Armored Combat Vehicles

BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle

(fully stowed, no crew) about 35.9 tons (36.500 kg).

Combat weight: Lenght: Widht: Height: Engine: (Gun to front) 29.7 ft (9.02 m); (gun to rear) 21.7 ft (6.57 m). 10ft 9.5in (3.265 m). 7.10 ft (2.380 m). T-54: V-2-54 vee-12 watercooled diesel, 520 hp; T-55: V-2-55 vee-12, 580 hp D-10T, D-10TG or D-10T2S 100mm gun (T-54: 34 rounds, T-55: 43 rounds); 7.62mm SGMT or PKT machine gun (coaxial) with 3000 rounds; T-54 also one 12.7mm DShK with 500 rounds for AA use and one 7.62 SGMT (bow). 30 mph (48 km/h). T-54: 250 miles (400 km); T-55: 310 miles (500 km). Up to 100 mm, mantlet up to 170 mm.

Armament:

Speed: Range: Armour:

The BMP-1 is a fully armored Amphibious Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV). Its lowsilhouetted hull has a sharp, sloping front with a conspicuously ridged surface. A centrally located, extremely flat, truncated cone turret mounts a 73-mm smoothbore gun and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine-gun. A launching rail for an AT-3 SAGGER antitank guided missile attaches above the gun. The 290-hp, water-cooled, 6-cylinder diesel engine is in the right front of the hull. The driver's hatch is at the left front, directly in front of the commander's hatch, which mounts an IR searchlight. The gunner's hatch is on the left side of the low turret roof. On the rear of the turret are four large hatches in the roof of the troop compartment; two large exit doors are also in the rear. There are four firing ports in each side of the troop compartment and one in the left rear door. The suspension has six unevenly spaced stamped road wheels, with three track support rollers and a front drive sprocket. A combination of effective antitank firepower, high mobility,

and adequate protection makes the BMP a formidable improvement over the earlier BTRseries of armored personnel carriers. It's 73-mm main gun fires a rocket-assisted, finstabilized HEAT projectile with an effective range of 800 to 1000 meters. It also has an automatic loader. For longer range antitank capability, the BMP-1 carries the AT-3 SAGGER ATGM, effective to 3000 meters. The BMP is amphibious, propelled through the water by its tracks. It has the range and speed necessary to keep up with the fastmoving tanks it normally follows in offensive formations. The BMP has a three-man crew. This includes the vehicle commander, who becomes the squad leader when the infantry passengers dismount through the rear exit doors. Vision blocks and firing ports in the sides and rear of the troop compartment allow the infantrymen to fire assault rifles (AKM or AK-47) and light machine-guns (PKM or RPK-74) from inside the vehicle on the move. The troops also carry the RPG-7V or RPG-16 antitank grenade launcher, which can be fired by a passenger standing in a rear hatch. BMP IFVs carry the SA7/14/16/18 and AGS-17 weapon systems in the BMP-equipped MRB's air defense and automatic grenade launcher platoons. When buttoned-up, the crew and passengers have NBC protection in the pressurized and filtered hull. This allows them to operate regardless of the outside environment. The BMP has an infrared searchlight, periscopes, and sights for night operations. It also has a capability to make its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust manifold. VARIANTS:
BMP Model 1966 This was the original version of the BMP (also called BMP-A) which had a shorter bow than its successor, the BMP-1. This version did not have an NBC protection system. BMP-1 (BMP Model 1976) This is the standard production model of the BMP-1. BMP-1K This is the command variant of the BMP-1. This version differs from the BMP-1 mainly by having additional radio equipment and antennas and having the machine-gun ports welded shut. The troop compartment has been redesigned to accommodate field tables and map boards. It is used as a battalionlevel command vehicle. BMP-1P This is the BMP-1 with the replacement of the AT-3 SAGGER launch rail by a pintel-mounted AT-4 SPIGOT ATGM launcher on the turret roof. This version also has smoke grenade launchers fitted to the turret rear. BMP-1PK This is the command variant of the BMP -1P. BRM & BRM-1 (BMP-R or BMP M1976) This variant is used as a reconnaissance vehicle. It consists of the BMP-1 fitted with a larger, two-man turret, armed with a 73-mm gun. This vehicle does not have an ATGM. There are two small roof hatches, instead of the four rectangular ones as in the case of the BMP-1. BRM-1K (BMP M1976/2) This reconnaissance variant consists of the BRM-1 with the addition of a PSNR-5K (TALL MIKE) Battlefield Surveillance Radar, which is mounted in the rear part of the turret. This radar is elevated above the turret roof when needed, and then lowered into the turret when not used. This vehicle also includes a DKRM-1 laser rangefinder, ARRS-1 location device, IMP mine detector and 1PN33B night binoculars. Navigation equipment carried includes TNA-1, IG11N gyro-compass and 1T25 survey device.

