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HEAT ECONOMY IN TEXTILE MILLS

S.A Tarabadkar and H.M. Sharma

Heat generated through the combustion of fuel is utilised to generate steam from water in a boiler
and to heat thermic fluid in a thermic fluid heater. Heat of the steam and the thermic fluid is
utilised in various textile processors.

Ever escalating fuel cost has increased the cost of heat energy to a considerable extent, which is
one of the important factors contributing to the higher processing cost, and hence the production
cost of textile. Higher production cost thin profit margins; tough global competition collectively
have posed a serious problem for survival of Textile Industry. Therefore, every possible step has to
be taken to lower the production cost. Heat economy i.e. conservation of thermal energy is a
major option in this regard.

Heat economy is nothing but efficient generation and utilisation of heat energy. Scope for heat
economy i.e. conservation of thermal energy exists during generation and utilisation of thermal
energy, recovery of waste heat, etc. Some general suggestions for heat economy have been
given in the following:

1. STEAM GENERATION IN BOILER HOUSE

1. Monitor the Combustion Efficiency and other related combustion parameters like O2, stack
temp. etc. of the boilers on regular basis and take corrective actions immediately to attain the
optimum efficiency.

2. Load the boilers to 80-85% of their rated capacity, for optimum performance.

3. Avoid frequent start-stop of the boilers.

4. Avoid banking losses of a boiler; operate only the requisite numbers of boilers as per the
demand for steam.

5. Limit the boiler steam pressure to the requirement of the machines, giving due allowance for
the pressure drop in the steam distribution system.

6. Adjust boiler blowdown keeping in view the TDS levels prescribed for different types of
boilers.

II. UTILISATION OF STEAM

1. Provide/set right pressure reducing valves in the steam supply lines of machines in order
to obtain steam at the required lower pressure.

2. Provide non-return valves after the traps to avoid back pressure from the closed
condensate system.

3. Provide traps of proper type and size and install them properly to ensure complete
condensate removal.

4. Plug leakages of steam from cylinder head joints, flanged joints, valve spindles, etc,.

5. Provide adequate lagging for the hot bare surfaces in steam lines, cylinder ends and
machine surface, etc.
6. Provide temperature control valves for jiggers, soapers, etc. to avoid wasteful
consumption of steam.

7. Check the working of control valves installed at stenters, printing machine dryers, etc. for
optimum use of thermal energy.

8. Plug the air leakages from the chamber doors of hot air stenters etc. to avoid wastage of
thermal energy.

9. Improve squeezing of fabrics through the mangles to reduce the thermal energy
consumption for dryers, stenters, etc.

10. Modify processing sequences so as to eliminate some of the hot wash/drying operations.

III. HEATING OF THERMIC FLUID

1. Follow the points given for improvement of the efficiency of boilers.


2. Restrict the heating of thermic fluid to the requirement of process/machine.

IV. RECOVERY OF WASTSE HEAT

1. Collect condensate from all indirectly heated machines.

2. Instal flash steam recovery system to generate low pressure steam from the high
pressure, steam condensate.

3. Instal heat recovery system for recovering the thermal energy from effluent of jet dyeing
and other dyeing machines, etc.

4. Instal waste heat boiler/Heat Recovery Unit (HRU) for the generation of hot water/steam
by extracting heat from the hot flue gasses of thermic fluid heaters and D.G. sets.

5. Modify the Caustic Recovery Plant by providing additional effect.


CASE STUDY – 1

General Background

This is a process house unit situated in Mumbai. It is engaged in processing P/V suiting/shirting
and cotton bed sheets. The unit’s processing capacity is 2.5 lakh metres per day.

Fuel used in boiler & thermic fluid heater : Furnace Oil and L.S.H.S
The average fuel oil consumption : 48 KL/day

Thermal Energy Audit Recommendations Implemented by the Unit

♦ Installation of automatic blowdown control system at boilers; about 50% blowdown quantum
reduced.

♦ Repair of pressure reducing valves in 14 steam supply lines.

♦ Attending malfunctioning steam traps (32 Nos.)

♦ Closing trap by-pass line valves (13 Nos.)

♦ Providing individual trapping system instead of group trapping system at 3 drying range
machines.

♦ Replacing/repairing punctured/leaking condensate lines in Finishing section.

♦ Installation of heat recovery system from hot effluents available from initial washes in Open
Width Bleaching Range.

♦ Installation of automatic control valves in the drying range machines

♦ Plugging steam leakages (75 Nos.).

♦ Lagging of cylinder ends of all the drying range machines.

♦ Lagging of steam/condensate/thermic fluid lines.

♦ Thorough cleaning and tuning of Thermopac No.1, its thermal efficiency improved from 75 to
79%.

Fuel Saving : 380 KL (Rs.40 lakhs)/Annum.

