 foil. Amba/Ma ? Have you. 1. Amba/Ma. 24. and there dwell serving the fire-god he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto verily. should build himself a fireshrine near the boundaries of some village or some then. him that hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. 24. and dwell there. 25). Compare M. [102] should build himself a fourdoored almshouse at a crossing where four high roads meet. Sandissasi sa^ariyako. J And — whether recluse or Brahman. and he gives further details of eight different sorts (discussed in the Journal of the P. AMBATTffA SUTTA.). again. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. 1 who hath attained to wisdom and righteous- These are the Four Leakages. 'And again. 494. 270) says that all sorts of Brahman ascetics are here intended to be included. 8. saying to himself: "Whosoever. pp. 7. in case any recluse or Brahman. Gotama. and without having attained to serving the fire-god. as 4. been instructed in this supreme perfection of wisdom and . one of a class of pupils under the same teacher. and without having attained to living only on bulbs and roots and fruits. shall pass here. the minor details of mere morality (above. 285. . How little is it that I can pro- For instances of this see Crat. 2 Buddhaghosa here (p. him will I entertain " according to my ability and according to my power then. S.126 1 III. for 1891. verily. and without having attained to living only on bulbs and roots and fruits. from either of these four directions. ' conduct 3 ' ' ? Not that. 43. in case any recluse or Brahwithout having thoroughly attained unto this man. 25. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves. 9. supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct.

' Then what think you. Amba/Ma ? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. Gotama. have you been taught to build yourself a fire-shrine on the borders of some village or some town. and dwell there as one who would fain observe the vow to entertain whosoever might pass that way. and plunge into the depths of the forest as one who would fain observe the vow of living only on bulbs and roots and fruits ?' Not even that. according to your ability and according ' ' ' ' ' ' Not even that.' Then what think you. have you been taught to build yourself a four-doored almshouse at a spot where four high roads cross.' Then what think you. have you been trained to take the yoke upon your shoulders. fess to have learnt wisdom and conduct ! 1 27 of How ! supreme is it this perfection Far from ? me to have been ' trained therein ? 'Then what think you. and plunge into the depths of the forest as one who would fain observe the vow of living only on fruits fallen of themselves ?' ' ' ? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. and have not attained to living on bulbs and roots and fruits. and have not attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. and dwell there as one who would fain serve the fire-god ? [103] Not even that. Amba////a to your ' power ? Not even that.' . Gotama. Amba/Ma Although you have not thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. Amba////a ? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. and have not attained to living on bulbs and roots and fruits. have you been trained to take hoe and basket. from any of the four directions. and have not attained to serving the fire-god. and have not attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves. Gotama. Gotama. nor have attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves.

King Pasenadi of Kosala. but even in any one of the Four Leakages by which the complete attainment thereof And your teacher too. king When he consults with to come into his presence. So at Ga. the Brahman Pokkharasadi.t. the offscouring of our kinsman's heels. menial black fellows. Amba/Ma. from whom he accepts this pure and lawful maintenance. Amba/Ma ? 7. how deeply your teacher.' 6. short 1 : Who ! — presence ? See. or standing on the footrug of his chariot [104]. the But the king does not allow him of Kosala. of great merit. and thereby leaving you ignorant that the king. even one whom he considered. standing there. him he speaks to him only from behind a curtain. that the very king. that they should claim converse with Brahmans versed in the " he himself not having even threefold Vedic lore fulfilled any one even of these lesser duties (which lead men to neglect the higher ones). How is it. AMBA7THA SUTTA. a workman (vSudra) or the slave of a workman should come up and. So then you. has herein done you wrong ' 2 .' &c. the Brahman Pokkharasadi. a Kshatriya. . is in the enjoyment of a grant from Pasenadi. Amba///£a. Amba/^fca. should discuss some And resolution of state with his chiefs or princes. Suppose a king. does not admit him to his 5. not only in the supreme wisdom and conduct. 'And the Brahman Pokkharasadi. how deeply your teacher. defrauded of. Amba/Ma. this wisdom. of. as he left the spot and stepped on one suppose side. as a Brahman. as a pupil. either seated on the neck of his elephant or on the back of his horse. V. should discuss Have been done out of. the Brahman is debarred. " are Pokkharasadi. sham friars. neglected sa/fcariyako.' what think you. has told you this saying these shavelings. See.128 ' III. have fallen of due training. has herein done you wrong. 257 a king calls a Brahman 'low born' (hina-^aH'o) compared ' Now 1 Parihinako matter in the with himself. Amba/Ma. * By concealing this suggestive fact. looked down on a Brahman.

names see Tevi^a Sutta and Vinaya Texts. heard when Brahmans.' But just so. Bharadva^ra. Angirasa. — A/Maka. " : T29 the matter. ' 1. saying Thus and thus said Pasenadi the king.' did they live. were ancient Rishis. Gotama. or discuss as the king might have done. the authors of the verses. and Bhagu " I. 13 (p. or composed. or even as one of his officers ? ' Certainly not. and your teacher too." Although he should speak as the king might have spoken. Yamataggi. Kassapa. clad in white garments. old and well stricken you — 1 : — ' ! ' in years. as their food. and your teacher too." that you should on that account be a Rishi. 172 of my 'Buddhist K .' II. from which all the black specks had been sought out and removed. intoning or to wit. do now ? talking verses you so chant over and well — together did those or their teachers. or have attained to the state of a Rishi such a condition of things has no existence Now what think you. do now ? ? 4 ' Or Not that. whose ancient form of words so chanted. on boiled rice of the best sorts. Gotama/ Or were they waited upon by women with fringes 1 On these Suttas') II. and flavoured with sauces and curries of various kinds. parade about trimmed as to their hair groomed. as you. Amba/Ma ? What have 9. whose ' ' [106] 1 Not that. reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited ' ' 8. as you. those ancient poets (Rishis) of the Brahmans. 130. would he thereby be the king. Vamaka. Vessamitta. as a pupil. perfumed. the utterers of the verses. in the full possession and enjoyment of the five pleasures of sense. and beard. the Brahmans of to-day chant over again and rehearse. uttered. Vamadeva. Vase///£a. teachers of yours repeat. adorned with garlands and gems.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. know by heart though you can say their verses. Gotama. Amba^a.

1. Amba#/£a. 106 Okkhitta-palighasu. do now ? Not that.' PI. LI. Gotama. 10. and your teacher too. and furbelows ' round teacher too. . had standing room for four passengers. AMBATTHA SUTTA. Childers dictionaries) bars 'of iron. the Sisterhood wore robes — — from the shoulders downwards) have only very elaborate headdresses and necklaces. 139. They were unclothed from the neck to the waist.' ' . as you. 2 Kutta-valehi. Ill. with moats dug out round them and crossbars let down before the gates 4 by men girt with long swords. 11. plaited. 125). 3 4 Compare Gat. Kutta is not in Childers. gives figures and details of them. A. IV. Unfortunately the word is found elsewhere (M. 398) only in an ethical sense. as represented on the bas reliefs. Gotama. To judge from the bas reliefs and I cannot call to mind any Pi/aka passage contradicting them the women (lay women of course. Dhp. But whatever it may be. do now ? ' 1 and your did they go about driving chariots. a skirt from the waist to the ankles. and had their manes and tails elaborately Stupa of Bharhut/ PI. drawn by with plaited manes and tails 2 using long wands mares and goads the while. as you. king of Kosala (see ibid. as you.127. And Amba#>fca did the same. 321.' Or did they have themselves guarded in fortified 3 towns.433.296. and your teacher too. .128. The chariot of the time. 219.III.' One went forth from his walk up and down. nor your teacher. 330. . ' Asl. Mil. neither are you a Rishi. Cunningham. 866^1. the steeds wore plumes on their heads. ask me as to that. their loins. make ii. Amba///za. and began VeMaka-nata-passahi. 1. ' ' 'So then. And as he thus walked Then Blessed to chamber. But it occurs frequently. Or do now ' ' ? Not that. nor do you live under the conditions under which the Rishis lived.' is But where does the ~iys (following the Sanskrit iron come in? This surely a modern improvement. XII. it clear by the explanation. We have name of the very elaborate girdles which 1 all here probably the ancient the fashionable women ' and goddesses wear on the old bas reliefs. Stupa of Bharhut. shows us the chariot of Pasenadi. 84. and a very broad and handsome girdle worn over the top of the skirt. pp 124. IV. concerning which you are in doubt I will or perplexity about me.

This last is possibly derived from poetical descriptions of the tongues of flame or light playing round the disk of the sun. the Lakhawa Sutta. in the Mahapadhana Sutta . for instance. 2 These are two of the thirty-two bodily marks of a Great Being (Maha-purisa). [loe] With the concealed member and the respect to those two he was in doubt and perplexity. he took stock of the thirty-two signs of a great man. 88 of the text. and later books give other differing lists from each other. And the Blessed One so bent round his tongue that he touched and stroked both his ears. or to the personification of the mystic human sacrifice . And he perceived them all save only two.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. Neither text nor commentary make it clear what these two marks meant. and one or two of them the little wart. And the difficulty is to see how that would have helped matters. They are in part adaptations to a man of poetical epithets applied to the sun. Blessed One knew that he was so in doubt. in many small in the points. They are also enumerated. says Buddhaghosa. whether they appeared on the body of the Blessed One or not. One of the Dialogues to in the Digha. extent of tongue 1 — — not sure. and the whole circumference of his forehead he covered with his tongue 2 not satisfied. is like an elephant's. is devoted these thirty-two marks. § 5) and adopted by the Buddhists. The first. with slight differences. to a great length. And he so arranged matters by his Wondrous Gift that Amba///za the Brahman saw how that part of the Blessed One that ought to be hidden by clothes was enclosed in a sheath. I31 up and down.' and the second seems. p. partly characteristics of personal beauty such as any man might have . touched and stroked both his nostrils. 12. And the . between the eyes with white hair on it. Buddhaghosa simply quotes Nagasena (at Mil. The story told here in §§ 11. and from the old lists. Only an historical explanation of the meaning of the marks can here guide us to what is inferred. following the Blessed One. as handed down among the Brahmans (see note above. ' 1 really quite As to the means by which the Buddha made the first visible to Amba//^a. from what follows. 12 recurs in identical words K 2 . like a snake's. and the protuberance at the top of the head may — — possibly be added in reminiscence of personal bodily peculiarities which Gotama actually had. to be the power of extending the tongue. 169) to show that he made a visible image of himself fully dressed in his robes.

No. or is he not ? otherwise. Amba/Z/za. Ambaz'zVza. and not Such is he. with them all.' And Amba#/za mounted chariot drawn by mares. Gotama. what seemeth his to you fit. AmbazY/za chariots. The Samara Gotama ' two signs : And he said to the Blessed with some of them. 13. ' Sir. 15. and saluted him. and came on foot where Pokkharasadi was. he was so seated.132 III. N. . to : 1 One?' ' Yes.' Brahman. 167).' so as the reputation [107] you of declares and not Is he such a one. And when he had come in his chariot as far as the path was practicable for he descended from it. we would fain depart. and was seated in his own pleasaunce waiting there for AmbazV/za. not different. AMBATTHA SUTTA. endowed with all of them. as his reputation declares. and have much to do. When he had thus spoken. Now at that time the Brahman Pokkharasadi had gone forth from Ukka/Ma with a great retinue of Brahmans.' 'And did you have any talk. the And ' Amba/Z/^a. not only young: is We ' Do. not only with some. And Amba^Ma came on to the pleasaunce. thought endowed with the thirtyof a great man. and departed thence. He is so. ' ' Samara Gotama ? 1 ' Yes. No. Pokkharasadi said to Oh you wiseacre Oh you dullard Oh you him all : ! ! ! ! ! Sela Sutta (S. and And when took his seat respectfully on one side. 33 the dilemmas put by = M. 'Well.' ' And how did the talk go ? Then Amba/^a told the Brahman ' Pokkharasadi the talk that he had had with the Blessed One. Sir. ! we saw him.' And now. I had. Pokkharasadi said to him Did you see the Blessed 14. 92) and forms the subject of one of King Milinda to Nagasena (Mil. ' Sir. One are busy. And he is otherwise. with the thirty-two signs of a great man. with the is Well the venerable I Gotama about him told .

Gotama. The venerable go Pokkharasadi can do so to-morrow. 250. and said to the Blessed One 1 : 'Has our pupil. Brahman. . ! 1 33 man. driving in his chariot as far as the road was practicable for vehicles. A ' : greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. in our threefold Vedic lore they say. . to where the Blessed One was. Sir. 251 A. made ready at his own house. I had.' So Pokkharasadi had sweet food. ' Yes. Then the Blessed One told the Brahman Pokkharasadi all the talk that had taken place. Brahman. he took his seat on one side. after death. What could the very points you pressed in your insolent words lead up to. And he wanted. and taken on wagons.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. who should carry out his business thus. have any talk with him ? Yes. I. forsooth. . on which compare M. forsooth. the young Brahman Amba/^a. . expert. if not to the very disclosures the venerable Gotama made ? What a wiseacre what a dullard what an expert. on foot. there and then. been here ? 17. And when ' ' ' ' Asa^a a. and rolled Amba////a over. be reborn into some dismal state of misery and woe. he has. But the Brahmans there spake thus to Pokkharasadi It is much too late. by the light of blazing torches. . Gotama. Buddhaghosa is somewhat ambiguous in his interpretation of this idiomatic phrase. he struck out with his foot.' 18. when he had exchanged with the Blessed One the ] . in our threefold Vedic lore.' And did you.' And on what wise was the talk that you had with him. himself. And he himself went on to the Xkkh'knankala Wood. both hard and soft.' And angr}' and displeased. to go and call on the Blessed One. . I. 172. on the dissolution of the body. out to Ukka////a. and then going And on. to-day to to call on the Sama/^a Gotama. must. [108] 16.sagga upaniyya upaniyya.

And the stock. oh Gotama. Pokkharasadi took a low seat. 20. satisfied the Blessed One. who had the meal is ready. to Pokkharasadi's house. Forgive him. One showed them had shown them Pokkharasadi. Then to him thus seated [110] the Blessed One 1 2 Above. on the body of the Blessed One.' Let him be quite happy. 106 of the text. .134 IIT - AMBA7TJ-TA SUTTA. As to two of them the plainly. And Pokkharasadi Amba/^a Blessed One was endowed with Blessed One May the venerable Gotama grant me the favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. with his own hand.' And the Blessed One accepted. sheath-concealed member and the extensive tongue ' He — — he was still in doubt and undecided. until he refused any Brahmans the members of more. And Pokkharasadi. not only with some. with sweet food. with the brethren.' ' I. with all of And he said to the them. his the Blessed One had finished 2 and cleansed the bowl and his hands. seeing that the Blessed One had accepted. and the ' : the Order. and taking his bowl with him. 83. § 12 repeated. and also the members of the Order with him. of the thirtyAnd he saw them all two marks of a Great Being. went. See the note at Vinaya Texts.' dressed in the early morning. by silence. save only two. both hard and soft. Brahman. to to 1 . 21. meal.' Brahman Pokkharasadi took [109] 19. But the Blessed even as he perceived that the the thirty-two marks of a Great Being. put on his outer robe. that young Brahman Amba/Ma. p. and sat down beside young And when him. he had thus spoken Pokkharasadi said to the Blessed One 1 : that young is young and foolish. Onita-patta-pamw. Brahman Amba//^a. the time announced to him And the Blessed One. prepared for him. had (on the morrow) ' : It is time. Then the Brahman Pokkharasadi. and sat down on the seat the Brahman. his request. Gotama. Gotama.

of the danger. has taken him as his guide. Lord. of its cessation. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. understood it. the vanity. the Brahman.PRIDE OF BIRTH AND ITS FALL. of heaven.' 22. he spake to discoursed in due order him of generosity. with my sons. all stain has been washed away will readily take the dye. of its origin. . is inherent also the necessity of And who had seen then the Brahman Pokkharasadi. the the Buddhas alone have won doctrine of sorrow. and And just as a clean cloth from which of the Path. and my people. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. then he proclaimed the doctrine that is to say. unprejudiced. and my companions. oh Gotama. or were to bring a light into the darkness for : ' could see external forms. obtain. 1 35 that is to say. ' : a beginning in that dissolution. to the truth. as one who. And I. oh Gotama (are the words of thy mouth). at Ukka#/*a. and the defilement of lusts. and believing in heart. has the truth been made known just to me. addressed the Blessed One. even while sitting there. the pure and spotless Whatsoever has Eye for the Truth. from this day forth. who had passed beyond doubt and put away perplexity and gained full confidence. had mastered it. and to the Order. as one the Truth. and said Most excellent. and he knew . dived deep down into it. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. had become prepared. as long as life endures. of right conduct. the Brahman. upraised. May the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple. who had become dependent on no other man his knowledge of the teaching of the Master. just even so did Pokkharasadi. by the venerable Gotama. softened. who had eyes . so let him visit so those — thateven so. and my wife. his disciples. And when the of the advantages of renunciation. betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. And just as the venerable Gotama visits the families of others. in many a figure. Blessed One saw that Pokkharasadi.

or take delight in him. or their wives. for long. Here ends the Amba^Ma Sutta. . or offer him a seat or water.I36 III. Whosoever there may be there. what you say.' ' It is well. of Brahmans mine. or stand up in his presence. to him that will be. Brahman. a cause of weal and bliss. who shall pay reverence to the venerable Gotama. AMBA7TJ7A SUTTA.

but puts the Guanas (the states of Ecstasy) not under Conduct. . in the Introduction to the Sama««a-phala. Pa««a The (Intelligence). and firmly grasped. ' ' — . This Dialogue comes very appropriately immediately after the Amba////a. no doubt. pp. In trying to gain over Amba////a to his (the Buddha's) view of the essential distinction rather than birth or social between man and man. he gives the same details. and the difference is instructive. and that it is not thought accurate to put the states of Ecstasy (which are Indian./^a to his (the phala Buddha's) view of what is the essential quality that makes a man a Brahman. but under — — . This deals with the special question of what is the essential quality which makes a man a Brahman. The conclusion is. mentions only Wisdom and Conduct (containing no word for Intelligence). and cheerfully acquiesced in. 1 See the summary above. But there is a difference. Gotama includes the whole position list as set out above in the thirteen divisions of the Sama««a1 In trying to gain over So/2ada. or social position. and necessarily theredistinguish two phases fore doubting. substantially the same. But under Intelligence they always the enquiring.INTRODUCTION TO THE SCWADAJVZ>A SUTTA. not specially Buddhist) under Wisdom. That dealt with the general question of pride of birth. It is true that the Buddhist position is that goodness is a function of intelligence. 57—59. activity. reason seems to be simply that the verse. on which the exposition in the Amba///£a turns. as beauty is of health (to quote the words of Matthew Bassendine). of the mind and the final stage of emancipation and peace when the laws of the universe are clearly seen.

in the texts. with the indices. in Buddhist terminology.I38 It is IV. text. words. 2 § 3 23 of the i. declared to be the only true Brahman. which is ignorance of Karma. the ritual. finally and permanently out of the jungle and in the open. . who. quite beyond the stage of 'wasting his wonder on the fabulous soul. and the exegesis (as a fourth). the phonology. or a similar. fully accepted. in fact. is baffled by the skill with which he is gradually led on. Our Sutta is by no means the only one in which the same. called a Brahman. as learned as he is wealthy. It will aid us in understanding the real gist of our Sutta to mention one or two of these. conclusion. in respect of birth a repeater (of the sacred words) knowing the mystic verses by heart. pp. with no slur put upon him. and no reproach. which any intelligent Brahman could not. is not only. § 4 : (a of of pure descent. fully accept. and of the doctrine this latter — The man who knows of the Asavas or Intoxications. 3 In the Tika»/. . It is amazing that Sona. and remains in this state of Nirvana in Arahatship. which the Brahmans. through the father and through the mother.ndd. our Sutta. l the phase which they call Wisdom (Vi^a) of the action contrary of the Avi^a. of the Four Noble Truths. in the words 'A Brahman well born on both sides. one who has mastered the Three Vedas. 163-168. and carefully led up to in the final paragraph of the exposition 2 is really incompatible with the supremacy He of the Brahmans in the ordinary sense of that word. with safety. does not see that this. There is indeed nothing. but is. Vol. and of the translation below. which are not. back through seven generations. by the usual Socratic method adopted in so many of the Dialogues. till we come to that last paragraph. and In other with due regard to his own doctrine. the doctrine of Brahman supremacy was intellectually indefensible. in common with the rest of the people. and with the — 1 The English equivalents do not exactly cover the corresponding Pali terms. argument leads up to the same. It was really quite inconsistent with the ethical standard of the times. these .da. the logical outcome of the Buddha's argument.a and Ganussoni Suttas of the Anguttara the question put by the Buddha is: 'What sort of person do you Brahmans acknowledge to be a Tevi^a Brahman Brahman with threefold lore)?' The answer of each of the Brahmans is.' has attained to.. SONADANDA SUTTA. to accept one self-evident truth after another. or a similar. used always with scrupulous distinctiveness.

Arahatship. the Buddha. . too.INTRODUCTION. the last of his mortal frames Him do — — ' ! ' 'Tis he who is a Brahmawa indeed . And him resolute. Given to earnest thought. the following sentence is added This first (or second. in And added ' : mastery of himself. able in method. The knowledge of the Four Truths. Conqueror. our Gotama. Him do they honour. The only difference is that at the end of each section. and wise. a. knows the A In these three sage. unswerving in goodness. and after the words setting forth the emancipation. Who And And Has births that he has lived before sees (with Heavenly Eye) the states of bliss. modes of knowledge threefold wise. The darkness has been dissipated. or third) lore hath he required. and 97 of the Sama«#a-phala Sutta. dispelling the darkness. become . which are quoted as the last three paragraphs of his exposition in our Sutta. Arahat.' Whereupon the Buddha rejoins that in the teaching of ' the Arahats the threefold lore is different and on being asked what it is. Threefold in knowledge. rests in his own control. versed in Lokayata in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man. 1 See below in the Introduction to the next Sutta. states of woe. Ignorance is dispelled within him. Him of the threefold lore. The knowledge of other people's previous births. in : ' zeal. leading on to the emancipation of ' . mindful and self-possessed. stedfast. answers in the words of sections 93. and of the Four Intoxications (Asavas). c. that is to say. 95. the light has appeared. Pacified. of Birth. that other men pass through reached the end of all rebirths. and wisdom has been born.' at the end of the whole the following verses are also they honour whose heart. The knowledge of one's own previous births. legends as a fifth 1 39 —a in and the) 1 (Nature-lore) and words man learned in the (etymologies of the grammar. the conqueror of Death. b. who Lived for the weal of gods and of men delivered from folly. (And all this) inasmuch as he has continued in earnestness. wearing now. perfect in insight.

threefold wise. And not the man who mutters o'er again The mystic verse so often muttered through before. by the Buddhists. last year. a connotation of real veneration and respect. too) and in the 91st Sutta of the Ma^/zima (the Brahmaya Sutta). When the Buddhists.' How important a place this doctrine occupied is in and evident by the fact that this latter stanza. and also in the other collection of such verses (probably belonging to some other school of Buddhists). And it is quoted also. it is clear that that word. amounts to section of the this quotation. Petersburg Buddhism early- made We Paris.. from one point of view or another. conclusions force themselves upon us. It is. Here we have evidence from an independent source. conveyed to the minds of the people an exalted meaning. to both St. have hitherto only had the views which the Brahmans held about themselves. Him do I call a Brahman. which contains no less than forty verses. and in which the reply. yet discovered in India. 167). in the opinion of the early Buddhists. and quite irrespective of character. consists of The whole the same as the reply given here. a striking proof of the high social esteem in which the Brahmans. as such. in selecting a title of honour for those they valued so highly. find it in the 99th Sutta of the Iti-vuttaka (p. Twenty-seven of them are taken from the Vase/Ma Sutta of the Sutta Nipata. at least as much Two We — . of the Arahat with the Brahman. is so constantly repeated. SOJVADAiVZ>A SUTTA. in the first place. And very absurd they seem to readers whose own vivid sense of superiority rests on a self-complacency quite as inexpugnable as that of the Brahmans. but also in the collection of verses from the Pizakas called the Dhammapada (verse 423). Dhammapada. each of which. were held by the masses of the people. selected the name of Brahman. in which the question raised is precisely the same as that raised in our Sutta. now preserved in the oldest MS. with variations at the close. though different in details. evidence all the stronger because it is found in Suttas in which the exclusive claims of the Brahmans by birth are vigorously contested. for the best of men. emphasise this point of the identification.14-0 IV. portions of which have simultaneously found their way. the so-called Kharosh//zi MS. and in another Sutta in the Sarayutta (I. for the Arahats. not only in this Sutta in the Ahguttara. And it is not likely that this would have been the case unless the Brahmans had.

And dissociated from the word. adopted by all reformers. against their view. must (through the wide influence they exercised for so many centuries throughout and beyond the valley of the Ganges) have actually afforded a fresh The strength to the veneration which the word inspired. many of them. and words which bear. theory which placed the ideal in Self-conquest. the old superstition It' was a method largely associated with it will also survive.INTRODUCTION. can only succeed under conditions. a general 1 41 and on other grounds than rule. were so constant and so important a factor in the daily and hourly life of the people. but exclusively a man of a certain character and insight then the present caste system of India could never have grown up. The actual facts of life. if the contention of the Buddhists had been universally accepted if the word Brahman had come to mean. their very choice of the word as a title of honour. were a constant influence. deserved it the mere prerogative of birth. not only a man of a certain descent. which they could not alter. the Buddhists. could not. that. and therefore Brahmans only by birth. attempt to alter. not the meaning which they previously bore. detail in a broad scheme which was doomed from the outset to failure that is if failure to attain immediate and lasting acceptance can rightly be called the failure of a theory of life. and in numerous other cases. adopted with The subsequent language of India is full of phrases success. But it was obviously impossible that the contention should succeed. In the second place. Brahmans by birth. putting new meanings into ancient words. too strong to be overcome. adopted by to which I have elsewhere called attention. were non-existent. engaged in various worldly trades and occupations. The point unlikely that this really mattered much. And it is always open to the danger that. very means they adopted to lend weight to their doctrine of emancipation became a weapon to be turned against themselves. but the new and higher meaning put into them by But in this case the two ideas were too widely Buddhists. in this case. perhaps most of them. and in this world It is was only one — A . — — — A replaced by an ethical one. The method. that the idea of birth could not be The Buddhists failed. too contradictory. — — they not only failed. indeed. regarded final salvation as obtainable in this world. physical meaning cannot be apart. of pouring new wine into old bottles. with the old and hallowed word.

And the inflood of popular superstition which overwhelmed the Buddhist movement. The caste system was gradually built up The social supremacy into a completely organised system. most striking proof of the success of the new movement. Buddhists and their opponents gradually faded almost The soul theory. gained again entirely away. The end was inevitable. on the whole. the upper hand. step by step. indeed the first real the most powerful ruler India had had overlord over practically the whole of India only hastened the decline. and in an advancing country then assimilating to itself surrounding peoples at a lower grade of culture. The adhesion of large numbers of nominal converts. it tried in pouring new wine into the old bottles to retain too much of the ancient phraseology. of the Brahmans by birth became accepted as an incontrovertible fact. for lasting victory at least at that time. SOiVADAiVDA SUTTA. in the eyes of the world. not by persecution. had come. And it was actually brought about. the gradual creeping back. a certain measure of temporary success. step by step. from effect to cause. too many vested interests at once. the conversion and strenuous support of Asoka. of the more itself to — ' ' — popular beliefs. the eager restless- The very — — . rather than The day of comstrength. appealing most strongly alike to the hopes and to the fears of the people a philosophy that confined — going back. it raised fought against up too many enemies. under new forms and new names. IV. produced weakness. by the powerful personality of its founder and the enthusiasm and zeal of his early But it followers. more favourable. but by the gradual weakening of the theory itself. and poured scorn on speculations as to the ultimate origin and end of all things might gain. to be the event. The struggle is now being renewed under conditions The tone of perhaps. and modern Hinduism arose on the ruins of both. and only by self-conquest a view of life that ignored and brought the very gods themselves under the domain of law a religious movement which aimed its keenest the ' ' — soul — shafts against all those forms of belief in the supernatural and mysterious. Every relaxation of the old thoroughpromise going position was widely supported by converts only half And the margin of difference between the converted. overwhelmed also Buddhism and the whole pantheon of the Vedic gods. more especially from the newly incorporated and less advanced provinces. in the movement for reform. which seemed.142 only. worldliness and love of material comfort. Brahmanism alike passed practically away.

not in birth. But history shows. and economic competition. 1 43 ness of modern social. now once again. how powerfully the contact of two diverse views Both India and of life tends to widen the thoughts of men. India the powerful aid of the new methods of science and of historical criticism will lend their invaluable aid to the party endeavouring. . the degradation of learning to a mere means of getting on and making money. are no doubt all unfavourable to any movement for the social and religious elevation of a people. in the twentieth century may be fairly expected Europe And in to afford fresh examples of the same influence. to place the ideal.INTRODUCTION. but in character and wisdom. notably in the case of the Reformation in Europe.

Mow the Brahmans and householders of A'ampa heard the news They say that the Samawa Gotama of the Sakya clan. P. . was 3 with dwelling at A'ampa. arrived at A'ampa l he lodged on the bank of the Gaggara Lake 2 A'ampa Now at that time the Brahman Scma. 87 used over again by colonists in the Far East. 3. . 783 = Vin. p. 15 in the list of Also Gat. 307.' at S. ' 3 Fausboll = . A. with power over it king of Magadha as if he were the king. with a great . 95 Gat. . 24 of Magadha Like other names of famous places in -India. says Buddhaghosa (Sum.] The Blessed One once. was on the East bank of the river name (Gat. a place teeming with life much grassland and woodland and water and corn. IV. D. when going on a tour through the Anga country with a great multitude of the brethren. though wrongly translates ussada 'desire. The meaning is really quite settled. 279). IV. the 4 as a royal fief. about Lat. I. so well known for the fragrance of their beautiful white flowers. Sattussada. N. [ill] I. now 2 call Cochin China and called after Annam (I-Tsing. and there means what we 1 of the same . it was by Long. . 188 the thirty-two marks. who went out from a Sakya family to adopt the religious life. SONADANDA SUTTA. 4 4 In the Buddha's time Anga was subject to Magadha. IV. [Characteristics of the true Brahman. 454). . it So Queen Gaggara. the capital of Anga.IV. who had had excavated. on a royal domain granted him by Seniya Bimbisara.da. G. I. Thus have I heard.uaa. . which formed the Eastern boundary io' It was close to the modern Bagulpur. And there at hundred brethren. Dhp. 2. A. 339 Gat. has now arrived.' and Oldenberg and myself uneven. It was under those trees that the wandering mendicants put up. ' : A'ampa. 58). 22-44 60 = Dhp. with about five . See No. IV. He adds that on its banks was a grove of champaka trees. Asl.

he makes his knowledge known its — to others. II. good doorkeeper. as it were. doth he proclaim. Sir. thoroughly knows and sees. companies and separately A. and is staying there on the shore of the Gaggara Lake. And he said Then. a Blessed One. face to face this universe. and seeing the people thus go by.' said the doorkeeper. lovely in its origin. to go to the Gaggara Lake. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led.nda. in Comp. 1 45 company of the brethren at A^ampa. counted.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. And when they So/radaw^/a was intending to visit the ' Perhaps ghosa. truth. he said to his are the people of A'ampa. and the world below with : — — recluses and Brahmans. a teacher for gods and men. progress. the Brahman desires them to wait. 3.danda. happy. with knowledge of the worlds. the Brahman had gone apart to the upper terrace of his house for his siesta. going doorkeeper forth like this towards the Gaggara Lake ? Then the doorkeeper told him the news. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. [lis] 4." Very well. I.and having known it. abounding in wisdom and goodness. including the worlds above of the gods. and the Maras. but I follow Buddha- L . a Buddha. the higher life doth The he make known. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad That Blessed One is an Arahat. its princes and peoples. go to the Brahmans and householders of Aampa. and say to them " Sona. and in all its purity. II. M. in companies and in bands from each district so that they could be in all its fullness 'And good is it to visits to l . lovely in its in its consummation. Now at that time there were about five ' : Why ' ' : : ' hundred Brahmans from A^ampa heard 1 for that different kingdoms lodging at some business or other. and he did so.da. 231 . by himself. ' . 55. Arahats like that' pay And the Brahmans and householders of [112] Afampa began to leave Aampa. lovely both in the spirit and in the letter. Now at that time SoJta. He. He will himself come to see the Samara Gotama. a fully awakened one. the Brahmas.

— — 1 — fair in colour. learned in the words and in the grammar. vakk/iasi.' ' ' like And they laid before Sona. inspiring trust. . and the exegesis (as a fourth). distinct. to wit That he was well born on both sides. 282). 282. and was gifted with polite address. pleasant to look upon. : him. for three contradictory explanations. gifted with had waxed great That he had a pleasant voice and pleasing delivery. * Ane/agalaya. versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore).' says Buddhaghosa.nda. not husky 3 suitable for making clear the matter in hand That he was the teacher of the teachers of many. but he upon you.' The Burmese and Siamese MSS.da. [114] That he was a repeater (of the mystic verses by heart. read which Buddhaghosa (pp. and the legends as a fifth. It is If it were the venerable not fitting for him to do so. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man That he was handsome. This is the first reason why you. Sowadaw^a who went to call upon him. 284) gives Akkhuddavakaso. then the venerable SowadaWa's reputation would decrease and the Samara Gotama's would increase. Sirs. and no reproach. 'Not slobbering.da. one who had knowing mastered the Three Vedas.' Let not the venerable Sonada. gifted with great beauty of complexion. increased in virtue. SONADANDA SUTTA. with the indices. and asked whether that was so. they went to Sona. in respect of birth That he was prosperous. and rich the sacred words). of pure descent through the mother and through the father back through seven generations. — — . says Buddhaghosa (p. 1 Brahma-va/£/£asr.nda. the ritual. Samara Gotama. the phonology. well to do. should not call upon him.146 IV. fine in presence \ stately 2 to behold — virtue that That he was virtuous. the Brahman in manner also other considerations. do that.nda. with no slur put upon 5. Sir. I propose to call on the Samawa Gotama. That is my intention. 2 'With a body like that of Maha Brahma.

Sirs. a total for the L 2 . Sirs. with power over it as if he were the king For each of these reasons it was not fitting that he. and not he should call upon me Truly. venerated and revered by Seniya Bimbisara. a place teeming with life. and eighty thousand on the father's side. the venerable Gotama is well born on both sides. Sonadatida. the Brahman That he dwelt at Aampa. treasure both buried and above the ground — 1 ' Eighty thousand families on the mother's. Sirs. listen. should call upon the Samara Gotama. giving up much money and gold. came to learn them by heart under him That he was aged.' says Buddhaghosa Sakya clan of 800. but rather that the Samara Gotama should call upon him. the king of Magadha. 6. old. the Samara Gotama has gone forth (into the religious life). the Brahman. and no reproach in respect of birth Truly. giving up the great clan of his royal fief — — : ' — ' — ' relations ' ] — Truly. from various directions and various counties. all craving for the verses. held of weight. So?/ada. and well stricken in years. venerated and revered by Pokkharasadi. as a royal gift. — — the king of Magadha — That he was honoured. of pure descent through the mother and the father back through seven generations. the Samara Gotama has gone forth (into the religious life). And when they had thus spoken. reckoning five to a — making family. with much grassland and woodland and corn. Sirs. with no slur put upon him.^a said to them Then. esteemed worthy. esteemed worthy. 1 47 instructing three hundred Brahmans in the repetition of the mystic verses. and that many young Brahmans. and hear why it is fitting [115] that I should call upon the venerable Gotama.000. long-lived and full of days That he was honoured. on a granted him by Seniya Bimbisara. held of weight.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN.

forth from the household life into the homeless state Truly. and donned the yellow robes. Sirs. Sirs. good and virtuous. Karma. gifted with goodness and virtue Truly. Sirs. Sirs. inspiring trust. and has put away all fickleness of — 4 — 4 — 1 — 1 4 — — 4 mind 4 — Truly. The reading is doubtful. the Samara Gotama. agree in reading either adina or adfna.. Sirs. Sirs. without a grey hair on his head. abhinna-khattiya-kula.' II. Sirs. 2 . not husky. in the beauty of his early manhood. 109. the Sama7za Gotama hath a pleasant voice. stately to behold Truly. suitable for making clear the matter in hand Truly.I48 1 IV. Truly. the in action \ he is one who puts righteousand the forefront (of his exhortations) to the race Truly. and wept. the Samara Gotama is the teacher of the teachers of many Truly. it is difficult to see how the alteration to the more difficult reading should have occurred. Sirs. after their constant habit. distinct. and if the reading had once been abhinna. their cheeks being wet with tears.' But all the Sinhalese MSS. the Samawa Gotama went forth from a distinguished family primeval 2 among the Kshatriya in Brahman — clans — 1 Kamma-vadi ' kiriya-vadi. has gone. the Samara Gotama is handsome. SONADANDA SUTTA. the Samara Gotama is virtuous with the virtue of the Arahats. have replaced it by an easy reading-. ness 4 Samawa Gotama believes in Sirs. while he was still a young man. nevertheless cut off his hair and beard. the Samara Gotama. Compare Vinaya Texts. pleasant to look upon. and went out from the household life into the homeless state Truly. and a pleasing delivery. 'unbroken Kshatriya family. 112. fine in presence. though his father and mother were unwilling. Burmese MSS. and the Adina-khattiya-kula. the Samara Gotama has no passion of lust left in him. gifted with great beauty of complexion. he is gifted with polite address. fair in colour.

exalted. the Samara Gotama has all the thirtytwo bodily marks of a Great Being the ' — — ' Truly. . 1 Literally anyhow . abroad concerning the Samara Gotama. Sirs. trust in the ' multitudes of heavenly beings put their Samara Gotama such is — high reputation noised Truly. such as by wearing no clothes explains but I ' ' ' ' Buddhaghosa (p. Sirs. This is simple enough. many gods and men believe in the — ' — 4 Samara Gotama ' — Truly. the Samara Gotama as the head of Order. happy. esteemed and venerated and revered by the four classes (of his followers— the brethren and sisters of the Order. which (if it was in the He would scarcely have done so unless the matter suggestive. congenial. in the sense of primordial. laymen and lay women) Truly. is the Samara Gotama bids all men welcome. abounding in wisdom and righteousness. the Samara Gotama is honoured. fully awakened. not supercilious. the only difficulty being that the word occurs nowhere else. and rich Truly. Sirs. a Blessed One. as the teacher of a school. that he is said to be an Arahat. Autonomous would make a good sense ' in the context have taken the word. accessible to all. Sirs. ' 1 49 Truly. in the same way is from adhi.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. the Samawa Gotama went forth from a family prosperous. Sirs. a Buddha Truly. of a school. with knowledge of the worlds. held of weight. 288). conciliatory. not backward in conversation Truly. in Samara Gotama humans no harm ' — whatsoever village or town the do the stays. Sirs. Sirs. is the acknowledged chief of all the founders of sects. as ad hi n a aboriginal/ as being a derivative from adi. well to do. Sirs. there the non-humans an Truly. Sirs. ' ' really very simple. . people come right across the [116] from distant lands to ask questions of the country — ' Samara Gotama ' — Truly. Whereas some Samaras and Brahmans have gained a reputation by all sorts of insignificant matters \ not Buddhaghosa is were text before him) skips the clause. Sirs.

with his children and his wives. Sirs. with his people and his intimates. Pokkharasadi the Brahman. the Samara Gotama is honoured. but rather does it behove us to call upon him. with his children and his wives. those Brahmans said to him The venerable Sowada^a declares the of the Samara Gotama on such wise. And so far only do I know the excellencies of the Samara Gotama. that were praises he to be dwelling even a hundred leagues from here. with his people and his courtiers. by Pasenadi the king of Kosala. But all Samaras and Brahmans who And into our village borders are our guests. with his children and his wives. with his people and his courtiers. but these are not all of them. And when he had thus spoken. Sirs. Compare A. Lake. Sirs. ' ! 1 Pu/awsenapi. held of weight. SONADANDA SUTTA. it would be enough to make a believing man go thither to call upon him. to venerate guests and revere. we ought to esteem and honour.I50 so the ' IV. has put his trust in the Samawa Gotama Samara Gotama. esteemed. Seniya Bimbisara. he ought to be so treated. 183. has put his trust in the Samara Gotama Truly. and by Pokkharasadi the Brahman Truly. the king of Magadha. . the king of Magadha. even had he to carry a bag (for the l Let us then provisions for the journey) on his back all go to call on the Samawa Gotama together come — ' : . And as he is now so come.' 7. where a precisely similar phrase occurs. Sirs. Sirs. has put his trust in the Samawa Gotama Truly. II. as a guest For each and all of these considerations it is not fitting that the Samara Gotama should call upon us. the Samara Gotama has now [117] arrived at A^ampa. and is staying on the shores of the ' — ' Gaggara. King Pasenadi of Kosala. for his excellence is beyond measure. — — 1 — 1 — Truly. and venerated and revered alike by Seniya Bimbisara. perfection in His reputation comes from conduct and righteousness Truly.

Gotama by his explanation of the problem put. having come so far. 8. 25. my 9. saying Foolish is upon speak this Sons. .85. But on the other hand if. [H8] He is not even able to ask a question But if they rightly. then might the company speak disrespectfully of me. " to me The question ought not to be answered say " so thus ought the problem to be explained the of me with disrespect. Mil. M.nda. Lake with a great company of Brahmans. thus ought question ought not " the question to be framed the company might there" of me with disrespect. the Brahman. 151 So Sonadandd. that For upon our reputadepends less. though obstinate with pride. for what we reputation my incomings have to enjoy. and saying He is not even able to satisfy the Samawa inexpert. reputation my incomings would grow what we have tion. Now the following hesitation arose in Sonadanda s mind as he passed through the wood Were I to ask the Samara Gotama a question." did so my reputation would decrease and with my would grow less. Comp. that depends upon our reputation." But if they did so. : . my reputation would decrease and with . . company"might thereupon speak Foolish is this Sonadanda the Brahman. I not be able to gain his approval 1 by my might And if they were then to explanation of the problem.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN.da. my reputation would decrease and with my How . and inexpert. " The : . " Foolish is this Soaadafti'a the Brahman. reputation my incomings would grow less. if he were to say ' : : to be asked so. 'win over his mind. But if the Samara Gotama were to put a question to me. he is so afraid that he dare not call on the Samara Gotama. 10. the Brahman went out to the Gaggara.' . : . for what we have to enjoy. " can he turn back after having come so far ? But if they did so. I should turn back without calling upon the Samara Gotama. 1 JZittam na aradheyyaw.' to enjoy. So Sonadanda the Brahman went up to where the 1. 341 II. and saying: inexpert. that depends on our reputation.

da. some of them called out their name and family.nda. Blessed One was. And as to the Brahmans and householders of A'ampa.." he a Brahman. Now the Blessed One became aware in his own mind of the hesitation in the mind of Sonada.da. so that if he says and does not become guilty of falsespeaks accurately hood ? 12. on the threefold Vedic he now does. a Brahman is well born on both sides. I should then be able to gain his approval by my . Oh that I may be able to heart with 13. declare him to be a Brahman " And drawing my exposition thereof! can accurately say " I am a Brahman without And of falsehood.nda.152 IV. thinking as before set out and he added to himself Oh would that the Samara Gotama would but ask me some question on my own subject. Gotama. and looking round on the assembly. silence. and took his seat on one side. Sir. some of them bowed to the Blessed One and took their seats on one side some of them exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. thought: [120] 'What I wished and desired and had in my mind and hoped for^that ' : : ' the Samara Gotama should put ! to me some question on my own subject.' said to him: 'What are the things. he thought And I had better question him on his own doctrine. ' lore — that : satisfy his his body up erect.nda. being guilty what are the five ? In the first place. ' . who has five things. Verily. Then Sona. : ! exposition of the problem put 11. which he the Brahmans say a man ought to have in order to be " I am a Brahman. he said to the Blessed One 'The Brahmans. was seated there he was still filled with hesitation. on the mother's side and on who . SONADANDA SUTTA. and then took their seats on one side and some of them took their seats on one side in. Brahman. and then took their seats on one side. And when he had come there he exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. and ! ' This Sowadaw^a is afflicted in his heart. on the threefold Vedic lore. [119] 10. . Now as Sona.

that could be done. inspiring trust. and no reproach. the phonology. (See the Introduction to the Amba/Ma.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. sacred words). as just set forth still declare him to be a Brahman. with the indices. claim to be a Brahman ? could leave Yes. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man Then he is handsome. gifted with great beauty of complexion. to the fire god. the first. 3 Brahmans would virtue. without danger of falsehood. possible to leave one out. Gotama. fine in ' Then he is presence. oh Brahman. and the exegesis (as a fourth). stately to behold virtuous. possible to leave one out. the ritual. 'officiate at a sacrifice by pouring out of a spoon a libation of butter. one who has mastered the Three Vedas. claim to be a Brahman ? could leave Yes. knowing the mystic verses by heart. and to declare the man who has the other three to be a Brahman. — — ' ' ' We That is.' though that rendering is not strictly accurate. is it 14. pleasant to look upon. to be one who can accurately. 1 The . much the same as 'caste.' 2 Va««a. both here and in the following sections. and without falling into falsehood. technical training. Gotama. oh Brahman. out the verses. in respect of birth 'Then he is a repeater (of the. claim to be one. out colour 2 For what does colour matter ? [121] If he have the other four good birth. and he could rightly. For what do the verses matter ? If Then he ' is ' ' We .' But of these four things. and the legends as a fifth. 153 the father's side. and without falling into falsehood. is it 15. and wisdom. increased in virtue. with no slur put upon him. or of spirituous Soma. or it may be the second. learned in the phrases and in the grammar. to be one who can rightly. that can be done. versed in Lokayata sophistry. and to declare the man who has the other four to be a Brahman.) 3 full text is repeated. among those who hold out the ladle V But of these five things. of pure descent back through seven generations. gifted with — virtue that has 1 grown great learned and wise. — — — ' fair in colour.

without danger of — — . let him keep silence. And when he had thus spoken the other ' — — .z^a the Brahmans: 'Let not the venerable ones say so. We could leave out birth. and let If him discuss with me.nd3. is going over to the doctrine of the Samara Gotama. was said to those seated in that company. be a Brahman. think that Son3.d3. say not so colour.' 19. able to hold his own. Gotama. SCWADAiVZ)A SUTTA. But of these three ' possible to leave one has the other two to accurately. falsehood.da. oh Brahmans. like This name looks suspiciously a kind of personification of the five (the five characteristics) of the true above. virtue.d3. Brahmans said to Son3. nor our depreciate said to those birth. ! ' : He depreciates not only our So/zada/z^a. Brahman. that he is unwise.d3.' Brahman 20. claim to be one. and do you discuss with me. So. that could be done. Verily the venerable Son3.nd3. claim to ' things. wise. nor our verses. is unlearned.7td3. Sirs. and without falling into falsehood. set out.zada. but he depreciates our verses and our birth. that he is unable to hold his own with me in this matter. But if you think him learned. And when he had thus spoken. § 13. that he speaks unfittingly. he have the other three good birth. Say not so.' 18. to be one who can be a Brahman ? Yes. and wisdom Brahmans would still declare him to be a Brahman and he could rightly. ' Say not so.nd3.154 IV. is it and to declare the man who out. claim to be one/ 1 6. then do you keep silence.' [122] 17. For what does birth matter ? If he have the other two virtue and wisdom Brahmans would still declare him to be a Brahman and he could rightly. at that time a Angaka sister's son to Sowada^a young Brahman named the Brahman. without danger of falsehood. Now 1 . able in speech. Angas Brahman as just . 1 And Son3. venerable Then the Blessed One said to those Brahmans : you. [!23] I do not either our colour.

