# MP3001 Dynamics & Control Tutorial 7 Root Locus The root locus can be sketched by applying Evan’s method and

the angle criterion Q1 The root locus for the system with is given below:
G(s) = K ( s 2 + 2 s + 2)( s 2 + 2 s + 5) , H (s) = 1

5

Plot of root loci and asymptotes

Imag Axis

0

-5 -6

-4

-2 0 Real Axis

2

4

Observe that there are no real roots for any values of K. Try to relate the locus to general characteristics of root locus discussed in the lecture. Determine the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. The starting and ending points That the angles at which the two branches of the root loci departing from the top 2 starting points are −90° and +90° respectively. The break out points The number of asymptotes and why there is this number of asymptotes The angle of the asymptotes and the point at which they intersect the real axis The points where the root loci cross the jω axis.

Matlab Commands: G=zpk([ ],[-1-2i -1+2i -1-I -1+i],1); rlocus(G);

% zeros= [ ], 2 pairs of complex poles, K = 1

1

Find the closed-loop poles for K=5. cpoles]=rlocfind(G) %cpoles = closed loop poles .2s C(s) b.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (sec.2].Q2 For the system shown below. Matlab commands – use “sgrid” to locate ζ and “rlocfind” to determine roots and K G=zpk([-0. K=1. R(s) +− +− (s +1)(s + 2) 0. explain the effect of increasing K on the time response.[0 -1 -2].4 0. [K.8 0. Show that the above block diagram can be redrawn as: R(s) +− K s (s +1)(s + 2 ) 1+0. rlocus(G).6 0. Q3 The system shown has an inner loop velocity feedback and an outer loop position feedback.2 K 1 s C(s) a.) With the help of the system root locus. ζ= 0.2 1 Amplitude 0. sketch the root locus plot. sgrid. For a damping ratio.1).268. the unit step response is shown below: Step Response 1.5.4 1.

coefficient of the s0 term in the characteristics equation. ‘New’ Characteristic equation = 1 + 2ζωn s s + ωn 2 2 ⇒ G1 = 2ζωn s s + ωn 2 2 The block diagram for a motor system with a tachometer (sensor for measuring angular velocity) and a potentiometer (sensor for measuring angular position) is shown below. The parameter Kta of the tachometer can be adjusted. Lecturer will not be discussing this in class as this is NOT FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSE Note to Students: Very often the parameter that varies is the system gain i. Show that the transfer function: θo = θi K p K e / JR ⎛K 2 +K K e ta s2 + ⎜ e ⎜ JR ⎝ ⎞ K K ⎟s + p e ⎟ JR ⎠ b. a.g. the coefficient of s1 is made to vary instead. In this example.Extra Question: For discussion amongst students ONLY. The block diagram is similar to Question 3a. ζ is factored out and is in the numerator of a new transfer function G1. J and R (taken from the catalogue) and potentiometer Kp are all known.B. 3 . Vi Input θi + − Vo 1 + − 1 Kt Motor Kp θo Tachometer Potentiometer θi Kp Vi +− +− K e / JR s + K e / JR Kt Kp 2 1 s θo The motor parameters Ke. where ζ is now a variable since Kt can be varied.e. it is also possible that other parameters can be varied. Sketch the root locus of the system as if ζ can vary from 0 to infinity. (N. Let ωn2 = KpKe/JR and 2ζωn = (Ke2+KeKta)/JR. we are able to select the appropriate value of Kt to give the required closed loop damping. The way to go about it is to rewrite the characteristic equation such that this parameter e. However. ζ cannot be 0 in a properly set up system) From this root locus.

Kv = 4.6. for a pair of dominant closed loop poles so = −σ±jω. The dominant closed loop poles are located at s = −3. A small change in the undamped natural frequency ωn of the dominant closed loop poles is tolerable. Designing a controller basically means adding Gc(s) to change the root locus so that it passes through so = −σ±jω.60±j4. which means that for a ramp input of 360°/s the steady state error in following the ramp input is ev = θi 360° s −1 = = 87. The damping ratio ζ of the dominant closed loop poles is ζ =0. or to increase Kv to 41 s−1. together they affect the damping factor ζ.80. b) Design the following types of Gc(s) to give a pair of dominant closed loop poles at s = −1±j1 (i) Proportional-Derivative controller (ii) Proportional-Velocity controller (ii) Lead compensator R(s) +_ Gc(s) K s2 C(s) Figure 1 c) What improvement will the compensator bring to the system unit-step response? Q2 Consider the angular positional control system shown in Figure 2.8° Kv 4. This can be done using the angle criterion: ∠Gc(s)G(s) = ±180°.System Dynamics and Control Tutorial 8 Root Locus Controller Design Stability & performance of closed loop systems are governed by the dominant closed loop poles. In general. Design a suitable Lag compensator to increase the static velocity error constant Kv as desired.60. It is also desired to keep the dominant closed loop poles damping ratio ζ = 0.MP3001 . for Gc(s) = 1 and K = 1.1 s −1 It is desired to decrease ev to one-tenth of the above value. Q1 Consider the model for a spacecraft control system shown in the figure 1.1 s−1. The static velocity error constant. a) Determine the unit step time response of the feedback system. R(s) +_ Gc(s) 820 s (s + 10 )(s + 20 ) C(s) Figure 2 4 . the real part σ governs the settling time & the imaginary part ω governs the peak time.

