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PRESENT SIMPLE

·AFIRMATIVE
I /you go
He/She/it goes (3a persona)
We/You/They go
·NEGATIVE
I /you don’t go
He/She/it doesn’t go (3a persona)
We/You/They don’t go
·INTERROGATIVE (DO/DOES + SUBJECTE + VERB)
Do I/you go?
Does he/she/it go? (3a persona)
Do we/they/you go?

USOS

*Accions habituals o rutines


- Janet often (devant del verb) goes to the library
*Horaris
The train leaves at 5:30 pm

SATIVE VERBS

dislike,hate,hope,like,love,prefer,want,belive,forget,know,remember,think,understand,feel,hear,see,smell,taste,touc
h,cost,weigh,belong,have,own PRESENT SIMPLE

EX: Donna thinks the book is wonderful ( La Donna pensa que el llibre es meravellós )
He is thinking about going to Ireland this summer (Està pensant a anar a Irlanda aquest estiu )

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

·AFIRMATIVE
I am going Is/am/are + V + ing
You are going
He/She/it is going
We/You/They are going
·NEGATIVE I’m not
I ‘m not going Aren’t
You aren’t going Isn’t + V + ing
He/She/it isn’t going (3a persona) Aren’t
We/You/They aren’t going
·INTERROGATIVE (DO/DOES + SUBJECTE + VERB)
Am
Am I going?
Are
Are you going?
Is +S + V + ing
Is/he/she/it going?
Are
Are we/you/they going?

USOS

*Coses temporals
*Plans

PAST SIMPLE (Acció acabada en el passat *ed)

Affirmative
I/You finished
He/she/it finished
We/you/they finished
I finished lunch late yesterday .
Negative
I/You didn’t finish
-yesterday,last year,two days
He/she/it didn’t finish
ago,in 2004,when,then-
We/you/they didn’t finish

Interogative
Did I/You finish?
Did He/she/it finish?
Did We/you/they finish?

PAST CONTIUOUS (Allò que estava tenint lloc en el passat en un moment concret *ing)

Affirmative
I/ was writing
You were writing
He/she/it was writing
We/you/they were writing
At 10 o’clock last night, I was
Negative
writing an e-mail to my friend
I/ wasn’t writing
Rose
You weren’t writing
He/she/it wasn’t writing
-last night-week-year,at nine
We/you/they weren’t writing
o’clock...-
Interogative
Was I writing?
WereYou writing?
Was He/she/it writing?
Were We/you/they writing?

PAST PERFERCT simple (Un acció abans que el past simple [encara més abans] passat de have HAD +
participi [3a columna])

Affirmative
I/You had stopped
He/she/it had stopped
We/you/they had stopped
By the time she arrived he had
Negative
already gone home.
I/You hadn’t stopped
He/she/it hadn’t stopped
-Already,by the time,
We/you/they hadn’t stopped
after,before,until,never,just-

Interogative
Had I/You stopped?
Had He/she/it stopped?
Had We/you/they stopped?

PRESENT PERFECT simple (Accions que van començar al passat i continuen o tenen efecte en el
present,que acaben de passar [just] , for-since, have/has + participi)

Affirmative
I/You have lived
He/she/it has lived
We/you/they have lived

Negative Preguntem quan de temps ha durat una acció : How long


I/You haven’t lived have you lived here?
He/she/it hasn’t lived
We/you/they haven’t lived

Interogative
Have I/You lived?
Have He/she/it lived?
Have We/you/they lived?

FUTURE SIMPLE (Fer prediccions o anunciar fets futurs,parlar d’un horari, expressar una decisió sobtada,
que decidin fer en aquell mateix moment)+

Affirmative
I/You will work
He/she/it will work
We/you/they will work The government won’t allow this type of experiment.
Dr Brown will see his patients at 5:00
Negative There is no meat left,so I will have fish for lunch
I/You won’t work Expressions : this evening,later,next month,soon,at eleven
He/she/it won’t work o’clock,in an hour,tomorrow,in a few weeks,on the 8th of
We/you/they won’t work May, in the future.

Interogative
Will I/You work?
Will He/she/it work?
Will We/you/they work?

BE GOING TO (Expresar intencions, plans i decisions en un futur proper, dir alguna cosa que està a punt de
passar perquè en veiem indicis.TO BE+GOING TO+INFINITIVE)

Affirmative
I am going to work
The newspaper is going to publish the results of the
You are going to work
experiment next week.
He/she/it is going to work
We/you/they are going to work Be careful! The dog is going to bite you.

Negative
I am not going to work
You aren’t going to work
He/she/it isn’t going to work
We/you/they aren’t going to work
Interogative
Am I going to work?
Are you going to work?
Is He/she/it going to work?
Are We/you/they going to work?