— ' — If Angaka. Sirs. ' two things. is a repeater (of the sacred the mystic verses by heart. on the mother's side and on the father's side. and go the way of the adulterer. knowing has mastered the Three Vedas. is ' Well Angaka. learned in the phrases and the grammar. Sir. the first. versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore). Sirs. to be a Brahman. And Angaka. stately is to in this assembly like unto him in colour. one who words). and to declare the has the other to be a Brahman. claim to a Brahman ? . fine handsome. and speak lies. on the mother's side and on the father's. and the exegesis (as a fourth). and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man I myself have taught him the verses. and the legends as a fifth. ' 4 falling into falsehood. plexion. what then. the ritual. is it possible to leave one out. oh Brahman. as a Brahman is virtuous. with no slur I put upon him. should kill living things. upon. would his colour avail him ? what the verses ? what his birth ? It is in so far. with the indices. Sirs.' But of these 21. save only the Samara Gotama.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. and take what has not been given. inspiring trust. great or it may be the second. to be one rightly. among those who hold out the ladle. to be one who could rightly say " I am a Brahman " without . that Brahmans would declare him. And Angaka. as endowed with these two qualities. is well born on both sides. ! we see him. man who who can be and without ' falling into falsehood. of pure descent back through seven generations. and no reproach in respect of birth myself know his forebears. and drink strong drink. fair in colour. gifted with virtue that has grown in so far as he is learned and wise. 1 55 Brahmans our nephew : ' Do ' the venerable ones see this Angaka. Sirs. pleasant to look gifted with great beauty of comin behold ' —none presence. Sirs. ? ' Yes. increased in virtue.' Sirs. the phonology.

. 290. begtn1 ' Oldenberg renders the upright this ('Buddha. the general statement May the venerable Gotama be pleased to explain the meaning of the phrase. oh Brahman. SONABANDA SUTTA. the highest value. to the wise there is uprightness.' said Sonadanda. and wisdom and goodness are declared to be the best thing in the world 1 Just. for 171. ' 'We attention.' see how this can be grammatically justified though the sentiment is admirable enough. To the upright there is wisdom. give ear. his renunciation of the world.' Well then.T56 ' IV. And the Blessed One said \Here follow the paragraphs 40-63 in the Sdmannaphala Sutta above. 41. 283) as follows: 'The wisdom of and the uprightness of the wise have. But what. oh Gotama. I. not genitive. and uprightness is purified by wisdom. that is. uprightness is [124] Not is purified there. oh Brahman. the conversion of the hearer. oh Gotama. Sir. as one might wash hand with hand. and the paragraph on Confidence. IV. see. ' oh Brahman. of all I cannot uprightness and wisdom in the world. to the wise there is uprightness. A. then. and uprightness is purified Where there is uprightness. or foot with foot.' 22. in assent to the Blessed One.' p. Where there is uprightness. oh Gotama. and pay earnest in this matter. is there.' 'Very well. Gotama by uprightness. 23. and where there is wisdom. by uprightness. and I will speak. 42. and would have somewhat relieved the monotony . pp. On pa»«a«a Sum. and wisdom and goodness are declared to be the best thing in the world. uprightness is there. [Here follow the paragraphs on the Ghdnas. that. S. say the same. oh Gotama. just even so. his preaching. 'That is just so. : This also. wisdom by wisdom. instance. • of the paragraph. all the Silas. I. is And I. wisdom is there. the paragraph on the appearance of a Buddha. ! For wisdom. 342. as nominative. there is wisdom. what that wisdom ? that uprightness and only know. To the upright. 62-70 of the text . too. is wisdom purified . and where there is wisdom. is that uprightness' [Silo).

betake figure. and on the Destruction §§ 1 of the Deadly Floods.nd3. in many a I. as one who. — truth. are here put. from this day forth. The only difference is that the paragraphs 64-74 of the Sama««a-phala 1 coming under Tarawa (Conduct) are here included under Sila (Uprightness). on seeing that he had done so. on Knowledge of the hearts of others. as long as life endures. all as in the Sdmahha-phala.nda. there included as — . or were to reveal that which has been hidden away.' Then the Blessed One signified. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms just even so has the truth been made known to me. set up that which has been thrown down. And may the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple. Most excellent. on Memory of one's own previous births. When he had thus spoken.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. on the Wondrous Gifts. 83-98 inclusive. But Sila includes all that is put in the Amba//^a under Sila all indeed of the eight divisions of Sila as summarised above. In other words Pa««a includes all that was there included under Vi^a. and also the members of the Order with him.. on the Divine Eye. on the Heavenly Ear. his conAnd Sona. sent. S0na. the . not under Sila. The GV/anas. summarised above at the translation of p. pp. end of § 82. then the paragraphs on Insight arising from Knowledge. 292.da. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. has taken him as his And may the venerable Gotama grant me the guide. even I. See Buddhaghosa's notes at pp.da. arose from his seat and bowed down before the Blessed The repetition here is nearly the same as that in the Amba/Ma Sutta.' Brahman ' said to the Blessed One : oh Gotama (are the words of [125] most excellent! Just as if a man were to thy mouth). 57—59. there put. 268. 100 of the text. by silence. oh Brahman. 1 57 ning at So v\v\kk eva kamehi in § 75 of the Sdmarmaphala down to the. but under Tarawa. 219.] 1 This. but under Pa««a (Intelligence). to the and to the Order. favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. on the Metital Image. and the Four Guanas besides. not under Vi^a (Wisdom). by the venerable Gotama. is that wisdom 24.

when mounted on my chariot. with sweet food. I should rise from my seat to bow down before the venerable Gotama. took a low seat. and walking round him with his right hand towards him. both hard and soft. went with the brethren to Sowadaw^a's : ' house. his reputation would grow less and he who should lose his reputation. when I am in my chariot. one young enough If this tradition be correct.nd3. when I am seated in the assembly. should find fault. and the meal is ready. after sembly. And at early dawn he made ready at his house sweet food. 1 On the ground. oh Gotama. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as a salutation with my head. 292). I stretch forth my joined palms in salutation. Sona. put on his outer robe. saluting a much younger man. So if. and taking bowl with him. that depends upon our reputation. and had the time announced to the Blessed One It is time. Then the Blessed One. If then. If. with his own hand. . let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as if I had got down. says Buddhaghosa (p. until they refused any more. And SowadaWa the Brahman satisfied the Blessed One.I58 IV. I should wave . and the brethren.d3. that he would be to be his grandson. when mounted on my chariot. and sat down beside him. both hard and soft. the surrounders would find fault I with me. SOiVADAiVDA SUTTA. [126] And if when I am seated in the assembly I take off my turban. departed thence. and sat down on the seat prepared for him. If. and said I have entered the as26. who liad his early morning. And if. the Blessed One had finished his meal. then the assembly would find Now he with whom the assembly fault with me l And when ' : . For that which we have to enjoy. I were to get down from the chariot to salute the venerable Gotama. oh Gotama. and cleansed the bowl and his hands. One. bend down low the staff of my goad.' dressed in the 25. his income would grow less. it would follow that this Sutta must be describing events very early in the public ministry of the Buddha. then. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as a rising up from my seat.

except from the historical standpoint. 1 59 me my hand. and of other Brahmans. with perhaps one or two exceptions.da. of Vedic studies.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. And if that part of the Buddha's doctrine put before him in this Sutta be examined. quite compatible with the best Brahman views. the Truths. But those details are. . No doubt if every detail were carried to its strict logical conclusion there would be no further need for Vedic studies. the then Vedic studies.nda the Brahman gladdened with religious discourse. it will be found to be. Path. as if I let the venerable Gotama accept that from 1 ! ' had bowed low Blessed in salutation instructed and roused Sona. and Arahatship They belong to a plane not touched on in They could be accepted by an adherent of And the essential doctrines of Buddhism the —are barely even referred — to. Then the incited and One Here ends the Sonadanda. on the face of them. and is keenly anxious to retain the good opinion of his students. ethical. the soul theory of life. Sutta. 1 It will be seen from this section that Sowadawfla is represented as He still keeps on his school being a convert only to a limited extent. and 27. and then rose from his seat and departed thence.

one runs great danger of smothering it under the explanatory words. And it is most easy. nevertheless. and went in vain. and with a single attendant as charioteer. but the point of it spoilt in the process. all the while. Fausboll's edition. And the aroma of it. so in the attempt to write about this irony. perhaps. — The attempt. outside the palace on a similar quest. for instance. pervading the whole of an exposition none the less delightful because of the very serious earnestness of the narrator. — . I have already called attention to the great importance for the right understanding of early Buddhist teaching of a constant appreciation of this sort of subtle humour 1 It has been hitherto. Finding no faultfinders there. ii of the Pali text in Prof. on the Agganna Sutta. . — as regards the ethical point at issue is apt to be lost sight of precisely because of that earnestness. the notes above on p. scarcely even a smile. in the Suttas every one recognises it in the £ataka The humour is not at all intended to raise a laugh. See. two kings. all in vain. who simultaneously determined to examine into their own faults No courtier would tell them of any. 1 in vol. reigning over the famous lands of Benares and Kosala. So they each went. entirely overlooked that is. . they each went on to the city gate. 1 * No. So they each made over the kingdom to their respective ministers. must be made. to do so by an example which no one will In the Ra^ovada Gataka 2 we are told of the dispute. Cowell. tales. Whoever imbued with the . sallied forth into the world. and then to the surrounding suburbs. ! and the remarks. to the people in the city. and of the Cambridge translation edited by Prof. And just as a joke may be explained. so far as I am aware. 33 in the Introduction to the Amba/Ma. much more delicate than any joke. put this Sutta together must have been deeplyspirit of subtle irony that plays no less a part in the Suttas than it does in so many of the 6"atakas.INTRODUCTION TO THE KUrADANTA SUTTA.

' let the lord of the lesser realm go back. and the dry humour of the predicament in which they find themselves . But of course the whole story is invented. Bent on this. and especially in American The piquancy of this contrast is Indian. And by truth the speaker of lies V on this being proclaimed. and the real serious earnestness of the ethical tone. s there to attract attention to. to add emphasis to. the king of Kosala and his charioteer alighted from their chariot. One feels it occasionally humour. the l6l are exactly equal in size. and removed their chariot. are found to be the strength of their two armies. the Vedas had a sense of the humour in the incongruities. The fun of the extravagance can be matched.' pp. There is not a word in the whole story.' Their kingdoms ' ' : ' and tribe. In the Upanishads it is very marked. And so on. the distinction of their caste. the king of Benares. the War of the Devas and Asuras. said : Anger he conquers by calmness. Of the other. and made way for the king of Benares.INTRODUCTION. of the Dogs. the amount of their treasure. two came face to face in a low cart-track with precipitous sides. the half realities of their myths. And by goodness the wicked. to find some one to so serious. the lesson taught. Then way. M . What is the especial point in this fun a kind of fun quite unknown in the West? It is the piquancy of the contrast between the mock seriousness of the extravagant. The two kings are brought on to the stage merely to carry on their broad shoulders the moral of the tale. tell them of their faults. And — easily enough. Both are kings! How to settle the point? I have it. 2 1 even This verse The full II. and Even the theosophic myth-makers of especially Buddhist. even impossible details. And they took out the horses. . in European. The Liturgy Brahma/zas. Each calls on the other to make way for a king. here told in abstract 2 to suggest that it is not all sober history. in succession. xxii-xxvi. the glory of their renown. version can also be seen in my ' Buddhist Birth Stories. Then at last comes the solution. and several other such episodes in the is quoted in the Dhammapada (verse 223).' says one charioteer Let the younger give The kings turn out to be exactly of an age. quest. The stingy he conquers by gifts. the Fable of the Senses. of Kosala overcomes it is evil ' by evil. the fame of their realms. The king and family.

ad hoc. B. Its details are not meant to be taken seriously as . the unreality of the whole thing was just as evident. .. as pointed out above in the Introduction to the Amba///6a in the Keva//a Sutta. in the £ataka. and hearers of these legends. similar to that in the Ra^ovada Gataka. 1 Both <9ataka and Sutta are translated ' in full in my ' Buddhist Suttas (vol. xi of the S. it is clear that they enjoyed. the same dry humour. kOfadanta sutta. always striking. because they enjoyed both the lesson and the manner of the telling of it. Allowing lor all the earnestness undeniably animating both the story-teller and the hearers. the main point compared with which all others were quite subservient. the Great King of Glory was expressly identified with the Buddha in a former birth. are enlivened vanity. translated below and in many other In all of them there is the same exaggeration. all the time. as it is now to us. They build up a gorgeous fairy tale in which the ancient mythology of the sun. in their £&taka stories. the dry humour of the exaggeration and giotesqueness of Now the details the details of the story as it went along. here also. similar state of things is found in the Agga«#a Sutta. after all. but And the details. They accepted it all and entered none the less into the spirit of the legend as legend. often with a special beauty of their own. by an intentional exaggeration. But why should we think that this sort of humour is We have a 6rataka story of the confined to the Gatakas ? Great King of Glory. are given only in the Sutta and omitted.1 62 this v. mixture of unreality and earnestness. for instance. Suttas. . I would submit. . and embodies the numerous details which lead up to the sublime lesson at the end of it \ And those details are at least as extravagant have its perhaps as the details in the Ra^ovada 6"ataka. as well known. in the Sutta. pp. for it expressly quotes it. A . E. And so. a designed dry humour. often adopted and developed old Indian tales of a similar sort. the same restrained art of the storyIt is impossible not to see that to the early tellers teller. 238-289). Na^iketas. They knew quite well that the lesson taught was the principal matter. and it finds most touching expression in the legend of And the Buddhists. above referred to. and was meant to be as evident. certainly based on the Sutta of the same name. stands the case also with our The whole legend is obviously invented present Sutta. And it made no difference that.myth is brought into play in order to show how the greatest possible majesty and glory of the greatest and best of all possible kings is.

He goes to the Sama. the Brahmans. that case we should have before us a novelette. and very keen on being sure that his soul should be as comfortable in the next world as he was. for readers now. or as he would put it. The Brahman of our Sutta wants to know the three modes The three modes in which the ritual is to be performed. or rather one condition of mind at three different times. under similar circumstances. in which the Very Reverend Sir Goldstick Sharpcruel enough. a piece of dialectic smartness. a play upon the words. marvellous details.za Gotama for advice about the modes of the ritual and about the requisite to be performed at the sacrifice utensils. are declared in the legend (§ 15) to be simply three conditions of mind. the It is the hearty co-operation priest's outfit. the altar-furniture. and the householders. In order to make certain that not one of the technical — ' ' — god was supposed the accurate performance of all these the should be done to attach great weight the intending sacrificer is ironically represented as wrong. would think of doing. on the advice of a Brahman. now.INTRODUCTION. and is very likely meant to be In rather the hero of a tale than an historical character. the nobles. at the expenditure involved. The Buddha's answer is to tell him a wonderful legend of a King Wide-realm. in honour of a god. That details for — to — . in this. be it noted. the harbouring of no regret^ either before or during or after the sacrifice. lord of the manor of Khanumata. the altar-furniture. what is that? with the king of four divisions of his people. 1 63 The forced twist given to the meaning of the words vidha and parikkharo is not serious. and of the sacrifice he offered All its truly the most extraordinary sacrifice imaginable. by celebrating a sacrifice. each one settled. doubt. the officials. What we have is a sort of pun. are described with a deliberate extravagance none the less delicious because of the evident earnestness of the moral to be inferred. in English prose. — ' ' M 2 . makes up his mind to secure that most desirable end by the murder of a number of his fellow creatures. The words could not be used in the new sense assigned. no tooth. And the material accessories required. doing the very last thing any Brahman of position. The Brahman Kufedanta (pointed-tooth) is mentioned nowhere else. an historical romance. to be used in making it. delightful to the hearers then. And it is quite open to question whether this does not apply as much to the whole Sutta as to the legend of King Wide-realm. historical fact. and unfortunately quite impossible to be rendered adequately.

Far from exalting King Wide-realm's procedure. the ethical more worthy than any physical sacrifice. they put his sacrifice at the very bottom of a long list of sacrifices each better than the other. All the labour thing. in the 1 we find mystic identification of the sacrifice with man . except 1 -ffMndogya Upanishad III. is voluntary. Having thus laughed the Brahman ideal of sacrifice out of court with the gentle irony of a sarcastic travesty. the more enlightened and cultured of the Brahmans. And the muttering of mystic verses over each article used and over mangled and bleeding bodies of unhappy victims. And cations of the king himself. And all the world co-operates in adding its share to the largesse of food. there is nothing Buddhistic. is injured. but that they took it all along for granted. And the evident unreality of the legend may be one explanation of the curious fact that the authors of the Gataka book (notwithstanding that King Wide-realm's Chaplain is actually identified in the Sutta with the Buddha himself in a previous birth) have not included this professedly Gataka story in their collection. and leading up to the sweetest and highest of all. Even in the Vedas themselves there is already the germ of this view in the mental attitude as regards Aditi and Varuwa. 16 and 17. the sacrifice consists. just the very contrary. It is is quietly ignored. as carried on chiefly by Brahmans (however much it may have owed in the earliest period to the nobles and others). four personal qualifications of his advising Brahman make No living up the total of the sixteen articles required.1 64 V. verses on which all the magic efficacy of a sacrifice had been supposed to depend. but of all the good. not only of the king himself. in the last paragraph. rational. And eight personal qualifiThat makes other eight. human view of the matter. alone. of a typical Vedic sacrifice. on strict vegetarian principles. the author or authors of the Sutta go on to say what they think a sacrifice ought to be. This is the only case. KtjrADANTA SUTTA. Here again. but living men. in which. in which a similar omission has been made. That a sacrifice of the heart is better exclusively than a sacrifice of bullocks. And the king desires to propitiate. The whole long history of the development of Indian thought. makes four articles of furniture. is simply the sensible. either animal or vegetable. not any god. were not only as fully alive to this truth as any Buddhist. so far discovered. . It is offered on behalf. which is the attainment of all ironical. in every respect. of course — Arahatship. shows that they. And in the pre-Budciii^tic KAandogya.

the ^ains of the Buddha's time. Compare XIII. of an ancient and widely held trend of opinion. ahiwsa. Mahabharata I. 1 65 certain moral states placed on an equality with certain parts of the sacrificial procedure. in fact. See 8. more superstitious. was also a part of the earlier £"ain doctrine. the habit of causing no injury to any living thing. and xii. there would seem therefore to be no valid reason for doubting the accuracy of the Buddhist tradition that their view of sacrifice was based on a very ancient belief which was. but as a developed teaching. that it a thousand sacrifices 2 the question of caste or social privileges. 6-8. ridicule and earnestness of our Sutta will have had its share in bringing about the victory. Though the Buddhists did not accept this extreme position. later. Isolated instances of such sacrifices are known even down to the Muhammadan invasion.' The more characteristically Indian point of view is. 6 quoted Matt.INTRODUCTION. 1544. and therefore not only in germ. The Vedic sacrifices. and not sacrifice . Mahabharata. 2 Hosea vi. had practically been given up when the long struggle between Brahmanism and Buddhism reached its close. from 1 Prov. 13. is especially mentioned. as is so often asserted of them by European writers. a rational view held also by others. more deeply addicted to all manner of ritual than any other nation under heaven. the early Buddhists took up. merely the oldest extant expression.//^as. and xxi. of course. But the battle was really won And the combined by the Buddhists and their allies. then. Our Sutta is. common ground to the wise. This comes very near to the Hebrew 1 prophet's: I will have mercy. And on this question of sacrifice their party won. . foreshadowed in the Upanishad. And among these moral states. 7. in the words of the old saying long afterwards taken up into the ' truth (not mercy) that outweighs But there is a very great probability that the ahiw/sa doctrine. more averse to change in There seems to me no reason to religious ceremonial ? believe that they were very different. . How could they have done so if the Indians of that time had been. in these respects. ix. are. That they did win is a suggestive fact. 6073. and afterwards so extravagantly taken up by the Niga. as on is . no doubt. and pushed to its logical conclusions. in so thorough and uncompromising a way. xv. pre-Buddhistic. whether inside or outside the ranks of the Brahmans. 3095 nearly = XIII. On this question. also Micah vi. 13. of animals.

2 Ahguttara I. Now of course the Mimawsists would indignantly deny this. It is evident. without any explanation.' ' . well Kumarila Bha//a. own book the merit of bringing it back to theistic lines 3 . complete and unquestioned freedom of thought and expression in religious matters that the world had yet witnessed. being uncertain as to the meaning in which it was used at the time when It will be instructive. is explained by Wilson as 'the system of 1 and by the atheistical philosophy taught by /sfarvaka as Materialism. than one. but the Kosa. Yet they are each of them. it would seem impossible could have been won. Kumarila. a term of abuse. they are all descriptive of just those things which a Brahman would have been of. which I have left untranslated in this Sutta. for the most and claims for his part. therefore. 3 The passage is quoted in Muir's Sanskrit Texts/ ' ' III. a wide-spread antagonism to the priests. . is here merely hurling at adversaries.' Now the description Petersburg Dictionary of the good Brahman as put. the most of common sense.1 66 V. to judge them from the tone prevalent in the Srauta and that this victory Grihya. converted into a Lokayata system. who claimed to be But it is clear that as orthodox as himself. and other passages. to collect and consider the other passages ways in which the word occurs. 95. authenticated. at least for a later period. charges the Mimawsa system with having been. so often found in the Pi/akas. in his Varttika (verse 10). To regard the Indian peoples through Brahman spectacles. that the Dictionary interpretations of the word are quite out of place in this connection. in a list. he uses that term in the sense of atheistic' The exact phrase ' 1 He gives as his authority the Amara Ko^a . merely mentions the word. a strong fund Above all there was then. into the mouth of Brahrnans themselves 2 mentions Lokayata as one The whole paragraph is complibranch of his learning. 163. And our views of Indian history must be modified accordingly. rightly proud to be judged a master Lokayata . And though the exact connotation of one or mentary. Sutras. a real sense of humour. On the contraryGreeks or Romans of the same period. But it was won. KftrADANTA SUTTA. in the Buddhist Suttas. two of the other terms is doubtful. there was a well marked lay feeling. There is a curious expression in the stock phrase describing the learned Brahman. who seems to have been a good deal of a bigot. in more our Sutta was composed.

' an comes infidel. 241 (where the word is spelt). to much the same thing. 53. new condition and separate from the body. as opposed to his own astika-patha: is. expounded in any special treatise. . vu££ati vita«</a-vada-satthaw. 'the Lokayata is a text-book of the Vha. materialist. very similar. 2 For instance in the Mahali and Galiya Suttas.s (Sophists) V This does not help us much but previously.S'arikara or the Buddhists had in their minds any book setting forth a philosophy based on this single proposition. so. which flies away from the body after death. and not existing after death. Nor do either the Buddhists or 6arikara pretend to set out that opinion in full. . pp. I.SahkaraMrya uses the word Lokayata several times and always in the same specific sense as the view of those who look upon the soul as identical with the body. 90. European materialists (and one or two may be discovered by careful search) do not hold the view which . This is somewhat wider than atheist it however. It seems to be the view that there is a soul but that it is diffused through the body. 3. III. the system or the man who says 'there is not. 92. . 2. I. to a European reader. such as By whom was this world created ? By ' ' ' . It is not necessary to suppose that either . as that .m sarira7« 2 called Lokayata in the Pitekas. 46) is constantly referred to throughout the Pi/akas under the But it is never stock phrase taw ^ivaw ta.Sankara describes to his Lokayatikas.INTRODUCTION. p. gives a good idea. that is the " Vitanda.nda. i 1 67 would be n a s t k a. 3. not continuing. of the sort of feeling conveyed to vSahkara's Indian readers. 1 . 2 .' as a rough and ready translation of . They are dealing with it only so far as is necessary And though to enforce their own contrary positions. in union with other opinions. Buddhaghosa in our passage has: Lokayata. 3 both translated in the Sum. in Kumarila's mouth. But the expressions used point rather to an opinion held by certain thinkers.Sarikara's Lokayatika. . or any actual It may have been school using such a book as a manual. 1. he explains Lokakkhayika as follows Foolish talk according to the Lokayata. below. 247. 91. ' : : 1 For instance in his commentary on the Brahma-Sutra. within the body but not of it. The Vita«</as are quoted and refuted wrongly Attha Salini. yet it is not quite exact./. p. only so long as the body exists. in a A . II. 2. if not indeed the very same view is also and controverted in the Brahma-^ala Sutta (above. . and dies with it and is not a separate unity.

crow is white from the whiteness of its such a one. 63. 74). the crane is black impure " this reason or for that the book known in the world as the Vita. does not depend on it.' doubtful. S.1/1 ti : Loko ti aha. said Follow not the Lokayata. move on by it. He 1 says : bala-loko ettha ayatanti ussahanti vayamanti vadassadenati lokayatam.d. na yatati na ihati va.. yatati by For living beings do not stir up their hearts to right-doing 2 Now the Lokayata is the book by reason of that book of the unbelievers (of the Titthiyas) full of such useless disputations as the following: "All is impure. 2 .' p.na. pp. 103." 1 ' Quoted sub voce in Subhuti's Abhidhanappadipika Su£i. lokayataw. bones cranes are red from the redness of their blood. probably following . — . R.« na Lokayata?^ nama: sabba. T. According to the Sasana Va?«sa Dipika (Dr. the incomparable ayatanti. sabbam anukk/nttham seto kako ka/o bako imina va imina va karanenati evam-adi-niratthaka-kara. all is not and for the crow is white. Also Prof.D./^/a-sattha. P. p.. 310. strive about it. p. Ayatati va tena Taw hi loko." that is. Loka evayatante te lokayatika. S. Lokayata means: they exert themselves about it. ' ' With this attempt at derivation may be compared Nilaka«///a on the passage quoted below from the Mahabharata (as given in B. yaw sandhaya Bodhisatto asamadhuro Vidhura-pa?^ito Na seve Lokayatikaw. n'etaw pu««aya va. " Vidhura the pandit. he lived at Arimaddana in Burma in 1127 a. that works not : for progress in merit.1 68 V. Sasana Va/wsa Dipo. Forchammer. the 'Loko means "on that they common world./z ukk/rittham uppadenti. Gandha Vaw/sa." Other Pali comments on the word are the Abhidhana Padipika (verse 112). 34 . Jardine Prize Essay." that : . verse 1238.' p. See also p. which says simply. . twelfth Vita^^a-satthaw viniieyyam yam taw The date of this work is the middle of the century A. J. Or perhaps it means " the world does not it .). 1882. yaw loke Vitandasatthaw vu£/£ati. Cowell's suggestion (Sarvad. Mabel Bode's edition. which is a generation older. . A Buddhaghosa lokayataw.dd/ia./aparisawyuttam titthiya-satthaw. gandhaw nissaya satta pu«#a-kiriyaya £itta. through the pleasure they take in discussion. kOtADANTA SUTTA. Much clearer is Aggavawsa in the : Sadda-niti. leader. 67. of which the Bodisat. 2) that Lokayata may be analysed etymologically as ' The exact meaning of ayata is really very prevalent in the world. is.

concerned with useless matters which neither give paradise nor lead men on into the Path. 109. For while the Mahabharata has precisely the same use of the word as the Pitakas.Sarikara says There is thus. but the Laukayatika are blamed as 'clever in useless things V So in the Saddharma Puwdarika the good Mahayanist does not serve or court or wait upon (among other low people) the Lokayatikas who know by heart the Lokayata mantras (mystic verses) 4 . and capable of going to the heavenly world or obtaining release V The unknown author of the £ataka commentary. see ibid. in this passage. as in our passage. 409). VI. as compared with the prose.' II. 168) reads tantras mantras).INTRODUCTION. lxxviii. Vedanta. gives the allied proposition as his own conclusion from the uselessness of their discussions. Vedanta. ' ' 1 ' 4 (instead of his note ' Chapter XIII. no soul. He says Lokayata means in Pali ' fabulous history. Burnouf (p. 2 Loc. have some other meaning than Materialism. 269. romance . later works use it in a manner approximating more and more nearly to that of . See Deussen. The passage in the Mahabharata is at I. especially in the light of other passages in both Sanskrit and Pali books. ciL On the greater age of the verses. who certainly wrote however in the ' . There the word is also in a list. II. 8 Gorresio's edition. much less opprobiously. the passage . : ' : — — century. at the beginning. And the Petersburg Dictionary. separate from the body. Vitanda chatter. points out that the word may possibly. at the end of a list of the accomplishments of learned Brahmans. It would be an easy transition from the one expression to the other. it is plain that this branch of learning is meant # to be taken as of minor importance.' . Being mentioned. illustrating this (?ataka. and Thibaut. and has a curious blunder in on the passage (p. But it is not yet considered unfavourably.' The Ramaya^a goes further. cit. my Buddhist Birth Stories.system. 1 69 The verse quoted certainly a very old one is in the Vidhura GUtaka l and the commentator there says This means: Follow not Lokayata disputation. Fausboll's edition.' The date of fifth ' ' No less than four bas reliefs. 286. not as the opinion of the Lokayatikas themselves. as his authority. of the Gatakas.' 310.Sutras. where.Sahkara. and quotes. no doubt wrongly. they are said to be masters of the Lokayata.' p. 2889 ( = Hari Vamsa 14068). from which I take most of these references. See have been found at the Bharhut Tope. according to them. And the difference is suggestive. at the end of the list. Both these passages from the epics are from later portions of them. 29.

I. appropriately fathered on /varvaka.I70 this V. the king. The other . 2 My Milinda. 248.' This may possibly be a gloss which has crept into the text. either case. 7. Prabodha&mdrodaya. the Lokayata system is. and in the habit of wrangling against the quibbles of Lokayatas and Vitaw^as. may be a century or two after Christ. Lastly. the later view of the meaning of the word had become prevalent. has deceived many. II. and is still widely ' We . the word is mentioned twice. an ogre. which Weber puts at about the same time. a mythical character in the Mahabharata. in various works of the fourteenth century and later. K^TADANTA SUTTA. One passage ascribes a knowledge of the Lokayata (in a sentence expanded from the very 2 clause in our Sutta) to the hero of the story. And in the Cain book. which is probably somewhat earlier. B Madhusudana Sarasvati.upon Aesop the story-teller of the fifth century B. described as fond of wordy disputations. . It is not certain who appears in the garb of a Brahman 5 In whether this is due to the ingenuity of a friend or a foe. draw any certain conclusion as to whether or not there were actually any Lokayatikas living in Baca's time.D.C. But in any case it is evidence that. in which Lokayataw is This last expression cannot simply explained as vitawa'a-sattha^. I. p. he may be merely including in his list all the sorts of such people he had ever heard or read of. and especially of given above from the Abhidhana Padipika. In expanding previous descriptions of the concourse of hermits in the forest. 236. entitled the Bhagavati. unfortunately. . 17. In the long list of various sorts of hermits given in the Harsha A'arita the Lokayatikas come among others who would be classed by Vedantists as heretics 4 cannot. 1 3 4 Ibid.. it has been eminently successful. Pending the discovery of other texts. possibly mean anything of that sort. passage is 3 is in a parenthesis in which the sub-hero. Nagasena Here the Milinda is quite at the old standpoint. at the time when it was written. the Lokayatikas occur in a similar list of blame1 worthy persons In the Milinda. Cowell's Translation. accepted. Sarva-darjana- sawgraha.. . Weber. made by Planudes in the fourteenth century A. Ueber ein fragment der Bhagavati. like the fathering of the later Sarikhya on the ancient sage Kapila or the fathering of the collection of fables.

riddles. 1. not only to theosophy on the one hand. of such mundane lore were marked with sophists and casuists. were so often useful as metaphor in discussing the higher and more especially priestly wisdom. and probably meant Nature-lore wise sayings. Ill. In the first half of the eighth century Kumarila uses the word as a mere term of abuse. even of anatomy. To be a master of such lore was then considered by no means unbecoming to a learned Brahman. IV. In the fifth century we hear of a book. of elementary physics. And shortly afterwards 5ahkara. the elements. a too exclusive acquaintance with Lokayata became looked upon fair a As with disfavour.5-7. and in the sense of infidel. controverts a curious opinion which he ascribes to ' Lokayatikas. 3-J. but to such science as there was on the other. and of birds and beasts and plants. 8. 171 such as are not only the testimony of opponents. for instance. the mysteries. Up. the stars. 7.INTRODUCTION. II. the Mimawsists. on the same level as folk-lore. Ar. rhymes. At that time there was no school so called. AVzand. though it ranked. III.C. the weather. of his equally orthodox opponents. as Br*. This feeling is increasingly vouched for in the early centuries of our era. branches of natural science were regularly studied. presumably on the riddles and mysteries of the craft. the best working hypothesis to explain the above facts seems to be that about 500 B. that we find sayings that may well have belonged to it — Such passages. and theories handed down by tradition as to cosmogony. Ill. on the worlds and on cosmogony. 2. Ait. scraps of astronomy. Up. on the colour of the rays of the sun Bri. 1. . But portions of it trenched so closely upon. below his other studies. 2-7. and several knowledge. as the very same opinion . — possibly wrongly. 3. . Even before the Christian era masters of the dark sayings. 17. and others. and VI. make proficiency in it incompatible with other the amount of it grew larger.' Various branches of mundane science had been by that time fairly well worked out. 1. as it is called a book of quibbles. in setting forth his theory of the soul. 4. and III. the word Lokayata was used in a complimentary way as the name of a branch of Brahman learning-. and in contradistinction. of course. Ar. and knowledge of the nature of precious stones. on the parts of the body and many others of a similar kind on these and other subjects might be cited as examples. Up. and no special handbook of such knowledge. Ktend. on the elements. Lokayata was still the name for the old Nature-lore. Ar. The amount then existing of such lore was too small to preserved in the pre-Buddhistic literature.

an odious name. Prof. and not there called Lokayata. translated by Cowell . there is a tone of unreality over all the statements we have. theosophist position. In the last period the words Lokayata. folk-lore. in adversaries. Lokayatika. though the word was in use in Pi/aka times. century the great theologian in which he ascribes to the Lokayatikas the most extreme forms of the let-usof Pyreat-and-drink-for-to-morrow-we-die view of life rhonism in philosophy. KtirADANTA SUTTA.172 V. pegs on which certain can hang the views that they impute to their and give them. The Lokayata had no doubt. After the early use of the word in some such sense as Nature-lore. was controverted ages before in the Pi/akas. but morally so depraved that he will not accept the Finally in the fourteenth Sayawa-Madhava has a longish chapter . or his own knowledge Lokayata. or of a system of philosophy that called itself by the name there is no trace. . I. 1 doing so. writers become mere hobby horses. . long ceased to exist. In the middle period the riddles and quibbles of the Nature-lorists are despised. Chapter in the version published in 1882. at that time. Sarva-darjana-sa?«graha. Throughout the whole story we have no evidence of any one who called himself a Lokayatika. and of atheism in theology. His very able description has alJ the appearance of being drawn from his own imagination and is chiefly based on certain infidel doggrel verses which cannot possibly have formed a part of the Lokayata studied by the Brahmans of old l It is the ideal of what will happen to the man of some intellect. And of the real existence of a school of thought.

Not the same as the one with the same name half way between Buddhaghosa Ra^-agaha and Nalanda (above. he asked his doorand 3.] [The wrong Sacrifice and the [127] 1. and a hundred rams had been brought to the post for the sacrifice.v. kO^adanta sutta. on a royal domain presented him by Seniya Bimbisara the king of Magadha. it was like it. a place teeming with life. The Blessed One once. when going on a tour through Magadha. 3 All given in the text in full. . as a royal gift. 1 And the doorkeeper told him 3 . and a hundred heifers. and a hundred goats. 1 of the text). And just then a great sacrifice was being got ready on behalf of Ku/adanta the Brahman. with . with power over it as if he were the king. with about five hundred came to a Brahman village in Magadha called Khanumata. much grassland and woodland and water and corn. And a hundred bulls. pleasaunce. Thus have I heard. 294) says 2 The whole of § 2 of the So«ada«</a is here repeated. apart the people thus go by. p. multitude of the brethren. right. and a hundred steers. And there at Khanumata he lodged in the Ambala/Mika pleasaunce l Now at that time the Brahman Ku/adanta was dwelling at Khanumata. just then Ku/adanta the Brahman had gone to the upper terrace of his house for his siesta . 2. as in the So«ada«o'a Sutta. (p. And seeing keeper the reason. Now the Brahmans and householders of Khanumata heard the news of the arrival of the Samara Gotama 2 [128] And they began to leave Khanumata in companies and in bands to go to the Ambala/Mika . with a great brethren.

363 in the sense of 'brooch' end of adjectival ' or buckle. in full in the text. in the sense of 'yoke'. and vidho ' ' it refers.' householders of doorkeeper to the Brahmans and Khanumata. 319. and in the passage quoted in Childers). I want to know all this. But there were So he sent his Khanumata to take part in the great sacrifice. accessory articles of furniture of sixteen kinds 1 4 §§ 2 3 3~7 inclusive of the So«ada«aa are here repeated 4. He makes vidha a very rare word. and is a possible reading at Vin. equipments. especially at the compounds. in Gotama Parikkhara. It is just the contrary. and twists it to his ethical teaching in the sense of mode of generosity.174 4. way. But he answered them in the same terms as Sowadaw^a had used to those Brahmans. he could go at that time a number of Brahmans 5. v - K^rADANTA SUTTA. II. word. manner. And when he was seated there Ku/adanta the Brahman told the Blessed One what he had heard 2 and requested him to tell him about success in per3 forming a sacrifice in its three modes and with its staying at l . when they heard this they went to Ku/adanta. 84. on the same grounds as the Brahmans had laid before So^adaw^a. I. well for me to go to the Samawa [129] It would be performance of a and its Gotama. Childers gives 'pride' as the only meaning of this But he has made a strange muddle between it and vidho. Vidho is most rare. I. 136. and yet carry out a sacrifice. and went with him to call upon the Blessed One 9.' Here vidha ritual. to divers modes of pride or delusion (as for instance in vidhasu na vikampanti at S. in discussing a doubtful reading at Sum.' . to ask them to wait till with them to call upon the Blessed One. IV. round 1 Ku/adanta's mouth means. 269. appurtenances. and ask him about it.' Used ethically of the Arahats As in § Vidha. not to go. 'accessories. of course. [134] Then they were satisfied. 168. has under vidho should be entered under vidha. a common one. And and persuaded him. Vidha is frequent. fillings. All that he All that he has under both words should be struck out. which has always the one meaning mode. ' : the I have heard that Then Ku^adanta thought Samara Gotama understands about the successful sacrifice with its threefold method Now I don't sixteen accessory instruments. mode of rite or lays hold of the ambiguity of the word. It is given doubtfully by Buddhaghosa. ' no doubt.

verily his majesty would be acting wrongly. : . [135] he said " So I would fain. 'Twere well if I were to offer a great sacrifice that should ensure me weal and welfare for One spake as follows Long ago. his chaplain. Now when King Wide-realm was once sitting alone in meditation he became anxious at the thought "I have in abundance all the good things a mortal can enjoy.' Very well. 1 I 75 Well then. The remnant left unpunished would still go on harassNow there is one method to adopt to ing the realm.THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. give ear and listen attentively and I will speak." king's country. offer a great sacrifice let the venerable one instruct me how for my weal and telling : And — — my welfare for many days. 295). Literally 'he ' who has a great realm' plate/ says — =just as we might say Lord Broadacres. 2 Such as jewels and Buddhaghosa (p. : many 1 days. with great wealth and large property with stores of silver and 2 of goods and corn with gold. a fresh tax. name Wide-realm . O Brahman. is 11. 'Thereupon the Brahman who was chaplain said " : The harassed the villages There are dacoits abroad who pillage and townships. the few objects a wandering mendicant carries about with him. the solution of which is the basis of the dialogue. and who make the roads Were the king. . Here again the word is turned into a riddle. Sire. to the king and harried. — . Vi^ita) mighty. O Brahman. and so on. But perchance his majesty might think 'I'll soon put a stop to these scoundrels' game by degradation : and banishment. he had the Brahman. and fines and bonds and death But their licence cannot be satisfactorily put a stop to so. O Brahman. of aids to enjoyment his treasure-houses and his garners full. to levy unsafe. so long as that is so. . . The whole wide circle of the earth is mine by conquest to possess. the smallest things one wears. Sir." . ! ' — the 1 furniture of a room. ' there was a king by 1 (Mahci. called and him all that he had thought.' said Ku/adanta in reply and the ' Blessed 10.

either or who are Brahmans of in the country or the towns or who either in the country or the towns position. will dwell with open doors. either in the country or . in the king's realm who devote themselves to trade. [136] and did as he had said. following each his business. I." Then King Wide-realm. the realm no more. put a thorough end to this disorder. dancing their children in their arms. Brahman. dancing their children in their arms. Brahman. And the country became quiet and at peace. Ra^a-porise. welfare for many " I intend to offer a the towns. the king give wages and food. will no longer harass following the realm the king's revenue will go up the country and the populace.176 V. either in the country or the towns or who are ministers and officials of his." Then let his majesty the king send invitations to whomsoever there may be in his realm who are Kshatriyas. pleased will be quiet and at peace one with another and happy. there be in the king's realm who devote themsoever selves to government service 1 to them let his majesty Then those men. 85. each his own business. pleased one with another and happy. — sacrifice — let my weal and my ' days. vassals of his. accepted the word of his chaplain. be to Wholet his majesty the king give capital. to them let his majesty Whosoever there the kine £ive food and seed-corn. On this word. . dwelt with open doors." Then King Wide-realm. The country want to offer that great the venerable one instruct me how for at peace. are householders of substance. KC7ADANTA sutta. . . them t . Let the venerable ones give their sanction to what will be to me for weal and welfare for many days. compare M. 12. the locative singular of a neuter . harassed And the king's revenue went up. And the populace. . saying great sacrifice. accepted the : ' O 1 abstract form. ' O And those men. The I disorder is at an end. Whosoever there be in the kind's realm who devote themselves to keeping cattle and the farm. and is said 'So King Wide-realm had " : his chaplain called.

of goods and corn. his enemies by his very glory He was a believer. : — ' and on the father's. The latter word is here twisted round Mil. with great wealth. 298 . and no slur was cast upon him.THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. become wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice 2 13. 115. and the note at • I. word of 1JJ his chaplain. 297). I. and bowmen). Vin. 'King Wide-realm was gifted in the following eight ways He was well born on both sides. to a 8 sense. a noble giver. The time is suitable. side — 4 — 1 — 4 — 4 1 — — 4 : — 1 'Because it was right and fit to do such deeds when one was young and (p. pleasant in appearance. gifted with great beauty of complexion. 411. 379. on the mother's . and large property. 2 spend one's days in selfishness. in four divisions (of elephants. and petitioners might draw. with his treasure-houses and his garners full He was powerful. a welling spring whence Samawas and Brahmans. II. beggars. of aids to enjoyment. . burning up. fair in colour. methinks. the poor and the wayfarers. a doer of good deeds He was learned in all kinds of knowledge He knew the meaning of what had been said. Opana = udapana. Sum.' says Buddhaghosa rich. 3 keeping open house. chariots. and " could explain This saying has such and such a " and that such and such meaning. inspiring trust. in command of an army. — — : O king 4 » ! " Thus did these four. new I. cavalry. [137] and did as he had said. 236 Vinaya Texts/ II. in respect of birth He was handsome. N . of pure descent back through seven generations. fine in presence. as colleagues by consent. And they each Kshatriyas and ministers and Brahmans and householders made alike reply " Let his majesty the king celebrate the sacrifice. and no reproach. in old age to give gifts would be no good. with stores of silver and gold. and generous. stately to behold He was mighty. and then. Compare M. loyal and disciplined. To Ya««assa parikkhara.

