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British Studies

Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking Topics For Intermediate ESL Learners.

Student's Textbook (with VCD’s and CD)

British Studies Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking Topics For Intermediate ESL Learners. Student's Textbook (with VCD’s

Peter Stork

British Studies

Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking Topics For Intermediate ESL Learners.

Student's Textbook (with VCDs and CD)

Acknowledgements

  • 1. The work and benefits of this textbook are in dedication to the commitment, perseverance

and sacrifice of all volunteers who work diligently to help people and organisations achieve more of their potential and well being.

  • 2. The production of the textbook, CD and DVD was made possible by the generous support

of Australian Volunteers International (AVI) to Nha Trang University, Khánh Hoà Province, Vietnam. The work of AVI is made possible by funding from the Australian Government through its agency AusAid.

  • 3. The contents of the textbook were research ed, edited and written from select material from

the following sources:

The BBC, Britain Close-Up (Longman), Britain, England Scotland and Wales (Analytical Software Inc.), The Country and the City (British Council), Discovering England (Quesar) Education in England: a brief history (Gillard D; 2007), Google Images, Listening Extra (Cambridge), MSN Encarta, YouTube, What's It Like (Cambridge) and Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia.

Notes

  • 1. Copyright laws are not recognised in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

  • 2. This textbook, CD and DVD are a 'not for profit' production. Th ey are not to be traded or

used for any commercial gain and should be made freely available to anyone seeking

educational or teaching materials on the subject matter.

Author

Peter Stork, PhD (Science), BSc (Agr.), Grad. Dip. Ed.

ESL Teacher-Trainer

Faculty of English, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang, Khánh Hoà Province, Vietnam.

http://www.ntu.edu.vn/default.aspx?lang=1

>Faculty>General Sciences>Major-English>Introduction>Personnel

December, 2009.

Dear Student,

The following pages outline the reading, writing, listening and speaking topics and materials for British Culture studies in your third or fourth year at Nha Trang University. I hope you enjoy this textbook, CD and DVD. They are designed to help you improve your English skills while learning about the culture of the British and their country. The CD has fifteen topics and the DVD has thirty five topics relevant to each chapter. They provide you with exercises in listening and will also give you a greater understanding of the readings in each chapter.

All important words and phrases in each chapter of this textbook are in bold font to help you focus on learning the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases. You have to understand all the words and phrases in all the reading material by using a dictionary. You must do this before a lesson in British Culture.

In Chapter 1, six listening exercises describe and explain many historically famous places, events and people in Britain. Before you listen to these exercises, you must learn the meaning of words and phrases used in the dialogue of each exercise. Therefore, first use a dictionary to fully understand the vocabulary in each exercise. An online dictionary such as http://dictionary.reference.com/ can also help you with the meaning of most words and their pronunciation. Similarly, you must understand the meaning of words and phrases in the readings in Chapter's 2 to 10.

If you are not successful in understanding the meaning of words and phrases in these texts, then ask your teacher at your next lesson. If you do not follow this learning method, you will not understand the reading and listening exercises. Therefore, you will not be able to fully appreciate or comprehend the culture of the British.

You must also try to answer all questions in each section of this book to test your knowledge and understanding of each topic. You should ask your teacher for help after doing this homework. Finally, remember to bring your dictionary to class for all lessons.

If you follow all the above instructions diligently, you will learn well from this textbook. In addition, the exercises in this textbook will also help you improve your communication skills in other tourism and translation topics.

Wishing you the very best in your studies and in your future career!

Mr Peter, December, 2009.

Page

CD

Exercise

Chapter

Contents of Textbook

Title

Section

1

Sightseeing

Britain

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Introduction To England Scotland & Wales Scotland Wales Oxford.

  • 1.5 More of London

1.6

1A

1B

The Bloody Tower

Tour of Scotland Historical Tour of Wales

1

3

5

6

7

9

2

The Geography and Climate of Britain

2.1

2.2

2.3

The British Isles

Physiographic features of England, Scotland and Wales

The Climate and Weather in Vietnam and Britain

  • 2.4 A weather forecast for the United Kingdom by a journalist in a radio station

10

13

16

19

3

Cities,

Population

and

Countryside

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Major cities Other interesting cities Population Living in Cities and Towns

20

21

25

26

  • 3.5 Village life

27

3A

Cotswolds (English Cottages and Country Gardens)

3B

Famous English Country Estates (Chatsworth House)

  • 3.6 The Countryside North Downs The Yorkshire Dales (Central Pennines) The Lake District Dartmoor The Mountains of Scotland North York Moors, North East England

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

28

  • 4 An interview with five young people

What is

4.1

Britain?