BMP KShM This unarmed command and communication vehicle mounts a large telescopic antenna and more radio equipment than the BMP-1K. PRP-3 (BMP-SON) This artillery reconnaissance vehicle is used as an artillery fire adjustment and/or artillery/mortar locating vehicle. The front of the vehicle is identical to the BMP-1 but the vehicle has a new two-man turret that has two single-piece hatches which open forward. Both hatches have periscopes for observation plus a large optical device in front of the hatch. Armament consists of a 7.62-mm machinegun which has replaced the 73-mm gun. Mounted on the rear of the turret is a SMALL FRED battlefield surveillance radar with a flat antenna that folds forward when not in use. To the rear of the turret on the left side is a further circular hatch cover and a telescoping antenna. This vehicle has a five-man crew and is fitted with extensive communications equipment and optical devices. PRP-4 This vehicle is the successor to the PRP-3. It differs from its predecessor by the addition of an additional fairing on the right side of the turret. IRM Amphibious Engineer Reconnaissance Vehicle This vehicle was based on the chassis of the BMP-1. It mounts the engine and suspension of the BMP-1 in a new hull. It was designed to undertake a variety of specialized engineer reconnaissance roles including mine detection and river-bottom reconnaissance. For its mine detection role, the IRM has two devices mounted at the front of the vehicle which can be retracted flush with the hull when not in use. The IRM is fully amphibious, propelled in the water by two shrouded propellers at the rear of the vehicle. When submerged, a snorkel is erected on top of the hull; this is kept horizontal when not required. BMP-PPO Mobile Training Center This vehicle is a BMP-1 with its turret removed and fitted with eight roof-mounted cupolas for trainees under instruction, plus seats for the vehicle commander and driver. Each trainee has TNPO-170 and one Type MK-4 observation devices mounted in the forward part of the cupola and an A-2 unit of the R-124 intercom set. CZECHOSLOVAKIAN BMP-1 VARIANTS: OT-90 BMP-1 with turret replaced by the same turret as fitted to Czechoslovakian OT-64C (8 x 8) APC armed with 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm machine-guns. BVP-1 Czech manufactured BMP-1 DP-90 Maintenance version of OT-90 MP-31 Air defense command version of the BMP KShM command post version. MU-90 Mine-laying version of OT-90, no turret with space being covered with steel sheet. SVO Mine clearing version of BMP-1 with the turret removed and fitted with Hedgehog type launcher in rear troop compartment. VPV Crane equipped recovery version of the BMP-1. Turret and troop compartment roof hatches have been removed and a powered crane is mounted on the troop compartment roof. VP-90 Reconnaissance version of the OT-90 with OT-64 turret.

