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Appendix B - Some grafting methods

INGEGERD DORMILING

INGEGERD DORMLING is Assistant in the Department of Forest Genetics, Royal
College of Forestry, Stockholm. See also Appendix C.

Time of grafting

In Sweden conifers are grafted in the greenhouse in February and March or in the open in
spring or early summer. The rootstocks used are 3 to 4 years old (2 + 1 or 2 + 2
transplants). Those used for greenhouse grafting are potted up in the spring or summer
before grafting and brought into the greenhouse during early January. The best time for
grafting has proved to be when the buds of the rootstocks begin to burst. Completely
dormant shoots from last year's growth are used as scions. Trees in the north of Sweden
often have annual shoots which are too short and thin, and must be grafted with 2- to 3-
year-old wood. Deciduous trees may be grafted in the greenhouse in March or April or in
the open in April. In both cases the sap flow of the scion must not have begun.

It is often necessary to store the scions for some time, particularly for outdoor grafting,
when the scions are collected in dormancy during the winter. Storage in perforated plastic
bags at a temperature of around 32°F (0°C) has been satisfactory. Lower temperatures
can also be used if the scions are taken in cold weather. It is, however, not advisable to
collect scion-wood when the temperature is below 23°F (-5°C).

Grafting methods

The grafting methods most used in Sweden are shown in Figure 28A, B and C. The
veneer side graft is the most satisfactory method for conifers, especially for Norway
spruce (Picea abies). The scion should be 5 to 8 centimeters (2 to 3 inches) long. All
needles are removed from the lower part and the scion is prepared by two cuts, one 3 to
4.5 centimeters (1.2 to 1.7 inches) long and a short cut on the opposite side to make the
base wedgeshaped. The rootstock is cleaned at the region of grafting and a slice or veneer
of bark, including a trace of wood, is removed by a slicing cut. At the base a flap is
formed by cutting off the veneer with a downward cut. The cuts on rootstock and scion
must correspond so that the cambial regions can be accurately fitted together.

The side-slit graft is mainly used for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) when large rootstocks
must be grafted with thin scions. The scion receives two equal cuts 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2
to 1.5 inches) long to form a wedge. The incision on the rootstock is made tangentially to
the cambium, the bark is lifted and the scion inserted so that the cambial regions fit at the
incision face.

The whip-and-tongue graft is especially used for deciduous trees but has also been
applied with some success to Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua). The latter

species may be grafted by any of the methods described here. Three grafting methods. a slanting cut of corresponding length is made in the rootstock and an upward-pointing tongue is made to match that of the scion. If this is not done the scion produces a large leaf mass before the graft union is made and will die owing to drying out. The cut on the rootstock differs according to the size of rootstock and scion. and that there is cambial contact at the apical part of the stock. The top buds are always removed from the scions. Veneer side graft Side slit graft . On a rootstock considerably larger than the scion the cut must be comparatively shallow. If they are of equal diameter. and in the case of Fagus sylvatica all other buds are reduced to about one third of their length. It is important that the basal cambium of the cut scion is matched with the lower exposed part of the stock cambium. The basal end of the scion is fashioned by a slanting cut of a length about 6 times the thickness of the scion. A downward-pointing tongue is made in the slanting surface.

Whip-and-tongue graft .

This must be done with great care and not too quickly. the rootstocks have been cut back entirely in the first summer with good results. the rootstocks are gradually cut back.The grafts are tied with plastic tape or raffia and sealed with wax. grafting carried out according to one of the usual methods but on unpotted seedlings (2 years old) which are transplanted into cold frames immediately after the operation. Brunsberg and Bogesund in northern and central Sweden it has proved necessary for good results. grafts done at Ekebo. For some coniferous species (especially Larix) so-called hand grafting has been proved successful .that is. Other grafting methods Many other grafting techniques may be used successfully. When a union has formed. . No waxing of conifer grafts is done in southern Sweden (Ekebo) but at Sundmo. otherwise it has been advisable to wait until the following summer. In Finland and the United States summer grafting with semi-succulent material has been used for conifers and the scion wood is collected immediately before grafting. On Scots pine and European larch.

Dep. forest. this method is called the veneer crown or top veneer graft.. D. In Denmark the method is used for Pseudotsuga taxifolia. 11. 1959. franç. C. 1946. Forest Res. Rev. such as Larix and possibly Pinus.. LESKINEN. Note 48. GARNER. 51 (2): 23. 260 p. Northern Affairs Nat. 1962. Ympningsmetoder för tall och gran [Grafting methods for Scots pine and Norway spruce]. Stockh. Eripainos Metsätaloudellisesta Aihakauslehdestä. 1956.. Polyethylene bags covering individual grafts have been successfully used in Canada and the United States. Om bärrträdsforädling och bärrträdsympning [On the breeding and grafting of conifers]. No universal generalization can be made about the best time for grafting. Note sur les procédés de greffage du pin maritime. Forestry Branch. Phenology of rootstocks and grafts in a timing experiment with autumn and winter grafting of Norway and white spruce. Statens Skogsforskninginst. P. Medd.. 49: 556-563. 133: 256-259. L. NAESS-SCHMIDT. 26: 315-324. Jagdz. U. 1961. . are helpful as protection for the grafts. DORMLING. as used in Finland. 1962. In grafting outdoors. R. 1959. M. 17 p. FOWLER. Kokemuksia männyn vartamisesta Suomessa [Experiences in the grafting of pine in Finland]. Zur Frage günstiger Pfropftermine bei Holzpflanzen-Pfropfungen. Det Forst. For. The grafters' handbook. B. A summer field grafting technique for pine. Svensk Papperstid. London. J. Forst. H. I. It varies with climate. J. Div. KEILLANDER. Some information can be obtained from the literature cited below. Podehöjdens inflydelse på podekvistens vaekstrytme og form [The influence of the grafting height on the development of the scion]. Allgem. 1960. 35: 30- 35. K. J. 1960. 13: 152-160. Can. References BRAUN.Top grafting on comparatively large coniferous trees planted in seed orchards is sometimes recommended but is advisable only for species easy to graft. movable polyethylene greenhouses. & SØEGAARD. GUINAUDEAU. J. Resources. grafting method and species. Tech.. Chron. 586-593. HOLST. Forsøgsvaesen i Danmark. 6 p. Some top grafting on potted rootstocks of Picea abies in the greenhouse has been done in Sweden with good results. The grafting technique comprises decapitation of the roostock and cuts on stock and scion similar to those of veneer side grafting.

C. 35: 192-202. 53: 836-842. ORR-EWING. For. 27: 246-250. Grafting methods for the Douglas fir. Rept.. For. Ein Beitrag zu ihrer Anlage.. L. C. D. 1955. Sta. O. F. W. Sta. Forest. Chron. SCHRÖCK.. Southeast. 22 p. WEBB. J. Tech. F. Expt. & ROSSOL.. D. Züchter. Grafting slash pine in the field and in the greenhouse.MERGEN. 1959. Paper 46. F. K. 1957. O.. KOOTZ. How to root and graft slash pine. & PRIDEAUX. 10. Sommerpfropfung im Freiland für die Anlage von Samenplantagen. Asheville. Carolina State Coll. Raleigh. 79 p. A. . Field grafting Loblolly pine. SCHRÖCK. N. 1961. School Forestry. & HOFFMANN. & HOFFMANN. 33 p. Forstliche Samenplantagen. 1954. Berlin. 1954. MERGEN. K. E.