  • 4.2 Five young people speak about the places they come from

  • 4.3 Sophie talks about the difference between the North and South in England

  • 4.4 The students talk about the differences between London and the rest of England

  • 4.5 Important Events in British History

  • 4.6 Three English students talk about their choice of the five most important events in British history

30

30

  • 32

  • 33

34

  • 36

i

DVD

Skill

 

R

W

L

S

 

 

 

Page

CD

Exercise

Chapter

Contents of Textbook

Title

Section

5

Unity and

Divisions

5.1

5.2

5.3

5A

5B

5C

5D

5.4

5.5

5E

5F

5G

Unification of the United Kingdom Divisions Distinctions in Speech Comedy tour of English accents Why can't the English Learn how to speak? Unmarked Received pronunciation Marked Received pronunciation Demography of Britain The North-South divide North South Divide - Debate North-South Divide - Vikings & Anglo Saxons North-South Divide - Comedy

38

38

38

39

41

6

7

Food and

Drink

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6A

6.7

6B

6C

6D

6.8

Traditional food and cooking Attitudes to British Cooking Eating Habits

Students from Edinburgh talk about what they eat. Fast food

Obesity and eating patterns Are you fat? Beer and The Pub British Pub Rules Traditional English Pub London Pub with young patrons Eating customs

44

47

48

50

51

52

54

56

The System of Government

7.1

Introduction

7.2

The Monarchy

  • 7.3 The British Parliament State Opening of Parliament 2006

7A

  • 7.4 The House of Commons

57

58

58

59

7B

7C

7.5

7D

7.6

7E

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

Brown vs. Cameron debate after Queen's Speech Fighting politicians without control of a Speaker

The House of Lords House of Lords - What's it all about?

61

The Government Tony Blair Entering Downing Street (1997)

61

The Opposition

63

Passing laws

63

The party political system

64

The Civil Service

65

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Page

Chapter

Title

Exercise

  • 8 Cultural

8.1

 

Diversity

8.2

 

8.3

8A

8B

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.9

  • 9 9.1

Education

 

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.10

10

Sport

10.1

 

10.2

10A

10.3

10B

Contents of Textbook

Section

Introduction

67

Immigration

68

Ethnic communities West Indian Immigration to Britain. Immigration, History of Modern Britain

69

The Vietnamese in Britain

71

Hardships - The story of Hai Tran

72

The Gupta family - Mrs Gupta

73

The Gupta family - Mr Gupta

74

The Gupta family - The son

75

Discrimination

76

Introduction

79

Early Education

79

Early Modern Education

80

Primary and Secondary Education

81

Comprehensive schools and the National Curriculum

82

An interview with a teacher in a primary school

84

An interview with a Headmaster of Bablake School in Coventry

85

A Scottish student called Alastaire talks about his school

86

Five young students choose the most important qualities in a teacher

87

Further Education and Higher Education

88

Introduction

89

Cricket Cricket rules

89

Rugby Rugby Union rules

91

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Skill

 
 

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1. Sightseeing Britain

1.1. Introduction To England Scotland & Wales

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the following words.

American's

Cardiff Castle

Changing of the Guard

Churchill

Crown Jewels

Beatles

Big

Ben

Beefeater Guard's

Britain

Britain

Britain's

Britain's

Britain's

Britain's

British

Dover

England

England

England's

 

Edinburg

Edinburgh Castle

French

Great Britain

Great Fire of London

Guard

Household Cavalry

Houses of Parliament

Houses of Parliament

London London London London London London Leonardo da Vinci Lord Nelson's

Minster

Monarch's of England

Monet

 

National Gallery

Piccadilly Circus

Piccadilly Circus

Prime Minister Royal Mile Scotland

 

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland's

Shakespeare

 

Stirling

St Paul's Tower of London

Trafalgar Square United Kingdom

Wales

Wales

Wales

World War 2 Wellington Barracks Westminster Abbey Western York

 

This video is your one-stop guide to the pageantry, the majesty and beauty of

 

It

includes B

best cities and stunning countryside. And, you will see why it is

 

top

tourist destination. We will start in L

______

to watch the

 

o_ t

__

G

_____.

In E

,

see

magnificent churches such as the M

 

in

Y

____.

In W

,

see charming sites such as C

C

_____.

 

_____

____

_____

 

And, in S

_______

you will see E

________

C

_____

which stands majestically perched on an ancient

 

volcano. We will also visit the R

M

,

tour famous battle fields in S

plus you will get a

 

____

____

_______

taste of S

________

famous whisky. B

______

has a rich heritage including S

 

,

the world’s

 

greatest playwright and the B

,

one of the world’s greatest musical groups. Finally, you will see

B

_______

beautiful countryside from the mountains in W

____

to the white cliffs of D

____

which you see

here. So, enjoy your tour.