" let not the king harbour such regret. the chaplain. — ' ' [138] ' 14. Should his majesty the king. will be the portion any such regret as of my wealth used up herein. and the exegesis (as a fourth). with no slur cast upon him. and no reproach in respect of birth 1 — a student repeater who knew the mystic verses by heart. KUTADANTA SUTTA.178 ' V. alas. the sacrifice had begun. and able to think out things present or past or future * And these eight gifts of his. whilst he is offering the great sacrifice. before starting on the O : ' Great. before 15. and wise most the second. feel " Great. he knew that his present prosperity was a gift tq him by the good deeds done to others in the past. the phonology. 1 . alas. alas. The Brahman : the following four ways — his chaplain was gifted in He was well born on both sides. or intelligent. of pure descent back through seven generations. He was intelligent. gifted with He was — ' virtue that 1 had grown great — at foremost. feel any such regret " as Great. among those who hold out the ladle. too. became where. ' He was withal to furnish forth that sacrifice. Brahman. explained to King Wide-realm the three modes Should his majesty the king. became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice. has been the portion of my wealth used up herein. on the mother's and on the father's." let not the king harbour such regret' : " : : Buddhaghosa explains this as meaning that he knew the result of Karma. with the indices. versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore) and in the thirty marks on the body of a great man He was virtuous. Should his majesty the king.' Thus these four gifts of his. expert. too. learned in the idioms and the grammar. master of the Three Vedas. great sacrifice. established in virtue." let not the king harbour such regret. when the great sacrifice has been offered. expert and wise. and the legends as a fifth. the ritual. feel any such regret as will be the portion of my wealth used up herein. 'And further. and that there would be a similar result in future for his good deeds done now.

said there will come to your sacrifice. and men who refrain therefrom men who act evilly in respect of lusts.' then would they speak not For the consent of the four according to the fact. and men who harbour it not men whose views are wrong. explain to King Wide-realm the three modes. arrange the them let the king gratify. alone with their evil. the chaplain. and men who refrain therefrom men who take what has not been given. and men whose views are right. Sire. and men who refrain therefrom [139. the chaplain. and men who refrain therefrom men who speak lies. Brahman. in the text. Sire. and his Brahman has the four.THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. With regard to each and every one of these sixteen conditions the king may rest assured that it has been fulfilled. and men who do not men who slander. in them shall your rites. without himself having the eight personal gifts. the king has the eight. He can sacrifice. for them. and men who do not men who speak rudely. 1 This whole closing sentence is repeated. in order to prevent any com- Thus sacrifice punction that might afterwards. and men who do not men who chatter vain things. without the assistance of a Brahman who has the four personal gifts . ' I 79 did the chaplain. O Brahman. and men who covet not men who harbour illwill. 'And further. and be glad. of each of the sixteen. in ten ways. heart within find peace. O Brahman. 16. N 2 . whilst the king was carrying out the sacrifice. instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened his heart in sixteen " Should there be people who should say of the ways as he is offering the sacrifice king. King Wide-realm is sacrifice without having invited the four celebrating classes of his subjects. and possess his heart in peace . who do evil." 17. men who destroy the life of living things. 'And further. personal gifts. arise as " Now regards those who had taken part therein. For them who do well let your majesty offer." : — — — — — — — — — O : ' : . before the sacrifice had begun. 140] men who covet. classes has been obtained. before the had begun. Of each of these let them.

[142] the Kshatriya 19. KUTADANTA SUTTA. and the Brahmans to the west thereof. Thus. And the slaves and messengers and sacrificial spot. . their gift. mans of position. and oil. laid up. Let us too " make an after-sacrifice 20. you keep yours. and the Brahvassals. " Let his majesty accept it at our hands '" ! Do produce " and take away more with you 'When they had thus been refused by the king. whether of the country or of the towns. What each chose to do. O Brahman. went to King Wide-realm. no Dabbha grasses mown to strew around the posts. nor were any kinds of living creatures No trees were cut down to be used as put to death. ' . nor carried on their work weeping with tears upon their faces. one with the they went aside. and the largesse to the east of officials to the south thereof. neither nor fatted pigs. King Wide-realm is offering a great sacrifice. 8. 'And further. at that sacrifice were any oxen slain. Whoso chose to help. neither goats. my friends. that was left undone. and sugar only was that sacrifice . workmen there employed were driven neither by rods nor fear. and the householders of substance. 'So the Kshatriyas established a continual the king's sacrificial pit. he did what they chose not to do. and King Wide-realm ! : ! Sufficient wealth have I.l8o [141] 1 V. O Brahman. the of taxation that is just. there was a fourfold [143] was gifted with co-operation. and butter. O Brahman. were we to take other this wealth away again to our own homes. and milk. and honey. and the ministers and officials. nor fowls. he worked whoso chose not to help. Sire. and the householders to the north And the things given. accomplished. and the manner of thereof. and said " This abundant wealth. was in all respects like unto the great sacrifice of King Wide-realm himself. and considered thus " It would not beseem us now. With ghee. worked not. taking with them much wealth. have we brought hither : for the king's use. 'And further.

' [144] And what." or " It was to be. Brahman. verily his head would split in twain. those Brahmans tumult. how pure its accomplishment But Ku/adanta the Brahman sat there in silence. that sacrifice. had that sacrifice 22. But what is the reason. with more fruit and more advantage still than this ? Yes. and what 23. and kept up in a family. into some state of happiness in it ' heaven ' ? I And at that time Yes. do Then those Brahmans said to Ku/adanta not approve the good words of the Samara you in ' ! thus spoken. or the Brahman who officiated for him at that sacrifice." So " I thought : For a certainty the Samara Gotama himself must at that time have been King Wide-realm. are less Is there. ' performed. may that be ? The perpetual gifts kept up in a family where they are given specifically to virtuous recluses. and said: 'How ' : Why Gotama ' ' as well-said fail ? he who approves not by the Samara Gotama. that I admit. Gotama. And when he had lifted up their voices glorious the sacrifice. Does the venerable Gotama admit that he who celebrates such a sacrifice. But 1 was considering that the Samara Gotama does " Thus have I heard. after death. as chaplain. and less ' ' ' O O ' ' ' difficult and troublesome. and his officiating And there were three modes of the giving of four. was the Brahman who." but says only I do not to approve : for as well-said that which has been well spoken : like that then.' difficult Gotama.THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. why such perpetual givings specifically to virtuous recluses. of greater fruit and greater . is reborn at the dissolution of the body. there is. is what is called the This." nor " Thus behoves it not say " Thus it was then. any other sacrifice less troublesome. or causes to be celebrated. O Brahman. O Gotama. the cause. l8l Brahman with eight personal gifts. O Brahman. due celebration of a sacrifice in its threefold mode and with its furniture of sixteen kinds ' ! O 21.

And is there. O Gotama. attendants. says Buddhaghosa in a queue. less difficult and less troublesome.1 82 V. of greater advantage than all these four ? When a man with trusting heart takes upon himself ' He who — ' ' ' abstithe precepts abstinence from destroying life what has not been given abstinence nence from taking from evil conduct in respect of lusts abstinence from abstinence from strong. and the Order better than perpetual alms. O Gotama. may that be ? 24. O Gotama. any other sacrifice 25. better than the gift of dwelling places. 303). . of greater fruit and of difficult greater advantage than either of these ? Yes. there is. . there is. And why not ? Because at it beating with sticks takes place. better than accepting guidance. 1 The . better than the gift of a dwelling place. the root of carelessness that is a sacrifice better than open largesse. O Brahman. and push the recipients about. lying words maddening drinks. of greater fruit and of greater advantage than each and all of these three? Yes. nor such as have entered on the Arahat way. intoxicating. [145] And what. other sort of ' sacrifice.' . neither will the Arahats go.' And what. better than open largesse. make them stand use violence in doing so. And ' is ' ' 1 ' ' ' ' ' ' with trusting heart takes a Buddha as his that is a sacrifice guide. K^FADANTA SUTTA.' sacrifice [146] 26. at such a general largesse. and the Truth. any other of greater fruit and less difficult and less troublesome. — — petual alms. advantage than that other sacrifice with its three modes and its accessories of sixteen kinds ? To the latter sort of sacrifice. O Gotama. O Gotama. And therefore are such perpetual gifts above the ' ' l . where such things are not. may that be ? The putting up of a dwelling place (Vihara) on behalf of the Order in all the four directions.' there. any other sacrifice less and less troublesome. O Brahman. (p. O Brahman. .' And is there. and seizing by the throat But they will go to the former. better than per.

The Introductory paragraphs on the appearance of a Buddha. 27. The description of the First GAana. may that be ? the long passage from the ' 40. The paragraph on Solitude. O Brahman. 2. there is. 8. The Silas (minor morality). any other ' sacrifice less troublesome. §j ' (ibid. §§ of §§ 85-96 of the knowledge of the destruction of the Asavas.] This. in succession (as in the Sama7Ha-phala.' 28. 62 (of the text).74) on tne First 6V£ana. of greater fruit difficult and and greater advantage than the previous sacrifices.' then said of the Second. down : § 75 (p. either way and further And 97-98).. of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all these five ? Brahman. — to 4. O jj [The answer is Sama^a-phala. 'Mindful and self- possessed. ' The paragraph on Content. and Fourth 6^anas. O Brahman. the deadly intoxications or floods mention 83. 84). > Gotama. 3. §§ 77-82). 7. The paragraph on Confidence. the conversion of a hearer. as follows 1. and of the Insight arising is [The same from knowledge (omitting direct inclusive) (ibid. his preaching. p.] there is no sacrifice man can celebrate. Third. One : Gotama.' Yes. Ku/adanta the Brahman Most ' said to the Blessed excellent. The paragraph on 'Guarded The paragraph on is the door of his senses.THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. difficult ' less O ' [147] And what. And when he had thus spoken. are the words of thy mouth. 183 'And and is there. The paragraphs on the Five Hindrances. 9.' 5. O Gotama. most excellent Just as if a man were to set up ! O . higher and sweeter than this. is a sacrifice less less troublesome.' 6. and his renunciation of the world.

will have the seven hundred bulls. And I [148] myself. and put away perplexity and gained full confidence. the : dived deep down into it. and then did he proclaim the doctrine alone have won that is to say. betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. will readily take the dye. of the rams set free. and he knew Whatsoever has a beginning. addressed the Blessed One and said : . as one who. . just even so did Ku/adanta the Brahman.' 30. Gotama. and the defilement of lusts. and may cool breezes waft around them.184 V. And just as a clean cloth. believing in heart. in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. the vanity. the Buddhas doctrine of sorrow. To them eat green grass . And when the Blessed advantages of renunciation. understood it. of right conduct. even I. KtirADANTA SUTTA. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. and the seven hundred goats. I. what has been thrown down. has taken him as his guide. of its cessation. and the seven hundred O I Let them grant their life. And then the Brahman Ku/adanta. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms just even so has the truth been made known to me in many a figure by the venerable Gotama. of its origin. and the seven hundred heifers. who had passed beyond doubt. obtain the pure and spotless Eye for the Truth. unprejudiced. as one who had seen the Truth. upraised.' 29. with all stains in it washed away. and of the Path. as long as life endures. One became aware that Ku/adanta the Brahman had become prepared. he spake to him of generosity. to the Doctrine and the — Order. ' softened. even while seated there. and the seven hundred steers. of heaven. from this day forth. May the venerable One accept me as a disciple. of the danger. and drink fresh water. who had become dependent on no other for his knowledge of the teaching of the Master. had mastered it. Then the Blessed One discoursed to Ku/adanta the Brahman in due order that is to say. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away.

Then the Brahman Ku/adanta. both hard and soft. And at daybreak he had sweet food. seeing that the Blessed One had accepted. both hard and soft. put on his outer robe. instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Kii/adanta the Brahman with religious discourse and then arose from his seat and departed thence. with sweet food. and sat down there on the seat prepared for him. .THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. members And : ' O . with his own hand.' And the Blessed One. . ' 1 85 May the venerable Gotama grant me the favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. by silence. Ku/adanta Sutta is ended. and also the of the Order with him. and keeping his right towards him as he passed. made ready at the pit prepared for his sacrifice. Gotama and the meal is ready. went with the brethren to Ku/adanta's sacrificial pit. and had the time announced to the Blessed One It is time. And Ku/adanta the Brahman [149] satisfied the brethren with the Buddha at their head. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal. he departed thence. and cleansed the bowl and his hands. who had dressed early in the morning. rose from his seat. till they refused any more.' the Blessed One signified. and taking his bowl with him. Ku/adanta the Brahman took a low seat and seated himself beside And when he was thus seated the Blessed One him. his consent.

he leads the discourse again up to Arahatship along the series of mental states set out in the Sama«#a-phala. I think. and it is in fact added.) It was to clear his mind of this notion First the question of the ability hear heavenly sounds being raised. However this may be. And being asked what their object then is. and that it has form. who raises the first point. There the Sutta might appropriately have ended. The form of this Sutta is remarkable. he gives no answer.INTRODUCTION TO THE mahAli sutta. And though. This second part of our Dialogue might form a separate Sutta. for the reason stated below. as a Sutta by itself. and the context must. as the aim. not containing the Silas can belong to it. was known to harbour the heresy that there is a soul. along the Eightfold Path. And no Sutta division is therefore called the Sila Vagga. — Why Buddha specially raised the second point. The of question raised in that second part is one of a group questions on which primitive Buddhism expresses no . the Sutta must have been already a double one. But the Buddha himself then raises a totally whether the soul and the body are the different question same. be supplied from the passage translated above. to see heavenly sights and the Buddha says that it is not for the sake of acquiring such powers that people join the Order under him. Our Sutta only That part. (The words the commentator uses are very short. contains the Silas in the second part. We have two distinct subjects discussed. before it that the received a place in that division of the Buddhist scriptures where it now stands. to the then is it also present division of the Dialogues. must have belonged to it when the dialogues were arranged as they now stand. he gradually leads the questioner on to Arahatship. Each Sutta in that division incorporates The the whole of the very ancient tract called the Silas. 46. § 10 on p. included here? Buddhaghosa's answer is that the young noble Mahali. must have had its present form. therefore.

I. . 40 The remaining two. There are others mentioned occasionally by themselves but these form the usual group. Whether the world is eternal or not. the king had all the blind . Udana Po///fopada Sutta (translated below). and had an elephant Each of the blind men touches a different brought in. like a winnowing basket. the city brought together. Whether the soul is the same as the body. after death. Whether the world is infinite or not. and p. Gotama thereupon tells a story how. Whether a man who has attained to the truth (a Tath&gata) exists. 319.. respectively). There the various nonBuddhist teachers of the time are represented as expressing strong opinions one way or the other on these questions and as getting so excited about them that they came to blows. a similar riot having taken place. They are called the Ten vyakatani. &c. 484. Besides being often mentioned in the Dialogues translated in the present work and elsewhere. He who had felt its back said it in men VI. Of them. pp. Childers {sub voce \>anho) renders but that must be wrong Is this the life ? is this the body ? this 1 ' ' See Sum. or distinct : A — from 7-10. and in any way. 2. in ancient days. I. 3. the Indeterminates. points not determined. M.INTRODUCTION. He who had felt the head said it was like a He who had felt the ear said it was water-pot. 1 87 opinion. iv of the Sawyutta Nikaya).. it 2 . He who had felt the body said it was like a granary. The position taken by the primitive Buddhists as to these Indeterminates is so often referred to that it undoubtedly was an important item in the Buddha's actual belief. 393 . those numbered 5 and 6.. what an elephant is like. It is rendered very clear by the old legend put into the Buddha's mouth in the Udana just quoted. . He who had felt the tusk said it was like a plough-share. those numbered 1-4 and 7-10 are speculations already condemned in the Brahma-^ala (above. 6. they form the subject of the Avyakata Sawzyutta (No. . 35 foil. incorporated in our present Sutta. 5. He who had felt the trunk said it was like a plough-handle. 2 Tarn givam tarn sartraw. 4. or not. and they are as follows 1 1. The king then asks them to explain part of the elephant. form the subject of the Galiya. 4 : Sawyutta IV. 44 in vol. 27 foil. pp. He who had felt its legs said it was like a pillar.

the same as the body it must be remembered that the negative is the view now known to — . by the fever of excitement they conduce neither to detachment of heart. by resentment. the puppet show. indeed universally prevalent among unthinking held people throughout the world that it was almost certainly The general opinion about the soul in the also in India. nor to peace. the entanglement. many centuries ' — ' ! I . and came to blows. they violently discuss Poor folk they see but one side of the shield To discuss such questions is The inference is obvious. the writhing. : He who had He who had felt its And each one was so mortar. nor to tranquillity. being based on insufficient evidence. are not only useless they are also. by wrangling. S. sure he was right that clamoured one against the other. or is not. nor to the insight of the higher stages of the Path. 1 insisted upon. mere speculation. nor to freedom from lusts. .1 88 like vi. nor afterwards. the desert. M. a broom.Wrangling on them. For instance. And. tail said it it was like bristles said was — In such points Brahmans and recluses stick . smaller than the body. very closely the position taken up. — — — be so widely. nor to wisdom. of speculation are accompanied by sorrow. As for the special point of our Sutta the lesson that no wise min will condescend to discuss the question whether the soul is. it was apparently regarded as a subtle and very of the impalpable. as usual in the ethical corollary is very emphatically primitive Buddhism. mahAli sutta. 455. but still material. R. to Arahatship. felt its was a like a pestle. from the Buddhist point of view. at least when during life. double of the body deceased. in the West. though after death.' In other words the speculations. and his followers. A. because it is based on insufficient This is the philosophic position and it resembles evidence. It was the refusal to 1 allow any place for this universal I. wrong that is. judge by for January 1H99) it is looked upon as being. a disadvantage in the struggle towards the only aim worth striving for the perfection and emancipation of Arahatship. useless. they Then comes the moral to the amusement of the king. There (to pre-Buddhistic Upanishads is somewhat different. therefore. It is several times pointed out in the Dialogues ten speculations that they of these The jungle. by Hume — ' — . the passages set out in my article in the J. it flies away from the body through an aperture in the top of the head.

This simple. 87. in all the oblique cases. that there is great temptation to attempt to find a loophole through which at least a covert or esoteric belief in the soul. so fundamental to the right understanding of primitive Buddhism. himself. so fundamentally opposed to what is usually understood as religious belief. But for the nominative atta. He rejected entirely the really very use of the word the old animistic sense. 1896). attana. and 306 times in the sense of emotional or intellectual 2 qualities or disposition ' ' ' . substituted. in which the Word occurs altogether 449 times. loophole. .' Gotama much the same usually as character. Even in the old authorised translation of our Bible. only 85 times in the animistic sense. he acknowledged the reality of the emotional and intellectual dispositions. which is more clear. it is used 55 times merely in the sense of person *. the position is also so original. in the . pp. meaning of course. 37. Yet that it is essential there should be no mistake about it. 39-42. if not indeed always. so often insisted on. said ' Action. and the notes above. say aw is almost always. He retained it in a personal of ' oneself. 3 And though. The position is so absolute. 'We were in the ship two hundred and seventy-six souls. can be recognised. and perhaps the most original.' which comes to In this respect he came very near to our modern use of the word in such expressions as a high-souled man or a soul for music' And it is worth calling attention to the fact that even in Shakspere more than half the times the word is used it is in this secondary. and in future life (that is of course of a soul). the use of which might have been misunderstood. in some sort of way. 4 See the quotations in my 'American Lectures' (London.' Where the others ' said ' soul. will make Gotama's position.' Actsxxvii. feature No other religion of which we have in Gotama's teaching. There are about a score of ambiguous passages but a different decision as to them would not change the proportion to any sub2 . 1 stantial extent. sufficient records to enable us to form an opinion on the point has been constructed without the soul. he refused absolutely to look upon them as a unity. &c. both in the Pi/akas themselves and in extra-canonical works 4 in sense. and the efforts to find one have always met with unswerving opposition. ethical. as part There is no of so widely accepted a religious system. emotional sense.' &c. pp. 1 89 belief in a semi-material soul in his own system that is the most striking.INTRODUCTION. both in India and elsewhere. 3 Attano. 81.

has been hitherto misunderstood. 1 Katha-vatthu-ppakararca-a/MakatM. The names of these schools are the 1 may yet hope Sammitiya and the Va^i-puttaka a work which will contain their arguments in their to recover own words. in this world." Buddhaghosa's explanation is the only one possible in — . are got rid of. be understood by bearing in mind its seven constituent parts. wisdom. But if the opinion condemned at pp. so called because of the eight good qualities or characteristics which make up The Progress along this path is divided into tour eight parts. . P. concentration. and to put aside as unworthy of discussion. 8 (in the Journal of the Text Society for 1889). 156 A. which the Buddha. joy. . from the tone of the first chapter of the Katha Vatthu. is connoted by the term can best. he will attain to that. 14-19 of the Katha Vatthu be really theirs. intelligence. — — — .190 VI.' the sambodhi by which is meant that of the three higher stages as his furthermost aim in other words. II. parayano) explains this as 'having the Four Truths as his But Buddhaghosa (Sum. MAHALI SUTTA. the Samself-possession. II. goes out of his way to raise in the form of a question. I. Pali p. Bonds. calm. then it would seem that they held a view practically the same as that opinion of Mahali. of But it is clear those Buddhists who made such attempts. 27 Path. § 13. 313) says: 'He has support. &c. which is essential to the And what three higher stages of this state of Arahatship. investigation into the truth. The Buddhist ideal is a subjective state to be reached. In describing the first and lowest of the four stages of the M. Our available records are not at present sufficient to enable us to judge either of the numbers.) of the disciple not that he has then attained the sambodhi. the ten so-called stages The Sambodhi is the insight. perhaps. as the commentator declares it is. awakening. We expression sambodhi-parayano used in this Sutta. and magnanimity. it is always stated (Digha I. he has only attained abhisamaya Childers (sub voce but that he is sambodhi-parayano. and from the express statements of the commentary on it. or of the importance. that there were such Buddhists as early as the time of Asoka. bogg/ianga its — energy. 238. by going along an eightfold path. in which certain evil dispositions. . S. They belonged to two out of the eighteen schools of thought which had then arisen. in our Sutta.

lower than.' and the precepts laid down for laymen. can never even result in conversion without the awakening of the new life. Buddhahood'). towards the attainment.INTRODUCTION. 186. It is therefore very doubtful whether the word conversion should be used. then it is most interesting and important as giving us the earliest mention of a doctrine not found in the Pali Pi/akas. 223. why we should not understand Asoka to mean that he had started. of Arahatship. and more in accordance with all the rest of the Asoka There would seem to be no sufficient reason expressions. word does not necessarily imply this. in English translations of Buddhist texts. and is confirmed by every other passage in the Pali Pi/akas where the word sambodhi has been traced. are. along the line of the Paramitas. but even to members of the Order (bhikkhus). And further. this is the only meaning of the word so far found in the Pi/akas. and But the entirely opposed to their view of Buddhism. doubtless in some future birth. in his own opinion. 1 ' I. in some future birth. from the Pi/aka point of view. and the other . 182 and II. this entering on the Path the Eightfold Path to the wisdom of the Arahat is a quite different There are numerous thing from becoming a Buddhist. nor does the context The doctrine spoken of with contempt. as the Lesser Vehicle is quite possible here. Mahayanist doctors. 1 9I the context. to express a man's . in his own opinion. towards the attainment. Inscriptions de Piyadasi. of Buddhahood.' If this means that he had started. and has not been corrected by any of the distinguished scholars who have discussed the meaning of Asoka's eighth edict in which the word occurs \ The king there says that he set out for the sambodhi. It never means the wisdom of a Buddha. ' ' ' — — ' ' ' ' See Senart. sub voce sambodhi ('attainment of Buddhaship. that of the Path. passages where the very nature of the discourse held not only to laymen (upasakas). 'entering upon the Path. along the Eightfold Path. on a different plane altogether. shows that they were not supposed to have attained as yet to the state of mind described as Both the rules of the Order. Acting up to those rules. but always the insight of the higher stages of the path to Arahatship.' authorities referred to at I. Whether this be so or not. apart from. But it is necessary to point this out because the distinction is of the first importance for the history of Buddhism and also because the erroneous rendering of Burnouf has been followed by Childers in the Dictionary. by the require it. carrying out those precepts.

200. 51. 234. 156) in the answer to the question. I. 765) that even here. ioi). and the same reply is expanded further on in the same book (IV. The word sambodhi-parayano ' occurs in the passage above quoted (Digha I. 2 and. . A. or that of having one's eyes opened to the higher life the second is the more accurate use of the word. 2 Childers thinks 1 sambodho is merely another form of sambodhi. . had all the graces an Arahat should have Sutta.I92 VI. and daw</a-parayano at M. as such. of the member of the Buddhist Order) ? Opponents and controversialists are fond of asking this question. What is the aim of the life of the recluse (that is. becoming an upasaka or a bhikkhu. compare ibid. in the standing phrase used to state that so and so has become an Arahat (M. I. V. Compare brahma-parayano at Mil. and ought always to ' ' — — be implied first in the first. 233) by the explanation that the way of gaining this understanding is to follow out the whole of the Eightfold Path And this is repeated further on (S. No 47. to describe the Arahat. but quoted by Moggallil putta Tissa at Katha Vatthu XXII. the aim is said to be the complete understanding of sorrow (dukkhassa pari««a). S. 88. p. attainment of Buddhahood. with which we &c). 117 p. not yet traced. 7) the object is said to be the destruction of the seven bonds. 7 Of course the above is not intended to imply that the Buddha had not attained the sambodhi. Thus. # MAHALI SUTTA. brahma^ariyaparayano at A. 24 and 79 of the Ma^/zima Collection) lead up to the same conclusion. at the end of Chapter V. started. In the Sawyutta IV. and also A. : And sambodhi-parayano. . he will reach up to the sambodhi. P. 6 to Arahatship. p. and it is ' It is never the interesting to notice how it is answered. II. it is said he has realised the aim of the higher The Ratha-vinita and life (brahma/£ariya-pariyosana?#). compare Mil. For though the word conversion is used in English in two senses either that of joining the outward organisation of a new faith. 478. In the Anguttara (IV. of whom it is said (Itivuttaka. 14. 75. N. Sakuludayi Dialogues (Nos. is only another way of stating what is expressed by amata-parayano ('having the ambrosia of Arahatship as his aim ') in a Sutta. 60. the way to which is said to be the Eightfold Path (M. II. 42 202 S. and often elsewhere).. but always (though the phraseology differs) the attainment of Arahatship. 503. 431 and the Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana : = . in this world. the destruction of which is precisely Arahatship. the Kulla. 49. He was an Arahat. Ill. So sambodhi-patto is used in the Sutta Nipata.

Kondawwa. O . is not connected with any personal peculiarity. Moggallana. Malla. is only found as yet in one ambiguous phrase (M. On the same page of this Sutta we have two instances of a curious manner of address not infrequent in the Pi/akas. Koliya. Vaggi. 5. &c. introduced to us at the beginning of the Sutta by the name 'Hare-lip (0#//addha). Buli. addressed as Kassapa. Bharadva^-a. S. Maw^ika-putta (=Upaka). like our own so-called Christian names. Nanda or Ananda (Joy). O/Maddha (Hare-lipped). Kassapa. Vedehi -putta (a name of A^atasattu king of Magadlja).INTRODUCTION. called in Pali the mula-nama. but several others are already pretty There are at least eight different modes of speaking clear. Some of these names (like similar ones among ourselves) are of very obscure derivation. 211. &c). such as Sari-putta (the more usual name by which the famous disciple Upatissa is called). A nickname arising out of some personal peculiarity. is addressed both by Nagita and by the Buddha. Ku/adanta (witha protruding tooth). the former II. The name of the mother. such as Opama««a. less). I. but as yet very imperfectly understood. The name of the clan. IV. we find him suddenly. with putta (son) added to it. bowl). There are several points in this question of address which cannot yet be solved. LiM^avi. but others are clear enough as adjectives with a good or lucky meaning. Such are Tissa (after the lucky star of that name). And the young Li££//avi. Va££/*ayana. Kaw^arayana. Abhaya (Fear- A and many others. called in Pali Kula-nama. 97. These are usually patronymic in form. 6. 8. 4. the discussion of its meaning would be premature. neither by his name 0///^addha. Bhaddiya (nearly the same as our Frederick). 17. And such names occur so often that it would seem as if nearly everybody was known by a nickname. 233. such as Sakka. This. As II. Kawhayana. of or to a person i. but familiar way. Such ' : — are Lambaka««a (Hanging-eared). personal name. Anathapiwrf'ika man with the wooden (the beggars' friend). and without any explanation. Vessa- yana. Kalama. 1 9. Vase/Ma. Devadatta (onr Theodore). what we should call 3. but (and again without any explanation) as Mahali. the Gotta or gens. 2. After being told that Nagita was the name of the Buddha's personal attendant. The name of a surname or family name. Darupattika (the All these are used in a quite friendly. nor as Likfchavi.

On the rules regulating the choice as to which one of these various sorts of names should. Pokkharasadi Subhagavaniko. thapati. &c. A. Saw^aya at M. 173 IV. . Thus of the eighteen mentioned in the books. 56. &c. author of the Katha Vatthu). and a mother or father. classified under the next division. or of the trade.194 VL MAHALI SUTTA. whose child has become famous. = Tissa. the following observations may be made. ( Less frequently the reverse is the case. The name of the position in society.' lastly 1 ' ' ' ' ' . to distinguish between two or more different people of the same name. or from the Occasionally the root-form of family. has -putto added to it 1 rathakarain a similar way (Vanganta-putto. It is not considered courteous among equals. of so and so. never used in addressing a person.' the Todeyyan. or of the Todeyya clan. but prefixed or added to the mula or gotta name. 132. 166 II. 159. gahapati. that is. I. . Uruvela-Nadi. either the nickname or the m Ma- nama. three are distinguished. Bahiyo Daru£iriyo. 16.. I. under the circumstances. a (for instance So«ada«^a and Ku/adanta above in the Suttas so called. and that the mother's name is never a personal name but always taken either from the clan. It is noteworthy that the name of the father is never used in this way. in narrative sentences. 8. not contain7. though his gotta name is . mere general term of courtesy or respect. 178 54. in Kassapas A Such addressed. ivuso. — narrative. be used in any particular case. as of the eight different Pittas one is distinguished as Ma^Miof the seventeen different Bharadva^as one is kasandika Other instances are probably distinguished as Kapa//zika. of the person mahara^a. or « . ayye. Godhi-putta = Devadatta). . or the occupation. should rather be putto). Todeyya-putto But these cases. to which she belonged. bhante. is simply referred to as the mother. 'her ' son of the man of Tudi Todeyya-putto may be rendered of the sons of the dwellers in Tudi (a well-known village). Hatthako A/avako. which are rare. 6. The Buddha addresses Brahmansas Brahma. II. or father. such as ing any special application to the person addressed &c.and Gaya-Kassapa respectively . are brahmawa. except in the case of close familiarity. to use either of the two sorts of personal names. Lastly there is the local name. . ( ( Mantawi-putta Moggali-putta = Pu«/za). the name of the clan. 127. £a«usso?n at M. .

A. because he kept his nails long) by may On the other hand the his gotta name. The Buddha addresses members of his own clan. 354. Po///. 91. a Brahman. 228-250 he calls Sa££ako. 197 . The same holds good of the junior members of but some at least of the more distinguished among them are always addressed by him either by their gotta. by their personal names (so of Vappa. the Nigant/ia. Buddha usually addresses ascetics. addresses the ascetic Pilotika by his gotta name of Va^Mayana. At M. This custom of addressing people by their gotta name. I.. This is only in accord with the usage followed by others Thus Gawusso/zi. A. and everybody. 321. Probably every Brahman. of Mahanama. or by their mother's. Potaliya.). 305). A. 1 95 A. 100. in the case of Sarabha. They called their own Order a gotra (ibid. addresses the Buddha by his gotta name. A. The gotta names used in the clans are the same as those given in Brahman books to Brahmans. 186. Caina-Sdtras. Gotami. This solitary exception be because of his youth. apparently a clan name (his gotta was Kawhayawa). I. given. and that the clans must have adopted them from the Brahmans. besides the Buddha. II. and Assa^i. Akasa-gotta. cit. which is again Aggi-vessayana. also calls Sakkako by his gotta name {loc. 220 . each family or gens taking the gotta name of O 2 . though he is addressed as Kassapa by his nephew. And at 40 he calls Vekha«aso by his gotta name of Ka££ana. 284). II. M. is addressed by the Buddha simply as Nagita. III. II. at M. I. a member of the Buddhist order. Ka££ana. I. 327). the novice Siha. Sikha at name is given. name (compare Moggallana. and apparently thought it worldly to recognise the existence of foil. We have no certain instance of such a name in any other case. for instance. 232. I. and every member of each of the free clans. 178 one may conclude that these also are probably gotta names. the Order.INTRODUCTION. Kassapa. D. Moggallana). ' any other. Sariputta). When therefore we find other ascetics addressed by the Buddha by the same name as has been used M. though his gotta But we have had one instance above where he addresses a young Brahman as Amba//^a. no doubt. It has been concluded that they are Brahman names. Thus at M.). in the introductory narrative (as. 175. I. had a gotta name.' II. was expressly forbidden to Wxgantkas (Jacobi.apada. for instance. Nagita. by his gotta name Aggi-vessayana. but by their gotta name. whether members of his Order or not. II. as Gotama. not as paribb&^aka. I. 497-500 he calls Dighanakho (so called. no doubt a common one in certain cases. not a Buddhist.

Ill. is Kalamo a gotta name or a clan name ? To what classes of the people was the use of gotta names limited. and compare contra . 33 13 by eva/«-va«»o. It would seem that the nickname. II. who and that the claim was admitted to be also bore the names well founded./a was dropped for the gotta name in the case of a recluse. the usage referred to. as gotra has in the later law books written by the priests. Even the title Brahma. that still remain. I. 242 evawz-gotto at M. in this matter of Is A/ara. both as to general principles and as to details. 2 188. Evaw-namo is followed at D.' p. A. How comes it then that the number of gottas referred to is so very small ? Are there much more than a score altogether ? What light does the meaning of the mula and gotta names throw on the religious conceptions and social customs of the in From 1 people ? I hope to return to these and similar questions when time to publish I can in find my Pali Onomasticon. 75. when the Pi/akas were composed. purohita priest. As shown above. a mula-nama. and also than the descriptive general name or title of paribba^aka (wandering mendicant. 1 See I. my note at ' Buddhist Suttas. in speaking of a person. 278. I. and what is the historical explanation of this limitation ? Were there as many as a dozen clan names in Magadha and Kosala combined? What was exactly implied by the clan-name. the Kula-nama? The word gotta probably had the same meaning. 25 D. tended. by the very use of these names. for instance. their private chaplain. it would seem that the gotta name was considered as more honourable than either of the personal names. as followed by the Buddha and others. even Brahmans use these gotta names of non-Brahmans. we speaking to the person referred to by it. . but evidence of any effect of on names is at present very slight. when once generally known. All that we can fairly conclude is that the clans claimed. a nickname or names. their But in that should surely expect to find some evidence that such There is no priests were usually maintained in such clans. MAHALI SUTTA. of the names the Pi/akas and in the older inscriptions.196 VI. What has here been said is probably sufficient to make the use of the names in this Sutta clear 2 . recluse). . to drive the others out of use. evidence of the kind. to be descended from the same ancestors as the Brahmans. social distinctions S. There are a number of problems. But it is never used case . unsolved.

a Buddha. MAHALI SUTTA. who went out from a Sakya family to adopt the religious life. its princes and peoples. with a hall below surrounded by pillars only. happy.the Himalaya range. such is the " That high reputation that has been noised abroad Blessed One is an Arahat. were lodging at Vesali. including the worlds above of the gods. is now staying at Vesali at the Gabled Hall in the Great Wood. he makes his knowledge known to others. who had been sent on pressing business of one kind or another from Kosala and Magadha. The Blessed One in the Great Wood \ Now at that time a number of Brahmans. ' : : was once staying at Vesali at the Gabled Hall abounding all in wisdom and goodness. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. . as — mans. lovely in its The Great Wood stretched from Vesali northwards to . Thus have I heard. In it they had laid out a pleasaunce for the Order.VI. by himself. And they heard the news They say that the Sarnawa Gotama of the Sakya clan. who knows He. a Blessed One. [The Aim of the Brethren. lovely in its progress. lovely in 1 — its origin. thoroughly knows and worlds. the Brahmas. a teacher for gods and men. a fully awakened one. and the Maras. The truth. and facing the west.] [150] i. and having known it. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. and made there a storied house. it were. face to face this universe. and above it the gabled apartments in which the Buddha so often stayed. and the world below with its recluses and Brah- sees.

These envoys of the Brahmans apart. not go away without seeing the venerable Gotama. ' Then they down round ' We : . came to the Great Wood. 1 came up to the venerable 4. he said to him from Kosala and Magadha. not a fitting time. 2 Kassapa to call upon the Blessed One and Harelip the Li/£/&£avi. And Hare-lip the Li^^avi. and reverently standing apart. the Arahat. many of them. too.' August One. I. 'Twere best. But Siha. to call upon the He has retired into solitude. the Buddha. = MUller (J. ' : O . Kassapa. p. T. too. sat see him ? I will not down apart. the gens. in And good is it to all its fullness and in all its purity. IV. 233-238 the latter is not a member of the Order at all. O 1 He was the son of Nagita' s sister. with a retinue of his clan and going up to the venerable Nagita.. both in the spirit and in the letter. 97) confounds This the gotta. venerable Nagita. S. Professor the two.' 3. He must who is Edward is a Li&Wavi. pay visits to Arahats like that. as therefore be different from the other Siha. have come. Nagita. the Buddha for we wish to And on receiving a similar reply he. MAHALI SUTTA." 2. 2 179-188. for we wish to see ' : him. and to the Gabled Hall. Sirs. ' Now at that time the venerable Nagita was acting as the personal attendant on the Blessed One. too. with a retinue of his clan. consummation. So those Brahmans from Kosala and Magadha went out to the Great Wood. . and shown so much intelligence as a learner that he was a favourite with all. a novice and saluted him. has come to do the same. and standing reverently Nagita. that all this folk should be allowed to see the Blessed One. he said to him Where. 1888. also A. and said Where is it. P. the higher life doth he make known.' . . ' ' : . he saluted him. and to the Gabled Hall. saying go till I have seen the the Arahat.' ' [l5l] It is Blessed One.' sat will about. is the Blessed One now lodging. He had joined the Order as a novice when only seven years old. to which Nagita belonged. even with the Buddha himself. the hero of the story told at Vin.198 VI. that that venerable Gotama is lodging now. And they went to him. saying. doth he proclaim.

and saluted him. 2 This is again the name of the gotta. 316) calls him a ra^a. of rigid show how wrong this doctrine. which he could not hear. lone in fearsome woods.' I ' ' One. that the Buddha told the story (Gat. when went over to the Order. They are not things of nought. And Siha did so. And he went where the Blessed One was. Buddha was in extreme old age (M. those heavenly sounds. and 1 This young man became the the Buddha's personal attendant. Siha. Blessed One. mortification. But I cannot hear heavenly sounds like that. [152] Very well. I. ." Now. which he could not hear. Sunakkhatta of the LL£/£>£avis came 2 . of the uselessness of the efforts he himself had made when was to 1 And as put I. he creed of Kora the Kshatriya. Buddhaghosa (p. and seated himself on one And when he was thus seated he addressed the side. 398) Now scorched. 'Very yourself. sought the crown of faith. fitted to satisfy one's desires. he said to him even as he had said to Nagita. or have they no existence ? They are real. fitted to satisfy all one's desires.' ' 1 99 well.' But we do not hear that Sunakkhatta ever came back to the fold. Sir.THE AIM OF THE BRETHREN. Mahali to me. exciting longing in one's heart. without a fire. was. Spread out a mat for me in the shade in front of the house. pleasant to behold. but afterwards. And the Brahmans from Kosala and Magadha exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy and took their seats on one side. the gens. Siha. Naked. He.' said Siha the novice in assent to the venerable Nagita. afire within. from the house. bowed down to the Blessed One. are there such heavenly sounds. as a hermit. then.' And the Blessed One came out 5. and left the Buddhist selfit Kora's doctrine was the efficacy of asceticism. and sat down. Sir. with the retinue of his clan. years. and said ' : 1 Some few days l ago. and said: "It is only three since I first came under the Blessed can see heavenly forms. 82). forth by Sunakkhatta. Tell the Blessed One Very good. exciting longing in one's heart. pleasant. now frozen. Sir. And Hare-lip the Li/£>£/zavi also. and standing reverently apart.

200 ' VI. and for the same reason. for . higher and sweeter than that. one who canceremonies) not be reborn in any state of woe. he only sees the sights. Mahali. and of the following Bonds. one-sided concentration with the object of hearing. to have prac[153] 7. MAHALI SUTTA. pp. 'And what. Then since he has practised such heavenly sounds. they being thus real and not things of nought ? Suppose a recluse. 142-149) meaning of these three. or the North. the heavenly sounds. Mahali. And why so ? Because of the nature of his self-concentration.' 1 2. and not with the object of hearing or below. and Trust * 1 See full the my 'American Lectures' (London. and what the ultimate cause. why he could not hear them. heavenly sights and those heavenly [165] 10. Then. if he have practised [154] 8. he hears not the sounds. 1896. 9. or above. Mahali. one-sided concentration. may In the first place. for the sake of which they do so. Mahali. There are things. But what then is the proximate. tised one-sided concentration of mind with the object of in the seeing such heavenly forms in any one direction. Then sounds. is it for the sake of attaining to the that the brethren practice of such self-concentration the religious life under the Blessed One ? lead No. 'And so also. ' ' — — not the sights. Sir. ' since the practised self-concentration with the sights and double object in view. he has ' ' ' ' 1 in the efficacy of good works and becomes a converted man. or the West. Then. Sir. in any one direction. a brother by the complete destruction of the Three Bonds (the Delusions of self. in any one direction. East. or across. self-concentration with the double But suppose. and is assured of Doubt. or the South. And why not ? Because of the nature of his selfconcentration [s a mid hi]. he hears the sounds.' those other things be ? [156] 13. Mahali. but he sees 6. with the one object only in view. 11. he has practised object in view of those seeing and hearing. he both sees hears the sounds.

is a condition. who is there. are the conditions higher and sweeter 1 Sambodhi-parayano. That. accidentally as it were. Mahali. a brother by the complete destruction of the Five Bonds that bind people to this world 2 becomes an inheritor of the highest heavens 3 there to pass away. Delusion. 201 . thence never to return 4 That. Mahali. that emancipation of heart. Those who gain the highest heavens are so called because there is no birth there in the ordinary Each being. Mahali. 15). ' 2. And for There do they dwell them there is no return. and by reducing to a minimum lust. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. is a condition higher still and sweeter the sake of which the brethren lead the still. gestation or any of the other means attending the birth of beings in the world. — And then further. Such. has appeared there suddenly. and Sensuality and but the use of such a word would only mislead the reader. for ' — religious life ' under me. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. in the far Br/had Arawyaka Upanishad (VI. in that emancipation of mind. 4 It is impossible to ignore a reference here to the view expressed Opapatiko. Mahali. higher and sweeter. literally 'accidental'. known and realised and continues to abide here. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life ' . when a brother by the destruction of the Deadly Floods (or Intoxications Lusts. Mahali. and Ignorance) has. illwill. . So Buddhaghosa on Illwill. in the Brahma-worlds. 313) and my2 Introduction The above 3 three.' . to this Sutta. conception. away.THE AIM OF THE BRETHREN. in this visible world. is a condition higher still and sweeter. And then further. this (p. without generation. becomes a Oncereturner. Mahali. under me. way. Becomings. Mahali. by himself. is a condition higher still and sweeter. Mahali. which is Arahatship that. the real connotation of the word being that of the words I have chosen. and dullness. 'And then further. beyond. a brother by the complete destruction of those Three Bonds. 1 attaining to the Insight (of the stages higher still) That. one who on his first return to this world shall make an end of pain.

there is. what that ' ' method ' : ' ? it Verily is this Noble Eightfold Path. may be that path.' said those two as follows assent. came the greetings and complime. right aspirations. is there a method. and exchanged with me ments of politeness and courtesy. and give heed ' attentively. : — : . . There two recluses. venerable Gotama. word. : O ' and the body another ? Listen then. the realisation of these conditions ? 'Yes.202 VI. Mahali. 5. *? The appearance of a Buddha and his preaching. Sir. I was staying at Kosambl. 1 See - my 'American Lectures/ pp. and this the method. Mahali. that is to say Right views. for the realisation of these conditions. a path. is the soul 'How is it then. 3M-3 l6 . His self training in act. and Saliva the pupil of to Darupattika (the man with the wooden bowl). 4. and stood reverently And so standing they said to me apart. in the Ghosita pleasaunce. is the path. Maw^issa the wandering mendicant. right effort. I. 3. and speech. Sirs. 1 The awakening of a hearer. The minor details of morality which he observes. and his entry into the 2. and I spake in the {Here follows the whole of the exposition given sa that is J' Sdmahna-phala Sutta. right l mindfulness. 1 36-141. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. and Sum.' mendicants in 'Very good.' But is there. (than seeing heavenly sights and hearing heavenly sounds). confidence of heart thence resulting. The absence of fear. Sir. Mahali. a right means of livelihood. and right ecstasy in self-concentration This. the same thing as the body ? Or is the soul one thing ' 1 5. Order. right action. §§ 40-75.' [157] 'And what. for 14. right speech. One day. MAHALI SUTTA. and I will speak. Sir.

