E/18

Resume
- 428 -
OBSERVATIONS SUR VELEVAGE DES CREVETTES DANS LES RIZIERES
DE KERALA (INDE)
--
Des experlences ont ete faites pour determiner s'il serait avantageux d'introduire
des methodes dtalevage dans les rizieres de Kerala, sur Ie littoral Bud-ouest ije l'Inde,
ou les crevettes sont recueillies par filtration de l'eau. La pecherie evolue, car la
demande de petites crevettes diminue tandis que la preference va de plus en plus aux
grandee.
Des experiences ont prouve que l'elevage de jeunes durant un mois environ .permei
de recolter comparativement plus de crevettes de grande taille qu'un elevage etendu sur
une periode plus longue. La production de crevettes a semble plus forte durant la vive-
eau de pleine lune que pendant celle de nouvelle luna. 11 y a correlation avec ,1 'aug-
mentation du 'gradient de maree, qui caracterise 1a pleine lune. La pGcherie exploite
actuellement quatre especes de PeneideB : NetapenaeuB dobsoni, & monoceros; !!L. affinis
et Penaeus indicus . Le taux de "recrutement
U
est continu, avec une pointe en mars ou
avril . La plupart des jeunea crevettes apportees dans les rizieres par la maree semblent
y demeurer lora du reflux. .
Extraeto
OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA FILTRACION DE CAMARONES
EN LOS ARROZALES DE KERALA, INDIA
Se r eal izar on experimentos para determinar la posibilidad de introducir con
de cultivo en los procedimientoe actualee de entrada de camarones por filtra-
ci6n en los arrozalea de Kerala, en la costa sudoccidental de la India. Est4n' cambian-
do l as caracterIeticas de la peequer!a, disminuyendo la demanda decamaronee pequenoe
y aumentando la de camaronee grandee. Los experimentos indicaron que el cultivo de
camarones juveni l es un mes aproximadamente, produc!a relativamente mejores cap-
turas de camarones de tamano grande que las que se podIan obtener por media de au cultivo
durante perIodos largos; Se observ6 que la obtenoi6n de camarones era mejo.r duran-
te el per!odo· de mareas vivas unidas a luna llena-, que cuando iban asociadas
a luna nueva. Esto sa atribuye a 1 .. mayor altura de las mareas ouando hay luna llena;
La pesquerI a se ocupa principalmente de cuatro especies de camarones peneidos, a saber.
tletapenaeus dobsoni, M:. monoceros, &. affinis y Penaeus indicus. La pesquer!a se re-
nueva constantemente, alcanzando el punta m4ximo de reolutamiento en marzo 6 abril. La
mayorta de los camarones juveniles que penetran en los campos con una marea determinada
parece que no los abandonan cuando Is marea se .retira.
429 -
milS
, ,
1 INTRODUCTION
Juvenile periaeid prawns are extensively fished from the paddy fields bordering the
bac¥:waters And estuaries of Kerala on the ,southwest co'ast of IJ;ldia. Nearly 4,500 ha of
paddy fields are'utilized for this purpose. In the past the huge demand from Rangoon for
praWn pulp, locally called "chemmeen parippu", has rendered it a very lucrative fishery. '
With the advent of the frozen prawn industry in this region, the demand for larger prawns
has , increased considerably, and the larger sizes from the paddy fields are now sorted out
and channelled to freezers. While the demand from the freezing industry ,has inoreassd,
the prawn pulP trade haa decreased, mainly dUE> t 'o developments that have taken place in the
countries to which this product was traditionally exported. It has therefore beoome necessary
to find ways of increasing the sizes of prawns caught from the paddy fields, so that a larger
proportion of the catches will be suitable for freezing and panning. A few experiments were
therefore designed and carried out from 1964 to 1966 to determine whether SOMe sort of oul-
turing could be introduced into the present practice of prawn f1ltration to promote the
growth of juvenile prawns 'before trapping.
' A genera,! account of this fishery has been given by Panik!<ar (1931), Menon (1954);-
Gopinath (1956) and Panikkar and Menon (1956)., Menon (1954) , has also carried out some pre-
liminary experiments to assess the 'yield from these paddy , fields and the rate of growth of
two species of prawns'. Kesteven and Job , ( 1957) made a preliminarY review of the prawn
filtration praotices of Kerala. '
2 THE FISHERY
The PNwn fishery is carried out from all the paddy fields lying adjacent to or having
connection with the The single orop of rice is harvested in September and
O'ctober, then the paddy, fields are leased out for prawn filtration. The size of fields
varies from less than Y2 ha to more than 10 ha . Water from the backwaters , is allowed to
flow freely in and ,out of the fields for a ' few days. Thebunds separating the fields are
now .strengthened and sluice gates fixed, to regulate the "rlow of wate;r into each field.
Normally, each field is provided with one sluice gate which opens into the backWaters. The
sluice gate is a r ectangul ar wooden box-like structure, the size of which varies according
to the area of the field. Adjustments of wooden ,shutterplanke at the mouth of the sluice'
regulate the\ flow of water. During high tide, water is let into the field b,y' opening the
shutters , are closed when the water inside the field reaches the same level as out-
side. The juvenile prawns enter the fields with the inflow. While letting in water at
night, a lamp is hung at the mouth of the sluice. At low tide, water is let out of the
field by the same process, but a close bamboo screen is placed at the mouth of the sluioe
to prevent the prawns from This procARR is continued with ever,y high and low
tide throughout the fishing season.
Fishing is carried out b,y, fixing a conical sluice net 6 to 7 m in length and with a
mesh size of 5 to 12 mm, at the ' mouth of the sluice b,y means of a rectangular bamboo frame.
At low' tide, the shutter pl anks of the siuice are drawn up, 'and the water from the field is
let out with great force through the net. The prawns coll .. cted at the ood end of the net
are periodically, emptied into a canoe. Special care is t,aken to see that the water ,level
in the field does not fa ll too low by repl acing the shutter planks of the sluice at the
appropri ate time.
Gener ally fishing operations are at night during the spring tide period.
Therefore fishing act ivity is restricted to 7 or 8 nights in, a fortnight, i.e. 3 or 4 on
either s ide of the full moon and new moon. The season of the fishery lasts from November
to April every year. ' In April, before the field is handed over to the owner for paddy
cul tivation final fishing i s carried out by completely , draining , the water from the field
in the daytime , using and drag nets, and b,y hand picking. Generally the highest oatoh
i s obtained on this day, as the entire prawn is fi s hed
- 430 -
The prawns caught from the fields are mainly penaeids in their juvenile stages, and
they comprise Meta penaeus dobsoni (Miers) (thelly chemmeen), M. monoceros (Fabricius)
(choodan (H. Milne Edwards) (kazhanthan chemmeen) , and Penaeus indicus
H. Milne Edwards -(naaran chemmeen). A few species of pal aemonids such as Macrobrachium.
(HellerhM-idae (Heller) and Palaemon styliferus -H. Milne , and the atyid
Caridina gracilirostris De Man ', are occasionally notlced the ca tches, but never In
commercial quantitites. Fishes like Mugil spp_ , Etroplus Baratensis, E. maculatus,
Ambassis spp_, Ophichthys spp., Muraen;sQi cinereus , sp.-a nd Panchax sp.
also occur in the prawn fields, but are caught only on the final day , when the field is
completely drained. The portunid crab Scylla serr a ta (Forskal) occurs in the fi elds in
considera ble and ocoasionally causes damage to the bunds of the fields by burrowing