If you only have a week to visit B

______

,

first see L

_____

its capital, then spend a few days in E

_______

to

get a taste of S

_______.

If you have more time, explore other great sites in E

______

,

S

_______

and

W ____.

London Overview

We will begin our tour in L

 

which is the capital of the U

K

and its largest city. This is

_____

_____

______

the centre of E

_______

culture and commerce and it is also one of the world’s most exciting cities. The

H

_____

P

shown here is the heart of B

_________

democracy. This is where debates are held to

set B

_______

laws. B

__

B

is a famous clock in the tower above the H

__

_____

__

P

_________.

Across the

street is W

A

where the M

 

E

are crowned. Nearby is a statute of

 

__________

____

 

________

______

C

________

,

the P

____

M

_______

who led B

______

during W

____

W

___

There is so much to see and

1

1. Sightseeing Britain

do in L

_____.

You are watching the H

_______

C

______

these two horse-mounted sentries are marching

towards their posts. During the day they will not move as they silently stand guard.

London Short Tour

At T

________

S

_____

there is a monument to L

___

N

______

victory against the F

_____

in 1805. Nearby

is the N

_______

G

______

which offers stunning collections of W

______

art including works from

L

_______

d_ V

____

and M

____.

Now let us take a quick tour of other famous sites of L

_____.

We begin

in P

_________

C

_____

where you can catch a bus or a train to explore the city. It is busy here day or night

because of the wide range of activities in this area including shopping, cafe, restaurants and theatres. The

famous T ____

o_ L

_____

was first built in the 11 th century and it has served as a castle and later as a

prison. Today, it is home of the C

____

J

_____

and B

_______

G

_____

who serve as guides. Now let us

watch the inspection of the troops at the W

_________

B

_______.

S_ P

____

cathedral is one of the most famous churches in L

_____.

This magnificent structure was

completed in 1710 and its dome is over 350 feet tall. The church replaced another one which was destroyed

by the G

____

F

___

o_ L

_____.

Now we are back at P

_________

C

_____.

There is a lot to do here. You can shop, eat at great restaurants

or go to the theatre. However, there are some seedy nightclubs nearby, so watch yourself. The pulsating

lights of this square draw the crowds. Have fun, yah baby!

2

1.2. Scotland

1. Sightseeing Britain

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the word you hear.

After exploring

 

spend a few days in

you will be glad you did. This is

capital

and it is one of the most popular places to visit in

is famous for its fine w

,

_______

c

______

and mysterious L

s

and the best way to sample it, is to visit

The city is divided into

two parts. O

__

T

n

which you see below is where the city was formed in the eleventh century and

N

n

which was formed in the eighteenth century.

 

The most impressive sight is E

_______

C

_____

which is perched majestically above the city. It is at the

top of an ancient volcano. The castle was a military base for battles between

and _______

 

before they merged in 1603. C_nn

__

s

guarded the castle and its famous resident was M

y

___

Q

n

____

o_

S

s.

She tried to bring C

 

h

ism

back to

 

and

but she failed. And she paid a

____

___

___

heavy price.

They executed her. The main tourist attractions are located along the R

l

M

____

___

e

in the

centre of O

__

T

___.

is at the top of the

 

and the city grew down the slope of

this hill. Further down the street is S

 

t

G

s

C

l,

Scotland’s most famous Pro

 

t

 

____

 

____

________

_____

 

C

h.

This is where J

 

K

preached in the sixteenth century and his passionate sermons against

____

___

___

M

led to her exile.

 

___

At the bottom of the

 

is the palace of H_ly

___

d

H

_____.

This is the official residence in

 
 

of her majesty the

 

Inside there are portraits of S

_______

K

____.

Most of the palace was

built in the seventeenth century and nearby are the ruins of a twelfth century abbey.

 

has a wide range of tasty food such as this s

______

s

_____

and g

____

b

____.

Another famous

S

dish is a delicious meal of p_g

n

and b

p

______.

Of course, you also might want to try

_______

___

____

some of

fine m

t

whiskies.

These neo-classical buildings inspired __________

nickname

‘t

A

of the N

____.

At the top of this

__

_____

hill you also get great views of _______

which

has many elegant G

g

___

shops and homes. While

 

is an integral part of

it is also strongly independent and the S_______

P

________

sets local policies. This is a very important point to remember. Just like in

they are very

proud of their heritage. So never, never say that someone from

 

or

is _______.