'Then estranged from lusts. not. theless I do not say either the one or the other. The resulting joy and peace that he gainst] 16. he enters into and remains in the First Rapture a state of joy and ease. the idiom kalla/» etazrc va^anaya compare A. M. 84) and rejoinder are given in each case. illwill. 144. 203 the door The way in which he learns to guard of his senses. ." "These are the Deadly Floods. sim- plicity — 9. 7. when a Bhikshu knows thus and sees thus. and fourth Raptures (D. Sir. reasoning and investigation going on the while. 8." is the cessation of the knows as it really is: "This Deadly Floods. 83. third. The power of being content with little. On 211." He knows as it really He is: "This is the origin of the Deadly Floods. and perplexity. excitement and worry. 77-81) and the knowledge arising from insight and the same question. Now. above. The constant self-possession he thus gains." " This is the cessation of pain. as is This is pain. it would I.THE AIM OF THE BRETHREN 6. . . p. 19. sloth — : the body another ? Yes. it would." He knows as it really is: "This is the it " really : is " : : This is : : 1 The Siamese edition reads ' : No. II. Sirs. born of detachment. The emancipation of heart from the five hindrances of body and mind. with of life. or is the soul one thing and covetousness. would that make him ready to take up the subject "Is the soul the same thing as the body. [The 'But I.] reply. 18." He knows as it really He knows as it the origin of pain. II.' cases are then put of a Bhikshu who [158] 17. Sir ' " ' 1 . 'With his heart thus serene (&c.' And neverthus and see thus.' II. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of He knows the destruction of the Deadly Floods. aloof from evil states. 85)." He knows really is " This is the Path that leads to the as it really is He knows as they really are cessation of pain. 10. Sirs. know has acquired the second. (A^awa-dassana D.

' And neverthus and see thus. Sir. the heart is set free from the Deadly Taint of Lusts. have leanings that way. See also the Introduction to the . it would. and the Siamese But Sinhalese MSS. § 16. MAHALI SUTTA. Here ends the Mahali Sutta.' Thus spake the Blessed One and Hare-lip the Li^^avi. it would not : ! ' : ' 1 1 . Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods. and he knows " Rebirth has been destroyed. the reading we have followed. Sir. 167). read: 'Yes. And he gives a characteristic explanation that whereas the Arahat (in § 19) would have too much wisdom to be led astray. thus seeing.' Buddhaghosa had clearly. know . Two — following the false trail of the soul theory. there arises the knowledge of his emancipation. What had to be done has been accomplished.204 VI. 'And I. In him. " After this present life there will be no beyond When a Bhikshu. an unconverted man. as the body is the heresy referred to in the Brahma-^ala (above. both here and above. being still a puthu^ana. 46). Sirs." To him. knows thus and sees thus. pleased at heart. To hold that the soul is the same p. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance. The higher life has been fulfilled. or is the soul one " thing and the body another ? No. theless I do not say either the one or the other. the Bhikshu who had only reached up to the Guanas might. p. Sinhalese and two Burmese MSS. Ku/adanta (above. 1 So three edition. would that make him ready to take up the question " Is the soul the same as the body. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings. thus knowing. Sirs. thus set free. exalted the word of the Blessed One.

this (^aliya episode. word for word. when the Dlgha was put together. referred [ The Mahali Sutta must have already included.VII. For there would otherwise be no reason for the Mahali Sutta being put into the Silakkhanda Vagga. 350. in full. (SakkaMil.51. now contained in the Dlgha. Sutta.ilha. in the last Sutta. One of the most striking cases is where the Sawyutta quotes a Sutta. is set out afterwards. 1. the Silas being contained only in that episode. compare Sum. in Is it merely because of the full. Why We . and are of importance for the history of the literature. 13. as a separate Sutta? have another instance importance of the question ? of a similar kind. in the Udumbarlka Sihanada Sutta (No. 25 in the Dlgha). only referred to at § 23 of the Kassapa-Sihanada Sutta. the reader is §§ 15-19. inclusive. where the episode of Nigrodha's question. to the translation given there.)] p3. [Is £ALIYA sutta. Such crossreferences are fairly frequent in the Pi/akas. II 1. by name. S. then should the episode appear also again. But there the whole episode is not given twice in full. ?] the Soul distinct from the Body as This Sutta having been incorporated.

in the method and an easy mastery of the ethical points involved. In that this Sutta the Buddha. that the highest social rank. When speaking on sacrifice to a sacrificial priest. or of social rank (as in the Amba///za). &c. and his principal disciples personifications of the stars. on Brahman claims to superior social rank to a proud Brahman. the the same. of course. on the soul to one who which he differs is. This is. on union with God to an adherent of the current theology. are required to bring about the result. or of the soul theory (as in the Po/^apada).INTRODUCTION TO THE kassapa-sihanAda sutta. There employed. is both courtesy and dignity But no little dialectic skill. and a more worthy object In our Sutta it is the path to Arahatship which is the best believes in the soul theory. On the hypothesis that the Buddha is a sun myth. ascetic. . partly by putting a new and (from the Buddhist point of view) a higher meaning into the words partly by an appeal to such ethical conceptions as are common ground between them he gradually leads his opponent up to his conclusion. that the best means of seeing and so on. with his invariable method (as — method followed is always puts himself as far as possible in the mental position of the questioner. asceticism. on mystic insight to a man who trusts in it. heavenly sights. Gotama — . or of seeing heavenly sights. He even adopts the very phraseology of his questioner. . compatible represented in the Dialogues) as is in conversation with a naked as regards asceticism so far. that is the best sacrifice. always Arahatship that is the sweetest fruit of the life of a recluse. He attacks none of his cherished convictions. or of sacrifice (as in the Kutadanta). He accepts as the starting-point of his own exposition the desirability of the act or condition prized by his opponent of the union with God (as in the Tevi^a). — . (as in the Mahali). explains his position when discussing a point on from his interlocutor. And then.

the — the Deer-park in ' way. to think of compilers. and describes it as painful. The memory of co-disciples had to be respected.). no doubt. He there calls it one of 'two extremes which are to be avoided . is it expect.on the occasion of his first discourse.E. who must. unworthy. . may well have even remembered particular occasions and persons. the Buddha is represented to have spoken of asceticism in a very different . his own opinions. and kept in mind. refrain in that case. and adopting his . by Kassapa the 'ascetic. Whoever put the Dialogues together may have had a sufficiently clear memory of the way he conversed. to those usually ascribed to sun-heroes mostly somewhat truculent and very un-ethical personages ? On the hypothesis that he was an historical person. the facts seem difficult to explain. in this respect. in order to follow what they give us as Gotama's The arguview. that he was necessarily more concerned with that. the method followed in all these Dialogues has one disadvantage. 20"J something quite different. all quite. to read a good deal between the lines. And so far as the actual doctrine is concerned our Dialogues are probably a more exact reproduction of the thoughts of the teacher than the so details? of courtesy How entirely — dialogues of Plato. accuracy in the details of the story. mentutn ad hominem can never be the same as a statement of opinion given without reference to any particular person. in much the same position as Plato when recording the But he was not. of that training and character he is represented in the Pi/akas to have had. the method is precisely that which it is most probable he would have actually followed. p. then.INTRODUCTION. B. That is strikingly the case with our present Sutta.foreign. the authors compel us. ' at Benares. 147.' 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. One would How is it from astrological and mythological they attribute to their hero qualities and sympathy. even antagonistic. and 1 So in the Puggala Pa/Hatti (IV. We ought. and a grasp of ethical problems. the doctrine taught loomed so much larger than anything else. than with any historical He was. 24) the unprofitable very practices set out in our Sutta. rather than of a compiler. In accepting the position of the adversary. like Plato. However this may be. When addressing his five hearers first first five converts. To the mental vision of the compiler.language. that the other disciples have concocted these Dialogues. and the Arahats — the Pa«£avaggiya. giving dialogues of Socrates.

Those who despise ear. that the insight and claim. KASSAPA-siHANADA SUTTA. takes occasion also to dispute this He maintains. only insisting that the self-mastery and self-control of the Path were the highest and best forms of it. befrozen. afire within. or of the system of intellectual and moral self-training laid down for the Bhikkhu. and the reason is not accordingly. 390. Puggala passage were both addressed to disciples. I. To judge from it alone one might fairly in our Sutta. the In the Suttas dealing ascetics laid claim to special virtue. lone in fearsome woods. the time when our Sutta was put together the practice of self-mortification had already been carried out And further details. are looked upon. in most cases. There is really no inconsistency But while the first discourse and the in these three Suttas. towards the goal — 1 ] ' ! the boast goes really even further. they were even not so The self-mortification was an actual hindrance. as in our Sutta. conclude that the Buddha approved of asceticism. our Sutta is addressed to an ascetic. in laying stress on the more moderate view. or even to the man who Bescorched. in awful silence. notably in the twelfth Sutta of the Ma^-^ima. Naked. with a kind of fearsome wonder. as more holy than other men. Diogenes was not only not superior to other men. 79 => Gat.208 as desirable VIIT. Struggled. are really harder than the merely physical practices It was so much more evident to the eye of the vulgar. and even submit themselves to voluntary torture. And the Suttas in which it is made are designated as Sihanadas. It is clear that at The far to seek. Not only were the no better than the Arahats. wins for the ascetic a very high reputation. self-control and self-mastery of the Path. without a fire. are set out as the actions by There is nothing of this sort which a man injures himself. no nearer to the And ascetics 1 M. a point that had to be made. practical. . literally 'the lion's the proud claim by the Arahat to a dignity and roars' veneration greater than that allowed by the people to the self-torturer. in all countries. in to a considerable extent in India.thly comforts. The carrying out of such practices. with the practices of the ascetics. I. are given in other Dialogues of the same date. And no doubt. some of which the self-imposed penances are even more extreme. It turned men's minds from more essential matters. and the language used is modified conclusion in all is exactly the same. Gotama. and praiseworthy. This is oddly enough also called a Sihanada Sutta.

as yet. II. ^Mnd. 23. ar. 1. n = = . His contemporaries the Niga«/>6as thought the other way. though only in the latest hymns included in the collection. that raised by Devadatta. as regards various points. at present.INTRODUCTION* truth than they. and all worry about personal comfort. 155. 8. IV. should be always sufficiently clothed. himself in full bodily vigour and power. Compare Apastamba I. The technical term tapas is already found in the Rig-veda. Probably they would think rather that he erred on the side of austerity. and was intellectuSo hard. 25. of the ethical connotation attached to 2 and of the reasonable view as to social the word Brahman Our available texts distinctions and questions of impurity. It is literally 'glow. so very hard. Gotama was largely guided by the and practice of previous recluses. 263-4. 3. 7-13. 23. and Deussen 2 1 So also KaMaka Upanishad Ill. But we cannot. important it is true but not so far as it agreed with the rest of his system. . regular The line was to be drawn at another exercise. .' and very early acquired the secondary sense of retirement into solitude. See Br/had. adopt ascetic practices which Devadatta held to be then necessary. or the man striving towards Arahatship. to suggest the probability. for the time of the year most favourable to such practice. speak on this point with as much certainty as we could in the other cases of the ethical view of sacrifice. was especially defended on the ground that Gotama would not.' II. It was his duty to keep himself in health. It is open to question whether the earnest and unworldly would now draw the line at the precise point at which Gotama drew it either as regards what they would think proper for themselves now. 10. are only sufficient. not what was necessary to maintain point. 21 the passages quoted from the Mahabharata by Muir. but all undue luxury. already seen that essential. For we have opinions It is probable that in other matters. ' • Veda n*a-sy stem. the Arahat. 8. or what they would have thought most proper for those living in India then. IV. regular food. what had already been put forward by others. burning. and take regular baths. 209 by reason was of his tub arid of his physical ally wrong. Gotama adopted and extended. He was to avoid. 21-23 . Manu II. P . Metrical Translations. 1 . 87 Vishnu LV. 6.d of the attempted conquest of one's lower nature by the burning heat And this must have been a common of bodily austerity. XXVI. VI. p. renunciation he . 7. was the struggle 1 that their ethical inferior.' pp. 5. 4. And the most serious schism in the Buddhist Order. Vas.

2IO

VIIT.

KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA.

tap as came to be known as the month tapas. There was no association with the word of what we call penance,' a conception arising out of an entirely different order of religious There was no idea of atonement for, punishment of, ideas. making amends for sin. But just as the sacrificer was supposed, by a sort of charm that he_ worked by his sacrifice, to attain ends desirable for himself, so there was supposed to be a sort of charm in tapas producing mystic and marvellous The distinction seems to have been that it was results. rather power, worldly success, wealth, children, and heaven that were attained by sacrifice and mystic, extraordinary, superhuman faculties that were attained by tapas. By a natural anthropomorphism the gods too were supposed, for like ends, to offer sacrifice and to perform tapas. Thus it is sometimes by sacrifice, but more often by tapas, that in the different cosmological legends one god or the other is 1 In the latter case an supposed to bring forth creation used on such occasions is tapas atapasyata, expression often he glowed a glow,' and the exact meaning of this literally
'

;

.

'

enigmatic phrase is by no means certain. It may have been meant to convey that he glowed with fierce resolve, or that he glowed with deep thought, or that he glowed with strong desire, or that he carried out each or some or all of the
practices given in Kassapa's three lists of self-mortifications in our Sutta. All these various ideas may possibly be meant to be inferred together, and before they were ascribed to gods similar actions must have been well known among men. There were some, as one would expect, who therefore placed austerity above sacrifice, or held that it could take the 2 The more conservative view of the place of sacrifice learned Brahman that it is repeating by heart to oneself, and teaching others, the Vedic verses, that is the chief thing (with which twelve other qualities or practices should always be associated) is only given with the interesting note that one teacher thinks the true only, another thinks austerity only to be necessary, and yet a third thinks that learning and teaching the Veda is enough by itself, 'for that is tapas, that 3 is tapas .' There are several passages making similar comThus one text says ' There are three branches of parisons. duty sacrifice study of the Veda and charity are the first, austerity (tapas) is the second, to dwell as a learner one's life

.


'

'

:

i, 1,13, and several times in the early Upanishads. So A"Mnd. Up. Ill, 17, 2 and 4. s Tait. I, 9. Compare, on the ethics, Manu VI, 92 and the Ten Paramitas. The idea that Veda-learning is tapas is a common one.

1

.Satapatha-Br.VI,

2

INTRODUCTION.

211

long in the house of one's teacher is the third. All these have But he who stands firm in as reward heavenly worlds. Brahman obtains deathlessnessV

So in the passages which explain (by no means consistently) where the soul goes to after it leaves the body, we have a somewhat corresponding division 2 According to the A"^andogya, those who know a certain mystical doctrine about five fires, and those who in the forest follow faith and austerity (tapas), go along the path of the gods to the Brahma worlds. On the other hand, they who sacrifice, and give alms go to the moon, and thence return to earth, and are reborn in high or low positions according to their deeds. But the bad become insects. According to the Brmadara^yaka, those who know the mystic doctrine of the five fires, and those who in the woods practise faith and truth (not tapas) go to the Brahma worlds. On the other hand, those who practise sacrifice, charity, and austerity (tapas) go to the moon, and are thence reborn on But those who follow neither of these two paths earth.
.

become Here
in

insects.

put into a lower grade than it occupies later passages are Muw^aka II, 7; III, 2, 4, 6 ; Prajna I, 9 V, 4. Though the details differ there is a general concensus that above both sacrifice and austerity, which are themselves meritorious, there is a something higher, a certain kind of truth or faith or wisdom. This is the exact analogue, from the Upanishad point of view, to the doctrine of the Buddhists that Arahatship is better than austerity. And though the Upanishad belief is not worked out with the same consistency, nor carried so far
austerity
is

the last extract.

Other

;

to its logical conclusion, as the Buddhist, that is simply to be explained by the facts that it is not only earlier, belonging to a time when thought was less matured, but is also not the work of one mind, but of several. There can be but little doubt that Gotama, during his years of study and austerity before he attained Nirva/za under the Tree of Wisdom, had come into contact with the very beliefs, or at least with beliefs
similar to those, now preserved in the Upanishads his general conclusion was based upon them.
;

and that That he

practically condemns physical tapas (austerity) altogether is no argument against his indebtedness, so far as the superiority of wisdom to austerity is concerned, to the older theory. In the passages in which that older theory is set forth we
1

^Mnd.Up.

II,

23,

1.
;

2

K/iand. Up. V, 10; Br/'had. VI, 2 P 2

Prajna

I,

9

;

V,

4, 5.

212

viii.

kassapa-sJhanada sutta.
statements, no doubt, and inconsource of the well-known theory

have the germs
sistent,

— indistinct
the
;

but

still

first

the Efforts (or perhaps Trainings), four stages into which the life of each member of the ranks of the twice-born (the Dvi^as) should be divided. In later times these are (i) the student, (2) the householder, (3) the hermit, and (4) the wandering ascetic; that is, the Brahma^arin, the Gr/hastha, the Vanaprastha, and the Yati 1 And stress was laid on the order in which the stages of effort were taken up, it being held improper for a man to enter the latter without having passed through the former. The Upanishad passages know nothing of the curious technical term of Effort (A.rrama) applied to these stages. And they have really only two divisions (and these not regarded as consecutive stages), that of the sacrificer and of the hermit (not the Bhikshu). Of course studentship is understood as preliminary to both. But we are here at a standpoint really quite apart from the Ajrama theory, and 6arikara and other commentators are obliged to resort to curious and irreconcilable shifts when they try to read back into these old texts the later and more developed doctrine a Even the names of the several A^ramas do not occur, as Brahma^arin is frequently such, in the older Upanishads. used for pupil, Yati in two or three passages means ascetic ; but Grzhastha, Vanaprastha, and Bhikshu do not even occur 3 The earliest mention of the Four Efforts is in the old law books. Gautama (III, 2) gives them as Brahma^arin, Grz'hastha, Bhikshu, and Vaikhanasa^ (student, house.

of the

Ajramas

.

.

holder, wandering beggar, 21, 1) has a different order,

stages

— Garhasthyaw,
4
.

and hermit). Apastamba (II, 9, and different names for the four A/£aryakula;#, Maunaw, and

Vanaprasthyaw

Hofrath Buhler dated these works (very hypothetically) in the fifth and third, or possibly in the sixth and fourth centuries B.C. 5 The theory of the Four Efforts was then
1

So Manu V, 137
See

;

VI, 87.

Compare VIII, 390, and VI,
note
in

a

Max

Muller's

interesting

his

97. translation of the

Upanishads (Part I, pp. 82-84). s See Jacob's Concordance under the weirds. * Comp. Baudhayana II, 10, 17, 6, and Apastamba II, 4, 9, 13. 6 He ventures on a conjecture as to possible date in the case of a Apastamba only. Him he places on linguistic grounds not later than the third century b.c. and, if the argument resting on the mention of •SVetaketu hold good, then a century or two older. Burnell, whom Buhler (Baudh. p. xxx) calls the first authority on the literature of the Schools of the Taittirfya Veda,' to which Apastamba belonged,
; '

INTRODUCTION.

2

I

3

already current, but by no means settled as to detail. It must evidently have taken shape between the date of the Upanishads that is to say, either just quoted and that of the law books just before or some time after the rise of Buddhism. can, I think, go safely further, and say that it must have been, in all probability, after Buddha, and even after the time when the Pi/akas were put together. For neither the technical term Ajrama, nor any of the four stages of it, are mentioned in the Pi7akas. The theory has become finally formulated, in the order as to detail which has permanently survived, in the later law books from Vasish//fca onwards. He gives the Four Efforts or stages in the life of an orthodox person,as (1) Student, (2) House;

We

Mendicant Brahma£arin, Gr/hastha, Va»aprastha, and Parivra^-aka \ It will be noticed that this final arrangement differs in two and both of them of importance from the earliest. respects In the first place the wandering beggar is put in the last, that is in the highest, place. He is not subordinated, as he was at first, to the hermit. In the second place the expression
holder,
(3)

Hermit, (4) Wandering

Bhikshu, applied in Gautama to the wandering mendicant, is dropped in the later books. The commentators are at great pains to harmonise the And they do so by suggesting that the divergent order. earlier arrangement (which, of course, is, in their eyes, the strange one) is meant to infer exactly the same as does

the contrary later arrangement so familiar to them. To them the wandering mendicant had become the last, in order of time and importance, of the Four Efforts and they try to put back their own view into the words of the ancient writer they are dealing with. But if the order they were familiar with implies one thing, the older order, which is exactly the Or if it does, then the reverse, can scarcely imply the same. In either case the explanaquestion arises, why should it ? tion may be sought for in the history of the two ideas. Now the distinction between the two is quite clear, though the ambiguity of the English word ' ascetic,' often applied to 2 Gautama starts his both, may tend to hide it from view
;
.

was not convinced by the arguments leading up
sion.

to the^above concluonly ventured, after reading them, to put Apastamba at least b. c.' (Manu, p. xxvii). Baudhayana was some generations A older than Apastamba (see Biihler, Ap. pp. xxi-xxii). And Gautama

He

was older
1

still.

Vas. VII,

2.

2

Thus

Biihler uses the

Sanskrit words

for

sa^nyasin

one term 'ascetic' to render a number of for bhikshu at Baudh. II, 10, 17
;

214
and

VIII.

KASSAPA-sfHANADA SUTTA.

description of the hermit by saying that he is to feed on roots And all the later books lay fruits, and practise tapas. stress on the same point often giving, as instances of the tapas, one or other of the very practices detailed by Kassapa the tapasa, in his three lists, in our Sutta 1 . On the other hand, the wandering mendicant does not practise these severe
;

He is never called tapasa, and though he has abandoned the world, and wanders without a home, simply clad, and begging his food, his self-restraint is mental rather than physical. Of the fifteen rules laid down for him by Gautama, who calls him the Bhikshu (in X, 1 1-25), four or five are precisely equivalent to rules the Buddhist Bhikshu has to observe. There is one significant rule in Baudhayana, however, which is quite contrary to the corresponding Buddhist rule. According to it the twice-born mendicant of the priestly books is, in begging for food, to observe the rules of ceremonial purity, what we call now the
physical self-mortifications.
rules of caste
2
.

while the belief in the special efficacy and holiness of austerity, self-torture, tapas, is a world-wide phenomenon, and the practice of it was, no doubt, very early in India too, the idea of the wandering mendicant is peculiar to India. And though the origin and early history of this institution are at present obscure, we have no reason to believe that it was of ancient date. It was older than the Buddha's time. Both Buddhist and Cain records agree on this point. And they are confirmed by an isolated passage in an Upanishad which, as a whole, is 3 There it is said that he who desires to see pre-Buddhistic
.

Now

at Gaut. Ill, 2,

for parivra^aka at Vas. X, 1 for yati at Manu ; VI, 54, 56, 69, 86 for apasa at Manu VI, 27 for muni at Manu VI, 11. Of these the last two refer to the hermit in the woods (the tapasa), the others to the wandering mendicant (the bhikshu). Even for the old Brahman who remains at home under the protection of his son (the Veda-sawnyasin), he has become an ascetic' (sawznyased in the Sanskrit, Manu VI, 94). This rendering can, in each case, be easily justified. Each of the Sanskrit words means one or other form, one or other degree, of what may be called asceticism. But the differences might be made clear
; ; ;
'

n

by
1

variety of rendering.

Gautama has altogether ten rules for the hermit, none of which were applicable to the Buddhist Bhikshu (Gaut. Ill, 26-35). 2 Baudhayana II, 10, 18, 4, 5. Manu VI, 27 (of the hermit). So also Vas. X, 31, according to the commentator. But Biihler thinks otherwise and Manu VI, 94 confirms Buhler's view.
;

3

Brzhadara«yaka Upanishad

III, 5, 1.

INTRODUCTION.

215
;

the god Brahman cannot attain his end by speculation he must put away learning and become childlike, put away childishness and become a muni (a silent one) 1 put away silence and become a Brahma«a (that is, of course, not a Brahmawa by birth, but one in a sense nearly the same as Gotama attaches to the word in the So«ada;^a Sutta). This ' Brahmawas (in the ethical sense) is to explain why it is that give up cravings for children and wealth and the world and adopt begging as a regular habit (bhiksha£aryaw £aranti). Another recension of the same passage, also preserved in the same Upanishad 2 but in a connection which Deussen thinks ' 3 is a later interpolation ascribes this habit to men of old.' The statement is no doubt ambiguous. It might be taken to apply to the hermit (the tapasa) who also begged. But 1 think on the whole that the wandering mendicant is more probably referred to, and referred to as belonging to a higher If that be so, this is the sphere than the muni, the ascetic. earliest passage in which any one of these three ideas (the wandering mendicant, his superiority to the ascetic, and the special ethical sense of the word Brahmawa 4 ) have, as yet, been found. The oldest reference in the priestly literature to unorthodox Bhikshus (not necessarily Buddhists) is probably the Maitri Upanishad VIII, 8, which is much later. There is a custom, often referred to in the law books, of students begging their This was doubtless of long standing. But it is a confood. ception altogether different from that of the wandering mendicant. The word Bhikshu does not occur in any of these And indeed of all the Upanishads indexed in passages. Colonel Jacob's Concordance the word only occurs in one in the little tract called the Parama-hawsa Upanishad. Whenever it may have arisen, the peculiar institution of the Bhikshu is quite as likely, if not more likely, to have originated in Kshatriya circles than among the learned Branmans. All our authorities Brahman Upanishads, Buddhist
,

'

,

,

'

'

Pi/akas, Gain Angas agree in ascribing to Kshatriyas a most important, not to say predominant, part in such religious To take for granted that activity as lay apart from sacrifice.
1 Afterwards an epithet often used, in the priestly literature of the hermit (the tapasa), in the Buddhist books of the Arahat. 2 Br/had. IV, 4, 22.

Sechzig Upanishads,' p. 465. Perhaps, on this third notion, A'Mnd. IV, 1, 7 is another passage of about the same date. A wise 6"udra is apparently there called a Brahma?*a. But the application is by no means certain.
*

3

'

2l6
the
is

VIII.

KASSAEA-S1HANADA SUTTA.

idea, or the practice, these authorities. And it is only in the Kshatriya books those of the Buddhists and Cains that the details of the practice receive much weight, or are dealt with in full detail. The oldest law book has barely a page on the rules for Bhikshus, whereas the regulations, of about the same age, preserved in the Buddhist texts, fill the three volumes Sacred translated, under the title Vinaya Texts,' in the Books of the East.' And as time goes on the priestly literature continues to. treat the life of a Bhikshu as entirely subordinate, and in the curtest manner. Even Manu has only three or four pages on the subject. The inconsistency, brevity, and incompleteness of the regulations in the priestly books lead one to suppose that, at the time when they were written, there were not enough Bhikshus, belonging to those circles, to make the regulations intended for them alone a matter of much practical importance. In other words, the development also of the Bhikshu idea was due rather to the Kshatriyas than to the sacrificing priests. The latter were naturally half-hearted in the matter. Even after they had invented the A^rama theory, they did not seem to be very keen about it. On the contrary, there are several passages the other way. Apastamba closes his exposition of them with a remark that upsets the whole, There is no reason to place one Airama before theory another 1 .' And just before that he quotes a saying of Pra^apati from which it follows that those who become Bhikshus do not gain salvation at all, ' they become dust

Brahmans must have originated the
ignore
all

to

'

'

'

:

and

perish.'

This was no doubt the real inmost opinion of the more narrow-minded of the priests. But the first maker of the phrase did not quite like to put this forward in his own name the idea of the Bhikshu as a man worthy of special esteem had already become too strong for that. So he

makes the god his stalking-horse and tries, by using his name, to gain respectability and acceptance for his view.
;

And it survives accordingly as late as the of Maou (II, 230), where mention is made

earlier portion

of 'the Three

A^ramas,' omitting the Bhikshu. We ought not to be surprised to find that, though the whole passage is reproduced, in other respects, in the Institutes of Vish«u (XXXI, 7), this very curious and interesting phrase is replaced by another which avoids the difficulty.
1

Ap.

II, 9, 24,

15.

and laid down in the Madhura Sutta. and others. 40See the full text in Chalmers's paper in the J. 2 I 7 old- the son of Prahlada. A. S. but still amounting to thousands who estimated the mystic power of tapas above that of sacrifice who gave up the latter. to those kinds of bodily austerity and saw nyasin) . comsome pared with the total population. to put obstacles in one doing so without first having become thoroughly any saturated with the priestly view of things. II. in the woods.sramas). that even youths might 'go forth' without any previous Vedic study 3 There were. for 1 -94. have no evidence that the theory had. do they seem to have cared much for it. (7ains. until really held improper for any man to become a religieux he was getting old. and especially to prevent it. Kapila by name. Parivra^aka. become a practical reality that is. no doubt. no doubt.' p. at any time.INTRODUCTION. heed of them 1 If the priests. The percentage of elderly Brahmans who followed any of the three at all must always have been very small indeed. acted upon by Buddhists.system. and of this theory. And the theory seems to were not observed in his time 2 be little more than a priestly protest against the doctrine. that any considerable number of the twice-born. We — ancient. or even of the Brahmans. in the Indian community of that time. See the passage quoted by Deussen. so far only. and Veda- But even then he need as he chose to follow. 28. Striving against the gods he made wise man should not take these divisions (the A. and devoted themselves. did actually carry out all the four A-sramas. ii. Among the circles led by the opinion of learned and orthodox priests it was.customs (now preserved in the priestly books under the three heads of Vanaprastha. 6. a group which lies outside of the Ajramas. The Sahkara says they rules are admitted to be obsolete now. not observe a clear distinction between these various heads. and of these a good many probably became Veda-sa mnyasins. Vedanta. or without having first gone through a regular course of Vedic study. R. . when the custom of 'going forth' as a Bhikshu was becoming prevalent. 1 2 8 Baudh. — — . had wished to counteract the way. ' . in other words. they could scarcely have taken a more efficacious step than the establishment And so far as it served this purpose. And whenever he did renounce the world he was expected to follow such of the Baudhayana also actually quotes with approval another There was forsooth an Asura. a number of people very small. saying ' : A .

disliked by the more narrowminded. the regular ' ' ' ' ' Instead of condemning them. but regarded with favour by the more spirituallyminded of the Brahmans. and procurable in Gujarat. One Vikhanas therefore. 9. of the wandering mendicant. pp. Tapas became . compiled a special book on Tapas. 10. was the higher. gradually attained so unquestionably the upper hand. Buhler also (Ap. Ill. in not a few instances. IX. 1 See Buhler's ' Manu/ XXVII. He^says it was used by followers. both with their aims and with their practice (provided always they keep to the priestly view of things). is . no little plain living and high thinking among these irregular friars. 3. 21 (where he also says Dr. But the other view continued to be held by a large and influential minority. Also Vas. the priests sacrificing priests. III. KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA. which the general view in the circles in which the law books were composed. taken from it l . called either after the tried.2l8 VIII. the religious life. But there was also another view which had already made itself felt in the Upanishads. author the or after the subject the several times referred to as an authority in the law books whose precepts are doubtless. 15 (which proves the identity of the two) . But there was also no little earnestness. 15-18.then a preliminary stage to. that the order of the last two of the Artamas had to be changed. instead of the final crown of. this work. 27 Baudh. Haradatta on Apastamba II. 6. whose very words. and Biihler's notes. among the official class. Tapas was then. and put therefore at the end in the list of A^ramas.' And there was a great deal of sympathy. Gaut. The strong leaning of the human heart to impute a singular efficacy to physical self-mortifications the commentators referred to in 202 and 203. . or what. . regarded as the higher^ of the two. II. and which no doubt became more widely spread in consequence of its having been the view taken up by the According to progressive party we now call Buddhists. 14.Sramawaka Sutra. of the Black Ya^ur-veda. 154. in part. seemed to be so. This view. 1 1. this view the life of the Bhikshu. There were others who rejected both. recur in the old law books. note) says the Sutra is in existence. self-torture of which our Sutta gives the earliest detailed account. were unworthy men who used their religious professions for the low aims set out in the tract on the Silas incorporated in our Sutta. which is the basis of our Sutta. rather to regulate them. p. 21. Burnell had in his possession fragments of they are the same). in accordance with Vaikhanasa Sutra. in his opinion. and preferred In both classes there the life of the wandering mendicant.

in Kosala. even in these forms of tapas are omitted. A^ivakas.' either as ascetic or as wandering mendicant (tapasa or bhikshu). us too far from our subject. and of many other passages There is a special name for the extra to a similar effect. 219 of all kinds could not be eradicated. The Niga«///as. and like the Buddhists.INTRODUCTION. in original Ramayana probably arose. especially in the rules for hermits and mendicants contained in the earlier books. 1 My 2 The and 'Milinda. such an act. Kosala. 1 glorification in a whole book at the end of the Milinda extra vows. or enjoyed such a story. have sanctioned social insolence. somewhat further than the dhutangas. . in spite of our present Sutta. vows. This is another point in which the early Buddhists and the more advanced of the learned Brahmans of their time are found to be acting But the discussion of the details would take in sympathy. Many of the laity still looked on those who carried out such practices with peculiar The tendency made itself felt even in Buddhism. also. carried out by such of the brethren And these receive special as were inclined that way. the importance of not 'going forth. favour. When hermit. 76) is not in the oldest part. But this is only a matter of In the priestly law books. became a really valid and practical reality among the learned They alone. The but this (VII. ful the warrior hero of the Ramayana brutally murders a peaceit is not necessary to call in the Asrama rules to justify the The offence (in the view of the poet on the part of the in the view of most Westerns on the part of the hero) is simply hermit. episode doctrine for which the poet claims the approval of the gods (and which. Buddhists admitted a distinction in class as between tapasas bhikkhus. as we have seen. ' . though they go degree. in the time of the Pi/akas ? The as Professor Jacobi has shown.' II. foul deed. They spoke occasionally And as we have seen the lawyers of Three Efforts only. unless first the years of studentship. they never admitted any theory like that of the distinction in time between the Four It is even doubtful how far that distinction Ajramas 2 ' . They often distinguish between the simple pabba^a 3 of the latter and the Ill. 119 (of non-Buddhists).' the dhutangas. and others went to the other extreme. always laid stress on priests.' all the extreme It is true that. 244-274. Would public opinion. differed in the order in which they mention the two classes of religieux 3 . and then the life as a sacrificing householder. had been fulfilled. the most extreme forms are omitted. See for instance Gat. tapasa-pabba^a of the former.

1. Maga«^ikd.2 20 VIII. These Sutras are not mentioned elsewhere. contempoisolated recluses. as the Vaikhanasa Sutra was for the hermits (tapasas). — Bhikshus are referred to. The men of the Gosala was a recognised 10. or they would almost certainly have been referred to in the sections in the later law books on mendicants. p. But more probably a term common before their time. it was though not long before. Orders of recluses (pabba^-ita) are mentioned in the Pi/akas. and Professor Kielhorn has been kind enough to inform me that nothing more has been since discovered on the matter. and not afterwards. was not unquestioned among men. 9. Professor Weber refers to this in his History of Indian Literature. were especially addicted to therefore. or so) is that a . just as the Vaikhanasa is in the sections on the tapasas. 2. When Brahma«a Buddha : — A^ivika. 7. KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA./<afika.3. The history of the word is somewhat doubtful. Teda. Paribba^aka. Nigantha. 5. It is not found as yet.Sudra may not become a tapasa.. in any pre-Buddhistic text. Devadhammika. 4. : 8. to all mendicants. as we have seen above. 305. Perhaps the Gains or the Buddhists first used it. 3. Mu«^a-savaka. . Thus in an important passage of the separate Ariguttara we have the following list of rcligieux. livelihood. 3. And they can never have acquired so much importance as the Vaikhanasa Sutra. G a/ilaka. These are used by the Parajariwas and the Karmandinas. 1 2 11. order was settled the word specially a By the time that the. doubtless.later Bhikshu had come to mean so Buddhist mendi- cant that the learned Brahmans no longer thought it fitting to apply the term to their own mendicants. Gotamaka. two groups or corporations. No. The form is sufficiently curious for Pacini to take special notice of it in the rule for the formation from desideratives of nouns in u \ In another rule 2 he mentions two Bhikshu Sutras manuals for mendicants. Aviruddhaka. or raries of the 1. 1 10. 6. it is either as by a generic name not implying any Order. among whom Makkhali he need not have done leader. of Brahmanical mendicants. It is also very curious to find Brahmawa Bhikshus with special class names as if they belonged to an Order like those No such Brahmanical of the Buddhists and the Gains.54- IV. This at least may be to the explanation of the fact that it is used in Gautama's law book.

IX. but to a somewhat less degree. Gautama III. No. was either to be bald. The disciples of the Shaveling are stated by Buddhaghosa to be the same as No. 29. It is very. * : probably means . . No.INTRODUCTION. And much any to be regretted that the tradition had not preserved better explanation of the terms than the vague phrase repeated by Buddhaghosa. 6. They went. it may also be nothing more than an edifying gloss on an old word whose original meaning had been forgotten. No. 4. of their self-restraint in thought. 11. and Leumann in -the Vienna Oriental Journal. The Brahmawa Bhikshu. Those who wear their hair in braids. 17 2 where the idea of this threefold division of conduct recurs in the law books. To do so was the rule for the orthodox hermits (the Vanaprasthas or Tapasas. The wanderers. Ill. The Bearers of the triple staff have not been found elsewhere. the first five it is names being otherwise known. as yet. to tapas and Buddhaghosa here adds that they wore a loin cloth.za Bhikshus (not T&pasas). and deed. This is a generic term for wandering mendicants. word. This But explanation may possibly hold good for so early a date. No. They were also addicted. carried three staves bound up as one. Perhaps some special kinds. 22). or to have only a forelock (ibid. But the technical term tridaw^in is not mentioned in them. Baudhayana XI. See on this Order the passages quoted above in the note at p. . 6 is quite unintelligible at present. It is precisely here that the list becomes most interesting. fully clad. 10). it is supposed. Nos. No. possibly the name given in the Buddhist comThey munity to the Brahma. earlier than the latest part of Manu (XII. The Unfettered are the sect we now call Cains. 5. 2. 2 Comp. 23. subdivision of the Cains is intended. according to Buddhaghosa. that is the leaders of all schools that were nonBuddhist. and his explanation requires explanation.' III» 128. as a sign. on the other hand. 34). 2. 3. ' 1 7 1 . The reading is doubtful. The fifth of the eight divisions of the Eightfold Path is samma a^ivo 1 No. Manu V 165. then under the leadership of the Nataputta. 7. . In that case the gloss would be founded on such passages as Gaut. tapas of all 2 21 and went always quite naked. 6-10 are said by Buddhaghosa to be followers of the Titthiya. The name Those who claimed to be especially strict in their rules as to means of livelihood/ The Buddhists also laid special stress on this.

They all claimed to be pure as regards means of livelihood. No. belonging to the Gotama gotra. therefore. is here referred to as having had a community of Bhikshus named after him. to be unfettered. 1 . Who the religion is ' ' We be friends all wandered from place to place. We only know of one who did so. who also founded an Order. if We the name Bhikshu. also full of interesting puzzles. 8. also. is probably the same. KASSAPA-SlHANADA SUTTA. are not No. 10. No. The only alternative is that some Brahmawa. Devadaha. There is a similar list. should not. Worshippers of Siva are there expressly mentioned. And school. But we know nothing of any 9. The followers of Gotama means. &c. but in meaning applicable quite as much to most of the others. in the Milinda. of some other member of the Sakya clan. only. ones. to who follow mentioned elsewhere. distinct from our Gotama. (Indra) or ^Siva? Devase///zi. the followers such person. but applicable of course to a date later by some centuries than the above. Those of the God are not the God ? Is it Sakka The Deva of the names Devadatta. they were the names can only gradually have come to have the special meaning of the member of one . be surprised has had a similar history 1 . 191. p. Devadatta. or order. they all mendicants. The not opposing mentioned elsewhere. almost certainly. the Friends. find in this suggestive list several names.2 22 VIII. used technically as the designation of particular sects.