into the mud.
3 EXPERIMENTS IN CULTURING
Field experiments were designed and conducted to s tudy the effects of retai ning prawns
in the paddy fields for different periods. A paddy field of 3.16 ha , s ituated about 4 km
north of the town of Ernakulam and within the prawn fishing a rea of , the locality, was taken
on lease for ' the studies. The field was 9urroWlded by backwaters on all sides. Extra bunds
were provided to divide the field into two l a rge compartments , each having an inside area
of 14,400 m
2
, and a small compartment of 650 m
2
• The two l arger compartment s were provided
with separate wooden sluice gates (438 cm long x 80 cm wide and 215 cm high ) to regulate
the flow of water to and from the backwater.. Of these two compartment s , the eastern was
used for culture · experiments while the west ern was kept as a control. rfhe .sm:.ill compiJrtment
was used for marking experiments us ing biologica l s tains and could· be connected to the
culture compa rtment through a small box sluice . The generul depth of water inside the
field was about 1 m at high tide and it wa s never allowed to fall below Y2 m during any
experiment; deeper channels ran across the field from the s luices .. The bottom o f the field
was of soft mud, the depth of which ranged from 20 to 50 em.. The stlUnps of t"he rice plants,
left after the harvest" decayed and provided a rich supply of oreanic
3 .. 1 Design of experiments
Experiment I (February to May 1964) was to determine the growt h and mortality res ult ing
from culturing prawns for the entire period of the fishery and to compare the yield wit h the
existing practice of trapping the smal l prawns. Juvenile prawns were let i nto both large
compartment s with the tide every day. While the prawns in the culture compartment were
allowed to grow throughout the season, those in the cont rol compartn:lent were fis hed accor'ding
to the local practice.. The culture compartment was fished a t the end of the experiment.
Experiment II (January to May 1965) was similar to the first experiment except t h"t
the culture compa rtment fished at intervals of one month.
Experiment III (December to May 1966) was des igned to comp" r e the productivity of t he
.experimental field with that of other prawn . fields in the nei ghbourhood, and t o comp .....re
yields from the two large compartments when fished according to local practice.
In all these experiments regul ar samples of prawns were taken from both compartments
for recording their composition and size.. When the experiment did not pennit use of the
sluice net in the culture compartment, samples were with a cast net haVi ng the Bame
mesh-size as that of the sluice net.
3.2 !J.ydroiogy
Surface salinity and temperature of the backwater near the experimental prawn field
Were recorded throughout the period from February 1964 to May 1966. These features were
,I
..
I
I
E/16
also recorded from inside the field during the periods of the experiments; the temperature
was noted twice daily, at 0900 and 1500, and the salinity was estimated on alternate days .
The difference in water temperature between the baokwater and the field was highes t at
the end of February. The generally lower temperature inside the field may have result ed
evaporation.
3. 2.1 Salinity Tae fluctuations in salinity are shown in Fig. 1. As
noticed by George (1958) , Balakrishnan (1951) and George and Kartha (1963), the salinity
of the backwater shows wide fluctuations, the pattern of which is the Bame each year.
The water is almost fresh (salinity falling below 1.0
0
/00) during the monsoon months of
July and August, then the salinity rises to more than 30.0
0
/00 by s'arly April and main-
tains this high level until June.
During the expsriments, the water inside the field rema ined more saline than that of
the outside backwater. This was probably due to evaporation in the confined area.
3. 2 .2 Temperature As in the case of salinity, t emperature also shows a
mum in the monsoon months of July and August, and increases thereaft er (Fig. 1). Invari ably
the evening temperature was found to be higher than tha t of the morning. The range of
temperature in the backwater was between 22.9 and 33.0
0
C.
During the experiments, the mean temperature ins i de the field was found to be slightly
lower than that of the surrounding water, except in January and May. These were also the
two months in which the range of temperature in the field was smailest.
3.3 Results
The details of obtained from the culture and control compartments of the fi eld
are shown in Table I. '
Year.
1964
1965
1966
TABLE I
Total catches of prawns from the culture and
control compartments for three seasons
Catch in kg
Culture Control
Compartment Compartment Total
155 854 1,009
181 966 1,153
186 814 1,660
,
JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JANUARY FE8RUARY MARCH APRIL MAY
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- 435 -
The catch from the culture compartment was poor in the first experiment, when
the prawns were allowed to grow inside this compartment for four months before "fishing_
Thts was a Burprise, as the pnysical conditions affecting the two compartments remained
identical and the chances of entry of young prawns were the same, as similar prooedures
fire followed for letting water into both compartments. Cast net samples showed that,
during the initial stages of the experiment, large number of prawns were present in the
culture compartment. The rather insignificant catch obtained from the culture field at
the end of the experiment . could only be due to mortality, probably brought about byover- ·
crowding. The distribution of length-frequency of the different species of prawns obtained
from culture and oontrol compartments is shown in Figs. 2 to 5.
In the second experiment, when fishing in the culture compartment was carried out at
monthly intervals, the catches were much better. The differences in the pattern of size
.' distribution of prawns from the culture and control compartments were less m... '\.rked than in
the first experiment.
In the third experiment in which there was no attempt to culture prawns in either
compartment, a higher return was again obtained from the control compartment. The yield
from the compartm.ent which had previously\ been used for cuI turing was the same as in the
previous experiment (Table I). The patterns of size-distribution of the prawns caught
from the two compartments in this experiment were identical, as was expected (Figs. 2 to 5).
The catches from the control compartment were uniformly better in all three years.
could probably be attributed to the topography of the field and the nature and depth
of the backwater into which the .sluice gates of the compartments opened.
The productivity of the whole field in relation to some of the fields in the neighbour-
hood, and the success or failure of the operations of these three years, may be judged
from Table II. The year' s experiment no doubt reduced the overall prawn catch from
the field but in the subsequent two years the yield realized wa s rather better than that of
the adjacent fields. Menon (1954) obtained a maximum of 9.62 kg prawns per day per ha from
a field at Narakkal, about 10 km north of the present field. It is therefore clear that the
field had no inherent defect that would influence the results of the experiments.
TABLE II
Comparison of catches of other fields
Field Year Area No. of Total Catch per Catch per day
(ha) days catch day per ha
fished (kg) (kg) (kg)
Experimental 1964 3.16
42 1,009 24.0 7.6
field
"
1965
"
49 1,753