3

1. Sightseeing Britain

The royal yacht B

a

_______

was used by the royal family to sail the world’s seas for over forty years. This

majestic ship has lavish interiors which include the state dining and drawing rooms. Also, see the ________

folk evenings which include b

p_p

 

s

and traditional dancing. The S

 

W

H

__

___

______

______

_______

 

C

_____

has videos and a scale model of how whisky is made. It is distilled from grains such as r

__

or

b

_____

y.

Then it matures for a few years in w

___

c

____

s.

has a dry smoky flavour. At

this centre there is also a ride about the history of

_________

national drink. Finally, you get a sample of

whisky. If you want a drink in a good time, this is a quaint place to visit.

S

________

g

was at the centre of many famous events in

And, S

_______

C

_____

dominates the

surrounding countryside. This was the site of key battles between

and

On this side of

the castle there is a beautiful garden. Much of the castle was re-built in the fifteenth century and it is where

M

___

the Q

____

of the S

____

was crowned in 1543. Some even say that the legendary K

___

A

r

lived

in

although other sites in Britain make similar claims. R

_____

the B

____

ruled as king of

 

from 1306 to 1329 and there is a statue of him in front of the castle. These are some of the

________

cannons which defended S

C

_______

_____.

These guns dominated the valley below and they show why

this fort paid such an important role in

 

history. Across the plains there is a monument to the

 

folk hero, W

m

W

e.

In 1297, he led

in a famous battle against the

______

______

 

army. During the battle of S

 

B

W

re-captured

castle. The

 

_______

_____

______

bridge, which you see here, was a strategic point to cross this river. In the movie B

____

H

____

,

M

__

G

_____

portrayed W

______

paying tribute to the

hero.

4

1.3. Wales

1. Sightseeing Britain

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the word you hear.

_______

is the capital of

______

and one of the most unusual sites here is

C_______

C______.

What makes

it so charming was the renovation in 1865 by a tycoon who had time and money to burn. Inside the castle

he created lavish interiors. Visitors to

_______

will enjoy this tranquil oasis inside this bustling city.

Ducks and geese roam the castle ground. Watch as this beautiful peacock grooms

itself. _______

is

______

largest city. This impressive building is

________

city hall which is located downtown. Nearby is

a beautiful park with fountains. And, down the street is the

N_______

M______

and G

______.

This has a

vast array of paintings and sculptures. While

_____

merged with

_______

in 1536 they retained their own

customs and culture. In fact, almost one fourth of the population speaks their native language. A visit to

_______

is a great way to sample

______

on a day trip from

______.

N

_______

W

____

has stunning

scenery and the best way to see its mountains and coastlines is by rail. You will enjoy riding these vintage

trains which have been fully restored. These s

_____

e

______

were first used in the eighteenth sixties to

carry slate from the mountains to the ports, but today they are used by tourists to explore the beautiful

countryside. This is

______

highest peak M

____

S

______

which is 3500 feet tall. In the surrounding

national park you can horseback ride or mountain bike. And, cattle graze in the valley below. This area has

breathtaking scenery. However, it is a long train ride from

______

so you might want to spend the night in

N

_______

W

____.

While you are here take time to visit some of its famous castles. And, remember, if you

want to escape the hustle and bustle of the large cities, a train ride through

 

is a refreshing

way to explore this majestic countryside

 

London

Now back to

During the changing of the horse guards, the n

___

g

relieves the o

____

___

g

____.

There are two regiments of cavalry, the L

 

s

and the B

and R

s.

The

have

_________

____

 

_____

a white plume on their helmets and red tunics. On the other hand, the R

____

H

____

G

have a red

_____

plume above their helmets with a blue tunic. The size of the guard varies. When it is larger it is known as

a L

____

G

____

while a smaller contingent is called a S

____

G

____.

During these ceremonies remember

that these guards are part of the B

______

military.

5

1.4. Oxford

1. Sightseeing Britain

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the word you hear.

O

is

the oldest university in

and one of the best schools in the world. This is R

 

c

f

_____

   

__

____

C

a

which serves mainly as a reading room for an adjacent library. This was filmed from the tower of

S

____

t

M

____

C

which offers some of the best views of

_____

From this beautiful church you can

see most of the town including its shops and small streets. The

has grown since the twelfth

century into over thirty colleges the largest of which is C

h. c

In the nearby river there are

 

majestic swans. The rustic settings in this university town make it a great day trip from London. This

area is filled with quaint villages and hamlets and you can also see W

__

w

C

,

one of ________

 

___

_____

best medieval castles. Traditions are very important in

______

and rowing is one of its greatest sports.