VIII. or as to this corollary they have drawn from it.' No. ' 1 Miga-daye. Those who said so were not 3. Gotama. summarising it in the Is your opinion herein altogether free from blame words render : ' ' ' : t . [The Naked Ascetic] I heard. reviles and finds fault with one who who said lives a this. perhaps. It That park in is. And Buddhaghosa takes it as rendered above. in the Ka/makatthala deerNow Kassapa. 'I have heard it said. Thus have once dwelling at Uguuna. Are they words. be more agreeable to the context if one could this idiomatic phrase Is there anything in this opinion of theirs as to his system. O Gotama. so standing. The Blessed One was [lei] i. that could meet with objection 2 ? For we would fain bring no false accusation against the venerable Gotama. a public 2 which no hunting was allowed. a matter really announcing. But I do not which amounts to being a matter he would object to ? see how this could be reconciled with the syntax of the Pali sentence. kassapa-sihanAda sutta. a place set apart for deer to roam in in safety. And. were they therein repeating Gotama's every ascetic. and not reporting him falsely ? as a minor tenet of his." Now those. or as a corollary from it. Is there following from his Dhamma (his system) ? in this opinion of his. thus: all penance Samara Gotama disparages verily he 1 . he said to the Exalted One The 2. a naked ascetic. : . and exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of civility and courtesy. Kassapa. ' would. and stood respectfully aside. came to where park the Exalted One was. so put forward as wrapt nothing up with his system. with every hard life. O.

them and me there is. they do not. after death. and take shape in another. as they pass away from one form of how could existence. of the states whence men have come. subtle. who am thus aware. so do they. me my words. they approve thereof. not. with every one who lives a life Herein. how some men given to asceticism. As to some of the things they disapprove. kassapa-sJhanada sutta. — . of. I am wont to be aware. with vision bright and purified. falsely. so do they. but living a life less hard. after death into some unhappy. into some unhappy. As to those things on which we ' : And some things we And some things we disapwe [163] And some things And some things we disapprove thereof. prove of. we also disapprove thereof. is ' hard ? there are. and as to some points. we approve approve of. — . living just so. and said " As for those 5. are equally reborn. And I went to them. or into a heavenly world how some men given to asceticism. experienced in controversy. they were at variance with the fact. who go about. are reborn. on which we do not agree. as to some points. How then could I. one would think. we also approve thereof. that 4. on the dissolution of the body. as they really are. On O Kassapa. As to some of those Now O As to things they approve. As to some of the things they approve. fallen state of misery and woe while others. seeing beyond what men can see. leave them alone. certain recluses and Brahmans who are clever. O Kassapa. hair splitters. my friends. or into a heavenly world. we disapprove thereof. approve. . fallen state of misery and woe while others. are reborn in some happy state. let us things.224 following reporting [162] ' viii. and the contrary. and whither they will go. living a hard life. I disparage all penance or bluntly revile and find fault with every ascetic. are reborn into some happy state. breaking into pieces by their wisdom the And as between speculations of their adversaries. Kassapa. some of those things they disapprove. on the dissolution of the body. living just so. agreement. .

asking for " The reasons. ' 7. asking for reasons. O " Kassapa. the teachers of " schools ? 6. that the wise. saying 'Those : conditions of heart. which are blameworthy or accounted as such among you. whereas the venerable — ' O : II. speak in praise of us — ' ' O : . or the other venerable ones. so putting questions one to the other. should say Samara Gotama conducts himself as one who has absolutely put those conditions away from him whereas the venerable ones. so putting questions one to the other. let the wise put questions about them. Sirs. talk the matter over. the Samara Gotama. or accounted as such among who you. which are pure or accounted as such among you who is it who conducts himself as one who has more completely taken them upon him. " The Sama«a talking the matter over. should say Gotama conducts himself as one who has completely taken these conditions upon him. with or to their teacher. talking the matter over. depraved or accounted as such among you is it who conducts himself as one who has more absolutely put them away from him. talking the matter over. Then it may well be. And again. which are good blameless or accounted as such among you. have done. asking for reasons. which are insufficient for the attainment of Arahatship. the other teachers of Thus is it. O therein. let the wise put questions one to another. schools. which are evil or accounted as evil among you. with or to their fellow disciples. with or to their teacher. for the most part. which suffice to lead a man to Arahatship or are accounted as sufficient among you. or the other venerable ones. the Samara Gotama. Those conditions of heart. talk them over. the other. Kassapa.THE NAKED ASCETIC. would. which are or accounted as such among you. with or to their fellow disciples. Then it may well be. so putting questions one to Kassapa. that the wise. Q . 225 agree. Kassapa. ask saying : for reasons.so only partially. the " teachers of schools ? 8. ask for reasons as to them. Sirs." that the wise.

acknowledge that the body of my disciples were more addicted to that which is generally acknowledged to be good. have done so only Kassapa.dfsciples of. and Right Rapture. which if a man follow. and see that. also. the other teachers of schools. that is to say Right Views. of himself. speak ones. Right Mode of Livelihood. that which redounds to profit.226 vtii. Verily it is this Noble Eightfold Path. Kassapa. Kassapa. kassapa-sIhanada sutta. O [164] 9-12. asking for reasons. This. [165] 13. 1 And text with the and 8 are here repeated in full in the ' change only of reading the body of the. what that method. said to the Exalted One ' : ' : Gotama. a way. that which is the Norm. that which is the law of self-restraint. the Samana Gotama instead of the Samaria Gotama. the O Kassapa. . know that. Right Speech. there is Now a method which if a man follow he will of himself. the naked ascetic. Kassapa. for the most part. '[And further. O Kassapa. which if a man follow. would. refrain them- in praise of us therein. Right Aspirations. both " The Samawa Gotama is one who see and know that : disciples of other teachers \] there is. both know and see " The Samara Gotama is one who speaks in that due season. and similarly for four paragraphs 5. is that way. And when he had spoken thus. the wise would. Right Mindfulness. speaks that which is. speaks that which is. that the wise." Thus it is." 14. partially. that which is the law of self-restraint (the in Vinaya). are the following ascetic practices accounted. so putting questions one to the other. ' : Right Effort. is that way. due season. he will. talking the matter over. he will of himself. 7 ' ' 1 The the other teachers. 6. in the opinion of some Samaras so also. than the venerable ones. that which is the Norm (the Dhamma). Right Action. this that method." And what. selves more completely from to that which is generally acknowledged • be evil. that which speaks redounds to advantage. for the most part.

) ' : Hatthapalekhano. as Sama#a-ship and Brahma«a-ship l [166] ' 1 — of loose habits (performing his bodily funcand eating food. before his eyes were opened. he passes stolidly on (lest he should incur the guilt of following another person's word) ' : — He he has started on 1 He refuses to accept food brought (to him. in order that food may be put into his bowl). The when two authors are drawing : self (M. 77 that it was these forms that had been followed by Gotama himfor word the same. and Brahma^as. 342. or to pass along any particular street. 238. if politely requested to step nearer. according to Buddhaghosa here.' And the Puggala Pa»«atti commentator adds a very curious piece of old folklore as his reason for this explanation. and the uncommentator on the Puggala. or to wait a moment. It^would seem from M. 77. not tions. consists of a string of enigmatic phrases which are interpreted translation. before he attained to Nirvana. It no doubt means some cooking vessel of a particular shape. or to go to any particular place) He will not accept (food taken direct) from the mouth of the pot or pan 3 (in which it is cooked lest : ' : — — ' . I. if compared with I. 71) who were more especially known for the practice of these forms of asceticism and from M. as others do) 1 — instead of (When on his rounds for alms. but the exact signification. before his daily round for alms) refuses to accept (food. in my known word following description of the naked ascetic recurs in the I. 524. I. Both commentators give an alternative rendering He scratched himself clean with his hand after stooling. if told that it has been : — prepared) especially for him He refuses to accept any invitation (to call on his rounds at any particular house. 167. crouching down. The tradition was in doubt about this word. and in the Puggala Parcwatti IV. washing them. 1 The It Ma^^ima 24. 238. II. These two are very nearly differences are just such as would arise upon one uniform tradition. 161. 2 I. and the deriva- ' Q 2 . as well-bred people is He He goes naked : — do):— ' He licks his hands clean 2 : (after eating. not in Childers. or sitting down. in a standing posture. that it was the Agivakas (see note above on p.THE NAKED ASCETIC. 22 7 . 3 Ka/opi.

And how can pa/iga»bati mean 'spy'? We have. those vessels should be account. perhaps. from one MS. as meaning vessel. The Commentaries only give the the authority of the where it occurs in a — — 1 . 'he does""not spy or perhaps beyond the bars of the grate (spahte nicht iiber das Gitter). But it is just such cases as those in this paragraph where we* are more likely to go right if we follow the ancient Dr. verse 456. but this seems putting a great deal of meaning into the sticks. and not sufficiently reproducing the force of antaraw/. can be derived from either of them .' It is of course out of the question that a word of the fifth century b.228 VIII. and the Amara Ko^a. (on Magg/iima. with the spoon) 1 : — struck or scraped. but they are evidently the descendants of allied forms. taken from what they are eating. give the . Childers gives another form khalopi on tion Abhidhana Padipika (twelfth century). reason. Neumann ' beyond the lattice ' ' tradition. to fill out an elliptical phrase. Another kha/opi is put in his text by Trenckner at Milinda. c. p. That is. 77) has. on his (He him) will) hold for ' (lest : — it not (accept food placed) within the thresshould have been placed there specially (He — him): (lest it not (accept food placed) among the sticks 1 should have been placed there specially for will) will) '(He : pestles (lest for him) ' — it not (accept food placed) among the should have been placed there specially two persons are eating together he will not accept (food. 107. It may possibly be a Kolarian or Dravidian word. but the other two differ. I. The commentators only On the meaning of the word compare Gat. Many centuries afterwards karo/a and karo/i were included in the Vyutpatti. 290. list of names of pots. I. 2 Na reason.. purisantara-gataya. no doubt. Both commentators paraphrase -it here by ukkhali ^zkkh\ va\ Na Da«</a-m-antara/ra. if offered to him by only one of the two) He will not accept food from a woman with child : When — : : ' (lest ' the child should suffer want) He will not accept food from a woman giving suck (lest the milk should grow less) He will not accept food from a woman in intercourse with a man 2 (lest their intercourse be hindered): ' — — — ' of it are both unknown. KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA. among the firewood but the expression is not clear.

These ascetics see sin even in this. 'in which special titDr. or so on up to once every seven days. Na Neumann ' . is found only in Sumita. Sfi& (published in 1893) Subhuti renders it 'kongey'. Gotama. 2 29 He will not accept food collected (by the faithful time of drought) * He will not accept food where a dog is standing by (lest the dog should lose a meal) He will not accept food where flies are swarming round (lest the flies should suffer) He will not accept fish. tusodaka. sa/wkhittisu.' 2 Thusodaka. 8 it is water.' The use of salt Soviraka as a cure for wind in the stomach is mentioned at Maha Vagga VI. 'A small pot. Childers calls it sour gruel' following Subhuti in the first edition (1865) of the Abhidhana Padipika (verse 460).' . are the following ascetic practices accounted. at regular intervals. to the Buddhist Bhikkhus» mentioned in a list of drinks given to them. up to even half a month.THE NAKED 1 ASCETIC. does he dwell addicted to the practice of taking food : He — ' according to rule.' The corresponding Sanskrit word. 3 and it was allowed. " " a One-mouthful-man " " Or he is a Two-mouthfulTwo-houser. ' ' : bits are put aside. something of the same sort as barley water. nor intoxicants. 16. or once every two Thus days. nor meat. and kept." a in : — ' : ' — — : 1 : — ' : — 1 man": ' — Or he man " — : 1 is a " Seven-houser. Buddhaghosa adds Every one agrees that it is wrong to drink intoxicants. but in the Abh. It is not fermented. especially the husk. in the opinion of some Samaras ' and Brahmawas. if mixed with In Vimana Vatthu XIX. or so on up to only seven He takes food only once a day. The traditional interpretation here is: 'a drink called Suvirakaw (after the country Suvira) made of the constituents. 3 Datti. nor gruel 2 He is a "One-houser" (turning back from his round as soon as he has received an alms at any one house). And so also. as a beverage.' says Buddhaghosa. Pad. nor strong drink. as Samawaship and Brahmawaship 1 : — Both meaning and derivation are uncertain. has not from the dirty. of all cereals." a " Seven-mouthful. 3 or onlykeeps himself going on only one alms two.

on the discarded scum of 3 on grasses. where the word also occurs. in the opinion of some Samaras and Brahmarcas. 156. on the fine powder which adheres to the grains of rice beneath the husk. 78. not in Pi##aka. 144. See M. kassapa-sIhanada sutta. The commentators give an alter- Clothing made of Eraka grass tied together. on fruits that have fallen of themselves. The commentators is plain. 156. IV. I. ' . on boiling rice. 33 means some sort of net. Childers. 29. * 8 Daddula. 117 as •the characteristic dress of an old Brahman. This custom is referred to at Mahd Vagga VIII. I. on wild rice \ on Nivara on leather parings 2 on the water-plant called Ha /a. 188. See M. Gotama.230 ' VIII. as Sama^aship and Brahmawaship 1 1 He He 4 wears coarse hempen cloth wears coarse cloth of interwoven : : — : — other materials 4 — hemp and He : away 1 — wears cloths taken from corpses and thrown He a dust 1 wears clothing made of rags picked up from heap He wears clothing made of the bark of the Tiritree ' taka lope 1 : 6 : — — : [167] — He wears the natural hide of a black ante- He He He wears a dress made of a network of e : a black antelope's hide ' — strips of : 1 wears a dress made of Kusa grass wears a garment of bark : — fibre — II. The use of such garments is there forbidden to the Bhikkhus. ' practices accounted. on fruits and roots from the woods. on the flour of oil-seeds cow-dung. as having been there followed by ascetics. Khipa at A. III. 8 A^inakkhipam pi dh&reti.' II. . 247). Buddhaghosa gives here an explanation different from that given by him on Vin. I. not in ' : Childers. And so also. are the following ascetic seeds. Ill. The Puggala Pa»«atti gives both explanations as possible. See Vin.' Was such clothing then used to wrap dead bodies in ? 8 Tiritani pi dh&reti.' here merely say * This ' A'Aava-dussSni : pi dh&reti. 1 Samaka. 34 (quoted native explanation Vinaya Texts. feeds on potherbs. 365. I. He . A^inakkhipa is referred to at S. not in Childers. 341. Gat.

' II. The commentator says he progressed in this posture by a series of The posture is impossible to Europeans. 2 So of A^ita of the garment of hair. Phalaka-^iram pi dhareti. That would be va/a.' * The Burmese MSS." putting iron spikes or natural thorns under the skin on which he sleeps 5 He uses a plank bed He sleeps on the bare ground 6 is : * ' ' He — — : — : — ' . and lets the dust adhere to his body) He lives and sleeps in the open air 7 : — : — 1 Whatsoever seat is offered to him. hoti. alternative rendering given by us at ' Comp. I. So does my MS. that he accepts . if they crouch hops. 342. a blanket of human hair 2 He wears. A. as a garment. 3 Vala-kambalam pi dhareti. p. 240. But compare Git. 2 = Divy. IV. 3. 73. 8 Mil. as a garment." rejecting the use of a seat: 'He is a " croucher-down on-the-heels. 6 ' : Mil. or walks up and down." addicted to 4 exerting himself when crouching down on his heels " He is a bed-of-thorns-man. above. S. 1 The ' Vinaya Texts. and the ground. skin of a wild beast. 28. IV. who. but not the Siamese edition. Both commentators add or stands. 141. The Puggala omits the word. a blanket made of the feathers of owls He is a "plucker-out-of-hair-and-beard. and all the passages where our word occurs read vaia. 11 8. 2 Aulla Vagga V. 7 Abbhokasiko ka ." addicted to the practice of plucking out both hair and beard : — ' : — a "stander-up. 29. ' 1 He sleeps always on one side — He is a "dust-and-dirt-wearer. read tatufila. 247. Both commentators say the hair is human hair. and Thaw^ila-seyyam pi kappeti.' should be corrected accordingly. a blanket made of horses' : — : — tails 3 ' : — He wears. at Dhp. 4 Ukku/ikappadhtna. See Maha Vagga VIII. Buddhaghosa. as a garment. 339. down on their heels. 231 He wears wood ' ' a garment made of small slips or slabs of ! (shingle) pieced together He wears. Compare Dhp. So the commentators here. 351 have the th. cannot keep their balance when the heels touch But natives of India will sit so for hours without fatigue. . 141." (smearing : — : his body with oil he stands where dust clouds blow. There is no comment on this.THE NAKED ' ASCETIC.

should go naked. that is free from those and that he. But from the time. realised by him. 3 these sections tioner. I. O to his being addicted to the practice of taking food. then is he far from Samawaship. KASSAPA-SlHANADA SUTTA. to be corrected accordingly. that is." addicted to the is He " clay) : — — 1 thrice a practice of going down into water his sins). according to rule. Throughout Gotama is purposely at cross purposes with his quesKassapa uses the word Brahmawa in his own sense ." addicted to the practice of never drinking cold water (lest he should injure the souls in it) 2 : He is an " evening-third-man. . 259 Vinaya But why was not this ought. an actual Arahat. has come to realise and know-— from that time. O Kassapa. on this curious belief. 85 foil. ! So of an A^ivaka at Gat. of course. its (without being offended at enough) 1 : — a being not dignified filth-eater/' addicted to the practice of the four kinds of filth (cow-dung. or a gloss. entered among the foods above. and do and be all those other things you gave 15. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger. and compare Texts. is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samawa. wash away ' day (to Kassapa. the lust after future life. O Kassapa.' II. ' and l non-drinker. down — of blissful attainment in conduct. ashes. tioned ? 1 Veka/iko. If a man. tongue. in heart. 390. that knows no illwill from the time when. rendering of the word at Mil. he dwells in that emancipation of heart. where one of them was already menIt looks like an afterthought. and be and lick his hands clean with his of loose habits. far from Brahmawaship. 3 is called a Brahmawa intoxications. by the destruc- — tion of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh. in intellect. and the defilements of delusion and ignorance). ' My 2 Apanako. a true recluse. while yet in this visible world. 59. cow's feeding on is He a " urine. and the state to even half a month in detail. that emancipation of mind. Compare my Milinda II. at regular intervals up if he does all this.232 VIII. have not been practised by him. That is. I think.

have not been practised by him. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger. he dwells in that emancipation of heart. in intellect. but he means something quite different. in intellect. far from Brahma^aship. O Kassapa. the lust after future life. But from the time. see above. On the persistent way in which the Pi/aka texts try to put this new meaning into the word. and that he. that emancipation of mind. in his answer. then is he far from Samaraship. or on any of those other rice. and that he. in heart. is called a Brahma/za — O ! ' [168] And if a man. in the Introduction to the Kuiadanta. 233 a man. keeps the word. is called a Brahma/za O — — O ' ! not in the ordinary sense. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger. that is free from those intoxications. while yet in this visible from that time. Kassapa. far from Brahmaraship. that knows no illwill from the time when. while yet in this visible world. but of the ideal religieux. and the defilements of delusion and ignorance). he means an Arahat. realised by him. that emancipation of mind. feed on potherbs. by the destruction of the 'And if wild — deadly intoxications (the lusts of the after future life. . flesh. world. is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samara. things you gave in detail down to fruits that have fallen of themselves. that is free from those intoxications. in heart. has come to realise and know from that time. O Kassapa. that knows no illwill from the time when. Gotama. then is he far from SamaraBut from the time. and the state of blissful attainment in conduct.THE NAKED ASCETIC. wear coarse hempen cloth. by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh. O Kassapa. realised by him. he dwells in that emancipation of heart. have not been practised by him. Kassapa. is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samara. the lust and the defilements of delusion and ignorance). ship. and the state of blissful attainment in conduct. has come to realise and know Kassapa. or carry out all or any of those other practices you gave in detail down to bathing in water three times a day. on on Nivara seeds.

2 34 vm - KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA. must Samawaship be must Brahmawaship be ' ! to gain. Kassapa. and the defilements of delusion and ignorance). how " hard must Brahmawaship be For from the time. And when he had thus spoken. is. of that life depended merely on this ascetism. 1 . It would be quite possible for a householder. one for each of the three lists of penances. in that emancipation of mind. the lust after future life. like the last and like the next. Gotama. the very great hardness. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger. broken up into three sections. in the Pali. And when he had thus spoken. by the destruction of the deadly ! "How — intoxications (the lusts of the flesh. Hard is the naked ascetic. : . Kassapa. Kassapa. down to the " slave girl who carries the water-jar. or for the son of a householder. and that he. Kassapa. quite apart from all kinds of penance. is called a Brah- ma«a l ! [170] 17. quite apart from these matters. how hard is a common saying in the world of a Samawa and of a Brahmawa is hard But if the hardness." and so on through all the items of those three lists of yours. that knows no illwill from the time when. know when a man is a Brahmawa That. O Kassapa. while yet in this visible world. that is free from those intoxications. [169] 1 6. let me become of low habits. is a common saying in the world ' : ' ! ' This paragraph. then it would not be fitting to say that the life of the Sama«a. was hard to lead. on the carrying out of any or all of those practices you have detailed. Kassapa. hard to it. life that the to lead. said to the Blessed One to know when a man is a Samara. the naked ascetic. But since. is it — is O that the Bhikkhu ' called a Samara. to say Let me now go naked. of the Brahmawa. Kassapa. say: hard must Samawaship be to gain. the life is hard. Gotama. very hard to lead therefore is it that it is fitting to That. he dwells in that emancipation of heart. or for any one. has come to realise and know from that time. said to the Blessed One: 'How hard then.

quite apart Kassapa. called a [l7l] and know that the Bhikkhu is ! —from that time. then it would not be fitting to say that a Samawa is hard to recognise. the conversion of a layman. quite apart from all kinds of penance. Kassapa. and that he. his entry into the Order (§§ 40-42 above. Kassapa. and the defilements of delusion and ignorance). and here divided as follows : — Under Conduct 1. that is free from those intoxications. it is hard to recognise a Samara. on the carrying out of any or each of those practices you have detailed.THE NAKED that ASCETIC. down know all to the slave girl " : who This man goes naked. while yet in this visible licks his fingers with his tongue. in that emancipation of mind. Brahma^a 18. And when he had thus spoken. the appearance of a Buddha." the items of those three : . by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh. or for any one holder. in heart. has come is it to realise ' O is Kassapa. and in mind ' ? [The answer [171-173] is all the paragraphs in the Samawwa-phala translated above. or lists carries the water-jar. O — world. hard to recognise a Brahmawa. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger. called a ' Samara. from these matters. Gotama. pp. hard to know a Brahmawa. or and so on through of yours. therefore is it " Hard is it to know when a man is fitting to say a Samara. : the naked ascetic. depended merely on this asceticism. But if being a Samawa. 235 it is hard to know a Samara. if being a Brahma#a. the lust after future life. The paragraphs on . to is of loose habits. that knows no illwill from the time when. to know when a man is a Brahmawa!" For from the time. or for the son of a householder. is that blissful attainment in conduct. he dwells in that emancipation of heart. But since. said to the Blessed One What then. a Brahma^a is hard to It would be quite possible for a houserecognise. (Sila). 78-79).

pp. Knowledge of other people's thoughts. 6. 84-86). 81). (§§ and perplexity 67-74 above. Knowledge of other people's previous births. 2. and the attainment of Arahatship. pp. c. worry. d. P. The paragraphs the power of pro(§§ 85. §§ p. The paragraph on 'Guarded 79. being content with little {§ 66 above. as in the Brahma-^ala.) 11. 3. 84). 57. p. KASSAPA-SIHANADA SUTTA. The paragraph on Simplicity of Life. The ' And there is no other state of blissful attainment . — Four Noble realisation of the the destruction of the Intoxications. fills his whole being 9. pp.79). that. 84 above. 8. as a result of this emancipation. The paragraph on the Joy and Peace. 87). (Pa£»a). A . The Silas. {{83. Truths.za-dassana. b. (§ 75 above. The paragraphs on Emancipation from the Five Hindrances laziness. The paragraphs on jecting mental images 12. 5. 58. A. See above. 80. —covetousness. 80).] 13. p. the heart (A"itta). 86 above. The paragraphs on the Insight arising from Knowledge (7^a. 87. 86. Under Intelligence 10. 82-84). The paragraph on 'Mindful and possessed' {§ 65 above. 81). 7. The paragraph on Confidence (J 63 above. Knowledge of one's own previous births. Under 4. The paragraphs on the Four Ecstasies 75-82 above. pp. §§ 8-27.236 VIII. ill-temper. Hearing heavenly sounds. is the door of Self- his senses' ($64 above. e. — pp. — (6^anas. on the five modes of : special intuition (abhmwa) a. pp. The practice of Iddhi. _.

" to very nearly the same thing as ahizrcsa. the really noblest.THE NAKED in ASCETIC. I am aware of no one less superior. be here referring to his years of penance before he attained NirvSwa under the Tree of Wisdom . 78 is ing the Sanskrit dictionaries. Gignkkhi is translated by Childers as 'disgust. loathing. And in who is equal to myself. and taking the higher scrupulousness' in the sense of the self-control of the Path. [174] 21. being so mindful. that pity is stirred up in one even towards a drop of water. and scrupulous care of others. 237 Kassapa. But so far as various ways. Kassapa.' 8 At Ahguttara II. the highest sort of self-mortification and scrupulous regard for others. 'Now there are some recluses and Brahmans. Kassapa. 240-242) it is said that those Gotama must addicted to tapo-gigukkhS. is. 200 (compare M. I it is I less superior. in lay emphasis on intelligence. or he must be putting a new meaning into the expression. who lay emphasis on self-mortification. in praise of intelligence. much less And it is I who have gone the furthest superior. either. I. morality. Probably both are ' implied.' followThe example of it given at M. . the highest intelligence. They speak in various ways in praise of self-torture and of austere scrupulousness. is. I. much who have gone the furthest therein ' that is. But so far as regards the really noblest. in going out or coming in. ' he means Arahatship. am . are incapable of Arahatship. who They speak. the the highest sort of is who have gone scrupulous regard for others There are some recluses and Brahmans. There are some recluses and Brahmans. conduct and heart and mind which l higher and sweeter than this . I am regards aware of no one else who is equal to myself. 1 ' And by this/ says Buddhaghosa. else it who is I much And that furthest ' therein . Kassapa. 3 ' It comes therefore is Adhipa»«&. in the highest Wisdom 3 (of the Path). equal to myself. in various ways. 93 it is clear that this the . But so fat as regards the really noble. in 2 . therefore. to the effect that: "may I not ' bring injury on the minute creatures therein. For the doctrine of the Exalted One has Arahatship as its end. the highest con- aware of no one duct. who lay emphasis on They speak. From Ahguttara II. the highest conduct (of the Path). in praise of conduct. therein that is.

men give no outward But : — sign of their faith " : — But even when they give such outward : arrive not at the truth " it — sign. Kassapa. Kassapa." may well be. not of Arahatship." Then : . has then to strive on till he attains to Pa««atti IV. The Samara roar.238 ' VIII. For man who Arahatship. pation (of . they experience no conviction therefrom " But even when convinced. should they be answered " : Gotama 'And utters his lion's Say not so. until the answer runs Say not For the Samara Gotama both utters forth his so. they should be " answ ered as before. lay emphasis on emancipation. the higher stages only of the Path. they But even when they arrive " out : carry • — at the truth they cannot Then in each such case. in praise of emancipation. that the recluses of adverse schools should thus. r : — wisdom of the this. I am aware of no one else who is equal to myself. he cannot answer But even when he answers. much less superior. and that too in the assemblies where it men congregate. in succession. in the furthest therein the Path). 26 is not really inconsistent with Puggala has adhipa««a . in various ways. that the " recluses of adverse schools may say The Samara Gotama utters forth a lion's roar but it is in solitude that he roars. raise each of the following objections : — " " " " But it is not in full confidence that he roars But men put no questions to him But even when questioned. he gives no satisfaction : — : — — : by "his exposition of the problem put But men do not hold his opinion worthy : — listened to " : — to be even when men listen to his word. Kassapa. They speak. But so far I who have gone the most complete emanci- as regards the really noblest. Kassapa. [175] 22. not where men are assembled. KASSAPA-siHANADA SUTTA. the highest emancipation. 'Now it may well be. who There are some recluses and Brahmans. And it is that is.

in many a figure. . staying once. Sir. And thus questioned I expounded the problem put. in listening to it they experience conviction. 25 Digha. by and hearts. It forms the subin the ject of the Udumbarika Sihanada Suttanta. even I. would not be well pleased. on hearing the doctrine of the Exalted One. and having grasped it they are able also to carry the truth out I was 23. just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down. are the words of thy mouth. wishes to renounce the world and receive initiation in this doctrine and 1 The whole conversation will be translated below. he was well 1 pleased. 'Whosoever. claim.' 1 — . renounce the world under the Exalted One I would fain be admitted to his Order. betake myself as my guide to the Exalted One. at Ra^agaha. and on being questioned he expounds the problem put. and to the Doctrine. Lord. having formerly been a member of another school. I would fain. Kassapa. by name [176] Nigrodha. even as if with a great joy. by the Exalted One. and to the Brotherhood. of the same mode of life as yours.THE NAKED lion's ASCETIC. as if with a great joy / And who. on And there a follower the hill called the Vulture's Peak. Lord. his exposition thereof satisfaction arises in their and they hold it worthy to listen to his word. when I had thus answered what he asked. and men put their questions to him on that. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. and being convinced they give outward signs thereof. most excellent. who have now heard the doctrine of the Exalted One. or were to bring a lamp into the darkness. 24. 239 and that too in assemblies where men and in full confidence in the justice of his congregate. Most excellent. Lord. And I. asked me a question about the higher forms ! ' And having been of austere scrupulousness of life. and roar. and they penetrate even to the truth. has the truth been made known to me. so that those who have eyes could see external forms just even so. am thus well pleased. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. Kassapa. as if with a great joy. No. I also.

that rebirth was at an end for him. 69. and that after this present life there would be no beyond And so the venerable Kassapa became yet another ! among the Arahats. We have had an instance above (p. ' he remains in probation for four months \ end of the four months the brethren. exalted in spirit. give me initiation and raise me up into the state of a Bhikkhu.' [177] So Kassapa. vin. I too. . in 1880. by lx. 55) of several different names being given.si hanad a sutta.' into the Order. zealous. And from immediately after his initiation the venerable Kassapa remained alone and separate. Mahd Sfhanada Sutta. exalted in spirit. which is also the ima called there in the text (p. and while yet in this visible world. secondary matter. bring himself to the knowledge of. and was admitted to membership of the Order under the Exalted One. in the collection itself. that everything that should be done Since. then. the distinction there may be between individuals. and receive him at the him up into the state of a BhikBut nevertheless I recognise. earnest. to the same Sutta. — name given in the MSS. call it the is. 396). 8 8 That The Arahatship. and in the Milinda (p. Burmese MSS. Nirv&na. that the higher life had been fulfilled. and continue to And he became sure realise. kassapa. Then let the brethren. raising Lord. 83). the Lomahawzsana Pariyaya. the naked ascetic. in such cases. give him initiation. Here ends the Kassapa-Sihanada Suttanta 3 1 According to the rule laid down in Vmaya I. that supreme goal did he. will remain on probation for that time. called attention in my ' Buddhist Birth Stories Book of the different numerous instances in the Gataka (pp.240 discipline. And e'er long he attained to that supreme goal 2 for the sake of which clansmen go forth from the household life into the homeless state yea. and master of himself. the four months' probation is the regular custom. to the Twelfth Sutta in the Magg/i- And I ' had already. by himself. received initiation. And khu. and to see face to face. same Gataka being known. : had been accomplished. in the text itself. lx-i) to the names. It is evident that the titles were considered a very .

and impalpable but still a physical double of the physical body. underlies every variety of early speculation in India. and life. this hypothesis of a soul inside the body ' ' has been adopted. very easy for us. sleep. of the four elements. R . or When the 'soul* came back. and to import into it modern conceptions *. The oldest and simplest form of the The notion was that hypothesis was frankly materialistic. however devoid of the essential marks of a sound scientific ' ' — — ' ' hypothesis. 189. For trance (as is pointed out by Po////apada in § 6) had been explained by adherents of the soul theory as produced by the supposed fact of a soul having gone away out of the body. p. who now no longer use the word soul exclusively in its original sense. had gone through a whole course of development of which the Vedas show us only the results. to the question of soul. of trance. of a double: shadowy. in trance. or association of ideas. passes over. among the ancestors of the men to whom we owe those records. . by a natural transition. As is well known. Long before the date of the earliest records of Indian belief this theory. beginning with a discussion on the mystery. apparently without life. II. They take the theory so completely for granted that the 1 See above. Endless were the corollaries of a theory which. and made up. motion began again. When the soul was away the body lay still. unfortunately. But it is. among so many different peoples in all parts of the world that it may fairly be described as almost universal. This Sutta. without moving. as elsewhere. like the body. or disease. to misunderstand the ancient view.INTRODUCTION TO THE P07Y77APADA SUTTA. no doubt. and no doubt quite independently. It is even by no means certain that it has not been quite universal in which case its adoption is probably a necessary result of the methods of thought possible to men in early times.

is throughout based on this old theory of a soul inside the body. . inconsistent views leaves for a moment the basis of the soul theory. That is always taken for granted. from all other religious systems then And the very great difficulty which existing in the world. as they held it. goes out by way of the knees. where we are told that if the soul. theory of the priests. The hypothesis having been handed down or in any detail. that may be. The numerous details are full of inconsistencies. and in shape like the body. 5. it was considered amply sufficient to refer to it in vague and indirect l And the stage which the theory had reached phraseology before the time when our Sutta was composed can only be pieced together imperfectly from incidental references in the . However. allied to one or other of the thirty-two theories careful search would controverted above (pp. it is certain that all the religions. in this respect. those European writers. are based on this belief in a subtle but material 'soul' inside It would scarcely the body. are nowhere set out in full. And the different views set out in these priestly manuals by no means exhaust the list of speculations about the soul that must have been current in India when Buddhism arose. were based upon it. but which bear the stamp of great antiquity such passages as Mahabharata XII. even in the later priestly literature itself. 1899). and need here only state This is that the Upanishads show how the whole the result. 163. and all the philosophies. be going too far to say that all religions. I have collected -these references together in the article already referred to (J. see Rig-veda I. so important to theologians. the existing records show to have existed in India. as to what happens to the soul But not one of these after it flies away from the body. Atharva-veda V. 7. in departing from the body. more especially on the point. as there set out. Buddhism stands alone among the religions of India in ignoring the soul. then existing in the world. There were almost certainly other views. and when our Sutta was composed. 6. who are still steeped in animistic A — 1 For souls inside animals. it will go to the Sadhyas. in the time when Buddhism arose. and all philosophies.A.R. for souls inside plants. 45). and being accepted by all. 11704.242 IX. The vigour and originality of this new departure are evident from the complete isolation in which Buddhism stands. from time immemorial. TOTTHAFADA SUTTA.S. Upanishads. details of it. acknowledging views which do not happen to be referred to in the Upanishads. no doubt reveal passages. 44..

by its apparent implication of some permanent entity. ni^ivata. anattalakkha«ata.r-reaching a step in religion and philosophy. physical or mental the . but only in such a manner that he is not led astray by its ambiguity. . 1 See the authorities quoted in my 'American Lectures/ pp. front of my first exposition of Buddhism. secondly. 65. of numerous texts has shown how the early Buddhist writers had previously followed precisely the same method l They reserve. nence of each and every condition. Nearly a quarter of a century ago I put this in the foreThe publication. na h'ettha sassato bhavo atta va upalabbhati) is treated. any entity.INTRODUCTION. any 'soul' (ani££ata. individuality (attapa/'ilabho) is only a convenient expression in common use in the world. the point that personality. one point only is dealt with in each In our Sutta it is. in the first place. For the most part. any sub-stance. the gradual change text. find in appreciating. nissattata. 64. since then. from the numerous points of view from which it can be approached. absence of any abiding principle. the doctrine. in as many different Suttas. R 2 . may help us to realise how difficult it must have been for the originator of it to take so decisive and so fr. as is only natural. at so early a period in the history of human thought. the enthusiasm of their poetry and eloquence for the positive side of their But the doctrine of the impermadoctrine. of states of consciousness: and then. 243 or even understanding preconceptions. for Arahatship. of mental conditions. and therefore made use of also by the Tathagata.

name This. Ill. afterwards called Bhadrapada). A/frelas. but the group of buildings continued to be There Brahmans. as such. three hundred mendicants. IV. was dwelling at the hall put up in Queen Mallikas Park for the discussion of systems of opinion the hall set round with a row of Tinduka trees. . it is noteworthy that he addresses the Buddha. the wandering mendicant. 513 It is . and with his bowl in his hand. is probably a gotta . 398. but as bhante. and other teachers met and expounded. Thus have I heard.] [178] i. into Savatthi for alms. known as 'The Hall/ Paribba^-akas. and known by the name of The Hall 2 . 2 §§ 2-6 recur. 32. a patronymic from the personal name. king of Kosala. II. NigawMas. — ' . meaning born under Po/Mapada (the old name for the ' 1 25th lunar asterism. proceeded in his robes. Mallika was one of the queens of Pasenadi. II. or discussed. rn once staying at Savatthi in the (7eta Wood. others near it had been built in honour of various famous teachers . See M.' And there was with him a great following of mendicants to wit. not as' Gotama. for the reasons given above at p. 2 3 Now the Exalted One. . who had put on his under garment in the early morning. 405. 2 The very fact of the erection of such a place is another proof of the freedom of thought prevalent in the Eastern valley of the Ganges in the sixth century b. I. Now The Exalted One was Anatha Pmdika's pleasaunce at that time Po^/zapada l . and. mentioned elsewhere. If so.IX. at M. 437. [The Soul Theory.c. Buddhaghosa tells us that after The Hall had been established. . 22 Sum. Buddhaghosa says that as a layman he had been a wealthy man of the Brahman Va««a. 195. 1. ' ' their views. nearly. also Po///fepSda. See . FOTT//AVADA sutta. IV. 3 S. Gat. I.

THE SOUL THEORY.

245

It is too early now to enter Savatthi he thought Let me go to the Hall, the debating hall for alms. And he in the Mallika Park, where Po///*apada is.'
'
:

And

did so.
at that time Po///zapada was seated with the of the mendicants all talking with loud voices, company with shouts and tumult, all sorts of worldly talk to wit, tales of kings, of robbers, of ministers of state tales of war, of terrors, of battles talks about foods
3.
: ; ;

Now

drinks, about clothes and beds and garlands and perfumes talks about relationships talks about equipages, villages, towns, cities, and countries; tales about women and heroes gossip such as that at street

and

;

;

;

corners,
stories
;

and places whence water
;
;

is

fetched

;

ghost

desultory chatter legends about the creation of the land or sea and speculations about existence

and non-existence 1

.

the mendicant, caught sight [179] 4. And Po///&apada, of the Exalted One approaching in the distance. And at the sight of him he called the assembly to order, Be still, venerable Sirs, and make no noise. saying Here is the -Samawa Gotama coming. Now that venerable one delights in quiet, and speaks in praise of quietude. How well it were if, seeing how quiet And the assembly is, he should see fit to join us when he spake thus, the mendicants kept silence. One came on to where Po/Ma5. Now the Exalted the mendicant was. And the latter said to him pada, bid him May the Exalted One come near. It is long since the Exalted One took the welcome. 2 Let him take a seat. departure of coming our way.
'
:

'

!

:

'

We

Here

is

And

a place spread ready.' the Exalted One sat down.

And Po^apada,

the mendicant, brought a low stool, and sat down beside him. And to him thus seated the Exalted One said
:

1 2

For notes on

this list, see

above, p. 14, § 17.

Idhagamanaya pariyayawz

514, &c.
habits.'

akasi. So M. I, 252, 326, 481, Perhaps 'since you made this change in your regular

246
'

IX.

POT77/APADA SUTTA.

What was the subject, Po/Mapada, that you were seated here together to discuss and what was the talk among you that has been interrupted ? 6. And when he had thus spoken, Po/^apada said Never mind, Sir, the subject we were seated together to discuss. There will be no difficulty in the Exalted One hearing afterwards about that. But long ago, Sir, on several occasions, when various teachers, Samaras and Brahmans, had met together, and were seated in the debating hall, the talk fell on trance 1 and the question was [180] "How then, "Sirs, is the cessation of consciousness brought about ? Now on that some said thus " Ideas come to a man without a reason and without a cause, and so also do they pass away. At the time when they spring up within him, then he becomes conscious when they then he becomes unconscious." Thus did pass away, they explain the cessation of consciousness. On that another said " That, Sirs, will never be so as you say. Consciousness, Sirs, is a man's soul. It is the soul that comes and goes, When the soul comes into a man then he becomes conscious, when the soul goes away out of a man then he becomes unconscious." Thus do others explain the cessation of consciousness 2 On that another said " That, Sirs, will never be as you say. But there are certain Samaras and Brahmans It is they who infuse of great power and influence. consciousness into a man, and draw it away out of him.
;
' :

4

,

:

'

:

;

'

:

.

'

:

When

they infuse it into him he becomes conscious, when they draw it away he becomes unconscious." Thus

do others explain the cessation of consciousness
1

3

.

Abhisa««a-nirodho,

'the cessation of consciousness.'

Buddhaghosa explains that they came to this conclusion on the ground of such instances as that of the Rishi Migasingt, who, through

2

nymph Alambusa, fell into a trance that lasted for This must be a different tale from that of the Rishi Isisinga of Gataka No. 523, whom Alambusa tries in vain to seduce. Compare Vimana Vatthu XVIII, 11 L, 26.
love of the celestial
three years.
;

Buddhaghosa explains that the ground for this view is the way in which sorcerers work charms (Athabbanika athabbanawz payo-

3

THE SOUL THEORY.
1

24;

Then, Sir, the memory of the Exalted One arose " Would that the Exalted One, in me, and I thought the Happy One were he/e, he who is so would that skilled in these psychical states." For the Exalted One l would know how trance is brought about How, then,
:

.

'

there cessation of consciousness ? Well, as to that, Po/Mapada, those Samawas and 7. Brahmans who said that ideas come to a man and pass away without a reason, and without a cause, are wrong
Sir, is
'

from the very commencement. For it is precisely through a reason, by means of a cause, that ideas come and go. [i8i] By training some ideas arise. By training
others pass away.
'

And what

'

is

that training

?

continued the Exalted

One.

[He

tr aining for the

from
.

then sets out the first part of the system of selfi Bhikkhu, as translated above, pp. 78-84, the Samanna-phala, as follows
:

The introductory paragraphs on the appearance of 1 a Buddha, his preaching, the conviction of a hearer and his renunciation of the world. 2. The tract on the Silas, the minor details of mere
morality.
3.

4.

The paragraphs on Confidence. The paragraphs on Guarded
'
*

is the

door of his

senses!
5.

6.
7.

The paragraphs on Mindful and Self-possessed! The paragraphs on Solitude. The paragraphs on the conquest of the Five

Hindrances.

goes on :] But when he has realised that these Five Hindrances have been put away from within him,
'

And

[182] 10.

a gladness springs up within him, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame
^enti
which priests work out an Atharva charm') appear as dead as if his head had been cut off and then bring him back to his natural condition.
a

— perhaps 'Atharva
man
199.

make
1

;

Sa««a-nirodhassa pakata««u.
II,

So Buddhaghosa.

Compare

Vin.

248

IX.

P07THAPADA SUTTA.

becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is Then estranged from lusts, aloof from evil stayed. dispositions, he enters into and remains in the First Rapture (the First CHna) a state of joy and ease born of detachment, reasoning and investigation going on the while. Then that idea, (that consciousness) 1 of

,

lusts, that

he had before, passes away.

And

thereupon

there arises within him a subtle, but actual, consciousness of the joy and peace arising from detachment, and he becomes a person to whom that idea is consciously
present.
1

Thus

is it

that through training one idea, one sort
;

of consciousness, arises and through training another passes away. This is the training I spoke of,' said the

Exalted One.
11. 'And again, Po/Mapada, the Bhikkhu, suppressing all reasoning and investigation, enters into and abides in the Second Rapture (the Second GVzana) a state of joy and ease, born of the serenity of concentration, when no reasoning or investigation goes on, a state of elevation of mind, a tranquillisation of the heart within. Then that subtle, but actual, consciousness of the joy and peace arising from detachment, that he just had, passes away. And thereupon there arises a subtle, but actual, consciousness of the joy and peace born of concentration. And he becomes a person conscious of that. Thus also is it that through training one idea, [183] one sort of consciousness, arises and through training another passes away. This is the training I spoke of,' said the Exalted One. 12. 'And again, Po//^apada, the Bhikkhu, holding aloof from joy, becomes equable and, mindful and selfpossessed, he experiences in his body that ease which the Arahats talk of when they say " The man serene and self-possessed is well at ease." And so he enters

'

;

;

:

1

Sa««a which
idea,

is

sciousness.'
'

Eka sa»«a

used in a sense covering both 'idea' and 'conis therefore rendered below, in the refrain,

one

one

sort of consciousness.'

THE SOUL
into

THETVRY.

249
(the

and abides

in

the Third

Rapture

Third

that subtle, but yet actual, conscious^ana). ness, that he just had, of the joy and peace born of And thereupon there concentration, passes away. arises a subtle, but yet actual, consciousness of the bliss of equanimity. And he becomes a person conscious of that. Thus Jsc is it that through training one idea, one
'

Then

sort of consciousness, arises another passes away. This of,' said the Exalted One.

;

and through training
the training
I

is

spoke

13. 'And again, Po/Mapada, the Bhikkhu, by the putting away alike of ease and of pain, by the passing away of any joy, any elation, he had previously felt, enters into and abides in the Fourth Rapture (the Fourth G^ana) a state of pure self-possession and

Then equanimity, without pain and without ease. that subtle, but yet actual, consciousness, that he just And had, of the bliss of equanimity, passes away. thereupon there arises to him a subtle, but yet actual, consciousness of the absence of pain, and of the absence of ease ! And he becomes a person conscious of that.
.

Thus also is it that through training one idea, one sort of consciousness, arises and through training
4

;

another passes away. This said the Exalted One.
'

is

the training

I

spoke

of,'

And again, Po/Mapada, the Bhikkhu, by passing beyond the consciousness of form, by putting an end to the sense of resistance, by paying no heed to the
14.

idea of distinction, thinking " The space is infinite," reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which
:

Sukha and dukkha. Well-fare and ill-fare, well-being and ill' ' Pain is both too being, ease and dis-ease, uneasiness, discomfort. strong a word, and has too frequently an exclusively physical sense, to be a good rendering of dukkha. It is unfortunate that dis-ease
has acquired a special connotation which prevents the word being used here; and that we have no pair of correlative words corresponding to those in the Pali. For pain we have vedana often (M» I, 10; M. P. S., chapters 2 and 4; Mil. 134), and sometimes

1

dukkha-vedanS

(Mil. 112).

2

50

IX.

POTTtfAPADA SUTTA.

the mind is concerned only with the consciousness of Then the consciousness, th?t the infinity of space. he previously had, of form passes away, and there arises in him the blissful consciousness, subtle bul yet actual, of his being concerned only with the infinity of space. And he becomes a person conscious of
that.

that through training 01.° idea, one and through training another passes away. This is the training I spoke of,' said the Exalted One. [184] 15. 'And again, Po////apada, the Bhikkhu, by passing quite beyond the consciousness of space as
also
is
it

4

Thus

sort of consciousness, arises

;

1 thinking: "Cognition is infinite," reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which the mind is concerned only with the infinity of Then cognition. the subtle, but yet actual, consciousness, that he just And there had, of the infinity of space, passes away. arises in him a consciousness, subtle but yet actual, of everything being within the sphere of the infinity of And he becomes a person conscious of cognition.

infinite,

that.