BMP-2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle
The BMP-2 is an infantry combat vehicle vari-ant of the BMP-1 that incorporates a major arma-ment change. It has an enlarged two-man turret which mounts a 30-mm automatic gun, model 2A42, with a long, thin tube and a double-baffle muzzle brake, along with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun on its front. On top of the turret is an ATGM launcher. This launcher can employ either AT-4 SPIGOT or AT-5 SPANDREL missiles. The AT-5 SPANDREL canister is normally seen mounted. The engine is an upgraded 300hp, V-6 diesel. The vehicle commander now sits in the two-man turret, along with the gunner. Because of the enlarged turret, there is room for only two roof hatches in the rear fighting compartment, rather than the four of the BMP-1. The BMP-2 can accommodate one less passenger than the BMP-1; there also is one less firing port for an assault rifle on each side. However, a new machine-gun-type firing port on the left side of the hull, forward of the turret, indicates that an infantryman now occupies the BMP-1 vehicle commander's position. The torsion bar suspension either side consists of six road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front, idler at the rear and track-return rollers. The upper part of the track has a sheet metal cover deeper than that of the BMP-1 which is filled with a buoyancy aid. Main armament comprises a 30-mm cannon model 2A42. The gunner can select single shots or one of two automatic rates of fire, low at 200 to 300 rds/min or high at 500 rds/min. The 30-mm cannon has dual feed, one for HE-T and the other for AP-T; both with a muzzle velocity of 970 m/s. The 30-mm cannon is fully stabilized and has an effective range against ground targets of 1000 m although it is sighted to 4000 m. Its high elevation allows it to be used against aircraft and helicopters. A total of 500 rounds of 30-mm ammunition is carried. A 7.62-mm PKT machine gun is mounted to the left of the main armament and 2000 rounds are carried for this weapon. An infra-red searchlight is mounted coaxial to the right of the 30-mm cannon and the commander also has a roof-mounted infra-red searchlight model OU-3GA2. Mounted on the turret roof between the gunner's and commander's hatches is a launcher for either an AT-4 SPIGOT or AT-5 SPANDREL ATGM. A ground mount is carried to allow the ATGMs to be launched away from the vehicle. Most BMP-2s have a bank of three electrically operated 81-mm smoke dischargers firing forwards. The smoke grenade launcher system is designated the 902V. In addition, the BMP-2 can lay its own smokescreen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet on the right side of the hull. This system is called the TDA and can only be used when the engine is warm and the vehicle moving. To the turret rear is the infantry compartment which has only two roof hatches compared to the BMP-1's four. It carries six infantrymen who sit down either side of the vehicle back-to-back. In either side of the rear troop compartment are three firing ports;

each of which has an associated roof-mounted periscope angled to the front of the vehicle. The infantry normally enter and leave the vehicle via the two doors in the hull rear. Each of these doors has an integral fuel tank and periscope in the upper part of the door. The left door also has a firing port. The engine and transmission are to the right of the driver's compartment with the air-inlet and air-outlet louvers on top of the hull. The BMP-2 is powered by a UTD-20 four-stroke, six-cylinder model UTD-20 supercharged diesel engine developing 285/300 hp at 2600 rpm. The engine is coupled to a manual transmission with five forward and one reverse gears. The BMP-2 is fully amphibious. Standard equipment on the BMP-2 includes a full range of night vision equipment for commander, gunner and driver, fire extinguishing system, GPK-59 gyro-compass system, PAZ overpressure NBC system, engine pre-heater and turret extractor fan. VARIANTS: Improved BMP-2 A number of product improvements were made to the BMP-2 in the late 1980's. These improvements included modifications to the gun stabilization system, improved internal communications, improved rubber-bushed tracks, and the spare tracks have been moved from the rear exit doors to the left and right upper side walls of the troop compartment. This vehicle also includes a special mat for the transport of the seriously wounded and six slings for the slightly wounded. BMP-2D Late production version of the BMP-2, this vehicle includes appliqu? armor on the turret, provision for mounting mine clearing system under the nose of the vehicle, and appliqu? armor of the spaced type fitted along either side of the hull. BMP-2K This is the command version of the BMP-2 and has additional communications equipment. BVP-2 This is the designation for the Czechoslovakian produced BMP-2. BMP-2 (Product Improved) This modified BMP-2 includes several improvements: a new track which doubles the track-life; 30-mm cannon is stabilized in two planes, and elevation increased to 70?; it is fitted with air conditioning for desert operations; a AG-17 30-mm grenade launcher is mounted on the left side of the turret; and the gunner is equipped with a thermal sight, which replaces the active IR system.

BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle
The hull of the BMP-3 resembles the BMD Airborne Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and has a well sloped glacis plate with the hull sides being vertical. The new turret is in the center of the vehicle with the commander being seated on the right and the gunner on the left. There is an additional crew member to the left and right of the driver's position, each of these being provided with a roof hatch that opens forwards and a single periscope in the hull roof in front of the hatch cover. The troop compartment is at the rear of the hull with entry via two doors in the hull rear that open left and right, with the left door having a firing port. As these doors are opened steps automatically fold down. The armor of the BMP-3 is believed to be laminated aluminum, and its manufacturers claim it affords protection against 30-mm armorpiercing rounds over the 60-degree frontal arc. Over the frontal arc the turret is provided with a layer of spaced armor and mounted on either side of this is a bank of three 81 mm electrically operated smoke dischargers. Main armament of BMP-3 is a 100-mm rifled gun (2A70) which fires conventional high explosive ammunition at a maximum rate of fire of 8-10 rds/min, and the AT-10 STABBER laser-guided anti-tank guided missile. The AT-10 ATGM has a maximum range of 4000-m and is estimated as being able to penetrate a maximum of 500 mm of RHA. The 100-mm gun can also fire an HE-FRAG (high explosive fragmentation) round with a muzzle velocity of 250 m/s with a maximum effective range of 4000 m. A total of 30 rounds is carried for the 100 mm gun of which 22 are HE-FRAG and eight are laser-guided projectiles. The coaxially mounted belt-fed 30-mm automatic cannon is mounted to the right of the 100-mm gun. This automatic cannon fires three types of ammunition: armor piercing tracer, HE splinter, and splinter tracer. The gunner can select single shot, low rate of fire (200-300 rds/min) or high rate of fire (550 rds/min). Maximum effective range for engaging ground targets is 2000 m. The BMP-3 is powered by a 500 hp diesel engine coupled to a fully automatic hydromechanical transmission. The suspension either side consists of six dual rubber-tired road wheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three track-return rollers. The suspension is adjustable by the driver to suit the type of terrain being crossed with minimum ground clearance being 190 mm and maximum ground clearance being 510 mm. The BMP-3 is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by two water-jets mounted at the rear of the hull. It is also provided with an NBC system, internal communications equipment, radios with a maximum range of 20 km and an IFF system. VARIANTS:
BRM (BMP-3) This vehicle is a reconnaissance variant of the BMP-3. This vehicle was designed to conduct battlefield reconnaissance by day and night and under all weather conditions. This vehicle may be a

replacement for the BRM-1K and/or PRP-4 vehicles. The main external differences include no firing ports in the rear troop compartment, removal of the two bow-mounted 7.62-mm PKT machine-guns and removal of the 100-mm 2A70 rifled gun. Equipment installed to enable the reconnaissance role includes the mast mounted 1RL-133-1 TALL MIKE battlefield surveillance radar (which can be retracted into the vehicle when not in use); the 1PN71 night observation TV device; the 1PN61 night observation device; and the 1D14 periscopic laser rangefinder. The electro-optical devices are mounted on either side of the turret and when not being used, the optics are covered by a hinged shutter that opens to the left. The vehicle is also equipped with the latest TNA-4 navigation device and the 1G50 gyro compass which enables the crew to quickly determine their position on the battlefield. BMP-3 (Abu Dhabi Variant) The first export client for the BMP-3 was Abu Dhabi. These are fitted with an externally mounted thermal imaging sight, manufactured by the French firm SAT. The sight could not be mounted in the usual place inside the hull due to the already congested fire control layout.