You can watch the crews practice and compete. And, the

_____

C

race which was first held in

________

1829 is one of the most famous in the world. This swan was a little messy cleaning its feathers with its

beak. Yet, it is very elegant as it majestically spreads its wings. And, on the other side of the river here

come more r

_____

s

who are practicing for a race. In this streamlined path you can imagine how a d

_____

at

C

was

___________

inspired to create A

____

__

W

,

_________

the adventures of a young girl in an

imaginary world. He used his story to entertain the D

_____

children.

This is the bridge S

e

___

named and

patterned after the famous bridge in V

e.

_____

However, in

______

, it is expensive to ride a gondola under

the bridge. Here you can walk under it for

free. ______

is charming. It has beautiful buildings in a rustic

setting and it is s great place to visit.

W

______

S

__________

was the world’s greatest playwright and S

________

-U

___

-A

was his

___

hometown. This is the house in which he was born in 1564 and where he also grew-up. Throughout this

quaint town there are tributes to

___________.

Along the banks of the river

_____

is the Royal

____________

T

_______

where you can see excellent performances of his plays. See ___________

famous tragedies such as R

____

and J

,

______

M

______

and H

or see his comedies such as The

_____

M

_______

of V

______.

Nearby is the H

___

T

______

C

_____

where

__________

was baptised in 1564.

This is also where he was buried in 1616. During that short time

wrote some of the most

__________

6

1. Sightseeing Britain

famous plays of western civilisation. So make sure you stop by S

________.

It is only a few hours by bus

or train from

_______

and it is a great day trip.

1.5. More of London

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the word you hear.

The pigeons are plump in T

________

S

_____.

Handfed by visitors who flock to the heart of ________

capital city

______.

It is an exciting place to be. Steeped in history but throbbing with life. B _________

P

_____

home of the R

____

F

______

for more than a hundred and fifty years. Guardian of tradition, rich

in ceremony. But the sentries outside

___________ _______

are real soldiers; Q

____

E

_________

personal bodyguards. The R

____

H

________

orchestrates the pomp and pageantry that the

love

_______

and visitors envy.

The spectacle of the big occasion never fails to draw the crowds. London would be an

infinitely poorer place without the splendour and dignity of its

ceremonial. Patriotism, ancient

_____

buildings, old crafts and customs, superb scenery, they are all part of a fascinating country you will see as

we take a journey to discover ________.

The

need no excuse to hold a ceremony. It is part of the fabric and ritual of

 

life. For sheer

colour and majesty, nobody does it better. Even the police, the celebrated B

_____

B

______

enter the

carnival spirit. No

pageant is complete without the blues and royal; the H

_______

C

______.

There is something about the glinting breastplates and helmets, the creep and jingle of harness, the

movement of the proud horses that stirs the emotions. Scenes such as these were as popular as they were

generations ago. Horses are one of

Q____

E ________

great loves. She is an authority on breeding. For

her, riding in a horse drawn carriage is a pleasure. The queen has reigned since 1952, her consort,

P

_____

P

______

by her side. She has ensured that the Monarchy remains strong, a symbol of her

country’s stability.

O

______

S

______

,

________

shopping Mecca. Shoppers mingle with friendly B

______

on foot patrol.

World famous stores are to be found here in fashionable K

______

B

_____.

The

_____

shops here. It is a

bustling city, a workplace for more than four million people where old style transport moves in harmony

7

1. Sightseeing Britain

with distinctive black

______

taxi cabs. Street stalls add a splash of colour. For those who want to sample

the sites, why not from an open topped double decker bus?

You won’t know his name but he is one of the most photographed faces in

______.

He is a member of the

H

________

C

_______

at H

_________

Y

____

facing W

________.

The guard changes at eleven o’clock

each morning. A colourful spectacle that makes a souvenir picture for countless tourists recording the

historic sites of the capital.

T

_____

B

,

_____

a fairy tale structure across the river T

overlooks another tourist favourite, the

______

T

_____

__

L

______.

The T

_____

has been a palace, a fortress and a prison in its turbulent history dating

from 1078. Inside are the picturesque homes of the Y

m

n

__

__

warders of the tower originally appointed by

K

____

E

_____

t

__

s

____.

They are the quaintly named Beefeaters, a name which may have been derived

from their fondness for roast beef. What tales have they got to tell? Murders and executions in the

infamous tower.