Fuel saving as % of consumption : 3%


CASE STUDY – 2

General Background

This is a process house unit situated in Navi Mumbai. It is engaged in processing of knitted and
woven fabric. The unit’s processing capacity is 50,000 m/day.

Fuel used in boiler & thermic fluid heater : Furnace Oil


The average fuel oil consumption : 14 .50 KL

Thermal Energy Audit Recommendations Implemented by the Unit

♦ Tuning of the boiler for reducing excess air and thorough cleaning of its heat transfer
surfaces: thermal efficiency improvement from 82.5 to 84.0%
♦ Incorporating automatic blowdown control system at boiler; 40% blowdown quantum reduced.
♦ Repair of pressure reducing valves installed in three main steam supply lines.
♦ Attending malfunctioning steam traps (15 Nos.)
♦ Closing trap by-pass line valves ( 23 Nos.)
♦ Providing individual trapping system instead of group trapping for drying range machines.
♦ Recovery of condensate from 9 dyeing machines, 2 drying range and 1 zero-zero machine
and using it as boiler feed water.
♦ Plugging steam leakages (53 Nos.).
♦ Lagging of cylinder ends of both the drying range machine.
♦ Lagging of hot bare surfaces in thermic fluid heating system.
♦ Overhauling of TPA-10 Thermic fluid heater; its thermal efficiency improved from 73 to 79%.

Fuel Saving : 350 KL (Rs.39 lakhs)/Annum.

Fuel Saving as % of consumption : 7.8%

CASE STUDY – 3

General Background

This is a process house unit situation in Surat, Gujarat. It is engaged in processing P/V shirting.
The unit’s processing capacity is 60,000 metres per day.

Fuel used in boiler & thermic fluid heater : Coal


The average fuel consumption : 8.0 MT

Thermal Energy Audit Recommendations Implemented by the Unit

♦ Proper tuning of the thermic fluid heater for reducing excess air; thermal efficiency improved
from 55% to 65%.
♦ Lagging of hot bare valves in thermic fluid heating system (66 Nos.)
♦ Plugging steam leakages (6 Nos.).

Fuel Saving : 400 MT(Rs.11.6 lakh)/Annum.


Fuel saving as % of consumption : 16.50%
CASE STUDY – 4

General Background

This is a process house unit situated at Pali, Marwar, Rajasthan. It is engaged in processing of
spun x spun sari. It’s processing capacity is 40,000 metres per day.

Fuel used in boiler & thermic fluid heater : Lignite

The average fuel consumption : 18.5 M.T.

Thermal Energy Audit Recommendations Implemented by the Unit

♦ Adjusting of air dampers in the thermic fluid heater; its thermal efficiency improved on the
spot from 52% to 58%.
♦ Lagging of hot bare valves in thermic fluid heating system (89 Nos.)
♦ Plugging steam leakages (4 Nos.).
♦ Shutting trap by- pass valves (3 Nos.)
♦ Attending malfunctioning traps(3 Nos.).
♦ Attending punctured main condensate line

Fuel Saving : 470 MT (Rs.6.8 lakh)/ Annum.


Fuel saving as % of consumption : 8.50%
CASE STUDY – 5

General Background

This is a small process house unit situated in Mumbai, engaged in dyeing and printing of cotton
and synthetic fabrics. Its processing capacity is 20,000 metres per day.

Fuel used in boiler & thermic fluid heater : Furnace Oil


The average fuel oil consumption : 4 KL

The process house is operating one IAEC make, package type, 4T/hr boiler. The boiler is having
AR-25 type burner block.

Observation

During tuning of the boiler, it was found that percentage of oxygen in flue gasses was not coming
below 9 even after optimum setting of dampers, oil pressure and temperature, etc., thus lowering
the thermal efficiency of the boiler (ideally oxygen should be 2-3%).

The flame-tube of the boiler when taken out was found to have shortened in length by 185 mm
due to burning. A considerable amount of combustion air passed out through the boiler without
taking part in combustion, thus raising the excess air percentage. Moreover, the air fuel mixing
was not proper due to deshaped burnt flame tube, affecting the performance of the boiler
adversely.

It was reported by the processing unit, that the burnt flame tube of the boiler was in use in the
same deteriorated condition for a considerable period of time.

Action Recommended by BTRA

Replace the burnt flame – tube with a new one.

Fuel Saving : 58.0 KL (Rs.6.96 lakh)/Annum

Fuel saving as % of consumption : 4.80%

CONCLUSION

A serious thought and a sincere approach to heat economy is surely going to benefit the
industry by lowering the fuel bills and hence add to the profitability of the industry by reducing the
cost of end product. BTRA’s efforts in Heat Economy Studies have yielded rich benefits to the
mills participating in the Energy Audit Programmes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to Dr. A.N. Desai, Director, BTRA for his kind permission and
valuable suggestions for this presentation.

Reference book:
BTRA & FAITMA Seminar on Conservation of Utilities in Indian Textile Industry
November 26, 2002