BTR-50P Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier
The BTR-50P is based on the chassis of the PT-76 light amphibious tank with a new superstructure added to the front of the vehicle. The hull of the BTR-50P is made of all-welded steel with the crew compartment at the front, open-topped troop compartment in the centre and the engine compartment at the rear. The torsion bar suspension consists of six rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There are no track-return rollers. The first and last road wheel stations have a hydraulic shock absorber and the steel tracks each have 96 links when new. The 20 infantrymen sit on bench seats which run across the full width of the vehicle and enter and leave by climbing over the side of the hull. Armament consists of a pintlemounted 7.62 mm SGMB machine gun. When the BTR-50P was originally introduced there were ramps at the rear of the hull to enable a 57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZIS-2), 76 mm divisional gun M1943 (ZIS-3) or an 85 mm division gun D-44 to be carried and fired from the rear decking. The weapon could also be fired when the vehicle was afloat, but only when the water-jets were in operation. The engine used in the BTR-50P is one half of that fitted to the T-54 MBT. The vehicle has three fuel tanks, two in the right forward side of the engine compartment and one at the rear. The BTR-50P is fully amphibious and propelled in the water by two water-jets at the rear of the hull. The only preparation required before entering the water is to erect the trim vane at the front of the hull and switch on the two electric bilge pumps. There is a manual bilge pump for emergency use. Steering is accomplished by opening and closing the two doors over the rear water-jets: to go left the left water-jet is covered and to turn through 180? the left water-jet sucks in water and the right water-jet pushes it out. The basic BTR-50P has no NBC system. VARIANTS:
BTR-50PA This model is almost identical to the BTR-50P but does not have the loading ramps at the rear of the hull. It is sometimes armed with a 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun mounted over the commander's position. BTR-50PK This model has full overhead armor protection and NBC system with the troops entering and leaving the vehicle by two rectangular roof hatches that open either side. In each side of the hull there are two firing ports and in the roof at the front of the hull a single piece hatch cover that opens forwards. Two ventilators are fitted, one at the front of the troop compartment on the right side and one at the rear of the troop compartment on the right side. The BTR-50PK is normally armed with a 7.62 mm SGMB machine gun in an unprotected mount. BTR-50PU (Command) There are at least two models of the BTR-50PU (Command), designated the models 1 and 2. The model 1 (early model, very rarely seen today) has one projecting bay whereas the model 2 has two. The right bay on the model 2 has three vision devices and no cover. The BTR-50PU has three compartments: engine, commander's and driver's. The last two are fitted with special equipment and a total of 10 seats, four for the commander and his staff, four for the radio operators and two for the vehicle commander and driver. In addition, the staff compartment accommodates a collapsible table for working the maps and documents, a small table for the commander, two hammocks for resting and three ladders. An

emergency escape hatch is provided in the floor of the vehicle and the interior of the vehicle has thermal insulation. External equipment includes infra-red searchlight, four whip antennas, an 11 m telescopic mast, battery charger, armored box for a fuel drum and three stowage boxes. Extensive communications equipment is provided including radio, radio relay and wire equipment. This includes an R-112 radio, R113 radio telephone, R-105U radio telephone, R-403BM two-channel radio relay telephone half set, 10-line field telephone switchboard, four telephone sets and four reels each with 600 m of two-wire cable. A gyro course indicator and course plotter are the basis of the navigation system with the former indicating the vehicle's course and the latter plotting it in a rectangular co-ordinate system. BTR-50PU R-82, BTR-50PU-11, BTR-50PUM and BTR-50PUR. Different command and control variants with a variety of radio configurations and other communications equipment. BTR-50PK(B) Amphibious Armored Recovery Vehicle This is a specialized version of the BTR-50PK developed for the recovery of other vehicles at water obstacles. It has a combat weight of 14000 kg and normally has a crew of two: commander and driver, with seats for four auxiliary personnel, and during rescue operations the vehicle can accommodate up to eight rescued personnel. The BTR-50PK(B) is fitted with R 123M and R 124 radio sets, a rear-mounted towing coupling, towing gear and hook and two extra towing cables, two special quick-release shackles, standard shackles and snap hooks, searchlight, two lifebelts, life jackets and four fenders. A set of tools and fire extinguishers are also carried. MTP Technical Support Vehicle This is based on a BTR-50PK APC and is used for recovery and repair of armored personnel carriers and the BMP ICV. In addition it is used to deliver POL supplies to forward units which are difficult to reach with normal truck-mounted bowsers. A distinctive feature of the MTP is the raised workshop compartment which is high enough to allow the crew to work while standing as well as providing sleeping room for the crew of three. MTK Mineclearing Vehicle This is a BTR-50PK APC with a special launcher mounted on top of the hull to the rear of the troop compartment. It fires rockets to which are attached flexible tubes containing high explosives which fall to the ground on to the minefield and are then detonated from the vehicle. The former Soviet designation for the rocket system is UR-67. MTR-1 Repair version of BTR-50.