The city finance houses making one of the world’s greatest money markets and the house of God; S _____

P

_____

C

________.

The seventeen century masterpiece of S

__

C

_________

W

____.

Everyday life in

 

is a rich tapestry. The pavement cafes, the pubs selling traditional beers. C

_____

G

______

once a famous fruit and vegetable market, now a setting for street theatre. They all bring pleasure laughter

relaxation to the streets of

town.

______

8

1.6. The Bloody Tower

1. Sightseeing Britain

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the word you hear.

Welcome to our tour. Ghosts of the T

_____

of _______

everyone.

The

has stood on this ground

since 1066 when D

___

W

______

of N

_______

invaded

And, throughout its history it has been

used as a prison and place of execution. Which may be why today, some people say this is one of the

scariest places on earth. There are many tales of ghosts here but the ghost most people see is A ___

B

,

the second wife of K

 

H

the e

_____.

When she did not give birth to a boy she was

 

_____

____

_____

beheaded on T

____

G

_____

in 1536. A headless female figure in a white dress has often been seen close

to where she was executed, near Q

H

She is also said to haunt the C

 

R

where the

_____

______.

_____

____

same headless figure has been seen leading a ghostly procession of L

_____

and L

_____

down the aisle

towards where her headless body is buried. The T

____

was also the scene of the infamous disappearance of

the two princes; E

T

and R

N

who were thought to have been murdered in

 

_____

______

_______

____

1483.

When their father K

E

the F

died his brother R

took the boys to the T

 

____

______

_____

 

_______

____

for their protection. But they disappeared. R

 

was later crowned R

the

t

According to

______

 

______

____.

one story, guards in the late fifteenth century spotted the shadows of two small figures gliding down the

stairs in the W

____

T

_____.

Nearly two hundred years later in 1674 workmen found a chest beneath the

stairway of the

that contained the skeletons of two young children recently proved by DNA

testing to be the two princes. L

J

G

was just seventeen when she was executed on the 12 th

 

___

___

February 1554 after only nine days as

to H

____

the e

_____.

Her ghost is said to appear on the

anniversary of her death on the S

___

T

____.

Other ghostly appearances include the chained and

headless body of Sir W

R

who was often been seen in the B

 

T

_____.

And, another

 

_____

______

 

_____

ghost many people have seen is

 

fifth wife C

________

H

_____.

She ran away from her executioner

and her ghost has been seen running down the

______

hallway screaming for help. Now let us go further

into the

______

and see if we can find any of these ghosts.

9

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

2.1. The British Isles

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain 2.1. The British Isles The British Isles consist of

The British Isles consist of two large islands,

Great Britain and Ireland. They have thousands

of smaller islands surrounding them. Great Britain

or Britain is the name given to the combination of

England, Scotland and Wales. Important seas

surrounding the British Isles are the North Sea in

the east, the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the

English Channel between England and France,

the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland.

The topography of Great Britain can be roughly

divided into Lowland Britain and Highland

Britain. The coast has many estuaries and inlets,

so that no place in Britain is far from the sea. The

climate of the British Isles is mild and damp and

moderated by light winds blowing in from

relatively warm seas in the Atlantic Ocean. Inland

temperatures do not usually get below freezing in

winter or above 30°C in summer. Light rains

(drizzle) occur everywhere all year. Fogs usually

develop in winter. The British Isles were once almost entirely covered with forests, but tree cover is now

one of the lowest in Europe. The mighty woodlands of the British Isles of the past have been reduced to a

few pockets of vegetation due to extensive farming.

Exercise A. Label the map on the following page with the correct name or phrase from the definitions

below.

Atlantic Ocean - the body of water in which the British Isles are located

Belfast - the capital of Northern Ireland

Cardiff - the capital of Wales

Celtic Sea - the sea south of Ireland

Dublin - the capital of Ireland

Edinburgh - the capital of Scotland

England - the largest area in the United Kingdom; it is attached to Scotland and Wales

English Channel - the body of water off southern England which separates it from France

Hebrides - islands off the northwest coast of Scotland

Ireland - (the Republic of Ireland) - a country west of England across the Irish Sea (not part of the United

Kingdom)

Irish Sea - the body of water that separates England and Ireland

Isle of Man - an island in the Irish Sea

Isle of Wight - an island off the southern coast of England

London - the capital of England (and the capital of the United Kingdom)

North Sea - the body of water northeast of the British Isles separating it from northwest Europe

Northern Ireland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering the Republic of Ireland on the northeast

Orkney Islands - islands off the northeast coast of Scotland

Scotland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering England on the north

10

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain 11

11

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

Exercise B. Name each territory of the British Isles (darkened part) in the maps below.