Thus also is it that through training one idea, one sort of consciousness, arises and through training
'
;

another passes away. This said the Exalted One.
16.

is

the training

I

spoke

of,'

Po/Mapada, the Bhikkhu, by passthe consciousness of the infinity of ing quite beyond " There is nothing that really is," cognition, thinking reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which the mind is concerned only with the unreality of Then that sense of everything being within things. the sphere of infinite cognition, that he just had, passes And there arises in him a consciousness, away. subtle but yet actual, of unreality as the object of his 2 And he becomes a person conscious of that. thought
again,
:
.

'And

1

Vwnanz;
'

the exact translation of this
'

word

is

still

uncertain.

Perhaps
2

mind

is

meant.

these last three sections, which set out the fourth, fifth, and sixth stages of Deliverance (the Vimokkhas). see my former transla-

On

THE SOUL THEORY.
'

25

I

Thus

also

is it

that through training one idea, one
;

sort of consciousness, arises

and through training
is

This another passes away. said the Exalted One. of,'
17.
is

the training

I

spoke

'So from the time, Po/Mapada, that the Bhikkhu thus conscious in a way brought about by himself (from the time of the First Rapture), he goes on from one stage to the next, and from that to the next until he reaches the summit of consciousness. And when he is on the summit it may occur to him: "To be thinking at all is the inferior state. 'Twere better not to be thinking. Were I to go on thinking and 1 these ideas, these states of consciousness, fancying I have reached to, would pass away, but others, coarser So I will neither think nor fancy ones, might arise. any more." And he does not. And to him neither thinking any more, nor fancying, the ideas, the states of consciousness, he had, pass away and no others, coarser than they, arise. So he falls into trance. Thus is it, Po/Mapada, that the attainment of the cessation of conscious ideas takes place step by step.
,
;

Now what do you think, PW/^apada ? Have you ever heard, before this, of this gradual attainment
18.
'

of the cessation of conscious ideas
'
:

'

?

No, Sir, I have not. But I now understand what you say as follows [and he repeated the words of
section 17.]'
'

That

is right,

Po/Mapada V

the Exalted One teach that there is one summit of consciousness, or that there are several ?
[185] 19.
'

'And does

my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. B. E.) and the notes on These stages are almost exactly the same as the views PP> 5°j 5 1 controverted above at pp. 47, 48. And the doctrine of the sixth Vimokkha, as we see from M. I, 164, formed part of the teaching of
tion at p. 52 of
-

Gotama's teacher, A/ara Kalama. 1 Abhisawzkhareyyazrc, perhaps 'perfecting' or 'planning out.' 2 The foregoing discussion on trance is the earliest one on that Trance is not mentioned in the presubject in Indian literature.
Buddhistic Upanishads.

those that arise in the Guanas. the states of consciousness (here. so does he reach." 21. and anoint it with perfumes. that I put forward both one ' ' ' summit and 20. and the soul another 2 ? . depends on sa»»&. I take it. a material soul. and then the idea. the consciousness identical with a man's soul. but will go so Po///tapada. of the state of consciousness And this may be understood from the fact that a man " It is from this cause or that that knowrecognises ledge has arisen to me. will not feel happy there. the pain. Po///&ap&da. having Nina. So is it.252 1 IX. . one after another. to different summits up to the last. in Pi/aka times. and give play to others. and that there are also several ? As he attains to the cessation (of one idea. and lay it to rest on the best bed. that arises And first. 'Is then.' 3 Pa£^emi. first. and deck it with garlands. Now ness. In my opinion. and there are also several/ But how can the Exalted teach that there both is one. &c. 2 Buddhaghosa says that as a village pig. Sir. or is consciousness one thing.' is it. his power of judgment. back on the soul ? ' ' ' Po^apdda . the springing up of knowledge is dependent on the l springing up of the idea. ' which. the state of consciousand then knowledge or does first. there is one. in this connection. ' several. that is. neither of them before or after the other ? It is the idea. ' ' ness. . his insight. This is another of the words the exact sense of . ? Do you really fall [186] 1 I take for granted 3 Sir. that arises knowledge arise . the state of consciousSir. : ' ' But what theft. and after that knowledge. the idea. is still doubtful. depends on the ideas. Po/Mapada. VOTTHAFADA SUTTA. harks back to the superstition of the soul. one state of consciousness) after another. even if you bathe it in scented water. and the absence of any abiding principle) found in everything. that the mass of knowledge a man has. Po///£apada. It means ' primarily to go . the state of consciousness or do both arise simultaneously.) that are themselves due to the action on his sense organs of the outside world but are in so far under his own control that he can shut out some. having straight back to the dung-heap to take its ease tasted the sweet taste of the doctrine of the Three Signs (of the impermanence.

I fall back on a soul without and made of consciousness. your consciousness would be one thing. but so subtle that it can be described as 'made of mind. not all its major and with . in a = It is nearly proposition. then. N. and soul another. minor parts complete. Ill. and others would pass away. nourished by food 1 1 . So in G. just to see how the Buddha would meet it. it means apparently to revert to them. you may know by the following considerations. 360. in the Brahma-^ala (§ 12. and recurring also G. 662 (quoted as verse 125 in the Dhammapada. 309. Granting. I. p. 164). a material soul. And granting. That. Po#//apada. N. built up of the four if And even so. some states of consciousness.' And granting. with the necessary The supposition in § 23 is quoted at Asl. It is a soul the exact copy. harp on them. form. Po/Mapada. and material. set out below in § 23.' there were such a soul. with the connotation At S. still some ideas. elements. 87). to revert. even if Po/Mapada had any one of these The .' back towards. He held to that But he advances this. 3 still the same argument would apply .' and is so used in the Pi/akas. 196 and in S.' had such a soul. the same argument would apply 3 [187] 23. of the body. you .' 8 The text alterations. of course that.. 13.' 22. I. in every respect. you had such a soul. of opinions or reasons. secondary sense. 1 'Then. 788. M. the same as the first of the seven propositions about the soul contro- verted in the Brahma-^ala (above. 445. ' deficient in ' any organ 2 . having form. But somewhat in the same way as to go back home is to go to a place of security so . 47). 908 . 803. built 253 solid up of the four elements. 46-48). Po/Mapada. more elementary. fall back on them. On this account also. nourished by solid food would arise to the man. and in the way. Sir. . pp.' form. Then.THE SOUL THEORY. question 1 Buddhaghosa says this was not his real opinion. and in the Sama««a-phala (§ 85. V. 2 This sort of soul is nearly the same as the one referred to above. Po/Mapada. and your soul another. Po/Mapada. the latter seems to be the sense. you can see how consciousness must be one thing. Po/^apada. 203 S. p. Sir. 840 and answer here. 803 it can be taken either of regarding them as certain. N. argument is repeats the answer given in § 21. I fall back on a soul made of mind. At S.

to grasp this matter 25-27. ' ' me to understand soul. nor not live again. 'Then. Is the soul the same as the body ? 6. in the given permanent entity. it is not soul. then he ' . PorV/zapada. to constant change. PozY/zapada. trained in a different system of doctrine. Sir. Does one who has gained the truth live again — — after death 8. and not live ? — again. is a ' ' case. — — neither And each question same reply — after death ? Does he to live again. tell me at least: " Is the world eternal ? Is this alone the truth. ' 1 On these Ten Indeterminates see above. Sir. Is the world infinite ? : — — — — [188] 5. as you do. it is not 1 That ' too. But is it possible. Is the soul one thing.' three sorts of soul. different views. for whether consciousness is the man's different from the other ? 24. It is a becoming only subject.' [Then. in the same terms. ? — 9. in the Introduction to the Mahali Sutta. opinion on that ? This question is not calculated to profit. is a matter on which I have ! ' ' 1 expressed no opinion. after death 10. Po///zapada. But the consciousness is not an entity. holding. Po/Mapada asked each of the following questions 2. Is the world finite ? 4.' expressed But why has the Exalted One expressed no 28. or the one is Hard is it for you. the Exalted One made the : ]* matter on which I have no opinion. Is the world not eternal ? 3. as a ' would regard each of them. setting different aims before yourself. other things approving themselves to you. striving after a different perfection. if that be so. and the body another ? 7.2 54 ' IX - POTTHAPABA SUTTA. Does he not live again after death ? Does he both live again. and " other view mere folly ? any That. . as he must (and would) admit. On his own showing then.

. stages of the Path and to Nirvana. set out more fully in my ' Buddhist Suttas' (S. is concerned with the Norm.). so. to detachment. Po///£apada.THE SOUL THEORY. is calculated to profit. O One. I . what pain is have expounded what is the origin of pain I have I have exexpounded what is the cessation of pain what is the method by which one may reach pounded . to purification from lusts. So also at 282 and A. Po^/zapada. the cessation of pain 2 . ' determined ? I have expounded. II. to quietude. nor to quietude. O Happy the Exalted One do what seemeth him the Exalted thence.' 30. and de- 31. That is so. to And now fit' let Exalted One. parted And One rose from his seat. nor to Nirvana. Probably from the roots tud and £-ambh. the mendicant. to real knowledge. These are See the note above on the § 13. Therefore is it that I exno opinion upon it. akazrcsu. nor to tranquillisation of heart. . i8f. E. from all sides with a torrent of jeering and biting words 3 saying: 'Just . Now no sooner had the Exalted One gone away than those mendicants bore down upon Po^/zapada. 3 Va^aya sannitodakena saw^ambhari/zz S. to the insight of the higher Therefore is it. nor to purification from lusts. B. 'And why has the Exalted statement as to that ? ' ' One put forth a Because that question. I. nor to real knowledge. it does not redound even to the elements of right conduct. nor to the insight (of the higher stages of the Path). redounds to the beginnings of right conduct. 148-150. ' ' 1 Po/Mapada. that that' 1 I have put forward a statement as to That is so. to tranquillisation of heart. forsooth. nor to detachment. concerned with the 255 Norm (the Dhamma).' press Then what is it that the Exalted One has [189] 29. 2 Four Truths.- pada gives vent to approval of whatsoever the Samara 1 Dukkha. this Yotthz. pp.

other You are the only one. And Po//^apada. the mendicant. was placed by the Buddha at the head of the expounders of the Norm. with his so.) And his last revolt was subtle differences in the meanings of words. I have things I have declared un- 1 There are seven or eight Pittas in the books. One. " : Gotama That is hand. and then. Po/Z/zapada. [l9l] 33. laid among them. [190] mendicant. . with eyes Some things. He took refuge with his friend Po////apada. the Neither do I see that he puts ' : forward. down as certain. at him. left it again. based on the Norm. on one pretext or another. The A'itta of our passage was famous for the fact that he joined the Buddha's Order. Now after the lapse of two or three days Afitta." Now we. any proposition with respect to But the Samawa Gotama propounds those points. And on their arrival A'itta. the son of the elephant trainer. one of whom. fail That is so. as certain. and took his seat on one side. and certain by reason of And how could I refuse to approve. are to see. O Exalted One. replied But when they spake thus Po///6apada. well said. and when he was so seated he told the Exalted One how the mendicants had jeered ' . what has been so well said by the Samara Gotama as he propounded that ? 32. mendicants. says. and took his seat on one side.' And any they went through them all in detail.256 IX. and how he had replied. a layman. with the express purpose of bringing about a reconciliation. on this occasion. says Buddhaghosa. no less than seven times. exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings and compliments of courtesy and friendship. on the other to see that the Sama/za Gotama has put for- O Happy ward any doctrine that one of the ten points is distinct with regard to raised. came to the place where the Exalted One was staying. (The same thing is related by I-Tsing He prided himself on his keenness in distinguishing of Bhartr/hari. a method in accordance with the nature of things. true and fit. the son of the elephant trainer 1 and Po/Mapada. the mendicant. as the Norm. owing to a discussion of that sort he had had with Maha Ko///nta. and see not. POrrffAPADA SUTTA. brought him along with him. bowed low to the Exalted One. 'All those blind. Po///zapada. who.

Buddhaghosa explains this as 'witless' (pa/ibhana-virahitaw). 44-47. or even for half a night or day. for the reasons given * [192] 34. 26. can you maintain that you yourselves for a whole night. 32. And 1 And I asked them they acknowledged that it was so far as they were in the habit of knowing whether. have been reborn in such a world. . have ever " been perfectly happy ? And they answered " No." question they answered And then I said " Or have you. and they answered 4 " : No. who world) was perfectly happy. and direct towards the realisation of (rebirth in) a world of perfect happiness. It isthe contrary of sap pa/i hirakata/« which he explains (on § 45 below) by sappa/iviharawaw.THE SOUL THEORY." Then I said to them " Or further. and for the reasons given I hold them to be matters of certainty. Buddhaghosa takes g a. where the talk is of disciples who. pp. or for a whole day. Perhaps the meaning of the two words is and not apposite apposite (compare B. S.. 1 Compare above. nam passa/w as plurals. 8 Appa/ihirakataw*. indulge in the following speculation '* The soul is perfectly happy and healthy after death. on pratihara«a). by which you can realise " a state that is altogether happy ? And still to that " I : : ' Then asked them " Or : happy world." Be earnest. Sirs. For we. There are some Samaras and Brahmans. 257 The and latter are those ten questions that I you hold them matters of uncertainty. The former are the Four Truths I expounded. when a discussion on a wrong opinion has ' ' ' 2 ' II." And I went to them. Po/Mapada ? That ' being does not the talk of those Samaras and Brahmans turn out to be without good ground 3 ? so. P." they answered ' No. or perceiving it 2 the world (that is. ever heard the voices of gods who had realised rebirth in a perfectly : ' : further. R. and asked them whether that was their view or not. Sirs. raised. or a method. Therjs is a closely-allied expression at M. S . pp.' And " still No. : : ' Now what think you as to that. O men. in consequence of " similar effort. certain. the people in the . : hold the following opinion. do you know a way. Sirs. Po/Mapada. saying in effort.

or of the " trader class. P.' Compare M. good have seen. do you know whether that beautiful : ! And people should ask him " ! ! . 175) and in the Maxima II. neither : So then. a doctrine that is sappa/ihariya/tf that is.' p. The word for miracle comes from the same root (prati-har). TOTTH A? ABA SUTTA. he should answer :' " No. a doctrine which. and both my own and Windisch's rendering of the word in the M. or her family name. whom you know ' you love and long 1 for " say to him not. to preach.' p. Mara und Buddha. Perhaps of sallow complexion. I. if a man should say: "How love the most beautiful woman in 'Just as long 1 the land for. B. 2 Mangura-/££^avr." Now what think you of that. do you know what her name is. on the other hand. he should answer " No. Ill." ' ' : ! woman Well good friend most beautiful woman in the land. Here it must evidently be taken in a favourable sense.. her do " : " ? it so asked. or town. or of priestly rank. know how to refute it according to the doctrine (Dharma). XI. whom you so love and long for. 61 from ' ' the 1 Maha-padhana Suttanta (No. whether she be dark or brunette or 2 or in what village. 246 where all these three words for complexion are used. E. 43 . Pali the apposite explanation from the Buddhist point of view. he should answer Yes. that the talk of that man ' And when was witless talk ' ? arisen. in ' recurs the = ." And people should ask him " Well good friend This most beautiful woman in the land. and is . or short. II. : And people should friend. but to ' render here unmiraculous would make nonsense of the passage. " ! how I this is a noble lady. IX. or whether she be tall.' S. quoted at Sum. In all Manguli itthi at V. 260 is an allied form. 33. that being so. 107 these cases an unhealthy complexion is inferred. 14 This simile in the Dfgha). S. whom you so love and long for.258 [103] 35 I 1 . or of menial birth ? And when so asked. On the form compare anuhiramane. or of medium height. 71) must be also ('Buddhist Suttas. I. modified accordingly. S. in contra-distinction to the heresy advanced. Teviggu Sutta (translated in my 'Buddhist Suttas. or city golden in colour " she dwells ? ' And when so asked. Po/Mapada ? Would not turn out.

Po///^apada ? Would it not turn out. Sir. neither have seen " Yes. ' 259 the Samaras and Brahmans who talk about the soul It is being perfectly happy and healthy after death as if a man were to put up a staircase just.] Now what think you of that. of 38. or in the West. staircase. immaterial. They acknowledge that they cannot say their own souls have been happy here even for half a day. and arupo atta-pa/ilabho. or in the South. to mount up 1 . their talk would [105] turn out to be without good ground/ The following three modes of personality. you are making a staircase to mount up into " a mansion you know not of. that being so. S 2 . 2 ensuring such a result . Buddhaghosa here explains atta-pa/ilabho by attabhava-pa/ilabho. too.THE SOUL THEORY. [194] 36. that the talk of that : ! ! ' : 1 : ! ' : 1 man was ' ' witless talk ? For a truth. with those Samaras and Brahmans who postulate a soul happy and healthy after death. Then just so also. no method. Po/Mapada. do you know whether it is in the East. 37. or of medium size ? And when so asked." And people should say to him " But then. For they acknowledge that they know no such state in this world now. Po///£apada. good friend. text. Po/Mapada. (are commonly acknowledged in the 3 The world): material. 1 § 2 § 34 is here repeated in the 34 repeated. does not their talk. his talk would turn [Then surely just so. manomayo. Po/Mapada. that being out to be witless talk." And when so asked. that being so. 39. and formless ' ' — . or low. he should answer Now what think you of that. turn out to be without good ground ? For a truth. And " Well good friend this people should say to him to mount up into which you are making this mansion. in a place where four cross roads meet. That being so. 8 O/ariko. he should answer " No.' ' so. And they acknowledge that they know no way. or in the North ? whether " it is high. Sir. Po/Map&da. with thereby on to the upper storey of a mansion.

into which the worlds are divided in the later Buddhist theory (1) the eleven kamava^ara worlds. both inclusive: (2) the rupava^ara worlds.' These three forms of personality correspond nearly to the planes. or divisions. but a view commonly entertained in the world. and one may continue to see face to face. — which are the sixteen worlds of the Brahma gods. contra. has all its greater and lesser limbs comThe third is without plete. ^ n either case. because the fool jumps to the conclusion ' : This is my soul. is made up of mind. up. POTTHAPADA SUTTA. 1 The whole paragraph is repeated for each of the three modes of personality. for a time only. not any Buddhist theory. and is nourished by solid food. Buddhaghosa with the twelve kamava£ara-akusala-£ittappada out). from purgatory below to the deva heavens above. §§ 21-23). or the five Skandhas. with 40-42. attained to by the practice of four of the : Vimokkhas (Nos. And that the others are connected with the preBuddhistic idea of ecstatic meditation leading to special forms of re-existence. the dispositions which tend to purification may increase. of Buddhaghosa explains these as tranquillity and insight. ' « : and on attabhava he says (Asl. Sawzgawi 365-430. 2 These sawzkilesika dhammi are identified by S.260 first IX. such as Po/Mapada himself would admit. if you walk according off of that personality the evil dispositions one has acquired to that doctrine. an unstable individuality. and all the organs perfect. Now it may well be. . Dh. It will 4-7). from the Buddhist point of view. respect to each of these \ that leads to the putting ' so that. the full perfection and grandeur of wisdom. form. course. from hell beneath to heaven above. these modes of existence would be. ' But compare. the word apariydpanna must be struck 3 of Dhamma 1241 (where. Po/Z/zapada. be noticed that the lowest of these three planes includes all the forms of existence known in the West. The second has no form. and is made up of consciousness only. is made up of the four elements.' . of course. and are attained to (3) the by the practice of the Four Raptures (the Four GMnas) four arftpSva^ara worlds. the dis- may be put away 3 2 . Now I teach a doctrine. Po/Z/zapada. that you [196] think "Evil dispositions may be put away. But it is clear from § 58 below that the opinion here put forward is intended to represent. They are the fleeting union of qualities that make purely temporary. 308) that it is used for the body. has form. and indeed has admitted (above. and by himself come to realise.

Now that. one will dwell ness. in § 34). by getting rid. that whatever the mode of existence. then there will When Po^apada> such con- and peace." and grandeur of wisdom. or in the say to ' : ! ! In the words of §§ 39. to mount up into which you are constructing this staircase. Po///&apada. 2 See above. of temporary individuality. so that he may continue to see face to face. 1 and by the increase of certain good dispositions. and in mastery. men should at the foot of the very palace itself. [198] That being so. or in the West." Now what think you of that. and by himself come to realise. The above rendering of the firmed by the simile in § 46. might 43-45. us thus " What then. would not the talk turn out to be well : 'And J : • ' grounded For a ' ' ? truth. and by himself come but one to realise. 40. but only in one way. do not admit that happiness can be reached here (as above. of certain evil dispositions. as if a man should construct a staircase. do you know whether it is in the East. would not be accurate judgment.THE SOUL THEORY. Buddhaghosa thinks this is said in protest against those who. seeking for happiness beyond the grave. the full perfection and grandeur of wisdom?" And to that I should reply (describing it in the words " I have now Used to you ) Why this very personality that you see before you is what I mean. the full perfection may continue sad. Po^Mapada. namely. elliptical phrase Ay am va so is con- .' Just. it would. [197] be joy. And him 2 " Well good friend that palace. ditions are fulfilled. is that material question (or that mental. to mount up into the upper storey of a palace. Sir. one may continue to see face to face. § 37. there is happiness obtainable . or that formless) mode of personality for the putting away of which you preach such a doctrine as will lead him who walks according to it to get free from the evil dispositions he has acquired. 26 1 positions that tend to purification may increase. that is. and happicontinual mindfulness and selfat ease. Po^apada. outsiders. Sir. to increase in the dispositions that tend to purification. 46.

If people should ask you. turn out to be well ' ' grounded ' ? For a truth. Now when he had thus spoken. thus "Were [200] in the past. that being so. or in the North ? whether it is high or low or " of medium size ? 'And when so asked. said to the Exalted One At that time. unreal ? The future personality that you will have. when a man is in possession of any one of the three modes of personality. and not not. are the other two unreal to him then ? Is it only the one he has that is real 2 ? At the time. that I am and not not. you or not? Are you now. or not ? Will you be in the future.262 IX. in the present. South. modes of personality is going on. " How would you answer ? unreal ? .' Then when I answer : — answer 1 ' ? . [iog] 47. and not not shall be in the future. 1 to the questions put to me. Each of the three cases is given in full. and the past personality. Altta. of that ? Would not his talk.' thus 48. Po/Mapada. Then if they rejoined " Well that past per50." What would you think. is that real to you and the future personality. — . unreal ? The that you have now. then it does not come under the category of either of the other two. the son of the elephant trainer. Sir. Po^apada. when any one of the three 49. and the present. is that personality real to you and the past personality. It is known only by the name of the mode going on. FOTTHAVABA SUTTA. that should say that I was in the past. . and the future. he should answer: "Why! here is the very palace itself! It is at the very foot of am constructing my staircase with the object it I of mounting up into it. or not?" How would you : * ' ' ' just so.' now. and the present. is that real to you. Sir. A'itta. ' it would. ' 1 §§ 2 42-45 repeated in full. 1 I ' : ! sonality that you had. Altta.

when any one of the modes of personality is going on. as from a cow comes milk. and when it is curds it is not called by any or junket of the other names and so on Just so. and from the curds butter. But the abstract term is only a convenient form of There never was any personality. Po///$apada. the name. ' 263 should say that the past personality that me at the time when I had it and And so also in the other two the others unreal. are the words of thy mouth most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. all expression. see external forms. Or butter. . designations in common use in the world. of course. it is convenient to change the designation. A'itta. cases/ 'Well! Just so. it is not called by the name of the other. modes of personality is going on. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could. and from the butter ghee. For these. certain point. three from the milk curds. not called curds. or ghee. that just as there is no substratum in the products of the cow. just even so has the truth it is it is . [201] I I had was real to . Sir. A'itta. make up a personality When the change has reached a always changing. expressions. but is not led astray by them 1 . by which the personality is known just as in the case of the products of the cow. 25. 'Just. so in man there is no ego. when milk — ' : ' . The author of the Milinda (pp.' 54. There are a number of qualities that. And of these a Tathagata (one who has won the truth) makes use indeed. the mendicant. isTitta. turns of speech.THE SOUL THEORY. and from the ghee junket but . or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. — The point is. 52. no soul (in the animistic sense of the word. . 27) has a precisely similar argument. and 51. when united. when any one of the three [202] 53. or were to .point out the right road to him who has gone astray. are merely names. Kitta. as a separate entity. as used by savages). then it does not come under the category of either of the other two. said to the Exalted One Most excellent. 1 ' ' — — the time. no constant unity. And when he had thus spoken.

. May the Exalted One accept me as an adherent as one who. and while yet in this visible world. earnest.064 IX. by the Exalted One. ! trainer. and that. there would be no beyond So the venerable A^itta. and continue to realise. after this present life. by himself. And his request was granted. of the higher life for the sake of which the clansgoal men go forth utterly from the household life to become houseless wanderers yea that supreme goal did he. in many a figure. remained alone and separate.' [203] he was 56. ' : . — ! ! . bring himself to the knowledge of. But A^itta. and to his Order. and And from immediately after received into the Order. betake myself to the Exalted One as my guide. the son of the elephant . the son of the elephant trainer. has taken him as his guide. became yet another among the Arahats. been made known. the son of the elephant trainer. And I. POrrtfAPADA SUTTA. Here ends the Po////apada Suttanta. from this day forth as long as life endures.' 55. his initiation Kitta. and And e'er long he attained to that supreme resolved. . to his Doctrine. And he became conscious and to see face to face that rebirth was at an end that the higher life had been fulfilled that all that should be done had been accomplished. zealous. Sir. concluded with And may I be permitted to go forth the request from the world under the Exalted One may I receive admission into his Order. though he made use of the same words.

are the habit of guarding the doors of one's senses constant and the faculty of being mindfulness and self-possession content with little. of mind. and Intelligence). It is quite clear that this would be a very inadequate and misleading rendering in our Sutta. or of the very interesting and suggestive history of the word in India. Samadhi. Concentration. . From the negative point of view it is said to include emancipation from ill-temper. other hand is a constant habit. the question arises why it was considered advisable to include it in our collection as a separate Sutta. either of the meaning. Samadhi has not yet been found in any Indian book older than the Pitakas. it is true. inertness of mind and body. view it is Wilson's said to include a constant state of joy and peace. or faculty. as in them. and perplexity . Pi/akas. it is used exclusively of a mental state. culminating in self-induced ecstasy. And. worry. chief difference is that the states of mind enumerated in the Samaw/a-phala as fruits of the life of a recluse are here divided under the three heads of Sila. never in a concrete sense. and the rendering 'meditation' has been used for it in subsequent works in English by Western scholars. but also other. The oldest Sanskrit text in which it occurs is the Maitri Upanishad and it probably has there the same meaning as it has in the . a pre-Buddhistic term applied to four special forms of meditaSamadhi on the tion. its meaning is not It is not the same as 67/ana. . which is easy to fix exactly. Sanskrit Dictionary (1819) gives the meaning 'devonl meditation'. from the positive point of . But exigencies of space preclude the discussion here. and Pa»«a The (Conduct. As this Sutta is almost word for word the same as the Sama«/*a-phala.INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBHA SUTTA. the — — These G/ianas. In our present Sutta and the principal reason for its existence as a separate Sutta is that it points out just this it is pointed out that Samadhi includes. and very different things.

. to referring to those pages. in what circles. the smaller? At what date. more than meditation ? Samadhi and GV/ana.) How the far. to be used in preference to the more limited. in the thirty-seven constituent paits of Arahatship.? (It is Samadhi. I have made some detailed contributions to the discussion of such questions in my Yogavacara Manual (Pali Text Society. like it. ' ' . in the Noble Path. here. more physical. and under what reservations.2 66 X. SUBHA SUTTA. to express 'self-concentration' with implied coan idea ordination. become swallowed up by larger. of the mental faculties they wanted. ' How far was the word (literally allocation ') invented or spiritual adopted by the Buddhists. through the constant association of the two ideas. 1896. did the word Samadhi come to mean nothing The history of the two ideas. did as ethical feeling died away. and. harmonisation. that we find in the Four Truths. and not — GV/ana. or by their immediate forerunners. is of the first importance in following the evolution and of philosophical and religious thought in India. has constant analogies with the history of the two similarly related ideas of Tapasa and Bhikshu. pp. in the statement of their most essential and ethical doctrines. xiv-xxviii) and must confine myself. notion of G/iana.

the venerable Ananda ' said to him : not just now. 2. young man. in Anatha F'mdiksLS pleasaunce. Very well. [205] 4. p. Go to the Sama/za Ananda. if so be that conditions and able It is opportunity seem 1 fit. the young Brahman. : man 3. i. to go on the morrow. he delivered to the venerable Ananda the message with which he had been charged. [Conduct. the son of the . 7. . Sir. other. so seated.X. shortly after Now at that time the Exalted One had died away the young Brahman Subha. addressed : Come now. for I have But perhaps I may be just taken medicine. and took his seat apart. and ask in my name as to whether his sickness and indisposition has abated. the son of the man of Tudi 2 was dwelling at Savatthi on some business or x .' said that young man in reply. and exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. now Sumangala Vilasini. Now Subha. as to his health and " 'Twere well vigour and condition of ease and say if the venerable Ananda would be so kind as to pay a visit to Subha. On hearing that message. And he went to the place where the venerable Ananda was staying. Ananda was once staying at Savatthi in the 6*eta Wood. And. in Nepal territory. SUBHA SUTTA.] The venerable [204] I. Concentration. and said ' Brahman. convenient. and Intellect. . Thus have I heard. the young a certain young man. of ' 1 udi.' The full details 2 A are given in village near Savatthi. young man.

young man arose from his seat. the so noble body of doctrine regarding The the intelligence ' V what. and added So. with a Bhikkhu from the A'etiya country as his attendant. and made them firm ? . and exchanged with the venerable Ananda the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. see above. including: 7. . if so be that conditions and opportunity seem fit. Three are the bodies of doctrine. and took his seat on one side.' 5. SUBHA SUTTA. and went and told him all. fJ 1 [The reply §§ 40-63 of the Samawwa- On these three Skandhas of doctrine. And Subha. and went. continually in his company. Sir. the son of the man of Tudi. and What were they. dressed himself early in the morning. the young Brahman. ' And 7-29 is phala Sutta. in which he established them. Ananda. so noble body of doctrine regarding self-concentration. is this so noble body of doctrine regarding right conduct (Si la) in praise of which the venerable Gotama was wont to speak to which he used to incite the folk. in made them firm. and made them firm. And the venerable Ananda.268 X. and A. You. in which he established them. to Subha's house. when the night had that to Subha. which the Exalted One was wont to praise to which he used to incite the folk. Sir. p. will know what were the things the venerable Gotama was wont to praise to which he . used to so noble body of doctrine regarding right conduct. : [206] have waited long on the venerable Gotama. ' Then : passed away. Ananda ? 6.I. he said to the venerable ' Ananda You. ' ' .&c. the matter has been so far accomplished that perhaps the venerable Ananda may be able to come on the morrow. constantly near him. And what are the three ? incite the folk. 82. which he established them. O Brahman. in his robes and carrying his bowl. and took his seat on the mat spread out for him. And. so seated. Sir. i25. came there where he sat.

AND INTELLECT. The aim of our enough. 269 The appearance The awakening of a Buddha. And ' with the words — ] there is yet something further. say according to your system. 2. The constant mindfulness and self-possession that he gains. II. in which he established them. 2. 3. and would say much. still to be done. on There is yet something further. — . 4. to this system. the other hand. [207] And were they also to perceive such in themselves. into the Order. like not incomplete unto it. Ananda. and his entry in act. : : Here ends the First Portion for Recitation in the Subha Sutta. and speech. His self-training word. is this so noble body of doctrine regarding self-concentration (Samadhi) in praise of which the venerable Gotarrta was wont to speak to which he used to incite the folk. still to be done. of a hearer." But you." ' Wonderful is this. and made them firm ? . then would they be "So far is satisfied with thus much. The way 64-82 of the Sama«»asay in which he learns to guard the is §§ is to : door of his senses. among the other Samawas and Brahma^as outside of this communion. i. confidence of heart the answer concludes the enumeration : thence resulting. and that I perceive no other. The absence of fear. and his preaching. that 1.CONDUCT. ' [The answer $ 2-18 phala Sutta. . 1.' And Ananda. according 30. We have done thus Samawaship has been "reached. Ananda. 'And what. CONCENTRATION. and mysterious both that this so noble group of conduct is well-rounded. 5. The minor details of morality he observes.

the rooting out of one's mind of the Intoxicants (the Asavas). consequent thereon. not incomplete. of Emancipation gained. ill-temper. in which he established them. answer is followed by the same something further to be done. is that so noble body of doctrine regarding intellect. The perception of the Four Truths as to sorrow and the Eightfold Path. sloth of body and mind. The resulting joy his bodily frame. Ananda. has no existence — independent of it. 'This. and the same rejoinder as above in Chapter I. and that mind (Vinn&na) is bound up with it. and made them firm. and — perplexity. is this so noble body [208] 20. to which he used to incite the folk. Ananda. 85. and made them firm ' ? [The answer §§ 20-26 is §§ St. young Brahman. The emancipation of heart from the Five Hindrances covetousness. of which that Exalted One was wont to speak in praise to which . and fills his heart. . like unto it. and that I perceive no other. that is to say: the insight which sees 1.2 70 3. he used to incite the folk. among the other Samawas And and Brahmawas outside of this communion. injunction as to And what.' Wonderful is this. The power little. with simplicity of 4. the And The Four Raptures (Qanas). of being content with life. 6-9. in which he established them. The power of calling up mental images. The iVawa-dassana that the body is impermanent. and mysterious [210] ' — both that this so noble group of doctrine regarding intellect is well-rounded. and the final assurance. and 97 of the Sama#«a-phala Sutta.] [200] 27.. 2. 3. excitement and worry. of doctrine regarding intellect (Pa»#a) in praise of which the venerable Gotama was wont to speak. SUBHA SUTTA. X. and peace that pervades 5.

' accomplished. to the truth. as long as life endures. May the venerable Ananda receive me as an adherent. and to the Order. as one who. of thy mouth.CONDUCT. in this matter. . from this day forth. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. in many a figure. betake myself to that venerable Gotama as my guide. even I. are the words Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. AND INTELLECT. most excellent. there is 2JI not. And I. anything further to be ! Ananda. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who have eyes could see external forms just even so has the truth been made known to me. by the venerable Ananda. excellent Most — Here ends the Subha Suttanta. CONCENTRATION. has taken them as his guide.

by reason of of nature. 3 2 183. p. 360.INTRODUCTION TO THE KEVADDHA SUTTA. 93. ' Iddhi is the peculiar attribute of the Arahats/ p. were famed for this acquirement. just as they could have any craft or skill of the unconverted. In this Sutta we have the position taken up by the early Buddhists. 206. could accomplish certain These acts special acts beyond the power of ordinary men. Vin. As usual l the Buddha is represented as not taking the trouble to doubt or dispute the fact of the existence of such powers. as to the practice of the wonders or miracles. There was no interference by an outside power with the laws It was supposed that certain people. He simply says that he loathes the practice of them and that a greater and better wonder than any or all of them is education in the system of self-training which culminates in Arahatship. 88. I. I. however. Devadatta. in which there was then universal belief. only one or two. There is no evidence of a similarly reasonable view of this question of wonders having been put forward by any Indian teacher before the Buddha. The belief is not Buddhist. Gat. And of the many Arahats mentioned in the books. miracles in our Western sense. . 157) that no authority for the statement. preor puthu^anika-iddhi or amisa-iddhi . was noted for his power of Iddhi. . pp. are eight in number and as set forth in detail (above. But the eight powers referred to above are called the pothu^anika2 3 that is. 1 See for other instances above. They could have it. It is very strange that Childers should have stated (Diet. It is pre-Buddhistic. who was He gives the very reverse of an Arahat. and common to all schools of thought in India. notably Moggallana. and no doubt by Gotama himself. of course . : 89) remind us of some (not of all) the powers now attributed to mediums. special (but quite natural) powers. They were not. A. II.

the Maha Brahma. wrongly. 'Verily. perhaps (A. and the waxing thereof. in order to bring out the two lessons in the first place how. 3 5 2 Above. by the power of his Iddhi. I declare to you. but of the worldly. to trust to the gods is to lean on a broken reed and secondly. II. Iddhi was then considered to be a consequence of the Arahatta. the glory and majesty and potency. 'with the representative faculty. of Buddhist philosophy. 175. sama132). as ive know it. We have the Iddhi. and the waning thereof. was the 6 majesty and potency of their victory. 145. * p. and Gat. 454. that within this very body. 88. . the Maha Brahma himself. it I.d. And so he comes at last to the great god of gods. from world to world. and told in confidence. 1 Dhp. 7 I. A.INTRODUCTION. 6 Samanake. the unconverted. but conscious and endowed with mind 6 is the world. the gods confess their ignorance. that he too. a practice carried out for worldly gain. only to be taken discreetly aside. of a king 2 the Iddhi.' Compare Morris here has. of animals 1 the Iddhi. mortal as it is and only a fathom high. and send him on to the gods above. my friend. in the technical sense just explained. in all such matters. does not know the answer All the details of the story are worked out with persistent humour. the majestic movement. more potent and more glorious than they. seeking the answer to a deep problem in religion and philosophy. 48 — Sawyutta 62. In each heaven. the prosperity and splendour. The problem put is of great interest and goes to the very core of the Buddhist Welt-anschauung. or even of men in the lower stages of the Path. That in the Pi/akas. 152. in certain cases. appealing to the gods. and the way that leads to the passing away thereof 7 !' On this Dr. how perfectly useless is the power of such Iddhi. of a rich young man 3 the Iddhi. even at its best. Ahguttara II. The Iddhi of the Arahats. of the unconverted wonder-worker. of their emancipation In illustration of his position Gotama is represented to have told a wonderful legend how a Bhikshu. cisely not 273 an attribute of the Arahats. T . Karl Neumann.I. is. The zv or Id. can give no better help than that to one in earnest about higher things. the craft and power. characteristic of such legends in the Buddhist books. which. so that the gods may not hear it. — — — — . as he mounts ever higher. goes up and up. is within each of us. as such. I. In some passages of the fifth century seems to be implied that. a. Ill. M. savi«»a»ake kaye waka. whose illustrations of Buddhist . of a hunter 4 the Iddhi. — I — .

No moon shines there. either from within or without. seen From well and ill. as thus altered. We only know of the elements and their derivatives.' That is. the answer is intelligence. So ' in the Bahiya story (Ud. One can also say that Kant's teaching leads to the view that the beginning and end of the world are not to be sought without. cognition (V\nna. reference to the representative and the person with them. the Arahat hath. water. but within. the Buddha himself. nor suns resplendent.2 74 XI. as put by the Bhikshu to the gods. 1 The alteration is suggestive. They find no foothold in the mind of the Arahat. unconscious ' : — of what is said to him. from form and formless. not that his mental activity grows less the mental alertness of the Arahat is laid stress The picture drawn of the upon throughout the books. This is to the It a striking. and in all probability intentional. V. There are the nights not bright. constructed by. in his wisdom. Whatever else it is. the corollary of the human soul. there is no darkness seen. first says that that is not the right way to put the Where do the elements find no It ought to be question.na) tends to wane. of course. it is the very reverse of a man intellectually asleep. 538). We have another reference to the view that the Four Elements find no foothold in the Arahat at Sawzyutta I. as reflected in. old and new. then they. contrast Upanishad passages where the same kind of language used of the Great Soul. in giving his do the elements pass away ? solution. : intellection (with special faculty) cease. fire. appropriately compares Schopenhauer's saying (W. when he. are used in the older or later priestly speculation of God. where earth. And we see what is meant by this from verse 1 1 1 1 in the To him who harbours no delight in feelings Sutta Nipata that arise.' ceases. and wind no footing find. Arahat par excellence. where does that union of qualities that make foothold a person (nam a and rupa) pass away?' ' ' : ' ' : . human To the question. texts from passages in Western literature. 10) we are told : There. is Where The Buddha. I. KEVADDHA SUTTA. 15.' The problem. used in the Pi/akas of the Arahat. us. are so happy. is a standing example of what the early Buddhists considered a man to be in whom the Vi««a«a had waned. But it is the picture of . is he freed !' is . And then. is one of many instances (as has been pointed out by Father Dahlmann) where the same expressions. and when . I. W. The person should be introduced a thinking being. dull to ideas.

material things. 275 a man to whom the Four Elements. and all that follows from them. . nirodho. IV. S. 1 On Vi««a«assa . and compare Asl.INTRODUCTION. see further Ud. Ill. A. and the ways in which they affect him. have ceased to have the paramount importance they have to the thoughtless l . 9. 39 and above. 45 . II. T 2 . VIII. . 87. 350 A. 54-58 p.

Thus would this Nalanda of ours become even so much the more devoted to the Exalted One. Neumann. 62-100. KEVADDHA SUTTA. 2 [The Three Wonders. And a second time Kevaddha made the same request to the Exalted One. and it may turn out to be the better of the two.' However. it is not thus that " : give instruction to the brethren I am wont to Come now. and took a seat on one side. should have been called Keva//a. I heard. differ as to the spelling ' . Sir. 'fisherman. and bowed down in salutation to him. Nalanda . full of folk. came where the Exalted One was. crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. of this name.' pp. by power surpassing that of ordinary men.XI.' On his speaking thus the Exalted One said to : Now Kevaddha ' him ' : But. Thus have at The Exalted One mango was once staying grove l . has adopted this form. for the lay folk clad in their garments of white 2. of high social position. my brethren perform ye a mystic wonder. a mystic wonder. It is improbable that a wealthy and distinguished man. who has translated this Suttanta in his Buddhistische Anthropologic. he said to the Exalted One This Nalanda of ours. Dr. . and received a second time the same reply. ' ! of the famous Buddhist University. and the Gods. site 2 1 Afterwards the The MSS. It were well if the Exalted One were to give command to some brother to perform.] [211] 1. Kevaddha. is influential and prosperous. so seated. And. in the Pavarika's a young householder. by power surpassing that of ordinary" men.

of mystic made known The 1 being one he becomes multiform. 277 [212] 3. For verily in ways. becoming multiform (&c. the wonder of manifestation. as if on solid ground he travels cross-legged through the sky. Kevaddha. as before. beings of mystic power and potency though they be he reaches. crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. addressed the Exalted One. a mystic wonder. Kevaddha. of trusting heart. have to others. 168-173. as if : : : : ' : recluse. I. in from being one mystic power I — a These are explained at length in the Sawgarava Sutta. should behold him doing so. And what are the three ? mystic wonder. even in the body. . and saying marvellous is the mystic power and potency of that as if through air : solid ground. up to the heaven of Brahma. like the birds on wing he touches and feels with the hand even the Moon and the Sun. Sir.THE THREE WONDERS. suppose that a brother enjoys the possession. from multiform he becomes one from being visible being he becomes invisible he passes without hindrance to the further side of a wall or a battlement or a mountain. by power surpassing that of ordinary men. and the wonder of education \ 4. which : ' ' I. Kevaddha. Wonderful. full of folk. 'And what. is the mystic wonder ? In this case. even in the body.' There are three sorts of wonders. up to the heaven of Brahma. down to) reaching. Thus would this Nalanda of ours become even so much the more devoted to the Exalted One. power —from : : he penetrates up and down through through water he walks on water without dividing it. Then that believer should announce the [213] 5. the young householder. A. having myself understood and realised them. I only say that this Nalanda of ours is influential and prosperous. And a third time Kevaddha. and said I would fain do no injury to the Exalted One. It were well if the Exalted One were to give command to some brother to perform. AND THE GODS." : ' ' various saw him indulging himself. And some believer. " fact to an unbeliever. in various ways.

278 1 XI. of other beings. Kevaddha ? Might not the unbeliever so say ? Yes. 1 ! ' festation 1 ? Suppose. of other individuals. 8 Identified here. You are thinking of such and such a matter. — which. a'/. is the wonder of mani6. IV. " : that unbeliever should say to him Well. 499. ' fact to an unbeliever.) tells us how either by omens.' It is because I perceive danger Well. of other " So and so is in your mind. and marvellous is the mystic power and potency of that For verily I saw him making manifest the recluse. 2 The Sawzgarava Sutta (loc. You individuals. KEVADDHA SUTTA. 504. It is most probable that the Gataka is right in both cases as to the . or by knowing. heart " So and of other beings. or by hearing the actual sound of the man's mental operations. by Buddhaghosa. that a brother can make manifest the heart and the feelings. : . Compare Sum. should see Then that believer should announce the [214] 7. ' 1 ." : : that unbeliever should say to him Well. Ill. saying Thus and are thinking of such and such a matter. in this case. saying " Wonderful. 265." 1 : ! Then " . Kevaddha. and am ashamed thereof. saying so is in your mind. and the feelings. And what. and abhor. Sir he might. 498. And some believer. or by interpreting exterior sounds. Kevaddha in the practice of mystic wonders. Thus and thus are your emotions. 271. the heart of the other. with the Kint&m&nt Viggi. It is by the efficacy thereof that he performs ! Then all this 4 V ' Now what think you. the reasonings and the thoughts. Kevaddha. of thus are your emotions. Sir there is a certain charm called the Gandhara Charm. is only for following up trails." him doing so 2 trusting heart. the reasonings and the thoughts. It Sir there is a charm called the Jewel Charm 3 is by the efficacy thereof that he performs all this. 267. 1 The Gandhara Charm is mentioned at Git. according to Git. in his own heart. Sir. that I loathe. as a well-known charm for the single purpose only of making oneself invisible.