11.3
"
1966
"
42
1,660
39·5 12·5
Neighbouring 1965 5·56
61
3,746 61.4 11.0
field Y -66
" Y
"
3. 23
48 1,532 31.9
9·9
Y
Result of commercial operations in a .field situated 1 !an west of experimental field
y Result of commeroi al operations in a field B.i tuated 6 !an northeast of experimental field

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- 436 -
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Jan Fe b Mor Apr
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60
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Fi eld
1966

710 22 46 1921 8 22
6 21 - 5
Jon Fe b M 0 r Ap r M oy
Fig. 4 Length-t'reQ.I.WDOI oU."ribu.tion ot Jlet.penaeua :!!l1!:1!! 1n '!;he cu ..hure and. control compart menta, 1966.
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E/18
A perusal of these results indicates that culturing of prawns for long periods in
paddy fields -generally does not result in an increas e in the weight of catches. On
other hand, culturing for periods of about Qne month, as in experiment II, is likely
t o bring in bett er catches containing larger prawns.
,4 AND FLUCTUATION OF CATCHES
The percentage oomposition oatches f rom control and culture compartments at fort-
nightly intervals is shown in Fig. 6. Of the four species o·f penaeids represented, M. dobsoni
by f ar the most important, accounting for more than 50 percent of the c atch in most
samples. M. monoceros and P. indicuG each averaged about 20 percent of the catch, but
showed considerable variation within each set of experiments and from year to year •
•• afrinis was represented in the catches by only ver,y small numbers. In both 1964 and
1965, the years in whioh culturing took pl ace , M. monoceros wa s scarce in the culture
in the second half of each experiment although it was plentiful in the control
ooapartment. It may be that physical, chemical or conditions that are
pr!!'talent in the culture field towards the latter half of the sea.son a ffect this species
adversely. Suoh a suggestion, however, conf licts with the general impression this i s
. the hardiest of the four species of prawns.
5 FACTORS AFF&:TING CATCHES
That the phases of the moon may exert considerable influence over f ishing conditions
in respeot of many a fisher,y is ,well known (Hheeler, 1937; Rounsefell and Everhart, 1953;
Jayaraman et aI, 1959; Racek, 1959) . This is particul arty so' in the paddy field prawn
fishery where the neap tide pp.riod is obs erved to yield such low catches as to
render it unremunerative to carry out fishing operations. Consequently this fishery is
active during the spring tide period only. Catches obtained f rom the control compartment
during the present work are of interest in this context. Catches from the culture com-
partment are not considered" since it was not fished throughout the seas"on.
t
The trend of yield in relation to lunar phases, as shown in Fig . 6 , indicates that
the catches are invariably higher at the spring tide associated with full moon than those
at the corresponding tide of the new moon period. This pattern i s clearly repeated each
year and is equally apparent in the overall catches of prawns as well as in the occurrence
of all the constituent species. The effect is l ess apparent in the last catch of each
season, but this is not strictly comparable with the other catches as the fiel d is com-
pletely fished out qy cast netting, hand picking, etc.
Menon and Raman (1961) observed higher catches at new and full moon and a couple of
following each, but did not notice any variation in catches between the darker and
brighter phases of the moon in the stake net fishery of Cochin Subramanyam
(1965) recorded relatively better catches o'f prawns during the darker fortnights in the
stake net fishery of the Goqavari estuarine system on the east of India . The present
observations, however, do not seem to be in agreement with this record, as in all the "three
seasons a comparatively better yield of prawns was realized during the brighter phase of
the moon. The obvious phySical characteristic of this of moon is the amount of
light, and the role of this as a factor influencing the behaviour of prawns has been dis-
.oounted by Racek (1959) , as a result of laborator,y experiments,. It is well known that the
phases of moon influence the height of the tide. The prawn filtration practice under study
is mainly dependent on tidal flow, therefore some relo. tionship between the yield and the
faotor responsible for increased tidal flow ' is to be expected. The average tidal gradient
for each of the periods of fishing. is given, with the corresponding catches in Fig. 6.
From this it appears that the higher catches noticed in each brighter fortnight were
really brought about qy the increased tidal gradient and the resultant increased r ate of
flow from the, prawn field.
':,fhen the day to day fluctuations of catches are examined in rel ation to salinity and
temperature , no significant correlation is evident.
E/18
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B/18
6 RECRUITMENT 'ill THE FISHERY
A perusal of the size frequenoy polygons shows that the reoruitment to the fisher,y in
the oase of all the speoies is more or less oontinuous, with the smaller size-groups most
prominent in the months of Februar,y, March and April. ' These reoruits to the padd,y field
fisher,y probably come from the pe,ak spawning in November and December.
The fishery is generally described as a mere prooess of trapping juvenile penaeius
allowed into the padd,y fields along with ,the tide and captured at the favourable low tide.
(Panikkar, 1937; Menon, 1954; Gopinath, 1959; Kesteven and Job, 1957) In this oontext
Kesteven and Job state " •••• during the interval of a few hours or days that the trapped
shrimps remain in the fields they utilize the food organisms within the field and those
brought by the tidal water". It would therefore appear that the prawns remain in the field
only for a very short period. During the present stud,y some experiments were conduoted to
find out whether these prawns are passively transported in and out of the field by the
flow of tide or whether they remain inside the field for any length of time. Colleotions
of 15 min duration were obtained using the same sluice net when the tide was flowing into
the field and a few hours l ater when it was flowing out. The average size distribUtion of
the prawns obtained during these operat'ions is shown in Fig. 7. The modal sizes of the
incoming and -outgoing prawns were widely separated for each of the four speoies. The
majority of the recruits brought into the field by the inooming tide therefore, do not seem
to move' out during the subsequent outgoing tide. In all the Metapenaeus speoies this
disparity in the modal sizes of the incoming ' and outgoing prawns is , 15 mm, and in the 'oase
of P. indicus the modal sizes are separated by 20 Mm. Such size differenoes probably
represent 5 or 6 weeks growth. It is sUggested that the incoming small prawns, se'ek shel teJ,'
before the flow of tide reverses. It is quite possible that the incoming prawns get buried
in the mud and settle down in the new habitat for some time. Therefore it would follow
that these padd,y fields are not merely a part of the trapping mechanism but that they also
provide an active and suitable biological environment for the life and growth of these
prawns.
7 REFERENCES
Balakrishnan, A., Variation of salinity and temperature in Ernakulam Channel. Bull.Cent.
1957 Res. Inst.Univ.Kerala, (C}. 5(2):]-9
George, M.J., Observations on the plankton of the Cochin backwaters. Indian J ,F1sh.,
1958 5(2):375-401
On the breeding of penaeids and the recruitment of their postlarvae into the
backwaters of Cochin. Indian J.Fish., 9(1).110-6
____ and K.N.K. Kartha, Surface salinity of Cochin backwaters with reference to
1963 tide. J. mar. bioi. Ass. India ,
________ and K. Raman and P.K. Nair, Observations on the offshore prawn fishery of
(in "ress) ' Oochin. Indian J. Fish., ' 10
Gopinat h, K., Prawn culture in the rice fields of Travancore-Cochin, India. Proc.Indo-
• 1956 PacH.Fish.Coun., 6(3):419-24
J ayaraman, R., et al., ' Observation on the trawl fisheries of the Bombay and Saurashtra
waters, 1949-50 to 1954-55. Indian J.Fish., 6(1):58-144
v Kesteven C. L.
1957
and T.J: Job, Shrimp culture in Asia and , the Far East;
Proc.Gulf Ca ribb.Fish.Inst., 10:49-68
a preliminar,y review.
./ Menon, .M. K. ,
1954
-Menon, M.K.
1961
- 442 -
..
On the paddy field prawn fishery of Travanoore-Cochin and an
in prawn culture. Proc.Indo-Paoif.Fish.Coun., 5(2)1131-5
and K. Raman, Observations ·on ' the prawn fishery of the Coohin baokwaters
with special reference to · the stake net oatohell. Indian J .Fish., 8(1) I
1-23
Panikkar, If.K., Prawn industry of the Malabar ooast. J.Bombal nat.Hist.Soo., 39(2.)1
1937 343-53
____ and M.K. Menon, Prawn fisheries of India. Proc.Indo-Paoif.Fish.Coun.,
1956 6(3):328-44
Racek, A.A.,
1959
Prawn investigations in eastern Australia. Res.Bull.St.Fish.lf.S.W.,
6:1-57
Rounssfell, G.A. and W.H. Everhart, Fishery sOience; its methods and applioation ••
1953 New York, John Wiley and 5ons, 444 p.
Subramanyam,
1965
M., Lunar, diurnal and tidsl periodicity in relation to the prawn abundanoe
and miRration in the Godavari estuarine systems. Fishery Teohnol.,
Ernakulam, 2(1):26-33 . .
Wheeler, J.F.a., Further observations on lunar periodicity. J.Linn.Soc.(Zool.),
1937 40(272)1325-45 .
• • • • • *
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to Dr. S. Jones for the interest shown during the progress
of this work and to Dr. R. Raghu Prasad for his comments on the manusoript.