This exercise will show that a rate feedback is another form of PD control and is given as the expression above.Extra Question: For discussion amongst students ONLY. Find the open loop settling time of r for a step change in δ.0063) The yaw angle ψ is measured by a compass and the yaw rate r is measured by a gyroscope. G = tf(nc. dc). Defining the system transfer function Figure 1 example: nc = [2 1]. Figure 3: A boat The boat heading angle (yaw angle). the yaw rate s (s + 0. Verify with Matlab. where zc = 1/D.0068) and r = ψ . step(T) Defining the controller transfer function Combining two transfer functions in series Drawing the root locus Finding the closed loop transfer function Plotting the closed loop step response 5 . b. Gc = tf(nc. Lecturer will not be discussing this in class as this is NOT FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSE A Proportion-Derivative controller can also be expressed as: Gc(s) = P·(1 + sD) = P·D (s + zc). L = series(Gc. T=feedback(L. Let the gain of yaw rate r be D and feed forward proportional term be P. Use of Matlab is essential. The transfer function relating them is given by: Go (s ) = 0. Some Basic Matlab commands: Variables like “num”.2647 )(s + 0. dc =[1 3 2 0]. design a controller of the form Gc(s) = P·D (s + zc). dc).1). “nc” and “dc” are row vectors containing the coefficients of the respective numerator and denominator polynomials forming a transfer function. zc = 1/D so that the 2% settling time of ψ in response to a step change δ is 40 sec with P ≤ 2.G). ψ is governed by the deflection angle δ of the rudder. rlocus(L). a. Both of these measurements are available for feedback.0184(s + 0. “den”. You should try sketching the response by first getting the partial fraction terms and the respective amplitudes. and then sketching each open loop pole response. The desired closed pole is on the negative real axis.

w % Bode plot of G for the frequency range 6 .3.01. Q1. w).01.100). 1000] For |G| = 0 dB. For the given transfer functions (a) G ( s ) = s s2 + s + 2 72 ( 10( s + 3) ). (b) G ( s ) = s 2 + 6 s + 36 For each of the system given above: (i) Write down the expressions |G| in dB and ∠G in degrees and identify the finite corner or break frequencies. grid % set the interval of the frequency. Given an open loop transfer function G(s) = (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) s+2 s ( s + 10) Use Matlab to generate the Bode plot of G(s) for w∈[0. 1000] radians/s. compute and tabulate sample values of |G| dB and ∠G in degrees Hence sketch the Bode diagram for w∈[0. find the frequency and the phase ∠G Identify the system type λ What are the errors for unit step and unit ramp? Matlab commands: w = logspace(-2.System Dynamics and Control Tutorial 9 Frequency Response Method This tutorial is an exercise on Frequency response and would you to be familiar with using semi-log papers as well as understanding the purpose of such plots.MP3001 .01. For w ∈ [0. bode(G. 1000] radians/s Identify the system type λ and the relative degree k (ii) (iii) (iv) All Bode plots are to be plotted on a 5-cycle semi-log paper Q2. Straight lines plot for Bode plot are not required.

%MP and the 2% settling time ts for a unit step input Using the values of ζ and ωn from (b) and the formulas in the lectures.MP3001 . 0 -10 dB -20 -30 -40 0 -50 phase -100 -150 -200 -1 10 0 1 −12 dB −15 dB −147° 10 Frequency (r/s) 10 Figure 2: Bode Plot 7 . tr. Use Matlab to find the phase margin γ and the phase margin frequency wpm Find the corresponding closed loop T(s) and find the damping ζ and the undamped natural frequency ωn Use Matlab to determine the rise time. compute the values of γ and its wpm and tr and ts and compare these with the values obtained from the Matlab Bode plot and unit step response. d. tp and ts? Q2. tp. f. Given the open loop transfer function that is used in a unity feedback system G(s) = a. use Matlab to determine the new phase margin γ and the phase margin frequency wpm and unit step tp and the 2% settling time ts Are γ and wpm good indicators of the unit step % overshoot. Find the value K to give a phase margin of 33° and the corresponding phase margin frequency. peak time. b. 100 s (s + 10 ) e. Consider a unity feedback control system with the open loop transfer function G (s ) = K ( s + s + 4) 2 The Bode plot for K=1 is shown. c. Comment on your comparisons If proportional controller with Kp = 10 is used in series with G.System Dynamics and Control Tutorial 10 Frequency Response Controller Design Q1.

gain margin frequency wgm. Sketch the Bode plot of G(s)= 5 on a 5-cycle semi-log paper s (s + 1) Find the static velocity error constant Kv. Referring to the closed-loop system shown in Figure 4.1). gain margin is not less than 8 dB. phase margin about 40~50°. wpm. c. The resulting cross over frequency is to be smaller than wpm. Given a closed loop system shown below in Figure 3: R + KcGc(s) K s( s + 1) C Figure 3: A unity feedback system a. gain margin Kg. on the plot right click for tp and ts 8 . phase margin γ and phase margin frequency. − K s(0. Design a KcGc that gives a static velocity error constant Kv = 50 s−1. Matlab commands: margin(G). design a lead compensator Gc(s) such that the phase margin is 45°.1s + 1)(s + 1) C Figure 4: Draw the Bode plot of G(s) and the compensated plot Gc(s)G(s) and hence ascertain whether your design has achieved the desired specifications or not.Q3. step(T) % show the gain and phase margin for G % closed loop transfer function T(s) with unity feedback % step input of T(s). grid T=feedback(G. Draw the compensated plot. R + KcGc(s) Q4. and the static velocity error constant. Kv is 4.0 s-1. and the gain margin not less than 10 dB. b.