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain Exercise B. Name each territory of the British Isle
2. The Geography and Climate of Britain Exercise B. Name each territory of the British Isle
 

A

B

C D

C

C D

D

E F

E

E F

F

Questions

  • (i) Name the regions that make-up what is called ‘Britain’ and the ‘United Kingdom’.

(ii) What are the capital cities of each region?

(iii) Ireland is part of the United Kingdom? True or False

12

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

2.2. Physiographic features of England, Scotland and Wales.

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain 2.2. Physiographic features of England, Scotland and Wales. The

The term United Kingdom has been used to refer to the

combined regions of England, Scotland, Wales and

Northern Ireland. We will focus on England, Scotland and

Wales in this course of study on British Culture because

Northern Ireland is only technically a part of the UK today

as most Irish in Northern Ireland would not consider

themselves British.

Citizens of Great Britain are referred to as Britons. This

term is used to refer to the ancient Britons who were

inhabitants of Britain south of Scotland’s Forth River.

The Firth of Forth is the estuary of the Forth River.

Britons are descended mainly from the different ethnic

groups that settled there before the 11th century such as

Celtics, Romans and Anglo Saxons.

While the climate of Britain is similar the physiographic

features of England, Scotland and Wales are quite

different. They are summarised in following paragraphs.

England: The total area of England is 130,410 square

kilometres and London is its capital. It is also the largest

city in the United Kingdom. The coast of England has

excellent natural harbours that are easily accessible to

deepwater shipping. This has been important for its

economic development and for its culture as a seafaring nation. Some important and famous harbour

ports are Newcastle upon Tyne, Hull, London, Dover, Plymouth, Bristol and Liverpool Harbour. The

northern and western parts of England are generally mountainous. Lowland Britain consists of the South,

London, East Anglia, and the West Country which has many rivers connected by a network of canals.

The Thames is a major river flowing through London, Oxford, Reading and Windsor in southern England.

It is 346 kilometres in length and is the second longest river in the United Kingdom.

England mainly consists of flat land and rolling hills except in the Midlands and the 'North'. These

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain 2.2. Physiographic features of England, Scotland and Wales. The

regions that contain the most important English

mountain ranges called the Pennine Chain or

Pennines (between 890-630 metres) and the

Lake District (between 970-820 metres), one of

the most picturesque regions in England. The

city of Birmingham is the centre of the Midlands

and is the second largest city of the United

Kingdom. York is another famous historic city

in the North of England.

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain 2.2. Physiographic features of England, Scotland and Wales. The

The Pennine Mountain ranges.

13

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

In the east of England lies The Fens, a vast area of flatland that was a marshland that was drained. To the

south of the Bristol Channel is an elevated plateau that slopes upward ending in the barren uplands and

moors of Cornwall and Devon. Sequential ranges of chalk hills can be seen from the English Channel and

are known as the white cliffs of Dover.

Scotland: The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh and Glasgow is its largest city. Scotland can be divided

into three areas. The Southern Uplands are the fertile plains and hills bordering England. The Central

Lowlands run from Edinburgh to Glasgow and contain the industrial towns and most of the population. The

Highlands are mountain ranges (between 1350-1200 metres) rising to their heights at Ben Nevis (1344

metres), Britain's highest mountain. The largest islands that belong to Scotland are the Hebrides, the

Orkneys and the Shetlands. Many of these islands are inhabited.

About three-quarters of Scotland is

made-up of uncultivated bog, rock and

heather, including a lot of peat soils.

The land area of Scotland, including the

islands, is 78,790 square kilometres.

The longest river is the Tay. Scotland

has a very irregular coastline with

numerous inlets from the sea. The larger

and broader inlets are called firths such

as the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of

Forth. The main natural harbour is

located in the Firth of Clyde. Scotland

is very mountainous and more than one-

half of Scotland is occupied by the

Highlands and contains narrow lakes or

lochs. Loch Lomond is the longest

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain In the east of England lies The Fens ,

A loch in the Scottish Highlands

lake in Scotland and Loch Ness, according to legend contains a sea monster (The Loch Ness Monster).

The Clyde, which flows through the city of Glasgow, is Scotland’s most important river and serves as a

transportation outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.

Wales: The capital city of Wales is

Cardiff and it is the principal seaport and

shipbuilding centre of Wales. The total

area of Wales is 20,760 square

kilometres. Wales has an irregular

coastline with many bays, the largest of

which is Cardigan Bay. Wales is almost

entirely mountainous with three main

regions; Snowdonia in the north-west,

the Cambrian Mountains in mid-Wales

and Brecon Beacons in the south. The

principal range is the Cambrian

Mountains (between 750-600 metres),

which extend north and south through

central Wales. These mountains are the

source of River Severn which is 354 km

in length and is Britain's longest river.