affinis y Penaeus indicus.permei de recolter comparativement plus de crevettes de grande taille qu'un elevage etendu sur une periode plus longue. en la costa sudoccidental de la India.428 - E/18 OBSERVATIONS SUR VELEVAGE DES CREVETTES DANS LES RIZIERES DE KERALA (INDE) Resume Des experlences ont ete faites pour determiner s'il serait avantageux d'introduire des methodes dtalevage dans les rizieres de Kerala. &. 11 y a correlation avec . ou les crevettes sont recueillies par filtration de l'eau. Le taux de "recrutement U est continu. La mayorta de los camarones juveniles que penetran en los campos con una marea determinada parece que no los abandonan cuando Is marea se . Se observ6 que la obtenoi6n de camarones era mejo. car la demande de petite s crevettes diminue tandis que la preference va de plus en plus aux grandee. La pesquer!a se renueva constantemente. Los experimentos indicaron que el cultivo de camarones juvenil es durant~ un mes aproximadamente. alcanzando el punta m4ximo de reolutamiento en marzo 6 abril.retira. avec une pointe en mars ou Des experiences ont prouve que l'elevage de jeunes durant un mois environ . Esto sa atribuye a 1. disminuyendo la demanda decamaronee pequenoe y aumentando la de camaronee grandee.-. M:. m~todos . & monoceros. a saber. !!L. sur Ie littoral Bud-ouest ije l'Inde. Est4n' cambiando l as caracterIeticas de la peequer!a. La pGcherie exploite avril .r durante el per!odo· de mareas vivas unidas a luna llena. a luna nueva. OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA FILTRACION DE CAMARONES EN LOS ARROZALES DE KERALA.. tletapenaeus dobsoni. produc!a relativamente mejores capturas de camarones de tamano grande que las que se podIan obtener por media de au cultivo durante perIodos m~s largos. La production de crevettes a semble plus forte durant la viveeau de pleine lune que pendant celle de nouvelle luna. mayor altura de las mareas ouando hay luna llena. actuellement quatre especes de PeneideB : NetapenaeuB dobsoni. INDIA Extraeto Se r eal iz ar on experimentos para determinar la posibilidad de introducir con ~xito de cultivo en lo s procedimientoe actualee de entrada de camarones por filtraci6n en los arrozalea de Kerala.1 'augmentation du 'gradient de maree. La pesquerI a se ocupa principalmente de cuatro especies de camarones peneidos. La pecherie evolue.que cuando aqu~llas iban asociadas . La plupart des jeunea crevettes apportees dans les rizieres par la maree semblent y demeurer lora du reflux. affinis et Penaeus indicus . monoceros. . qui caracterise 1a pleine lune.