" Reason This. 40 to 84. position. marised above at p. of the heart from the Hindrances covetousness. that ' .' suppose that a Tathagata §§ [The text repeats the Sam a wwa-phalaSuttanta. that is to say 1. His self-training in act. The emancipation Five — 11. The absence of fear. and am ashamed thereof. The minor thence arising.' Amba/Afca Suttanta. confidence of heart 6.THE THREE WONDERS. 3. AND THE GODS. ill-temper. Get rid of this disConsider thus. to be intentionally drawing the . ' ' and abhor. and perplexity. 10. sloth of body and mind. and represented. Sir he might. And what.' It is because I perceive danger Well. and remain. K evaddha. 8. that a brother teaches thus in this way. The way in which he learns to guard the doors of his senses.wonder of manifestation. and speech. Kevaddha. gains. life." Kevaddha. 1 ' 279 Now what think you. into the world. The resulting joy and peace that hegains. in that. train yourself. &c. that the objector is ' meaning of these charm-names. ' ! I loathe. and his renun: ciation of the world. 5. do not reason in that way. 2. is the wonder of education ? : Suppose. Kevaddha. The constant self-possession he thus 7. word. The training in the Kawha in the Four Raptures. Kevaddha in the practice of the. The power of being content with little. and not thus. The awakening of a hearer." 1 And is born further. like long bow. is what is called "The wonder of education. The preaching of the Buddha. Kevaddha ? Might not the unbeliever so say ? Yes. 58) which he observes. excitement and worry. 8. and § 97. details of mere morality (sum4. of simplicity of 9.

the destruction of the Intoxicants. and wind cease. realm of the Four Great Kings " thereof elements 1 — no trace behind went up to the and said to the gods Where.2 SO XT. . The insight arising from the knowledge of the nature of the body. to the Thirty-three. and wind pass " So that brother. 308 foil. went Four Great Kings. and was sent on. Santusita who sent him on [21G-219] 69-79. They will know it. away. who sent him on to their king. wonders I have understood and realised myself. Once upon a time. The realisation of the Four Truths. KEVADDHA SUTTA. more potent and more glorious than . fire. Sakka who sent him on to the Yama gods. and the final assurance of the emancipation of Arahatship. Kevaddha. 'Then to the . . water. do the four great earth. 12. Kevaddha. my friends. . there occurred to a certain brother in this very company of the brethren. Henry C. ' Then : clear to his ecstatic vision. And when we." that brother. Great Kings.' pp. who sent him on to their king.'] 'So these. by a similar reply. [and put the same question. But there are the Four brother. water. 13. and its im permanence. do not know that. Suyama who sent him on to the Tusita gods. and oj the fact that consciousness is bound up with it. leaving no trace behind ? Kevaddha. Kevaddha. are the three [215] 67. 1 From Warren in his here to the end has been translated by the late 'Buddhism in Translations. Kevaddha. leaving " — ? he had thus spoken the gods in the heaven of the Four Great Kings said to him " We. Kevaddha. that brother. fire. who sent him on to their king. worked himself up into such a state of ecstasy that the way leading to the world of the Gods — : — became 68. . The refrain throughout is This. and ' : made known to others. a doubt on the following point " Where now do these ' 1 four great elements earth. is what is called the wonder of education.

the portent of the manifestation of Brahma when the light ariseth. . brother. when the light ariseth. 31. in the text. who sent him on to their king. brother.THE THREE WONDERS. water. to the 28 1 Nimmina-rati gods. before. am the Great Brahma. the All-seeing One. the Supreme One. And he drew near to the gods of the retinue of " Brahma. the Chief of all. the The case. that Great Brahma became manifest. leaving no trace behind : — : " ? And when him he had thus spoken that Great Brahma " I. my earth. great " leaving no trace behind ? And when he had thus spoken the gods of the " retinue of Brahma replied We. the Mighty One. the Lord of all. do the four elements earth. the Mighty. who sent him on to their Sunimmita who sent him on to the Para-nimmita Vasavatti gods. But there is Brahma. the Father of all that are and are to be 2 He is more potent and more glorious than He will know it. the Controller. friend. and the glory shineth. and said Where. And that " brother drew near to him. and said Where. 'Then that brother." we. in each So also above. . 'And it was not long. the All-seeing. Kevaddha. the Supreme. AND THE GODS. became so absorbed by self-concentration that the way to the Brahma-world became clear to his mind thus pacified. do the four great elements ! 1 1 and wind said to — cease. then will He be manifest. and wind cease. the king. brother. the Ruler. " Where then is that Great Brahma now ? " " We. when the signs of his coming appear. But. the Ruler. 2 question and answer in § 68 is repeated. know not where Brahma is. fire. my friends. nor why Brahma is. . the Ancient of days. and the For that is glory shineth. water. do not know that. nor whence. fire. p. brother. the Great Brahma." [221] 81. appointing to each his place. Vasavatti who sent him on to the gods of the Brahmaworld V] [220] 80. — : — 1 : Creator. Kevaddha.

has S. Then. among others. in that. Kevaddha. ignoring x the Exalted One. brother. . and wind . Atisitva. hold [222] me. answered him thus : Long. as quickly as one could stretch forth his bended arm. ask him the question. put " to Brahma ' his question as before. where those four presence. Sir. and accept the answer according as he shall make ' — — reply. 1886.282 XI. the Ancient of " the Father of all that are and are to be days. brother. leaving no trace behind ? 85. leaving no trace behind. ! ' : — — cease. he said to me: four great elements earth. have done wrong. nothing I have not realised. that these so seated. nothing I have not understood. brother. abhisiwsitva. fire. leaving no trace behind ? 83. and Fausboll On at N. the Chief appointing to each his place. Therefore I gave no answer in their I do not know. 'Then again. vanished from the BrahmaAnd he bowed in world. II. KEVADDHA SUTTA. ' — — cease. or draw it in when stretched forth. brother. water. and wind cease. the T. 1 Siamese in edition J. Kevaddha. " I " Kevaddha. the Creator. fire. But I ask you where the four great elements earth. Therefore you. fire. 'And when he had thus spoken. : Then. water. great elements earth. Then that brother answered Brahma. and wind all. And that brother." 84. have acted ill. Brahma gave the same reply. Kevaddha. 366. the retinue of Brahma. salutation to me. the Controller. yet a third time. and appeared before me. to be such that there is nothing I cannot see. Go you now. for an answer to this question.. friend. P. return to the Exalted One. that Bhikkhu. " I did not ask you. you have undertaken this long search. Lord of of all. and said 82. and took his seat on one side and. water. long ago. " Where is it. as to whether you were indeed all that you now say. and said " These gods. The atisitva see Morris S. the Great Brahma took that brother by the arm and led him aside.

for pa^ahaw. thinks it is put by the poet. had rejected (' Buddhist Nirva»a. and to the North. shining which Buddhaghosa. Neumann. do you. 2 Paha?w. Dr. Buddhaghosa takes this in the sense of tittha. and to the West. would come back even to the ship. metri causd. the rupa» kz . Instead of asking where the four great Brahma-world. = — ' ' ' ' . AND THE GODS. Such a bird would fly to the East. anywhere But if no land. brother.' But an English poet. who gives it as an alternative explanation. and to the intermediate points of the compass. sea-faring traders sail 283 were wont.' may be for no Buddhist would use an expression apparently implying a unity in the subject— it really. fire. and sought it in vain. had he wished to water. 39). and to the South. accessible 1 from every side — invisible. and fine and coarse. the 2 endless. even up to the thither would it were visible. took it as pabhawz. [223] the question. the mental and the physical. if by subject be understood an ever-changing group of impermanent faculties or qualities. come back Now elements cease. long Pure and impure. having sought an answer to this question. would scarcely write recting for rejecting. who usually gives the view of Ba/uwan Turfawa. of the shore they would let the land-sighting bird free. the only European writer who has discussed the point. Just so. leaving no trace behind. it therefore to me. ghat. all round about. you should have asked " : earth. Nama# • Dr.' p. fly. And if on the horizon it caught sight of land. to take with them a land- And when the ship got out of sight sighting bird. if he wanted to save a syllable. to the zenith. that is. and short. leaving no trace behind ? Where do And ' On that the answer intellect is : ' The of Arahatship. that is.' And the Pali poet.THE THREE WONDERS. no footing find ? Where is it that both name and form 1 " Die out. flight of steps or shelving beach from which to step down into ka. comes very near to the Buddhist meaning. and wind. water. Neumann — James d'Alwis. should not be put as you have put it. brother. rejecting. puts this into nineteenth-century language by translatAnd however un-Buddhistic the phrase ing subject and object. when they were setting on an ocean voyage.

could be supported by other passages from the Pi/akas. rejoiced at the spoken word. have gone no further afield than adopting simply gaham. long Pure and impure. leaving no trace behind. And Kevaddha. KEVADDHA SUTTA. He need give that meaning. Here ends the Kevaddha Suttanta. no footing find. There is it that both name and form Die out. can be meant for the vi««a«a of a man who has attained to Nirva/za.' Thus spake the Exalted One. pleased at heart. and fine and coarse. is it intellection ceases they all also cease. fire. the young householder. when qualified by such adjectives as those here used. water. could easily have found other means. That vi««a«a. and short. and wind. There And When that earth.284 1 XI. .

and the many others like them. But they.. 319. . 317. 38. . be split if he recites it his body is to be cut through if he l God himself has bestowed the preserves it in his memory of teaching upon the hereditary priests * who exclusive right 3 even to indeed claim to be.Sarikara for keeping people in that state of life into which their evil deeds in a previous birth had brought them. . But the expression of his belief is sufficient to show that the striking idea he thought he had killed was far older than our existing text of Manu. 88. or any twice-born males who would not share their views as to the ethics of teaching. IX. he was very far from thinking right. . were ever actually. or any males not twice-born. taught women. That is a battle that is not so easily won. It is not easy to put ourselves in the mental position suitable for appreciating the kind of idea that underlies the argument in this Suttanta.C. 85. XI. The social view against which it is directed lies too remote from the social views universally admitted now in the West. Ibid. priest as teacher. These passages are much later than the Pi/akas. give a fair idea of the spirit animating one section at least of the priests. in practice. and of a trend of opinion that doubtless had its supporters also in Pi/aka times. When Asoka thought he had brought about such a change in public opinion that those who had been very gods upon the earth had come to be gods no longer. great divinities And it would be a danger to social order if they the gods*. each of them. On the other hand one may be permitted to doubt whether the gentle measures approved by . .INTRODUCTION TO THE LOHIATATA SUTTA. in the Eastern valley of the Ganges. 3. and as to the privileges and prerogatives of the . Ibid. 4 2 Manu I. But in the sixth century B.Sarikara quotes with approval the rules of the priestly law books which lay down that the ears of a 50dra who hears the Veda (including of course the theosophy oi the Upanishads) His tongue is to are to be filled with molten lead and lac. carried 1 Commentary on the Vedanta-SCitras 3 I. the question as to the ethics of teachers and teaching was one of wide interest and of great importance.

though there were bigots among the Brahmans. 190. of course. scholars have inevitably tended to attach too great a degree of importance to what the priests describe as the proper state As a matter of fact it never really prevailed. We 1 The Baines. Our knowledge of Indian views of life having been hitherto derived almost exclusively from the priestly books. though they gave support to the Brahmans. there were not a few base-born people who succeeded. and though they were strong enough to establish. in ancient times. The general practice must have been that the hereditary priests kept the magic of the sacrifice. to which many of the more liberal minded of the Brahmans themselves belonged. not only in getting taught. And this was not the case only among the despised Buddhists. . Brahmans who were not priests were wont. and the emoluments and privileges that went with the knowledge of it. or those who in the census returns claim to be such. of the population. rules as to restriction of teaching which no one in priestly circles could venture formally to dispute yet that there was also always a strong party in India. form only about five per cent. to emphasise the importance rather of birth than of knowledge. before the time to which our present Sutta refers. Even now the Brahmans. The numerous passages collected by Dr. or from priestly teacher But there were many exceptions. even in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads. in spite of the priests. in later times. in their own hands. being teachers of the higher wisdom. And that is especially the case. in that time at least. or older. The four powerful kings. but in becoming teachers. The Pi/akas themselves give ample proof that. LOHIKKA SUTTA. according to the priestly tradition. besides the priests. 202. The numerous to pupil. of things. as old. gave also equal support to other teachers just as. census shows that out of 261 millions only fifteen millions could . XII. who looked with sympathy on relaxations of these rules. have enough evidence. 'General Report on the Census of 1891/ pp. Even the higher teaching of the mysteries of theosophy was to be handed down only from priest-father to son. of others. The fact doubtless is that. Muir in his article in the Indian Antiquary' for 1877 show that the priestly literature itself the law books and the epics has preserved evidence of the lax way in which the strict rules as to exclusion from teaching or being taught were really carried out. And of these the vast majority are not priests at all l are engaged in all sorts of worldly occupations they ' — — — We — .286 out. than the rise of Buddhism. Hindu and Buddhist sovereigns are found supporting Buddhists and Hindus alike. and the still important free clans.

As M. . can. The Brahmans had not yet monopolised the intellectual life. Muir in the ' Indian Antiquary. I think. as appears from our present Sutta (and such other passages ' : We . or even of the priestly compilers of Manu. Barth said. III. . 1873. be very little There teacher is read or write. in protesting against Lassen for falling into mistake * must distinguish. and the repugnance of both. 123-127 M. shutting no one out. doubt but that the great here voicing the opinion of many others of liberal views. . ' On this striking fact Mr. more than Lassen does. by all. He lays no claim. between different epochs. 56 = Mil. . has gained himself. appears to have been in a high degree esoteric and exclusive. And they are based not on any distinctively Buddhist doctrine but on general ethical principles accepted. if he does teach. or rather acceptable. II. But no man should take upon himself to teach others unless and until he have first taught himself. The opposition of the Brahmins to the rise of the writer class has been already men- The second tioned . his contemporaries and predecessors. it is true. he should teach all and to all keeping nothing back. 211) : influence antagonistic to a more general spread of literacy is the long continued existence of a hereditary class whose object it has been to maintain their own monopoly of book learning as the chief buttress of their social supremacy. . . this already in 1873. 69 . much less in the time of the Buddha. to the diffusion of learning amongst the masses. . 513-524. and have also acquired the faculty of imparting to others the truth he as M. P.' 1 ' Revue Critique. at first. S. 287 must not judge India at any time. 32 = = V. A. translated by Dr. as well as between the pretensions of a caste and the real state of things. to any special peculiarity in this respect. in other hands. It is taken for granted that the arguments put into his mouth in our Sutta will appeal to the Brahman to whom they are addressed.' The position taken up by the Buddha on this question. is that every one should be allowed to learn that every one. Certain testimonies of the epics. Baines comments (p. A. 277. can only be appreciated after long experience. through the yellow spectacles of .INTRODUCTION. I.' June. either in our Sutta or elsewhere. show for example that there existed alongside of them an entire profane literature of great extent which was certainly. I.Sankara. in the present day. as also the very nature of the Vedic books. Ill. . .' 1874. should be allowed to teach and that. 144). applicable to this very period. having certain abilities. Their teaching (that of the Brahmans).

with about five hundred Bhikshus. arrived at Salavatika (a village surrounded by a row of Sala Now at that time Lohii^a 1 the Brahman was trees). For what can one man do for another 3 ? . I think. with power over it as if he were the king 2 2. a spot teeming with life. with much grassland and woodland and corn.XII. then he should tell no one else about it. the better rendering throughout would be the Lohi-W'a Brahman. [224] 1. For what can one man do for another ? To tell others would be like the man who. a local name the name of the place from which he had come. Now at that time Lohl£/v'a the Brahman was thinking of harbouring the following wicked view Suppose that a Samara or a Brahmawa have reached up to some good state (of mind). pp. is this (desire to declare to others) it is a form of lust. in intellectual and religious matters. as a royal gift. 144. established at Salavatika. [Some Points in the Ethics of Teaching. 3 What can the teacher gain This is open to two interpretations from a disciple ? or What can a disciple gain from a teacher ? Why should you trouble about others ? they cannot help you or But Why should you trouble about others ? you cannot help them . 108. If that be so. lies in himself. ' This is. Like that. progress or defeat. having broken through an old bond. ' ' : 1 ' ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ! in either case the implied ground of the argument is the proposition that a man's rise or fall. I say.' 2 See above. should entangle himself in a new one. on a royal domain granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala. LOH I ATATA SUTTA. Thus have I heard. : ' .] The Exalted One. He must work out his own salvation. when once passing on a tour through the Kosala districts with a great multitude of the members of the Order. .

by himself.' said Bhesika the barber. Arahats like that/ And good Brahman it to pay [225] 4. — . to his request. on his tour Now through the Kosala districts. with knowledge of the worlds. he makes princes and peoples an Arahat. And the Exalted One : . Very well. thoroughly knows. by silence. abounding in wisdom and goodness. doth he proclaim both in the spirit and in the knowledge known letter. visits to and in all its purity. Then ' Lohi/£/£a the said to Bhesika the barber now. he rose from his seat. Sir. at Salavatika. He. has now arrived. lovely in its consumorigin. such is the high regarding that Exalted reputation that has been noised abroad: Lohi/£/6a Now ' They Brahman heard Samara Gotama. go where the Samara Gotama is staying. ask in my name as to whether his sickness and indisposition has abated. in its progress. this universe including the worlds above and the of the gods. its and having known it. the Brahmas. an exalted one." 5. that venerable Gotama. lovely mation. The higher life doth he make known is in all its fullness. who went out from the Sakya clan to adopt the religious life. Come : ' consented. and with him the brethren of the Order. and did so even as he had been enjoined. and passing the Exalted One with his right hand towards him. 3. 289 : the news the sons of say that the the Sakyas. — his its The truth. a teacher for gods and men. with a great company of the brethren of his Order. lovely in to others.SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. and the Maras world below with its Samaras and Brahmawas. and on his arrival spake to him thus u 11. . Bhesika the barber perceived that consented. the Exalted And when One had : . went to Lohi^a the Brahman. acquiescing in the word of Lohi^ia the Brahman. and. on your arrival. a Buddha. of the — One is fully awakened. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. 6. accept the to-morrow's meal from Lohi^a the Brahman. as to his health and vigour and condition of " and speak thus ease May the venerable Gotama. and sees as it were face to face. good Bhesika. happy.

and said to Come now. That may And Brahman satisfied the Order. then he should tell no one else about it.' the Exalted One went on to the [227] of Lohi££a the Brahman. LOHIJWTA SUTTA. who had robed himself early in the early morning. Salavatika. when the night had passed. good Bhesika. behind the Exalted One. I say. And he said to him 8. . Bhesika." . and the meal ready.' [226] 7. both hard and soft.290 ' XII. And LohL££a the 9. would disabuse his mind ' thereof. made ready at his own dwellingplace sweet food. Now. with his 1 own this hand. Sir. and carrying his bowl with him. arrival. that may well be. should entangle himself in a new one. if the Exalted One a form of lust. Sir. with sweet food both hard It is clear from expression that Bhesika was already a follower of the new teaching. And One hath consented to come. announce the time to him. step by step. And the Exalted One. and sat down dwelling-place on the seat prepared for him. went robed. : following wicked opinion has occurred to " Lohi/£-£a the Brahman Suppose that a Samawa or a Brahmawa have reached up to some good state (of 1 The : For mind). go Bhesika the barber where the Samara Gotama is staying." Very well. even as you commanded. towards Sir. Bhesika the barber walked. your name. with the brethren of the Order. is this (desire to declare to others) 'Twere well. For what can one man do 1 for another ? well be. as he went. what can one man do for another ? To tell others would be like the man who. and on your " It is time. Then Lohi^/C'a the Brahman. with the Buddha at its head. We addressed that Exalted One \ in the Exalted ' : : ' ' .' said Bhesika the barber in assent and did so to the words of Lohiiia the Brahman even as he had been enjoined. it is that. saying is O Gotama. having broken through an Like old bond.

' 10.' what think you. Lohi/&£a ? Are you not ' Is it what they : ' 1 ' ' established at Salavatika ? Yes. until they refused any more. thus seated. And to him. or sound ? It is unsound doctrine. or not ? He would be a danger-maker.' Now if a man hold unsound doctrine. 1 ' ' ' ' 1 either purgatory or rebirth as an animal. that the followwicked opinion has arisen in your mind [and he ing set forth the opinion as above set forth] ? That is so.' Then suppose. that is so. say.' ' " Then suppose. that is so. Lohi^a the Brahman brought a low seat and sat down beside him. is that unsound doctrine. would he be a person who ' ' ' ' ' sympathised with their welfare. one were to speak thus Lohi^a the Brahman has a domain at Salavatika. Gotama. Let him enjoy all the revenue and all the produce of Kasi and Kosala. the Exalted One spake as follows and : true. Lohi££a [228] 11. Lohi^a. allowing nothing to u 2 : . allowing nothing to anybody " else Would the utterer of that speech be a dangermaker as touching the men who live in dependence ! upon you. Gotama. Gotama ? And making that danger. Gotama. LohL££a. ' : Let him alone enjoy all the revenue and all the produce of Salavatika. or in enmity ? In enmity. Exalted One had finished his meal. Lohi££a. 29 1 And when the soft.SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. and had cleansed the bowl and his hands. Gotama. ' And not considering their welfare.' But when one's heart stands fast in enmity. Gotama. would his heart ' stand fast in love toward them. or not ? He would not be considering their welfare. Now what think you. I declare that one of two future births will be his lot. Gotama. one were to speak thus " King Pasenadi of Kosala is in possession of Kasi and Kosala. Lohi^a. ' Is not ? Now Pasenadi of Kosala in possession of Kasi and King ' Kosala 4 ' ? Yes.

those. havinor broken through an old bond. it is a form of lust [229] just . should entangle himself in a new one. being in power over Kasiand Kosala. I say. should therefore himself enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof. being in occupation of Salavatika. — . Gotama. I declare that one of two future births will be his lot.' And not considering their welfare. bestowing nothing on any one else and he who should say that King Pasenadi of Kosala. living in dependence upon the that those who thus make danger for And others.' And making that danger. Like that. would he be a person — — ' ' 1 who sympathised ' 1 with their welfare. Gotama." ence on King Pasenadi of Kosala both you yourself and others or not ? He would be a danger-maker. he who should say: to have reached up to some good state (of mind).' Now if a man hold unsound doctrine. or in enmity ? In enmity. 'Then just so. that the man wanting in sympathy has his heart set fast in enmity. Lohi/6>£a. For what can one man do for another ? To tell others would be like the man who. would his heart stand fast in love toward them.' But when one's heart stands fast in enmity. is that ' ' ' " sound ? It is unsound doctrine. Gotama. 1 2 and 14. LOKLKXA SUTTA. either purgatory or rebirth as an animal. Lohi^a. And others.292 XII. then should he tell no one else about it. that to have one's heart set fast in enmity is unsound doctrine : And — 1 ' 3 and 15. — . should therefore yourself enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof. bestowing nothing on any one else would be making or for danger for those living in dependence on you . is this desire " to declare to others. you and King. Gotama. or not ? He would not be considering their welfare. or 4 unsound ' ' should say that you. must be wanting in sympathy for them. you admit that he who doctrine. 'So then. Suppose a Samawa or a Brahmawa Lohi^a. Would the utterer ot that speech be a as touching the men who live in dependdanger-maker anybody else.

there is a sort of teacher who has not himself attained to that aim of Samawaship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life. in accord with the facts and the truth. beginning of § 12. not What are the three ? improper. nor become stedfast in heart through their knowledge thereof. Without having himself attained to it he teaches a doctrine (Dhamma) to his hearers. his rebuke would be justified. or even to Arahatship he would be putting obstacles in the way of those who are bringing to fruition the course of conduct that will — — lead to rebirth in states of bliss in heaven l But putting obstacles in their way he would be out of sympathy for their welfare being out of sympathy for their welfare his heart would become established in enmity and when one's heart is established in enmity. would be putting obstacles way of those clansman who. setting out these facts. in the 293 who should say thus. Lohi^i-a. that is unsound doctrine. Lohi^a.' Paragraphs 12. 4 is good for you. for instance. having taken upon themselves the Doctrine and Discipline set forth by Him-who-has-won-the-Truth. have attained to great distinction therein to the fruit of conversion. so he." those hearers of his neither listen to him.SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. And whosoever should blame such a one. either purgatory or rebirth as an . or to the fruit of once returning. nor give ear to his words. Lohi/6/£a. or to the fruit of never returning. 13 are repeated of the case put about Pasenadi. . In the translation both cases are included at the king of Kosala. . and ing: "This Then 1 ' Literally Who are making heavenly embryos ripe for rebirth in heavenly 2 states. who are worthy of blame. births will be his lot. 'There are these three sorts of teachers the world. apart from the teaching of the master. a teacher may be rebuked. . animal in 2 . Now if a man hold unsound I declare that one of two future doctrine. In the first place. they go their own Such way. say[230] 16. this will make you happy.

adding: "You are like one who should make advances to her who keeps repulsing him. neglecting his own field. Lohi/£ia. . 'In the second place. a sort of teacher who has himself attained to that aim of Sama^aship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life." they become stedfast in heart give ear to his words and they go not their understanding what is said by their own way. should take thought to weed out his neighbour's field. And whosoever should blame such a one. sayis good for you. Lohi/^a. is the first sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. Lohi/£/6a. Without having himself attained to it he teaches a doctrine to his hearers. nor become stedfast in heart through understanding thereof. in accord with the facts and the truth. do I say. in accord with the facts and the truth. that will make you happy. his rebuke would be justified. LohL&fca. can one another ? This. . And again. : ' ' attained he teaches the doctrine to his hearers. . in the third place. apart from the teaching of the master. 1 that will make you saying: "This is good for you And to him his disciples listen [23l] they happy. 17. And whosoever should blame such a one. there is a sort of teacher who has not himself attained to that aim of Sama^aship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life. nor give ear to his words." ing: But those hearers of his neither listen to him. since they trust you not). or should embrace her who turns her face away from him. is this lust of yours (to go on posing as a teacher of men. Such a teacher may be rebuked. no one heeding. not improper. they go their own way. "This . then. " For what. is the second sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. apart it. there is 18. then. Like that. Having himself . is this lust of yours on teaching others when you have not taught (to go man do for yourself). do I say. setting out these facts and adding " You are like a man who. " For what.294 Xn - LOHIJSXA SUTTA. not improper. can one man do for another ? This. his rebuke would be justified. Like that.

) being 7. Such a teacher may be rebuked. and adding "You are like a man who. is the third sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. 79. The minor details of mere morality that he practises. then.SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. setting out these facts. (Above. his adoption of the homeless state. (Above.' And what sort [The answer ' of a teacher. is ' is so ? in tion set out follows: — above in the the words of the exposiSama^wa-phala. 80. the conversion of a hearer. worry. and perplexity.) 2. ill-temper. And whosoever should blame such a one. are the three sorts of teachers of which I spoke. can one man do for another ? : This. as of a Tathagata (one who the truth). his preaching. of blame. The paragraph on his Senses. should entangle himself in a new one. won The appearance ' 5. Lohiiv6a. content with little. 78. Gotama. Lohi^a Brahman spake thus to the Exalted One : the 4 there. laziness. And these. is this lust of yours (to go on teaching when you have not trained yourself to teach).) 3. 80.' (Above.' 6. having broken through an old bond. The Confidence of heart he gains from this practice. And when he had thus spoken. not improper. The paragraphs on Emancipation from the Five Hindrances covetousness. Like that.) The (Above. pp.) Guarded is the door of 4. 58. Gotama. The paragraph on 'Mindful and Self- possessed. 79. pp. pp. Lohi/£/£a. there is a teacher not worthy. p. Lohi^a. 82-^-84. (Above. For what.) 1. 81. 79. 295 from the teaching of the master. 57. in accord ' with the facts and the truth. paragraph on Simplicity of life. 81. any worthy of blame in the world ? Yes.' [232. pp. (Above. p. 233] 19. is But sort of teacher not in the ' ' world.) — . pp. (Above. his rebuke would be justified. do I say.

And whosoever should blame such a one. pp. 8. 86. The paragraphs on — — (Above. ground. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms—just even so has the truth been made known to me. by the hair of his head. Lohi^/C'a the Brahman had caught hold of 'Just. Gotama. See for instance Sawyutta .) the Insight arising from Knowledge (the knowledge of the First Path). fills his whole being.296 XII. And when he had thus spoken. the destruction of the Intoxications lust. in many a said to the Exalted Gotama. 84. not in accord either with the facts or with the truth. his rebuke would be unjustifiable. been lifted back on to the land by the venerable Gotama. under whom the disciple attains to distinction so excellent as that 1 that. pp. falling over the precipitous edge of purgatory. The paragraphs on the Realisation of the Four Noble Truths. are the words of thy mouth. 87. and lifted him up safe back on the firm land just so have I. as if a man One : — O 1 U/araw viscsaw adhigaK'^ati. as a result of this emancipation. (Above. 92. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down. and and the attainment of Arahatship. (Above. LOHTA'ZA SUTTA. 10. The paragraphs on the Four Raptures (Above. The paragraph on the Joy and Peace that. without good . becomings.) 9. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. Most excellent. Lohiiv£a. is a teacher not open to blame in the world. p. on the point of falling into purgatory. 93. delusions. 84-86. Lohi^a.) The refrain throughout and the closing paragraph ' is:] And whosoever the teacher be. ignorance (Guanas).) 11.' [234] 78. a man. pp. or were to reveal what has been hidden away.

even I. 297 Gotama. by the venerable betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide.SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. has taken him as his £> guide . from this day forth as long as life endures. And I. May the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple as one who. to the Doctrine. and to the Order. . figure. ' ! Here ends the Lohi/£/£a Suttanta.

among the thirteen translated volume. was precisely about union with Brahma may. entirely unknown in the Nikayas. often represented as using. without much danger of error. And it is even not As I have pointed out elsewhere. Buddhists. the only Suttanta. — — . It is an Indian -not an exclusively Buddhist The Buddhist texts represent it as held by nontheory. and as accepted by all as a matter of course. and of course the Buddha's idea of Brahma. so far as I am aware. explain the position occupied in the series of dialogues by this Suttanta by the supposition that it was deliberately inserted here as the Buddhist answer to the Upanishad theory. In this respect it is noteworthy that the neuter Brahman is quietly ignored. save only in the one case of the Arahat. and still preserved in the pre-Buddhistic we Upa-nishads.INTRODUCTION TO THE TEVIGGA SUTTA. really differs widely from that of is in them words familiar to the Upanishads. That is quite in accordance with the method of the Suttantas. There is nothing original in the Buddhist belief that a man's habit of mind at the time of his death would determine. in which the discourse does not lead up to It leads up only to the so-called Brahma Arahatship. Vihdras the supreme conditions four states of mind held to result. it is exclusively Indian. in his own his interlocutors in a different sense. which leads to no rebirth at all that this lower ideal is thus suddenly introduced ? It would seem that the particular point here discussed was regarded as so important that it could scarcely be left out. in the masculine. The neuter Brahman is. The Buddha sense. is THIS in this — — — — . in a rebirth in the heavenly worlds of Brahma. after death. And when we recollect that the highest teaching current before the Buddha. Why is it the Buddhist ideal being Arahatship. and already long before the Buddha's time. the nature of his rebirth.

But they have not been found in any China. and Ceylon. They are even mentioned in the (Jataka Mala. However this may be. 3 See the remarks above on p. that similar sentiments are met with in other (postBut it is one thing to give Buddhistic) Indian books. the particular details they held essential to such a habit of mind as would lead to rebirth in the Brahma-worlds secondly. The Gataka commentary in numerous passages states that the four Brahma Viharas were practised. . . And it would be interesting to know whether they still form a part of the regulated meditations which are known to be practised by Buddhists in Thibet.INTRODUCTION. and it is most probable therefore that the Gataka commentator is antedating the particular meditations in question. highest ideal was not to be reborn at all (even only once. throughout the long history of Buddhism. and dated about a thousand years later than the Buddha 2 They are well known to-day in Burma. . 206. and into union with Brahma). and Japan. and with ethical self-training. If you want union with Brahma— which you had much better not want this is the way to — attain to 1 it 3 . and quite another to have selected just these four as the four cornerstones of habitual endeavour. an essential part of Buddhist practice. Phaedo 69. Siam. long before the time I have not of the rise of Buddhism. soul their doctrine that there was not really any to be reborn and thirdly. and are therefore almost Even the most determined certainly exclusively Buddhist. verse 12). The essentially Buddhist In the first place. 2 In the well-known story of the Bodhisattva giving his body to feed a tigress (No. Indian book not a Buddhist work.' Appendix viii. they remained. 299 ascribed by Plato to Socrates 1 . The full context is given in my • Hibbert Lectures. expression in isolated passages to such views. It should be recollected that the argument here is only an argutnentum ad hominem. ' ' . the choice of parts of the theory are three. anti-Buddhist must admit the beauty of the language (in spite of its repetitions §§ 76-78). by the sages of old. the subtle depth of the ideas. a work usually supposed to be Mahayanist. found such a statement in the Nikayas . and the great value of the practice from the point of view of He would probably rejoin. 1. truth. that the.

. Ginussoni was converted by the Bhaya-bherava Sutta. E. Todeyya the Brahman. at that time many very distinguished and Brahmans were staying at Manasaka/a to wit. (so MSS. Tarukkha the Brahman. 135. on the bank of the river A/£iravati. Tarukkha lived at IMfogala Pokkharasadi — Tudigama. and alterations and amendments in a of details have been rendered necessary. . Ganussom Todeyya lived (sic MS. number Buddhaghosa says that Kahki lived at Opasada. . 147 and on all the names. B.] [On Knowledge of the Vedas 1. 108. and used to go and stay there from time to time to repeat their mantras. *. see Ma^g^ima Nikaya. he came to the Brahman village in Kosala which is called Manasaka/a. see above. Thus have I heard.XIII. G&nussoui the Brahman. . Pokkharasadi the Brahman. Buddhist in my Since then the text has been published by ' the Pali 2 Text Society. 267 .. ' Suttas (S. and at Sutta Nipata III. perhaps for lived at Ukka//Aa. Now 1 This Suttanta was translated from the MSS. 1881). see above. On Pokand on Todeyya. When the Exalted One was once journeying through Kosala with a great company of the brethren.) lived at Savatthi. TEVI£GA SUTTA. KManangala). Buddhaghosa adds that because Manasaka/a was a pleasant place the Brahmans had built huts there on the bank of the river and fenced them in. and other very distinguished and wealthy Brahmans 2 2. with about five hundred brethren. pp. to the north of Mana- saka/a. wealthy Kahkl the Brahman. No. 98 = p. And there at Manasaka/a the Exalted One stayed in the mango grove. 9.. kharasadi.

an Exalted One. into a state of union with Brahma. into a state of union with Brahma. 272. I mean that 5. and which the false 4. who went out from the Sakya clan to the : ' now staying at Manasaka/a. ' 1 . after learning by heart and repeating all day. . to the north of Manasaka/a. they went down in the evening to the riverside to bathe. Vase/7/za spake thus the straight path. Now a conversation sprung up between Vase/Ma and Bharadvajra. this the direct way which makes for salvation. 3OI 3. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad: "That Exalted One is an adopt the religious in the life. this the direct way which makes for salvation. nor was the young Brahman Bharadva^a able to convince young Brahman Vase///za. who acts according I mean that to it. a Buddha. abounding in wisdom and goodness. as to which was the true path. and leads him. But neither was the young Brahman Vase/Ma able to convince the young Brahman Bharadva^a. with knowledge of the worlds. 7. who acts according to it. Aahkamati is to walk up and down thinking. I have added 'after 1 their bath/ from Buddhaghosa. Bharadva^a. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. who says that this must be understood to have taken place when. and leads him. is Arahat. II. : ' This which has been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha. on the bank of the river A/£iravati. Mil. a teacher of gods and men." Gahghaviharaw anuhnkamantana?« anuvi^arantanawz. which has been announced by the Brahman Pokkha: The young Brahman is This rasadi. and then walked up and down on the sand. mango grove. 22. Then the young Brahman Vase/Ma said to the young Brahman Bharadva^a That Samara Gotama. a fully enlightened one.' 6.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. Comp. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. of the sons of the Sakyas. happy.' The young Brahman Bharadva^a spake thus is the straight path. Gat. when they were taking exercise (after their bath) and walking up and down in thoughtful mood. 240.

Bharadva^a. in assent. And while they were thus seated the young Brahman Vase/Ma said to the Exalted One : we. ' the Samawa Gotama touching this the Samara Gotama shall declare unto mind V ' ! said the young Brahman well. there is a a dispute. and sat down beside him. the then. let us ask matter. Gotama. I mean that which has been announced by the Brah: ' ' " ' Regarding this matter." man Tarukkha." ' BharadvcL^a said thus This is the straight path. to the young Brahman Vase/Ma. a difference of opinion between us. and leads him. I ' As said thus 1 : This is the straight path. So you say. there sprung up a conversation between up us on which was the true path. into a state of union with Brahmi. let us is . TEVIGGA SUTTA. And when they had come there. who acts according to it. 9. Vase//^a. 8. Samawa Gotama go to the place where and when we have come there. . into a state of union with Brahma. were taking exercise and walking and down. Bharadva^a. 24. they exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. What that let us bear in us. 246.302 XIII.' ' strife. 23. that you said thus This is the straight path. Gotama. this the direct way which makes for salvation. Then the young Brahman Vase/7/fca and the young Very my friend Brahman Bharadva^a went on Exalted to the place where the One was. and leads him. who acts according to it. ' : " 1 Comp. this the direct way which makes for salvation. into a state of union with Brahma. Divjavadana 196. who acts according to it. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman ' " Pokkharasadi. and which the false. Come. and Ahguttara II. this the direct way which makes for salvation. pp. and leads him.

a dispute. The Adhvaryu. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha. then those priests who relied on liturgy. into a state of union with Brahma.one. Gotama. Concerning the true path and the false.bu*. priests and Rt's Vedas respectively are probably meant. who acts according to them. If we adopt the — — other reading for the last in the list. then. anc as either mildly sarcastic half a dozen of the other' — much — or is as to say. the 2 Are all those saving paths ? Bavhari^a Brahmans Are they all paths which will lead him.' 1 This is 1 ot one. 'that is six intended to lead on V&se/Ma to confess still more directly the fact that the different theologians held inconsistent opinions. the Tittiriya Brahmans." Wherein. -Oandoga. into a state of union with Brahma ? 11. the Tittiriya Brahmans.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. Taittiiiya. and some of them omit the last. which is noteworthy as a curious change of gender. a difference of opinion between you ? 10. is there a strife. teach various paths. sacrifice. Gotama. 3 The MSS. into a state of union with Brahma ? 'Just. I 303 mean ' that which has been ' announced by the Brahman : Pokkharasadi. and Bahvrtka. in that way — ' ' I say so. this the direct way which makes for salvation. 3 Maggani. as near a village or a town there are ' * 1 ' ' . Vase#/fca?' the village —just many and various paths 3 . the A^andoka Brahmans [the AVzandava Brahmans]. differ as to the last name. O Vase///za. and in the Ya^xir. The Addhariya Brahmans." ' While Bharadvafa " said thus This is the straight path. 'Do you say that they all lead aright. the A^andoka Brahmans [the iOandava Brahmans]. who acts according to them. those skilled in liturgy generally. Various Brahmans. Sama. or chant would be contrasted with those who had ' gone forth as religieux. who acts according to it. and leads him. yet they all meet together in are all the various paths taught by various Brahmans the Addhariya Brahmans. either as Tdpasas or as Bhikshus. the Bavhari^a Brahmans. 1 . Are all these saving paths ? Are they all paths which will lead him. Gotama. Gotama.

indeed. Ahgirasa. Kassapa. . really say that they all lead aright. and Bhagu " We know it. 130.' 12. Vase^a. Bharadva^a. Vase/Ma. 1 Not so. those ancient Rishis of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. Vase///£a. Gotama ! 13. ! ' See the note on these names at ' Vinaya Texts.' II. Gotama. or composed. in Brahmans versed seen Brahma face ' is there a single one of the the Three Vedas who has ever ? ' to face No. A^Maka.304 1 XIII. the authors of the verses. or of their pupils. of the ancient form of words which the Brahmans of to-day so carefully intone and recite precisely as they have 14. whither Brahma is ? 1 mitta. indeed. Gotama seen ' ' ! the the ' ' ' ! there then. 'But yet.' is there then. we have seen it. even up to the seventh generation. Vase////a. indeed. or of their teachers. has ever seen Brahma face to face. the Brahmans of to-day chant over again or repeat intoning or reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited to wit. where Brahma saying " is. Gotama 'Then you say. And that even the Rishis of old. uttered. V4- se/Ma * So Gotama. Vdsetf&a. whose ancient form of words so chanted. the authors and utterers of the verses. 'Well then. Vessat . did even they speak thus. — ' ' that none of the Brahmans. Vase/Ma. Vase/Ma. Gotama No. the utterers of the verses. a single one of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas c Or who has ' ' Brahma face to face ? indeed. Vamaka. Or is there then. whence Brahma is. Vamadeva. — : Yamataggi. Do ? I you say. a single one of the Brahmans up to the seventh generation who has seen Brahma face to face ? is ' 1 Or ' No. TEVIGGA SUTTA. a single one of pupils of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in Three Vedas who has seen Brahma face to face ? No.

and so on. Gotama. and vainly. that the talk of the ' Brahmans. methinks. nor can the latest see. nor can the middle one see. for salvation. X . has pave «f. Vase//^a ? Does it not follow. the middle one sees The talk then of these not. what we have not seen. told them of a certain When they village wherein plenty of good food was to be had. neither have seen such a condition of things can in no — wise be ' ! Vase^a. is the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas but blind talk the first sees not. besought him for hire to lead them there. 'Verily. There he deserted them. the next of that one. this being so. replaced ve«i by Andhaverci paramparaw sawsatta. made . after the constant custom of the Burmese MSS. and can say This is the this is the direct way which makes straight path. Vase/Ma. 170. to a state of union with that we can show the way. nor can the hindmost see just even so. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is ' ' foolish talk ! 15. and they all still holding each the other. M. he took the money. to improve away unusual or difficult expressions. Vase/Ma. So that the Brahmans versed in the " Three Vedas have forsooth said thus What we know not. : ' : into a state of union with ' Brahma ' ! " Now what think you. The Phayre MS. . who meeting a company of blind men. seeking both their uide and the path came to a miserable end Comp. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. as when a string of blind men are 2 neither can the foremost clinging one to the other see. that being so. II. 13 are repeated word for word. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. turns out to be foolish talk ? In sooth. Buddhaghosa and tells a tale of a wicked explains andhavewi by andhapavewi wight. Just. 305 been handed down even they did not pretend to know or to have seen where or whence or whither — Brahma is *. and leads him. — : J In the text §§ 12. 2 one blind man eaten hold of his stick. who acts according to it. — — ! II. and with tears. and then led them on till they came to a wilderness.