The Severn flows through mid Wales and

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain In the east of England lies The Fens ,

Cambrian Mountain ranges, Wales.

enters the West Midlands and South West England before discharging into Celtic Sea through the Bristol

Channel. Mount Snowdon is Wales's highest mountain and is the source of the Dee River which is a major

river of Wales. It is 110 kilometres in length and flows through northern Wales passing through the Bala

Lake, which is the largest natural lake in Wales, before entering North West England.

14

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

A physiographic map of the British Isles.

A physiographic map of the British Isles.

area of England, Scotland and Wales?

A Physiographic map of the British Isles.

Questions

  • (i) What are the main mountain

areas of England, Scotland and

Wales called?

(ii) Which region(s) of Britain are

the most mountainous? The least

mountainous? Which region(s)

have the highest and lowest

mountains?

(iii) How do the three regions of

Britain compare with each other

in land area? Which region has the

largest amount of flat land?

Which region has the largest land

area? Which region has the

smallest landmass?

(iv) Which part of Britain has the

largest number of coastal firths

and lochs?

  • (v) Which part of Britain has the

largest number of harbours? Why

is it good for the economy of the

region?

(vi) Name the seas and countries

closest to Britain?

(vii) Is the landmass of Vietnam

329,556 or 520, 337 or 767, 233

square kilometres?

How does this compare with the

(viii) How far is London from Hanoi?

i. 8525

ii. 9236

iii. 11455 kilometres.

(ix) How far is London from Ho Chi Minh City?

i. 9551

ii. 10234

iii. 12370 kilometres.

Exercise. Fill in the blanks for the paragraph below using the following words.

Atlantic

Britain

Britain

canals

Cambrian

Devon

Downs

England

England

English

Channel

Cornwall

Fens

Highlands

Ireland

Irish

island

firths

lochs

North

Northern

Ireland

Pennines

rivers

Scotland

seas

Uplands

 
 

The Geography of Britain

 

Britain is an ____________

country

that is surrounded by three

 

:

the __________

Sea,

the

_______________

Ocean

and the __________

Sea.

is

______________

separated from ______________

and

by

_____________

the Irish Sea and from France by the ______________

 

______________.

The most mountainous areas of Britain are in the north: the

and

__________________

Southern

______________

of

________________.

The southern part of Britain contains smaller mountain

ranges such as the

________________

in ______________

and

________________

Mountains in Wales and

the rolling hills of England such as the

__________.

____________

also

has most of the flatland such as

drained marshlands called the ________

and

the moors of __________

and ________________.

The south

15

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain

part of

_____________

also has the greatest number of

____________

and ____________

while

the northern

part has many narrow lakes called

__________

and sea inlets called ____________.

  • (x) If you went to Britain, which areas would you like to visit?

(xi) What are the similarities between the geography of Britain and Vietnam?

(xii) What are the differences between the geography of Britain and Vietnam?

State if the following statements are true or false.

  • (i) North Ireland is part of the United Kingdom.

True/False

(ii) Northern Ireland belongs to the United Kingdom.

True/False

(iii) The term 'Britons' is another name for Scottish people.

True/False

(iv) England has the most number of seaports in Britain.

True/False

  • (v) The cliffs of Dover are white because they are made of chalk.

True/False

(vi) Scotland is smaller than England but much larger than Wales.

True/False

(vii) London is the largest city in the United Kingdom and Glasgow is the second largest. True/False

(viii) Most of the land in Scotland is unfertile.

True/False

(ix) The Pennine Chain, Scottish Highlands and Mount Snowdon are the three main mountain regions of

Britain.

True/False

  • (x) The longest river in Britain begins in England.

True/False

(xi) Wales has three main mountainous areas.

True/False

2.3. The Climate and Weather in Vietnam and Britain

Weather is the name given for rain, sunshine, wind, cloud cover, temperature or humidity in the present

time at a particular place. For example, “It is very sunny today” is a statement about the weather because it

is an observation of sunshine and/or temperature on that day. Climate refers to rain, sunshine, wind, cloud

cover, temperature or humidity over a long period of time in a particular place. For example, “Vietnam is a

tropical country” or “Britain is a cold country” is a statement about the climate of each country because it is

about rain, sunshine, wind, cloud cover, temperature or humidity in each country every year for a long

2. The Geography and Climate of Britain part of _____________ also has the greatest numb er