' In April. It has therefore beoome necessary to find ways of increasing the sizes of prawns caught from the paddy fields.southwest co'ast of IJ. At low' tide. is allowed to flow freely in and .y' opening the shutters .increased considerably. a fortnight. Therefore fishing act ivity is restricted to 7 or 8 nights in. Fishing is ca rried out b. draining ..out of the fields for a ' few days. and b. a t the ' mouth of the sluice b. The juvenile prawns enter the fields with the inflow. In the past the huge demand from Rangoon for praWn pulp. Gener a lly fishing operations are carri~d ' out at night during the spring tide period. The season of the fishery lasts from November to April every year.strengthened and sluice gates fixed.. Kesteven and Job .! account of this fishery has been given by Panik!<ar (1931).y means of a rectangular bamboo frame. Menon (1954) . Special care is t. has rendered it a very lucrative fishery. fixing a conica l sluice net 6 to 7 m in length and with a mesh size of 5 to 12 mm. 1 INTRODUCTION Juvenile periaeid prawns are extensively fished from the paddy fields bordering the bac¥:waters And estuaries of Kerala on the . the size of which varies according to the area of the field. emptied into a canoe. but a close bamboo screen is placed at the mouth of the sluioe to prevent the prawns from escaping~ This procARR is continued with ever. While the demand from the freezing industry . At low tide.level in the field does not fa ll too low by repl acing the shutter planks of the sluice at the appropri ate time.aken to see that the water .y high and low tide throughout the fishing season. mainly dUE> t 'o developments that have taken place in the countries to which this product was traditionally exported.e. Water from the backwaters . a lamp is hung at the mouth of the sluice.y. The prawns coll. wh~ch are closed when the water inside the field reaches the same level as outside . the water from the field in the daytime . During high tide. and the larger sizes from the paddy fields are now sorted out and channelled to th~ freezers.Gopinath (1956) a nd Panikkar and Menon (1956). the demand for larger prawns has .500 ha of paddy fields are'utilized for this purpose. A few experiments were therefore designed and carried out from 1964 to 1966 to determine whether SOMe sort of oulturing could be introduced into the present practice of prawn f1ltra tion to promote the growth of juvenile prawns 'before trapping. using c~st and drag nets. Nearly 4. ' With the advent of the frozen prawn industry in this region. to regulate the "rlow of wate.has inoreassd. before the field is handed over to the owner for paddy cul tivation fina l fishing i s ca rried out by completely . water is let into the field b. cted a t the ood end of the net are periodically. so that a larger proportion of the catches will be suitable for freezing and panning. then the paddy. water is let out of the field by the same process.shutterplanke at the mouth of the sluice ' regulate the \ flow of water.r into each field. ' 2 THE FISHERY The PNwn fishery is ca rried out from a ll the paddy fields lying adjacent to or having connection with the bac~waterB.ldia. the prawn pulP trade haa decreased. Adjustments of wooden . The sluice gate is a r ectangul ar wooden box-like structure. i. each field is provided with one sluice gate which opens into the backWaters.y hand picking. locally called "chemmeen parippu". fields and the rate of growth of two species of prawns'. Menon (1954). While letting in water at night. ( 1957) made a prelimina rY review of the prawn filtration praotices of Kerala. Generally the highest oatoh i s obtained on this day. 'a nd the water from the field is let out with great force through the net. Normally. as the entire prawn pOPul a~n is fi s hed out~ . Thebunds separating the fields are now . the s hutter pl anks of the siuice are drawn up. The size of fields va ries from less than Y2 ha to more than 10 ha . fields are leased out for prawn filtration. ' A genera.~ 429 - milS . The single orop of rice is harvested in September and O'c tober. has also carried out some preliminary experiments to assess the 'yield from these paddy . 3 or 4 on either s ide of the full moon and new moon..

left after the harvest" decayed and provided a rich supply of oreanic ·detrit u ~ .. maculatus.ydroiogy Surface salinity and temperature of the backwater near the experimental pra wn field Were recorded throughout the period from Februa ry 1964 to May 1966. .. Milne Ed~ard9 . The culture compartment was fished a t the end of the experiment. each having a n inside area 2 2 of 14. ~ (HellerhM-idae (Heller) and Palaemon styliferus -H. s ituated about 4 km north of the town of Ernakulam and within the prawn fishing a rea of . . The bottom o f the field was of soft mud.affinis (H.. While the prawns in the culture compartment were allowed to grow throughout the season. was taken on lease for ' the studies. Ambassis spp_. a re occasionally notlced ~n the ca tches. Fishes like Mugil spp_ . monoceros (Fabricius) (choodan chemmee~M. A few species of pal aemonids such as Macrobrachium. 3 EXPERIMENTS IN CULTURING Field experiments were designed and conducted to s tudy the effects of retai ning prawns in the paddy fields for different periods. Juvenile prawns were let i nto both large compartment s with the tide every day. a nd Penaeus indicus H. and a small compartment of 650 m • The two l arger compartment s were provided with separate wooden sluice gates (438 cm long x 80 cm wide and 215 cm high ) to regulate the flow of water to and from the backwa ter. 3... those in the cont rol compartn:lent were fis hed accor'ding to the local pra ctice. A paddy field of 3. the eastern was used for culture · experiments while the west ern was kept as a control. when the field is completely drained. The generu l depth of water inside the field was about 1 m at high tide and it wa s never a llowed to fall below Y2 m during a ny experiment. fields in the n ei ghbourhood. The field was 9urroWlded by backwaters on all sides. The stlUnps of t"he ric e plants. Extra bunds were provided to divide the field into two l a rge compartments . M.-a nd Panchax sp. Milne Edwards -(naaran chemmeen). Milne Edwards) (kazhanthan chemmeen) .2 !J. the depth of which ranged from 20 to 50 em.experimental field with tha t of other prawn . but never In an commercial quantitites.sm:. deeper channels ran across the field from the s luices . Etroplus Baratensis.400 m .16 ha . E. These features were . Muraen. rfhe . In all these experiments regul a r samples of prawns were taken from both compartments for recording their composition and size . but are caught only on the fi nal day . The portunid crab Scylla serr a ta (Forska l) occurs in the fi elds in considera ble numh~rs and ocoasionally causes damage to the bunds of the fields by burrowing into the mud. Experiment II (Janua ry to May 1965) was similar to the first experiment except t h"t the culture compa rtment ~as fished at intervals of one month. samples were obt ~ ined with a cast net haVi ng the Bame mesh-size as tha t of the sluice net.sQi cinereus ... and ai they comprise Meta penaeus dobsoni (Miers) (thelly chemmeen). also occur in the pra wn fields.. the locality . Of these two compartment s .re yields from the two large compartments when fished according to local prac tice. 1 Design of experiments Experiment I (February to May 1964) was to determine the growth a nd mortality res ult ing from culturing prawns for the entire period of the fishery and to compare the yield wit h the existing practice of tra pping the smal l prawns. Ophichthys spp . a nd t o comp .430 - The pra wns caught from the fields are m nly penaeids in their juvenile stages. 3 . Experiment III (December to May 1966) was des igned to comp" r e the productivity of t he .ill compiJrtment was used for m rking experiments us ing biologica l s tains and could· be connected to the a culture compa rtment through a small box sluice . Pl a~~~alus sp . When the experiment did not pe nnit use of the sluice net in the culture compartment. a nd the atyid Caridina gracilirostris De M '.