FUTURE PERFECT (Indica una acció que ja haurà acabat en un moment concret en el futur WILL HAVE
+ PARTICIPI)
Patients will have finished their treatment in two months.
Affirmative
I /You will have finished
Expressions: by this time next week,by ten o’clock,by the
He/she/it will have finished
end of…,by then,by August,in two months.
We/you/they will have finished
Negative
I /You won’t have finished
He/she/it won’t have finished
We/you/they won’t have finished

Interogative
Will I/you have finished?
Will He/she/it have finished?
Will We/you/they have finished?

FUTURE CONTINUOUS (El que estarà passant en un moment determinat del futur)

Affirmative
I /You will be working
At this time tomorrow, Jack and Brian will be training.
He/she/it will be working
We/you/they will be working
Expressions:at this time tomorrow,at this time next…,on
Negative Thursday,in the next decades.
I /You won’t be working
He/she/it won’t be working
We/you/they won’t be working

Interogative
Will I/you be working?
Will He/she/it be working?
Will We/you/they be working?

FIRST CONDITIONAL (Real condition : If+Present Simple/Future Simple)

• If you come to my party you will enjoy yourself. (Si vens t’ho passaràs bé)

SECOND CONDITIONAL (Hypotetycal : If+Past simple / would + inf)

• If you came to my party you would enjoy yourself. (si vinguessis t’ho passaries bé)

THIRD CONDITIONAL ( Impossible condition : If+Past Perfect / would + have+p.participle)

• If you had come you would have enjoyed yourself. (Si haguessis vingut t’ho hauries passat bé)

PASSIVE ( El temps que correspongui del verb TO BE+ PAST PARTICIPLE)

• The police arrested the thief


+ I buy a book Æ A book is bought by me
• The thief was arrested
+ I bought a book Æ A book was bought by me
+ I will buy a book Æ A book will be bought by me WITHOUT BY
+ I’m buying a book Æ A book is being bought by me

BOTH...AND (TAN/TAN...COM – Fan referencia a dos elements ja esmentats a la frase.)


+ Both my brother and I like travelling very much (Tant al meu germà com a mi ens agrada molt viatjar)

EITHER...OR ( O una cosa o l’altre )


+ You can ask either Tom or Susan to help you. ( Pots demanar a en Tom o a la Susan que t’ajudin)
+Vicky doesn’t want to travel either to Paris or Rome (La Vicky no vol viatjar ni a Paris ni a Roma)

NEITHER...NOR (no...ni/ni...ni)
+ You can neither eat nor drink in the library (No es pot menjar ni beure a la biblioteca)
+ I have got neither a computer nor an MP3 (No tinc ni ordinador ni MP3)
REPORTED SPEECH

S'utilitza per comunicar a algú el que una altra persona ha dit, sense utilitzar les paraules exactes que aquest va
utilitzar.

Reported statements:
Els verbs modals passen a passat en l'estil indirecte.

* Present simple: "I work from 9 to 5". He said that he worked from 9 to 5. ("Treballo de 9 a 5". Ell va dir que
treballava de 9 a 5)
* Present continuous: "I'm doing my homework". He said that he was doing his homework. ("Estic fent els
meus deures". Ell va dir que estava fent els seus deures)
* Present perfect: "We have never been to England". They said they had never been to England. ("Mai hem
estat a Anglaterra". Van dir que mai havien estat a Anglaterra)
* Past Simple: "I saw her at the cinema". He said he had seen her at the cinema. ("La vaig veure al cinema". Ell
va dir que l'havia vist al cinema)
* Can: "I can’t sing". He said that he couldn't sing. ("No puc cantar". Ell va dir que no podia cantar)
* Will: "I will see you tonight". He said that he would see us that night. ("Us veuré aquesta nit". Ell va dir que
ens veuria aquesta nit)

Reported orders:
Per indicar una ordre en estil indirecte, utilitzem la següent estructura: subjecte + verb introductor (say, asked,
Warner, etc.) + Objecte + to + infinitiu.
Exemples:
He said to Jack, "open the door, please". /He told Jack to open the door. (Ell va dir a en Jack, "obre la porta, si us
plau./ Va dir a en Jack obre la porta)
He said to me, "don’t talk". He told me not to talk. (Ell em va dir, "no parlis". Em va dir que no parlés.)

Reportered questions:
Van introduïdes per ask, know and want to wonder.

He said, "what is her name?". He asked what her name was. (Ell va dir, "quin és el seu nom?". Ell va preguntar
quin era el seu nom)
He said, "Can I use your pen?". He asked me if he could use my pen. (Ell va dir, "puc utilitzar el teu boli?". Ell
em va preguntar si podia utilitzar el meu boli.

Repoered suggestions :

When we report suggestions, we use:


Suggest + that + sb should...
Suggest + ing

“Why don’t we go to the cinema?”


“How about going to the cinema?”
“Shall we go to the cinema?”
“Let’s go to the cinema.”

He suggested that we should go to the cinema.


He suggested going to the cinema.