306 XIII.' ' — — — a state of union with the Moon or the Sun. and worship them. ordinary. turning they pray round with clasped hands to the place whence they are those Brahmans. versed in the Three Vedas. not. 13. nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahma. not able to point out the Vase/Ma. folk to. and praise. who acts according " to it. 1 . 'Now what think you. forsooth. and that the Moon always comes first in Nikaya and other ancient texts. Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas turns out mere words. whose words they hold in such deep respect. did not pretend to know. TEVIGGA SUTTA. folk to. who can very well like see the Moon and the Sun as other. 2 The text repeats at length the words of §§ 12. turning round pray with clasped hands towards the place whence they rise — — and where they set ? Certainly. that the Brahmans are way to union with that which they have seen. 14. versed rise and where they set in the Three Vedas. that they can point out the way to union with that which they know not. or whence. they can 1 Now what think you. or to have seen Yet these where. Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say. Vase////a ? The Brahmans 7. neither have seen 2 Now what . or whither Brahma is. see the Moon and the Sun as they ordinary. able to point out the way to ' ' l . to ' ridiculous. Vase/Ma ? Can the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas like other. for these sections. 18. And you further say that even the Rishis of old. to a state of union with the Moon or the Sun ? : ' Certainly. The words of the question are repeated in the text in this and the It must be remembered. and leads him. Gotama ' ! 'So you say. and praise. and worship them. Gotama. saying "This is the straight path. a vain and empty thing ! be 16. this the direct way which makes for salvation. and you further say that neither any one of them. that following answers. nor of their pupils. the Sun and Moon were gods just as much as Brahma.

that the talk of that man was foolish talk ' ! x 2 . Vase////a. neither have seen a condition of things can in no wise be !' — such 'Just. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas ' is foolish talk ' ! Very good. turns out to be foolish ' talk ' ? In sooth. Vase/7/£a. " or in what village or town or city she dwells ? But when so asked. Vase^/za ? Would it not turn out. or of the " this 'And trader class. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with 1 9. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. it would turn out. whom you so love and long for. that the talk of that man was then when : ' ' foolish talk ' ? In sooth. this think you. he should answer " Yes." ' : ' And And " So then." ! ' good most beautiful woman in all the land. he should answer " No. how " ! I love a man should say. Gotama. or what is her family name. that being so. or a <Sudra ? But when so asked. people should ask him. Vase///^a ? being so. Gotama. that being so. he should answer ' " : No. the talk of the Brahmans. do you know what the name of that most beautiful woman is. 307 Does it not follow that." Now what think you. that which they do not know.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. "Well! good friend most beautiful woman in the land. do you know whether that beautiful woman is a noble lady or a Brahman woman. Verily then. whom you know "not. dark or brunette or golden in colour. as I if long for. then people should say to him. " Well medium height. so asked. Vase///£a. that being so. the most beautiful "How woman ! in this land . whether she be tall or short or of friend ! And when this people should ask him. whom you thus love and long for. neither have her do you love and long for ? ' seen. good friend.

even to pupils. the talk of the Brahmans. is. And just even though you say that the Brahmans are not able to union with that which further say that neither any to point out the they have seen. neither have seen of things can in no wise be. you know not. he should answer " And people should say to him. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is ' foolish talk ' ! Very good. good into you are making a staircase to mount up a mansion which.308 20. one of them. as if a man should make a stairthe place where four roads cross. Verily then. to mount up into And medium ' size ? friend. generation has ever the Rishis of old. VaseMfo. But " : No. ' case in into a mansion. this mansion. he should answer Now what think you. or in the north ? whether it is high or low or people should say to him. do you know whether it is in the east. neither have seen " " Yes. and way you you further words they did not pretend to know. all the something taking it for " while. Vase/Ma. TEVIGGA SUTTA. forsooth. or in the of west. with that which they know not.' — such a condition 21. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know. so. is foolish talk ? In sooth. Gotama. " Vase/Ma. hold in such deep respect. ' XIII. or whither Brahma in the Three Vedas that they can point out the way to union say. And when so asked. Vase/Ma ? Does it not follow versed that. which you are making this staircase. Well. good friend. or whence." — — ! ' : ' . Vase////a ? Would it not ' And when so asked. that being so. or in the south. then. or to have seen where. whose say that even nor of their the seventh Yet these Brahmans versed ! ' though they be ' in the Three Vedas. neither have seen Now what think you. Vase///za. to mount up Just. this being so. nor of their predecessors And seen Brahma.

that which they do not know.). or whither Brahma Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is. turn out. Again. it would turn out.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. making for the other side. Now what think you. Vase///za. should invoke the further bank. though you saythat the Brahmans are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen. the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk ? In sooth. this being so. that the talk of that man was foolish talk ' ! 22. 179. See on this phrase the note in 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. Gotama. Vase/Ma. pp. And he. that the talk of that 309 man was ' ' foolish talk ? In sooth. full And of water even to the brim. my . 'And just even^so. if this river A^iravatt were O ! ! ' 1 Samatittika kakapeyya. and want to cross over.' ' — such a 24. forsooth. nor of their predecessors even to the seventh And you further generation has ever seen Brahma. Vase////a ? Would the further bank of the river A/£iravati. standing on this " bank. did not pretend to know. "Come further bank come over to this side hither. say. whose words they say hold in such deep respect. by reason of that man's . bound for the other side. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is ! ' ' ' foolish talk ' ! Very good. and say. Verily then. nor of their pupils. Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that 23. that being so. that being so. neither have seen condition of things can in no wise be. Gotama. 178. neither have seen Now what think you. Vase///£a ? Does it not follow that. that they can point out the way to union with that which they know not.B. and you further say that neither any one of them. that being so. Vase/Ma. that even the Rishis of old. or whence. Vase/^a. and overflowing 1 a man with business on the other side. or to have seen where. should come up. E.

and adopting the practice of those 1 ! ' — make men non-Brahmans say thus upon. omit Mahiddhi and Yama. It is possible that ' the the Burmese 2 copyist has wrongly inserted them to remove the strangeness ' of this repetition. but repeat we call upon. should. after death and when the body is dissolved. by a strong chain. 232. were And man with business on the other side. Soma we call upon. 1 Certainly not. Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make qualities " : which really call — Indra we * 1 man a Brahman. In his own system.3IO XIII. 26. ' in the further bank as usual. 233. invoking and praying and hoping and praising. So Ahguttara V. bound for the other side. come over to this side ? ' Certainly not. on this bank. 'Just. by reason of their invoking and prayin'g and hoping and praising. there are five things ! ' verb. do the 25. Vase/Ma. Varu«a Isana we call upon. with his arms behind his back. that those Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. would that man be able to get over from this bank of the river A/£iravati to the further bank ? ' ' 27. Vase///za. upon. Arahatship. and overflowing. . were to be bound tightly. should come up. become united with Brahma 2 verily such a condition of things can in no wise be !' — full. making for the other side. Gotama 'In just the same way. [Mahiddhi we call upon. Now what think you. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans — that they. the 'further bank' is The Buddha. The Sinhalese MSS. The comment is silent. Gotama 'In the same way. as union with Brahma. Vase/Ma. here takes the meaning attached to it by the theologians he is talking to. Vase/Ma. Vase/Ma. of course.' three times after Brahma. Brahma we call upon. and want to cross over. Yama we call upon !] Verily. And he. as if this river A/£iravati a even to the brim. and elsewhere. Pa^apati we call we call upon. TEVIGGA SUTTA.

' — — — can in no wise be ' ! Again. pleasant. 3. Gathita mxxkkhiii Sum. see not the danger of them. ceptible to the nose. knowing not their unthat these Brahmans reliability. Vase/^a ? Would that man 1 VII. and want to cross over. they are infatuated by them. bound for the other side. and so enjoy them 1 ." What are the five ? Forms perceptible to the eye desirable. a^opanna. on 29. making for the other side. do the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas cling to. Odours of the same kind perperceptible to the ear. the Three Vedas. seeing not their danger. which "are called.' And verily. agreeable. up." And these five things predisposing to lust. Vase/Ma. become united to Brahma such a condition of things ' ' ' * . and overflowing. Vase^Ma. were to lie down. in the Discipline of predisposing to passion are called. if this river A/£iravati And full of water even to the brim. These five things perceptible to the body by touch. on the dissolution of the body. And if he covering himself this bank. 4 . 3 1 I leading to lust. a man with business on the other side. that are accompanied by Sounds of the same kind lust and cause delight. ' were to sleep. even to his head. attached to them. Tastes of the same kind perceptSubstances of the same kind ible to the tongue. infatuated by them. a chain and a bond. ' Now what think you. I. attractive forms. &c. attached to them. a "chain" and a "bond. 274. Vase^a. in the Discipline of " " the Arahats. should come up. the Arahats. Udana . See A. but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. know not how unreliable they are. that Brahmans versed in 28. 74. 59. and so enjoying them should after death. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans clinging to these five things predisposing to passion.

235. in the Discipline of the Arahats \ which are called " veils. . and what have the learners and teachers are talking you heard from the Brahmans aged and well-stricken in years. This may possibly mean 'in the disciple recommended by the Arahat (that is. 2 These Five Hindrances are more fully dealt with above." and are called " entanglements. hindrance of suspense." and are called " obstacles. obstructed. Now what think you. Five Hindrances. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really ' Now make men non-Brahmans — ' veiled. Vase////a. obstructed. The hindrance of torpor and sloth of heart and ' ' ' ' ' ' mind. Gotama And in the same way. Vase///*a. hindered. The hindrance of illwill. but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. And verily. there are these 30.se/Ma. Comp. which. 237' 239 with 234. 1 when Ariyassa vinaye. hindrance of flurry and worry." and are called " hindrances. p. are called veils. Ahguttara V. But the latter is expressed rather by Sugata-vinaye. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. and are called obstacles. and are called entanglements ' 2 . 'These are the Five Hindrances. Vase/Ma. and entangled." Which are the five ? The hindrance of worldly lusts. Vase/Ma. and entangled by these Five Hindrances that these Brahmans should after death. Va. hindered. become united to Brahma such a condition of things can in no wise be — — ! ' 31. on the dissolution of the body. with these Five Hindrances. 82. by the Buddha). and ' 4 The The are called hindrances. TEVIGGA SUTTA.312 XIII. the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas are veiled. in the Discipline of the Arahats. be able 1 to get over from this bank of the river A/6ira- vati to the further ' bank ' ? ' ! Certainly not.

'By the absence of wavering he has his mind under control (vase vatteti). who has none of these things 1 ' ? says Sapariggaho va Brahma apariggaho va ti. is no doubt to the first ' hindrance ' . be agreement and likeness between the Brahmans with their wives and property.' ' ' ' They Have They are. and that Brahma is not. Can there.' Have they self-mastery. Gotama.' Is his mind tarnished.' 3 Vasavatti va avasavatti va. Gotama. xxiii.' and Jacobi. Buddhaghosa says. includes more. the Gaina-Sutras English expression. Gotama. says Buddhaghosa. in explanation of the answer. Compare.' ' ? Then you say. ' But the reference in the text. That is.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 they anger in their hearts.a-£itto.' ' Now what think you. B. or do they not ? They do.' Do they bear malice.' 2 I. or have they not ? They have not. on the general idea of the passage. are the Brahmans versed in the Vedas in the possession of wives and wealth. or are they not ? 32. and Brahma. 'free from mental torpor and idleness. Gotama. or ' 313 Is is Brahma ' in possession of wives and He is he not ? not. Kama^Z/andassa abhavato itthipariggahena apariggaho.' ] ' ' ' of anger. Gotama. or is it pure 2 ? It is pure. Gotama. Gotama. or free from anger ? Free from anger. or are they not ? They are not.' Are they pure in heart. no encumbrances. Vase/7/fca. Buddhaghosa on Vase//^a's reply. and the word though doubtless alluding to possession of women also.' Has he self-mastery.E. Gotama. Gotama. or has he not 3 ? ' ' 1 He has. . ' 33.' thus restricting the 'possession' to women. worry and flurry.) Asahkili///. ' ' ' (S.' Is his mind full of malice. Gotama. that the Brahmans are in possession of wives and wealth. or free from malice Is his full mind ' ' ? ' ' ' ' Free from malice. or have they not have. Vase///?a. together? wealth. then.

and has self-mastery. Very good.' . be concord and likeness between the Brahmans and Brahma ? heart and uncontrolled. Vase/Ma. whilst ' Certainly not. ' — ! are sinking down (in the mire) 1 and so sinking they are arriving only at despair. the young Brahman Vise/Ma 1 said to the Blessed I One : Asiditva sa/wsidanti. sinful. who is free from anger and malice. sinking into folly and superstition. thinking the while that they are crossing over into down (in confidence). Therefore is it that the threefold wisdom of the Brahmans. become united with Brahma. should after death. Vase/Ma. and are tarnished Brahma is free from and malice. become united to ' ! ' 36. Brahma. the Brahmans. too. while they sit heart. Gotama 34. their threefold wisdom is called perdition ' ! 37. have no doubt the commentator is Confident in right in his explanation of these figurative expressions. pure in heart. and uncontrolled. who live married and wealthy. then. and in their practice of Vedic ceremonies. Gotama 'Very good. is called a waterless desert. and so. that these Brahmans versed in the Vedas. ' ! Certainly not. wise in their Three Vedas. their threefold wisdom is called a pathless jungle. But. they neglect higher things. That these Brahmans versed in the Vedas and yet bearing anger and malice in their hearts. thinking the while that they are crossing over into some happier land. Vase/Ma.3 T4 1 Xm • - TEVIGGA SUTTA. in Then you bear anger and malice say. who has none of these things such a condition of things can in no — wise be ' ' ! 35. . that the Brahmans in their hearts. some happier ' land. when the body is dissolved. their knowledge of the Vedas. when the body is dissolved. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. should after death. When he had thus spoken. Vase/Ma. verily. they are arriving only at despair. pure in and has self-mastery such a condition of things can in no wise be So that thus then. anger Now can there.

' . even that the the ! Samara Gotama knows with Brahma. I know it even as one who has entered the Brahma-world. Vase///£a. Yea. the young Brahman. said to the Blessed it One : 'Just so has been told me. ' 315 has been told me. which was the way to Manasaka/a. Gotama. 39. When he had thus spoken. is not Manasaka/a near to this spot. not distant from this spot ? Manasaka/a is near to. who never till that time had left Manasaka/a.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. born a and brought up ' in Manasaka/a. ' Save me of the Brahman race. I know.' That man. Vase///za. Gotama. and the world of Brahma. way to a state of union Let the venerable Gotama be pleased to show us the way to a state of union with Brahma.' Now what think you. let the venerable Gotama save the It is well Brahman ' race ' 1 ! ' Listen then. is not 'Just so. but to the Tathagata. and I will speak ! 1 Buddhaghosa takes this to mean. Would that man. that the Samawa the way to the state of union with Brahma. Gotama. For Brahma. suppose there were man born in Manasaka/a. Vase/Ma. fall into doubt and difficulty. Vase/Ma. Vase//>£a. and has been born within it!' ' 38. and the path which leadeth unto it. Vase/Ma. born and brought up at Manasaka/a might. if he were asked the way to Manasaka/a. every road that leads to Manasaka/a would be perfectly familiar to him. and give ear attentively. when asked touching the path which leads to the world of Brahma. Gotama And why If the man had been born and brought up in Manasaka/a. there can be neither doubt nor difficulty. be ! in any doubt or ? difficulty ' ? Certainly not. It Gotama knows ' ' far 1 from here.' What do you think. and people should ask him.

be they many or be they few. a Blessed One. So be it. and when he has acquired that faith he thus considers with himself: " Full of hindrances is household life. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led.3l6 1 XIII. Tathagata. in all its purity. . ' is open to all not of course that Brahmans never accept . he clothes himself in the orange! ' . in all its purity and — . as it were. — : in all its perfectness. thoroughly understands. and the Brahmas and the world below with its Samaras and Brahmans. Then the Blessed One spake. 41. The truth doth he proclaim both in the letter and in the spirit. He. be it great or be it small forsaking his circle of relatives. Blessed One. 1 The point . TEVIGGA SUTTA. he cuts off his hair and beard. a path defiled by passion free as the air is the life of him who has faith in the ' : renounced the all worldly things. in all its bright Let me then cut off my hair and beard. listens to that truth 1 On hearing the truth he has . lovely in its consummation the higher life doth he make known. dwells at How difficult it is for life man who ! home to live the higher in all its fullness. is. and sees. 'A householder (gahapati). Vase////a. and let me go forth from a household life into the home" less state Then before long. or one of his children. by himself. or a man of inferior birth in any class. its and he then makes his knowprinces and peoples ledge known to others. 40. an Arahat. with knowledge of the worlds. Lord ' ! said the young Brahman Vase/Z/za. a Buddha. that (from time to time) a Tathagata is born into the world. a fully in assent. the Maras. abounding in wisdom and goodness. happy. lovely in its origin. that the acceptance of this ' Doctrine and Discipline it. and said Know. face to face this universe including the worlds above with the gods. a teacher of gods and men. forsaking his portion of wealth. perfection let me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes. to the ' : awakened one. lovely in its progress.

). as a result of this conquest. see. 3. 317 coloured robes. : ' And ' — . but with the refrain as in the Sama^wa-phala Suttanta above. .] l And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of 76. is his conduct good ? answer is set forth in the words of the [The tract on the Silas. He encompasses himself with goodness in word and He sustains his life by means that are quite deed. but to rebirth in the Brahma-world. ' 1 These paragraphs occur II. the meditation on Impurity. Vase/A&a. pp. 2. 3-26. fills his whole being. The way in which he is mindful and self- possessed. When he has thus become a recluse he passes 42. 171. the Sama»»a -phala inclusive. These four (or five) are called the Brahma Viharas. each with the explanatory simile. avoid. Then follow §§ 63-75. and he goes forth from the household life into the homeless state. The joy and peace which. B. 6. . His conquest of the Five Hindrances. and occupy very much the place that prayer takes in A fifth.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. 79. E. ' happy ! how. at Christianity. has been added. The confidence of heart that results from the sense of goodness. in Sutta ' my ' Buddhist Suttas frequently. It will Maha-Sudassana be seen from Buddhism/ pp. 5. and the practice of them leads. not to later Arahatship. The way in which he guards the doors of his senses. of setting forth 1. translated above. 43-75. inter ' (S. least of those things he should he sees danger in the He adopts and trains himself in the precepts. what time I do not know. p. guarded the door of his mindful and self-possessed. of adopting simplicity of life. before the last. a life self-restrained by that restraint which should be ' Uprightness is his delight. 4. pure good is his conduct. and binding on a recluse. he is altogether senses . that these meditations play a great part in Buddhism. His habit of being content with little. alia. 8. 170.

above. grown great. or free malice ? ' Will he be ' full ' ' ! ' from ' 1 Paragraphs 76. . 78. the world with thoughts of Love. or will he not ? ' ' He will not. . but regards them all with mind set free. Vase^a. above. himself heard — . as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard and that without difficulty in all the four directions even so of all things that have shape or life. .3 1 8 XIII. — deep-felt love. will the Bhikkhu who lives thus be in possession of women and of wealth. does he continue to pervade with heart of Love. ' the way equanimity. but regards them all with mind set free. . equanimity. around. sympathy. with Brahma. and so the third. there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside. ' 1 is the way to a state of union And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of pity 1 sympathy equanimity \ and so the second. is . and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world. . or free from anger ? He will be free from anger. Verily this. 79. measure. . . Vase/Ma. and everywhere. Vase#/za. pervade with heart of pity. . And thus the whole wide world. . 77 are supposed to be repeated of each.' 80. . . far-reaching grown great. there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside. around. Gotama Will his mind be full of malice. — . and so the second. to a state of union Now what think you. 'Just. Vase/Ma. does he continue to sympathy. ' . below. with Brahma. as a mighty trumpeter makes and that without difficulty in all the four directions even so of all things that have shape or life. . and so the third. . 1 . and beyond measure. below. and 'Just. 77. TEVIGGA SUTTA. far-reaching. . Gotama ' ! of anger. . . . — deep-felt pity. and so the fourth. and - . and beyond Vase/Ma. . and everywhere. Verily this.

Is there then agreement and likeness between the Bhikkhu and Brahma ? There is. when the body is dissolved. Gotama Very good. ! When : Vase/7/ka and said ' he had thus spoken. to the Truth. Then in sooth. pure in mind. 'Then you say. Vase///^a. Gotama Will he have self-mastery. betake ourselves. and master ot himself should after death. excellent. are the words of thy mouth. that the Bhikkhu is free from anger. Lord. has the truth been made known to us. Then in sooth. ' 319 Free from malice. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. Gotama Will his mind be tarnished. to the Blessed One as our guide. . . in many a figure. when the body is dissolved. pure in mind. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down. free from malice. Vase/^a. by the Exalted One. become united with Brahma. Vase/Ma. and that Brahma is free from household and worldly cares. Vase/Z/^a. and free from malice. Lord. pure in mind. Most — Lord. or were to bring a lamp into the darkness. and free from malice. and master of himself. become such a condition united with Brahma. or will he not ? Surely he will. or were to reveal that which is hidden away. or pure ? It will be pure. that the Bhikkhu who is free from household cares 1 ! ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ' ! ' should after death. Vase//>6a. so that those who have eyes can see external forms just even so. the young Brahmans and Bharadva^a addressed the Blessed One. even we. that the Bhikkhuwho is free from anger. Gotama 81. And we.ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. that the Bhikkhu is free from household and worldly cares. who is the same such a condition of things is every way — ' possible 82. and that Brahma is free from ! And anger. and master of himself. who is the same — ot things is ' every way possible so you say.

as long as life endures ' ! Here ends the Tevi^a Suttanta 1 ' 1 . who have the knowledge of where the names of these doctors 303.' See p. as true believers.320 XIII. . Literally The Suttanta about those the Three (Vedas). ' ' are given. from this day forth. TEVIGGA SUTTA. and to the Brotherhood. May the Blessed One accept us as disciples.

301-318. 212-219. B. 281. as member of the dhist Order. Adhvaryu Brahmans. Bamwan Tu^awa. 2. So«ada«^a's nephew. 274. 232. 22. used of the Buddha. 64-68. four supposed stages in the life of a Brahman. 2. 94. origin of the belief in. Ambattba. 17 . 118. in Anuradhapura. 282. Bimbisara. 169. 17. 303. Ajramas. 2 .. 137. 144. the Ten. 23. king of Magadha. is a follower of the Buddha. 220. priests. Matthew. 9. 57. Brahma. but in the Milinda. 709 foil. 287. Athletic exercises. 20. expressions used by Buddhists of the Arahat the same as those used by the priests of God. shrine to. Angaka. the highest aim. Bahiya. is emancipation. 56. dha's time. his ignorance. Bharhut Tope.2. lay- men is Arahats. 87. 220. 243. Asoka. 13. was a BudBhesika. his battle against the 71. gives a grant to a Brahman. 274. j the Bud- Aim of the Buddhist recluses. intellect to. 62. 155. 17. pandit. 283. another 173. 64. charm. 200. 283. pupil of Suppiya. 232 . . Bahvr/'^a Brahmans. doctrine. 303. Aviruddhaka. Bassendine. 28. Brahmadatta. James d'. Arithmetic. xviii. 69.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. 191 . 21. in Augury. Ballads. of. Bud- the real Brahman. 192. son of a Videha princess. 237. of the garment of hair. M. unknown in the Nikayas. 201. 289 dhist. 138 . Bonds. i47 up Body and mind. 222. his Edicts. 247 a Veda in the old texts. 283. 95-. 206. 32 . Agni. Bhartr/'hari. 105. 319. Alwis. .. Atharva Veda quoted. . king of Magadha in the Buddha's time. 71. 19. garden and rest-house in Magadha. sacrifices to. 16. 202. 1. the supreme God. 109.. Brahman. 142. 86. 201. 94. 206-240. story AmbalaM&ika. 86-1 88 Aitareva Ara«yaka. his A^-ita.. 290. not acknowledged as 25. Astronomy and astrology. Barth. one of the low arts. the Dialogues lead 186. 130. 126. 7. description of. 227. 256. the Five. bas-reliefs at. kindness to. 63. Yoga idea of. Astral body. II. Arahatship. 8. 73. 63. Ag-ivakas. Arahat. and the Bhikkhu. of. Animals. 31. no. 171. Asceticism. 298. a barber. is the positive side of Buddhism. religieux Avyakatani. 219. union with. A^atasattu. in prose and verse.

Prof. xxvi. Eihics. Father. is preferable to penance or asceticism. Devadatta. source of. E. no. Br/had-ara«yaka Upanishad. P. xxvii. qualities that make men Brahmans. 175. Buddha's time. 102. see Path. 234. 84. 7-3. Dvi^as. after death. Divination. four. Exogamy. Chaliyas.. clan mote. 215. part of the 4. their independence of the priests. 138-9. 141. Clans. by good. Prof. the six. Disa. 5 kinds of. 40. worship of. caste Brahmans : DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 99. 161. . strictly. 74.322 Brahmanism. 194 285-287 teaching. 55. 27. quaking as witness to the truth. 70. strange sorts of. condemned. 105. outside the Order. 19.. 286. the Buddhist. an inexact phrase. 93 .. 86. state action. 151 essentials of. 9. Creation. 303. 97-100. Fish in the pool. mystic arts. 20. 73. Cause. 310 kinds of.. no. could enter an order. xx. the Arahat's certainty of his. 99. 299. 169. 122.wrigglers. legends of. 165. none. 101. Commensality. 16. two forms of the heresy of denial of a. Content. of. which an ascetic would . 153-156. Eightfold Path. mode of . con- demned. 274. 176. Castes. 278. Burnouf. 169. Dahlmann. 230. 217. 235. Detachment. Supreme Condi1 1 Deussen. Dreams. E. varioi^ Food. 8. twice-born. 19. 209. 128. Dr. xix. 67. 209. a low caste. 118. it was destroyed. Epic poetry Ceylon forgeries. 68. .' 19. how 142. power ity'. Charms. minor moral- Exorcists. 43-48. Kapha's mother. 195 . the Buddha's views as to. Robert. the so-called. B. overcoming. as ascetics. Clothing. 100. phases of the extension and growth of. Indian belief about the. 213. 222. 129 the Arahat is the true. Chalmers. 27. 107. in India. 9. four kinds of. religitux in the Hofrath 4. four kinds of. Dacoity. 113. Elephants. 113. 8. 146. 202. Elements. shows at. the four planes of. 7. ' Finot's Lapidaires Indiens. a standing description of the learned. 18. no distinctions of. xvii-xviii. Connubium/ 27. Brahma Viharas. G. 81. 271. . 85. 39. 40. 227-229. he with the wooden their ethics of addressing. claims of. refuse. 98. Danranas. 54. 16. Biihler. 19. the four. Evil. 103. see Mother Earth. 209. xii. Chess. 260. Chastity. 201. 5. reputation the source five of their income. 65. Buddhist. used by ascetics. 105. Conversion. bowl. 35. trades. 214. 115. cinnamon-peelers. 100. Chandalas. Fairs. Fick. . the royal. the. Emancipation. 20-24. tions. 172. 103-107. 37-40. Economics. 274. Cowell. 286. 209. in the third GMna. mental distinctions to be preferred to distinctions of. in the Buddhist Order. Existence. Extensionists. 1 26 luxury and pride of. 18. M. Eel. 82. 191. 121. Darupattika. 232 usually not a priest. 208. speculations about. xxvii. Diogenes. Equability. 6. 52. 97. 10. Crafts. the free. 97-100. as acrobats. one meal a day. 104. simile of. 191. 122. . 1 7 1. Commentaries. interpretation of. in the Buddha's time. 103. Earth. 86. Devadhammika. 170. . 99key to the origin of. Chance-beings. 17. various . 14.. 103. Dr.

on whom the Lokayata was lathered. the. see Makkhali. Hoernle. ibid. on refusal to answer a question. 214. Daniel. xix. 36. . his sacrifice. 164. 117 . 268. Gaggara. 163. 71. 107. Gods. 215. Gogerly. High places. Hair-splitting. Colonel. old belief as to. 51. Chinese traveller. Harsha Aarita. 26. Karma. of the world. an early queen of Anga. Goodness. 11619. 171. 1. 256. 75. 115.. 209. Aitta. Intoxications. 58. 93. I>W£anankala wood. 14. 72. Gainas. Hindus. 4. Kevaddha or Keva//a.. 160. 71. a pre-Buddhistic idea and pracdetails of. 285. God. 166. 7. Ka«hayanas. Brahmans. in Magadha. 144. Head-splitting. 84-87 . 65. 210. 33. Buddhist legend 106. a function of intelligence. Knowing other people's thoughts. 33. origin of. 17T. 82. 92. 312. 72. pupil of him with the wooden bowl. tice. in talks with 137Ghost stories condemned. 256. the Four. as played fifth century Iddhi. Prof. 278. 4. causes of. congress hall at. Debauched in Mind. 109. 202. 113. 107. the ancient sage. 7. 219. 170.. Ka«ha. 280-283 j ust °f> Aampa. 35. the lake called after her. xvi. 17. abstinence from. Games. 116. its evidence as to the age of the Dialogues. 72. the. KotfAita.C. Hillebrandt. Hinayana books. sacrificing 24. a country. the Rev. hair. 170. Kindness to 180. Kumarila Bhatfa. Ba/za's list of hermits Khanumata. Genesis. appreciation 150. Irony. Ku/adanta. a celebrated Buddhist physician. old village festivals at. Gotama. 170. list of. 187. 220. 164. the Buddha's. a Brahman family. capital of Anga. Joy. ignorance of. 220. 17. 74. ' I-Tsing. B. brought under the domain of law. Y 2 . in Pali. 231. 254. 142. 65-68. Intoxicating drinks. 17. Aarvaka. xii. Givaka. sage. result of emancipation. ancient legend of. 74. xii. 41. the Five. Hair garments. Jacobi. discussion as to. Kanaka Upanishad. 137. Katha Vatthu. Indeterminates. 182. mendicant. the rich Brahman. quoted. of. A^andogya Upanishad. 265 not part of wisdom. the Ten. 58. 20. son of the elephant-trainer. worn as clothing. after death. 18. 84. Kielhorn. see Brahma. 165. 323 of thought in India. Infinity. 144 .' 32. Freedom 244. the four (the four Raptures). non-Buddhist theory of. Homonyms ity. . 165. contrasted with wandering men and animals. 232. of. and the Four. 38. of a recluse. 221. 212-215.. Hermit. in Buddhism. the Three. Kapilavatthu. Professor F. ' Jacob.. 256. a low art. Honesty. on failing to approve what has been well said. 276. Infinities. to. Happiness. 170. 173. 4. 165-166. in. 147- Kapila. the naked ascetic. religieux in the Buddha's time. 173-185. 108. Dr. 152. Debauched by Pleasure. Aetiya.' 33. Hindrances. Dr. Gotamaka.8. Guanas.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. 1 Brahman 280. 30. 71. Aitta's dispute with. 89. 181. 257. 99. 79 . Professor. Galiya. 88. priests claim to be. 212. compared with Europeans. 50. 223. 9-1 1. Kassapa. x-xii. part of the minor moral- Human Hultsch. 211.

198. Magic. simile of. to wisdom and right con- Leumann. 225. 288 bas-relief of his chariot. 23. Moon-worship. 20- Love. 196. of. 220. in the Leakages. eight sorts of. 193. 209. to Arahatship. 0//£addha. king. . Mallika. a non-Buddhist view of. Palmistry. 139 in old texts the word means . 5. 194. 220. Mangoes on the Marriage. a famous theory of. queen of Pasenadi. xvi. 17. 166 foil. . part of the 5. Myths. 62. xix-xxii. 291. 123. 167. tht Buddha does not dis72 the three lists parage all. Non-action. 286 charms to work. 7-1 1. 24. Nikayas.. 193. 193. Nicknames. older than sun-worship. Minayeff. 100. 75 . Path. 125. Li^iiavi. 286. Land-revenue. 276. Buddha's attainment . 14. afterwards seat of the Buddhist University. 58. 108. Names. 19. Mindful and self-possessed. 215.Mind and body. 65 patron of a Brahman. 82. Katha Vatthu. 4-7. 71. 54. his followers. 74Pali books. xviii. fatheras in-law of Aij-atasattu. 84. 7-9. 58. about. 86. Nidanas. the Eightfold. 53. Maha-purisa. deliberate K. Prof. Luxury. Mu«</aka Upanishad. ancient 25- cult of. 16. N'igantha. the clan. a famous teacher. 285. 226. 165. a result of emancipation. overlord his wife Mallika. Makkhali Gosala. 212-219. Great Being. religieux in the Buddha's time. 229. Music. . r. the way of escape from speculation. duct. the priestly. xiii. Lohi/Wa. his doctrines. old form of. 5. x. 'Hare-lip. Maha-bharata. 202. 108. Nalanda. a wandering mendicant. Nagita Kassapa. Medicine. 196. Optimism. . 169. Nata-putta. the twelve. 210. Law-books. good and bad. method of the of. 8. Dr. the.324 DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. 228. the five. Penance. 224 the Buddha's views of. 16. Dr. auguries gnawing ' of. 209. Nirvawa. Nesadas. practice 317. curing the bites of(?). Sakyas. of the sacrifice. H. . 23. nature-lore. wrong for a recluse to gain his living by various sorts of. of the Buddha's doctrine. impassioned for. Mother's name.' the L\H/jhv\. 288 foil. . 29. Pakudha Ka/Wayana. on the date of the Pasenadi.' place of origin of Buddhist books. Muir. sense of humour Vedic. Peace. J. Levy. 244 of Kasi. 25. 261. 74. 118. 204.. 221. Materialists. his views on teaching. ancestor of the head of A^ivakas in the Bud- dha's time. 119. Sylvain. the 211. Milinda. 273. x-xv. 84 of the Bhikshu. . 87. 283. 26. means of maturing Karma. sons called by. Neumann. 130. on asceticism. . no. speculation. Mice. 161. Prof. 221.. xx. 156. 121. in use in early times in India. xxvi. Oldenberg. xviii. the four. Middle Country. MaWissa. M. stalk. no. 193. its evidence as to the age of the Dialogues. king of Kosala. 80.. 227 the highest aim. drawn from the a king. 232 foil. 24. 244. Luck.. 287. ix. hereditary bird-catchers. minor morality. 23. abstinence from. 114. black and white. Nautch dances. 306. 63. thirtytwo signs of. MagaWika. Maitri Upanishad. Okkaka. 211. 112. 70. 278. PaWu. the. 202. . 19. on teaching. 56. 131. 198. Lokayata. 30 . 193-196. Prof. Mother Earth. 227 foil. .

1. guarded as to. 105. Senses. Schopenhauer. 112-119 Buddha's time. all The reed in the sheath. 69. three 263. 208. beds. Salvation. 300 B. 163 King Wide-realm's. Nagita's nephew. The Veluriya gem on the thread. authors and reciters of the Three Vedas. 20. the Ever Virgin. The man in the clean robe. Ramayawa. Previous births. 182. for laymen. 3. teacher and father of the Buddha's teacher Uddaka. The mangoes on the stalk. and sword in the scabbard. 71. in India. Sacrifices. 90. xiv. 81. The pig wallowing in the mire. Sihanada Suttantas. injury to. king. 147. 79. is self- pool. Sanaw-kumara. xiii. Pi/aka. The The 252. 170. 85. The ball of soap. 285. 83. 108. sham friars. 66. 73. 91.C. a man's recollection of. 163. Emancipation of the man enslaved. author of Aesop's Fables. priestly view of. 82. Self-mortification. 173. 259. 187-188. 259- Pessimism rejected. 325 modes of. .. 18. Sati. 169. Prakrits in India in the sixth cen- tury B. the six. 129. priest. 6. The lotus-plants in the pool. 191. 198. 261. Success of the man in debt. 135. 82. position of. a Bhikshu who thought that the mind was the link in transmigration (as a unity). Republics in India in the Buddha's time. 167. E. mirror. a teacher. xv. Repeaters of the books (which were not written). 164. 59. hereditary cart-makers. 57. in Kosala. 182 > ethical. 54. 49 . 261. 3-20. 169. 274. gavaniko. fourteenth century. 89. Similes : The fish in the pool. Seclusion. 88. 73. 48. lover of the 258. xxvi. minor Rama. 5. The men and the elephant. Delivery of the man in prison. 100. Rathakaras. ascription of the S. system to Kapila. 112. &c. of. (ma no). 28. sofas. 303. 147. Siha. a low tribe.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. Sa«§-aya. The bird happy and free. ten kinds of. 232-233. 299. 87. 84. Religieux. Seats. Plants and seeds. . Plato. 298. 170. Siesta. 288. old legend of. 58. 25 foil. Personality. 27. xv.. 100. 84. 17. Representative faculty 80. Probation. Shavelings. 171. Pokkharasadi Opamawwo Subha- Satapatha-Brahmawa. 75- Purohita. 86. &c. Kutadanta's. kinds . ranked as . ladder up to nowhere. 93. 196. 83. in the Buddha's time. 212. Praise and dispraise. unknown lady. in the Sakyas. 82. Precepts. The clever potter. 306. the five. 240. Planudes. 1 1-1 3. 58. 2ro. Sahkhya doctrine of pralaya. xvi. 61. Rishis. number of. Recovery of the man diseased. Return home of the man lost. 220 the true sort of. doctrine of seven souls or planes of mental being. more worthy than physical. Pingalaka. 80. Sanskrit Buddhist texts. Buddh'st attitude respecting. 87. 176 the right The The three villages. 75Sahkara. his views. in the Buddha's time. . Pura«a Kassapa. 219. list of.C. training. 107. Senart. morality. 91. low. Recluses. 121. 218. Salavatika. Pukkusas. The young man and the 90. The deep pool full of water. pebbles and fish in the clear blind kind foil. details of the advantages of the life of a.. 207. a teacher in India. 54. 86. . M. ancient tract on Silas. 57.

Stages. of the universal after death. Siva-vi^^a. Tathagata. 100. 221. Suttanta. trumpet's far-reaching tones. 263 The land-sighting bird. 128. 117. Soothsaying. monarch. 210.to come over 310. capital. 54. Vedas. meaning of. 117. taught by non- the. Blind leaders of the blind. Soul. 76-77. 7*3. Brahmans. frankly materialistic. the the objecting maiden. a low superstition. 24 . on insufficient evidence. Sun-myths in Buddhism. the school so called. 305. Siva. Slavery. 108. 2 6 _ 53 i the ten. Socrates. humour in. 46-47. . 101. 241-264. 352-254. 188. on transmigration. here. 128. ethics of. Vetulyaka. Trance. method of deliberate practice of. 109. 180. 303. part of the minor morality. Speculations. trance comes from the soul being old the spirit who bears the thunderbolt. Suppiya. 283. Todeyya-putta. Upanishad. 308. 144-159. 218. 161. 5. sophists. 5. of.. xviii. The bound man and The the river. the through 242 . exercising demons in a Taittinya Upanishad. none to be considered in actions. a Brahman. 167. 309. life The products of the cow. is it the same as the body? 187205. another origin 35- 34. diffused Vedic studies. 45-46. 131. no. 176. 72. of the Li&Mavis. 162. the pandit. 285. Sudras. Truthfulness. 99-103. xxv eternity of. a town. 299. 199. the sixty-two foolish. Sun-worship. 187-188. sixteen speculations as to. of a recluse. 318. the further bank to . 18. Buddhists. Subhuti. 48. abstinence from. meaning of. Sowadaw^a. water. Snake-charming. hereditary basket-makers. does he exist after death ? 40. meanings of. 220. human body. 294. always mentioned after moonworship in old texts. 176. 83. 24 1. Sympathy. 20-24. 93. Subha. Treasures. ancient traces of the cult of. 220. 189. Teaching. meaning of. souls inside plants and animals. cemetery. Ug-uwwa. Social conditions in India about 500 B. 179. Venas. Vitan^as. 112.211. the three. 81. eight. Terunnanse. 5- Upanishad theory of. 24. Calling Staircase up to nowhere. 13. seven forms of the heresy as to. Vain'talk. the Three (not Four). meaning of. religieux in the Buddha's time. Vagira-pa/zi. mystery Transmigration. Wooing 307. unknown maiden. 56. Gaina doctrine of. away. 38-29. VidhQra. in the inscriptions. follower of Saw^aya. Urbanity. humour in. 222. 311. 77. 1. 293. a wandering mendicant. of the annihilation in of. Sunakkhatta. 167-168. minor 232. 40. 2. The weeding out of one's neighbour's field. Teda»<flka. 18. in Shakspere and the Bible. 19. c. 5. list of. in the 72. 168-169. 10-26. xiii. part morality. Trade and . Taxes. 14. 223. 75. 306. 298. theory of. 267.26 DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. Upanishads. Teachers. 241. Singing. 159. the Seven. 4. 318. 103. Vedic myths. Vaikhanasa Sutra. 161. 18. 285-295. one origin of speculation as to of belief in. Wooing 294.

xx. Weber. 67 . the eternity of. at Vesali. Wonders. 197. 123 foil. 57. 170. various forms of talks Women. 24 terest . 277. deed. H.. four forms of belief in finity and infinity of. three kinds of. name of a king.. 258. their inof. Mr. . 313. . thought. 280. 244 of. in heaven. Prof. 156. religious 35-37. gods. 62.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES. 104. maintenance in of a king's harem. Wood. questions.. Warren. 83. were mediums between men and the about. Wide-realm. Windisch. Word. 13 . 175 foil. Wisdom and righteousness. and 72. belief in World. Professor A. C. 32 7 restrictions on education his wonderful sacrifice. 285 . the Great. Yoga ideas of the astral body. 7. E. 26-35. 58.

1 1. Ariya. 282. 70. 18. Kutta-va/ehi. Akkhaw. Goraaka. 117. 231. 32. 251. 80. Upanisidati. Abbhokasiko. 66. 8. 12. Aloka-saiBwi. Ahiwsa. 26. Avyakata. Abhisawkharoti. 6. 11. 101. Upani^g-Myati. Ukku/ikappadhana. 125. 12. 91. Avyaseka. 10. 87. Abhi««a. 130. ATakkhu. Akiriya.INDEX OF PALI WORDS. Assa-pu/a. 193. 16. Ukka-pato. 94. 146. Atisitva. Apaya-mukhani. 133. Aradheti. Anudittbi. 151. 19. Khatta-vi^a. 193-196. Appeva nama. 15. Kula-nama. 246. Abhisamaya. Opapatiko. 309. Anuvyaflgana. 3. Asandi. Jfankamati. Upaniyya. 42. 92. 12. Uddalomi. Khalika. 8. 92. Iddhi. 314. Upekhako. 259. 258. Akasa. Akkhanaw. 27. Angaw. Addhariya. 118. 10. 190. Katt^issaraw. 148. 177. I si. 113. 203. 133. 15. \J ikhadana. 12. 82. 231. Asiditva. 303. Am\}&ttba-v\gga. 7. 165. 80. Amisa. 21. 4. Kumbhathunaw. 257'. Gama-dhammo. Kaveyyaw. Anga-vi&g-a. Aghatana. 85. 33. Kakapeyya. . Ka/opi. Kawsa-ku/a. Aropito te vado. 271 foil. Anuhiramane. 85. Asagga. Ane/agalaya. Akkarika. Khi^/Ja-padosika. Ibbha. Opana. 62. 59. Uppado. 201. Abhisawwa. 120. 95.. Gotta. 301. 187. 10. Kuhaka. Kuttaka. 227. Ekodibhava. 10. 1 1 Anguli-patodakena. Asava. Atta-puilabho. 146. Apparihirakaia. Gharikaw. 16. 22. Adina. Avakaso. Kallawz idawz. 18.

Vipphandita. 313.gv&ambhari. Vankakawi. 15. Mokkha/fcika. Tittiriya. 108. 10. 12. Va«»a. Vidha. 313. 26. 15. 252. Glgukiba. 26. 10. 116. 68. 80. 303. 298-320. 174. Pa^emi. 27^. Kbanda\% 303. 228. Nakkhatta. 28. ATittaka. 20. 100. 230. Dhutangas. Viva«a. Visesa. 20. Ve/Aaka. 232. 18. Brahma-vihara. 113. 14. Viveka. Pakkhandino. Pari/fcareti. 153. 258. 209 foil. 30. 252. Pallanko. Gati. Sannitodaka. 14. 21. 274. Sa»«a. 301. 10. Vatthu-vi^a. Pa££attam. Pariharapathaw. Daw^amantaraw. 229. Vetalaw.. 66. Panga^iram. 53. 237. Nibuddham. Lokakkhayika. 163. Mula-nama. 11. 1 10. 231. in. 7. Patelika. xxvi. ifaw^ala. Pa»»a»a. 108. 8. Daddula. Mangura^Aavi. Pafimokkha. Dukkha. Disa-daho. 255. Pubbapetakatha. 303. 4. Tapas. 10. 33. 84. Santika. 9. r husodaka. Vihara. 130. 29. Vikatika. 250. . 10. 87. Datti. Purisantara-gata. Nippesika. 231. . Vekafiko. 12. 86. Mudda. Mano-padosika. 231. Gangha-vihara. Vasavatti. 283. Bah vari^a. 156. 229. BandhupadapaX'^a. Pariggaho. 303. Parimaddana.INDEX OF PALI WORDS. Visuka-dassanaw. Pi««aka. 53. Thalipaka. 9. 10. Patha-gamana. Phalaka^iram. 144. 7. Patikankhati. Pa/Uarate. Bhikkhu. 13. 16. Putawsena. Nimmittaw gawhati. Pekkhaw. 255. 176. 220 foil. 228. 112. 50. 150. Brahma-va^^asi. xxvi. Pa««zi. Vada-pamokkhaya. Maggani. Paligha. Dosina. ATariya. 303. ATAandoka. 12. 163. Pafika. 174. Lapaka. i^awa. Tulika. Parikkharo. Brahma. Sattussada. Thaw^ila. 99-101. 1 19. 252. 219. Pahaw. Visikha-katha. 27. 283. 146. 64. iv"a«a-dassana. 296. Dutb'i. 230. 329 ATingulikawj. 177. 21. Santhagara. 87. 193. Vala-kambalaw.114. Saw. 249. Vi«»a«a. Ra^a-porise. Ra^a-bhogga. Nama-rflpa. Paritassati. 12.

273. 100. 5.. 22. 7. 222. Sampayati. 227. 39. Samatittika. Samaka. Sippani. Sovirakawz. 5. Sawvadanaw. 230. 10. Sa.tta.33Q Samnggo. 1 8. 314. 13. . 249. Sawkhitti. Sippi-sambuka. Hatthapalekhano. Samanaka. 229. Sampha-ppalapa. 22. Sawkhanaw. Sambahanaw. 190-192. 229. 265. DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA. Sambodhi. Samarambha.mva. Siva. 9. 94. 309. Sobhanagarakaw. Sawsidanti. Salakahatthaw. Samadhi. Sukha. 266. 28.

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