of the backwater shows wide fluctuations. 2. ' TABLE I . Invari ably the evening temperature was found to be higher than tha t of the morning. the outside backwater. the salinity The water is almost fresh (salinity falling below 1. then the salinity rises to more than 30.E/16 also recorded from inside the field during the periods of the experiments.0 0 /00 by s'arly April and maintains this high level until June. the pattern of which is th e Bame each year. The range of temperature in the backwater was between 22. Culture Compartment Control Compartment Total 1964 1965 1966 155 181 186 854 966 814 1. I Total catches of prawns from the culture and control compartments for three seasons Catch in kg Year. During the experiments.3 Results The deta ils of ca~ches obta ined from the culture and control compartments of the fi e ld are shown in Table I.9 and 33.1 Salinity Tae fluctuations in salinity are shown in Fig. except in January and M ay. The difference in water temperature between the baokwater and the field was highes t at the end of February. I . 3. Balakrishnan (1951) and George and Kartha (1963). 3. 1). 1.0 0/00) during the monso on months of July and Aug ust. at 0900 and 1500. As noticed by George (1958) . and the s a linity was estimated on a lterna te days . t emperature also shows a mln~­ mum in the monsoon months of July and August. 2 . During the expsriments. the mean temperature ins i de the field was found to be slightly lower than that of the surrounding water.153 1. the temper ature was noted twice daily. These were a lso the two months in which the range of temperature in the field was smailest. 3. and increases thereaft er (Fig .660 .I .009 1. The generally lower temperature inside the field may have result ed f~ evaporation..2 Temperature As in the case of salinity. the water inside the field rema ined more saline than that of This was probably due to evapora tion in the confined area.00 C.

.......w ..L 32 ..... 27 r J I" ...... ' ..... ~ 29 . J 28 21 > ... ~ ~ 34 1 wi ~ 32 f t· f A ~ ....or_tU_ 010....L ' ~~ 1 J I ·c 33 _ JANUARY FE8RUARY MARCH APRIL MAY rR. \ .•" -1 "'" (» Leackwater ..."'1""1 ... ~--....... ' \ ~ I T ' ' ( I I I / I If ..._# I I I -... 35 JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL T MAY 34 33 32 31 T T I ". ( .' . .a_.. 1~'..l ...'....... r T -31 : /' : 1 '" « :II 30 T 1 ....." I I /! 1:-..... - ....• Insid_ field / J 30 29 tI .. M A M J J 1'1.... "" .ol_ .f-. ~ror_. I <28 .. ..". ........./..£. 1_ J_) •• _ __ n.... "" ct: ......- __ ..1 A ....."g_ 1M..~ . : y ..'lM .c.."'" n. MoUld.~ 5 '0 N 0 J ~ ~ F M M J J A· SON 0 "•• _ rt"... .... __ .. " J "~~' f. : I I ....r1'" _~tw_tl&l. ~ ::1 ~ ~ 251 J- ~ 1 0.. .-_.l_ .I I r "....... (hU) ._ . _i. .. 26 -25 Z ...... .

...1e lr.80 Cultur. nh·o l o_pu-I .uil"_ or ~ ~ l!2b:2J:Il... rMV II 17 25 Feb 3 12 17 . 80 . ." • .. r Apr • 80 1 710 I I Ii .-rr ~ .. .. r 26 10 Apr 15 2429" 11 13 .n 11>0 Ol&!hq" .. 1921 1966 I I I...... ay Loonci lo-rr~ .. ar "... r 21 57 1921 Apr 3 . 12 Ii Ii • I I I 1 1 56 1920 6 9 20 23 • 6 20 23 • i 20 1 Ii II Feb ..... :40H . 60 to j rr rr... r I . ay 80 60 60 40 40 1964 11 5 "2 18 . .... 17 25 F ...... Field tot "dobsoni 80 Control Field 60 60 40 40 20. ....... I i 2123 467 Jan 7 .. 2 . a r 25 4 2 Ii iJ .b rr 'I 40 l' 'r Feb 'r' '1r ... E E . 5 Jan I . 3 }~ 1965 "i I i 1 1618 Apr .. 1964 . ni_.~ .... y z 60 r . . 1. y ~------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~--------______~I ~ '1/:. ....0 Feb ....

.6 F •• • 15 Mar 31 1 ~ 16 19 .". 1115 ..£I£!!D...3 May 1964 Feb L..... '" ..."..ld ~ 0> 70 50 30 '9" A.t:\b-17~ .r 70 50~ I r . 1964 ~o 1966 • .. 30 ' .. uJ.. n~ d1Ul"b<oUon or ~ tiJIII..6 May • 3 • ..Mm 90 Cu ltur e Fie... 1M U.... . 2l/l 70 1 I ~ Apr May " • l.. ar Apr 'ie. ~ . i' I 2 6 ~ .. y 50 30 I " • " " • • • • 25 I I~ 1'7 Mar 26 12 • 10 15 Apr • 2l 29 1 • ... J r • .. oon\rol C_PAJ'".I d Control Fi.2 .. . t.. ..

the first experiment. 23 49 42 61 Y " Y 39·5 61. during the initia l stages of the experiment.~ 7.9 " 48 Y y Result of commercial operations in a . The firs~ year' s experiment no doubt reduced the overall prawn catch from the field but in the subsequent two yea rs the yield realized w s a the adjacent fields. The distribution of length-frequency of the different species of prawns obtained from culture and oontrol compartments is shown in Figs. Cast net samples showed tha t. as the pnysical conditions affecting the two compartments remained identical and the chances of entry of young prawns were the same. Menon (1954) obtained a maximum of 9.· crowding.field situated 1 !an west of experimental field Result of commeroial operations in a field B. when the prawns were allowed to grow inside this compartment for four months before "fishing_ Thts was a Burprise. '\. 2 to ~his 5).532 24. The productivity of the whole field in relation to some of the field s in the neighbourhood. as similar prooedures fire followed for letting water into both compa rtments. Comparison of catches of other fields Field Year Area (ha) No.. The yield from the compa rtm. probably brought about byover.rked than in In the third experiment in which there was no attempt to culture prawns in either compa rtment. nt which had previously\ been used for cuI turing was the same as in the e previous experiment (Table I). The pa tterns of size-distribution of the prawns caught from the two compartments in this experiment were identical. as was expected (Figs.009 1. about 10 km north of the present field.6 11. when fishing in the culture compartment was carried out at monthly intervals.' distribution of prawns from the culture and control compa rtments were less m. large number of prawns were present in the culture compartment. The catches from the control compartment were uniformly better in a ll three years. I t field had no inherent defect that would influence the res ults of TABLE II rather better than that of prawns per day per ha from is therefore clea r that the the experiments.i tuated 6 !an northeast of experimenta l field • .435 - The catch from the culture compartment was extrem~ly poor in the first experiment.0 9·9 " " Neighbouring field " " 5·56 3.sluice gates of the compartments opened. a higher return was again obtained from the control compa rtment..0 35. The differences in the pattern of size . could probably be attributed to the topography of the field and the nature and depth of the backwater into which the . of days fished Tota l c atch (kg) Catch per day (kg) Catch per day per ha (kg) Experimental 1964 1965 1966 1965 -66 3. 2 to 5. The rather insignificant catch obtained from the culture field at the end of the experiment . could only be due to mortality..3 12·5 11. In the second experiment. and the success or failure of the operations of these three years.753 1.746 1.660 3.62 kg a field a t Narakkal.4 31. the catches were much better.16 field 42 1. may be judged from Table II.

c ontrol compart menta.436 - 80 60 40 ·1 E E z 'I :I: Culture Field 20 5 Jan 22 5 I I Fe b 20 79 Mor 22 6 Apr 21 .tion ot Jlet.. I .--'-'------~~ 710 22 46 1921 8 22 1966 6 21 .he c u."ribu. I '" 80 z UJ -' 60 40 F i eld 20 ~-r~---r--~Tr----rr-'--~----~-'r-r-----.WDOI oU..penaeua :!!l1!:1!! 1n '!. 1966.hure and. 4 Length-t'reQ.5 Jon Fe b M 0 r Ap r M oy Fig.I.E/tS ..

.. il1 di cu s Co ntrol Fie ld 12 5 E E z % ~ E 35 .... --.b .. ' _nh. ReJ· . u. 1'&5 2 6 Mar 15 21 31' 4 16 19 .. J5 I L ~OO ~ ~ 'It:.... e and "".....!!' ~ Apr __________________________________________________________________________________________________ "a r .. n n~ c.... I"... 1%( \0 196' • ..Ul!l."an ot hIlItlI! 1!l!l. no! eoer .C ullur~ Fi e ld f' . ~ lA"'u..l '" '" z w J5 1618 ~ '2 5 ' 25 .. pr 29' 3 1618 "'Y .·fr ..~ 95 65 65 35 I ~ .

= c N . o -l . 0 N ++ + 3 I~ ·4 = o o g . .! o • o o=====~:d v • o + + + + + + + + + -+ + + + + + + -+ + + +++++ + -+ + + -+ + + + + + + -+ + + + + + -+ + + + + -+ + + + + + + + + + + + -+ + + + + + + + + -+ + + + + + + + + + + + + • o • o o + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++++++ + + -+ + + + + + + + + -+ + -+ + + + + + + + + + + • · .. ~ ~ i J Y 1 d .. o o o ~ • ~~~~~+ ~+~+~~LL ~ o ..'t'0 11 . N . o ~ + + + ~ .. N o 3~NVH ..TCH IN Kg 0 g o ~ o ~ -~ c -~ ~ .0 z ~ • • • • E E c c '" o o • o + + + + + + + + + o • + + + + + + • o • o ~H + + + + + : : : + + + + ·~ I + + + + + + + -+ + + + + + + + + -+ -+ -+ + -+ + '" w +++ • • o ~~~~~~+~+~+~~1Cl iI mo I! ~ + + -+ + -+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + -+ = '" ~~~~~~~~r-T> + + + -+ -+ + • o + + + -+ + + + -+ -+ + + + + > • o .438 E/18 CA.

culturing for periods of about Qne month. The obvious phySical char acteristic of this ph~ se of ~he moon is the amount of light. and the role of this as a factor influencing the behaviour of prawns has been dis- . no significant correlation is evident. In both 1964 and a the years in whioh culturing took pl ace . hand picking. Suoh a suggestion . 5 FACTORS AFF&:TING CATCHES That the phases of the moon m ay exert considerable influence over f ishing conditions in respeot of many a fisher.riod is obs erved to yield such low c atches as to render it unremunera tive to c arry out fishing operations. is likely t o bring in bett e r catches containing larger prawns. It is well known tha t the phases of moon influence the height of the tide. Menon and Raman (1961) observed higher catches at new and full moon and a couple of following each. indicuG each averaged about 20 percent of the catch. however. is given. On ~be other hand. the hardiest of the four species of prawns. chemica l or biologic ~ l conditions that are ay pr!!'talent in the culture field towards the latter half of the sea. ':.y is . but showed considerable va riation within each set of experiments and from year to year • •• afrinis w s represented in the catches by only ver. M monoceros w s scarce in the culture . with the corresponding catches in Fig. Racek. but did not notice any varia tion in c atches between the darker and brighter phases of the moon in the stake net fishery of Cochin ~~ckwaters. .y small numbers. etc. accounting for more than 50 percent of the c atch in most samples. 6. Consequently this fishery is active during the spring tide period only. Of the four species o·f penaeids represented. as shown in Fig . 6.well known (Hheeler.oounted by Racek (1959) . prawn field. dobsoni ~ by f ar the most important. M. This pattern i s clea rly repeated each year and is equally apparent in the overall catches of prawns as well as in the occurrence of all the constituent species.4 CO~WOSITION AND FLUCTUATION OF CATCHES The percentage oomposition ~f oatches f rom control and culture compartments at fortnightly interva ls is shown in Fig.fhen the day to day fluctua tions of c atches are examined in rel a tion to salinity and temperature . Catches from the culture compartment are not considered"since it was not fished throughout the seas" n.y experiments. Subramanyam (1965) recorded rela tively better catches o'f prawns during the darker fortnights in the stake net fishery of the Goqavari estuarine system on the east c~ast ' of India . The prawn filtration practice under study is mainly dependent on tidal flow. a ·~ompartment in the second half of each experiment a lthough it was plentiful in the control ooapartment. conf licts with the general impre ss ion th~"t this i s . This is particul arty so' in the paddy field prawn fishery of~e~l a . From this it appears that the higher catches noticed in each brighter fortnight were really brought about qy the increased tidal gradient and the resultant increased r a te of flow from the. Rounsefell and Everhart.tionship between the yield and the faotor responsible for increased tida l flow ' is to be expected. The average tida l gradient for each of the periods of fishing. 1937.439 - E/18 A perusal of these results indica tes that culturing of prawns for long periods in paddy fields -genera lly doe s not result in an increas e in the weight of ~he c atches. do not seem to be in agreement with this record. Jayaraman et aI. indica tes that the ca tches are invariably higher at the spring tide a ssociated with full moon than those at the corresponding tide of the new moon period. therefore s ome relo. adversely. as a result of labora tor. however. 1959) . The present observations.son a ffect this spec ie s 1965. where the neap tide pp.. M.. Catches obta ined f rom the control compa rtment during the present work are of interest in this context. as in a ll the "three seasons a compara tively better yield of prawns was realized during the brighter phase of the moon. pletely fished out d~B The effect is l ess apparent in the last catch of each season. monoceros and P . as in experiment II. 1953. o t The trend of yield in relation to lunar phases. 1959. . but this is not strictly comparable with the other c atches as the fiel d is com- qy cast netting. 6 . It m be that cert ~ in physical.

·------11'1 coming .-/ \....' i • " 10 0 0 0 / \c. 20 10 25 35 45 l 55 65 75 85 N 95 mm 105 115 125 135 E N G T H .--.O u t going 40 30 20 0 !. ~.obsoni u UJ '" 40 30 20 10 IL / -: \ f .\ ~. I \ .. t• \ \ ...- . --.. / \\ I . .. \ \. ~ -.mQnoceros 30 w 20 10 z UJ SO ~ . ~ .440 E/18 '..

Gulf Ca ribb.J: Job. The modal sizes of the incoming and -outgoing prawns were widely separated for each of the four speoies. bioi. mar. (C}. India. ' Observation on the trawl fisheries of the Bombay and Saurashtra 1 9 5~ waters. et al.. The majority of the recruits brought into the field by the inooming tide therefore..Kerala.Inst. ' These fisher. Colleotions of 15 min duration were obtained using the same sluice net when the tide was flowing into the field and a few hours l a ter when it was flowing out.y. L. indicus the modal sizes are separated by 20 Mm.J. Shrimp culture in Asia and . ' 10 Proc..y some experiments were conduoted to find out whether these prawns are passively transported in and out of the field by the flow of tide or whether they remain inside the field for any length of time. It is quite possible that the incoming prawns get buried in the mud and settle down in the new habitat for some time.Fish.. March and April. Observations on the plankton of the Cochin backwaters. Fish. Therefore it would follow that these padd.y field December. Indian J.B/18 6 RECRUITMENT 'ill THE FISHERY A perusal of the size frequenoy polygons shows that the the oase of all the speoies is more or less oontinuous. The average size distribUtion of the prawns obtained during these operat'ions is shown in Fig. Inst. se'ek shel teJ. On the breeding of penaeids and the recruitment of their postlarvae into the backwaters of Cochin. The fishery is generally described as a mere prooess of trapping juvenile penaeius allowed into the padd. 1937.Fish . 1959. .N..y fields along with . 6(1):58-144 v Kesteven C. 1957 Res.Univ. 1957) In this oontext Kesteven and Job state " •••• during the interval of a few hours or days that the trapped shrimps remain in the fields they utilize the food organisms within the field and those brought by the tidal water". R. Gopina th. 5(2):]-9 George.' before the flow of tide reverses. 9(1). Indian J. 5(2)'178~4 ~ ________~. and in the 'o ase of P..ak spawning in November and reoruitment to the fisher. Such size differenoes probably represent 5 or 6 weeks growth. It is sUggested that the incoming small prawns. J. and K. Menon. K. Prawn culture in the rice fields of Travancore-Cochin. 6(3):419-24 J ayaraman.y review. Surface salinity of Cochin backwaters with reference to 1963 tide..y probably come from the pe. M. 7 REFERENCES Bull. 15 mm.the tide and captured at the favourable low tide..y fields are not merely a part of the trapping mechanism but that they also provide an active and suitable biological environment for the life and growth of these prawns. Balakrishnan. During the present stud..the Far East. (Panikkar. India .. 10:49-68 1957 a preliminar. A. with prominent in the months of Februar.K.F1sh.Indo- ~ Gopinath.Coun. 1954. Ass.Fish. 1949-50 to 1954-55.Cent. 1958 5(2):375-401 Indian J . Indian J.. Nair.Fish. Kesteven and Job. In all the Metapenaeus speoies this disparity in the moda l sizes of the incoming ' and outgoing prawns is . Variation of salinity and temperature in Ernakulam Channel. and T. Proc.110-6 ____~~~_ and K. It would therefore appear that the prawns remain in the field only for a very short period. • 1956 PacH. 7. Raman and P.y in the smaller size-groups most reoruits to the padd.K. Observations on the offshore prawn fishery of (in "ress) ' Oochin. Kartha. do not seem to m ove' out during the subsequent outgoing tide.

.. .442 - . . Menon. 5(2)1131-5 experi.K.F.Coun. Everhart..Fish. and W.. Indian J . Panikkar..Bombal nat.Indo-Paoif. J. G. 39(2. R Observations ·on 'the prawn fishery of the Coohin baokwaters with special reference to · the stake net oatohell..Soc. K.. 6:1-57 Rounssfell. M. Res. Prawn industry of the Malabar ooast. 1937 343-53 ____~~~~ and M.H. A. John Wiley and 5ons.. -Menon.S. S.Bull. Proc. M. 2(1):26-33 . Fishery Teohnol. • • • • • * Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Dr. Ernakulam.A. 1959 Prawn investigations in eastern Australia.K. 1937 40(272)1325-45 . 444 p.Fish.Indo-Paoif..).St.lf. 1954 1961 On the paddy field prawn fishery of Travanoore-Cochin and an in prawn culture. . Lunar. and K.)1 Proc.M. J.K.Fish. Wheeler. Fishery sOience. 1956 6(3):328-44 Racek. 8(1) I 1-23 J. .W. Prawn fisheries of India.A. R. its methods and applioation •• 1953 New York.Fish.... diurnal and tidsl periodicity in relation to the prawn abundanoe 1965 and miRration in the Godavari estuarine systems.en~ aman. Further observations on lunar periodicity.Linn./ Menon.a. Jones for the interest shown during the progress of this work and to Dr.Hist.(Zool. If.Soo. Raghu Prasad for his comments on the manusoript..Coun. Subramanyam.