BTR-60PB Armored Personnel Carrier
The BTR-60PB is an eight-wheel-drive vehicle with evenly spaced wheels, except for a slightly larger space between the second and third wheels. It has a long, boat-like hull with well-sloped armor on the sides and overhead armor cover. Its small conical turret is identical to that of the BRDM-2. The turret sits over the second set of wheels and mounts co-axial 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm machine guns. The BTR-60PB has a three-man crew: the commander, the driver, and the gunner. There are two semicircular hatches for the crew in front of the turret. The vehicle also has two rectangular hatches behind the turret for mount and dismount of up to eight passengers. There are three firing ports in each side of the troop compartment. The rearmounted power plant employs two 6-cylinder, 90-hp gasoline engines. A single waterjet propels the vehicle through water. The tires are partially filled with a foam-rubber-like substance. They have a centralized pressure regulation system. The hull of the BTR-60PB is all-welded steel with the driver and commander seated at the front of the hull, personnel compartment behind them and the engine compartment at the very rear of the hull. The turret, which is identical to that fitted to the BRDM-2 and the Czechoslovak OT-64 (8 x 8) APC, is armed with a 14.5-mm KPV machine gun and a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun mounted coaxially to right with the telescopic sight mounted coaxially to the left. The two gasoline engines are mounted at the rear of the hull: the first and third axles are powered through the transmission of the right engine and the second and fourth axles through the transmission of the left engine. All eight wheels are powered and the first four, which are used for steering, are power-assisted. The vehicle can be driven with one wheel missing from the second axle. A central tire-pressure regulation system fitted as standard on all BTR-60 series APCs enables the driver to adjust the tire pressure to suit the ground being crossed. The BTR-60P is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by a single water-jet mounted at the rear of the hull. VARIANTS:
BTR-60P This is the original BTR-60, and it has no overhead cover or turret. The troop compartment is completely exposed and is often covered with bows and canvas. BTR-60PA This model, also referred to as the BTR-60PK, has complete overhead armor protection for the troop compartment and is fitted with an NBC system. BTR-60PBK This is a command variant of the BTR-60PK used by company commanders.

BTR-60 1V18 This vehicle serves as an artillery observation post and is fitted with additional radios and fire direction computers. BTR-60 1V19 This vehicle serves a the fire direction center for wheeled artillery and MRL batteries. It is also equipped with additonal radios and fire control computers. BTR-60PU Command Vehicle The vehicle, which serves as a mobile command post, consists of a BTR-60PA with a generator mounted on the roof, and various antennas mounted on the roof and hull sides. Most often, this vehicle is fitted with a 10-m HAWKEYE antenna at the right front, and often with a CLOTHESLINE rail antenna running along thefront, left, and rear of the hull roof. BTR-60PU-12 Command Vehicle BTR-60PU-12M This is a BTR-60PU-12 fitted with equipment to serve as an air defense command post vehicle. BTR-60P Maintenance Assistance A number of older BTR-60P APCs have been converted for use in the maintenance assistance role and have a raised tarpaulin cover over the troop compartment that runs almost to the rear. This may have the designation of MTR-2. BTR-60PB Forward Air Control Vehicle With the armament removed and replaced with a plexiglass window, and additional radios fitted, this vehicle acts as a forward air control vehicle. A generator is mounted on the hull rear to provide power for the additional electrical equipment.

BTR-70 Armored Personnel Carrier
The BTR-70 is a successor vehicle to the BTR-60PB. Both vehicles have the same turret armament. The BTR-70 is slightly longer in the hull. It also has a recognizable gap between its front set of road wheels and the rear set. Triangularshaped access doors are in this lower hull space on both sides of the vehicle. They provide side entrance and exit for troops. (The BTR-60PB has only top hatches.) Also, the wave deflector attaches differently on the BTR-70 than on the BTR-60PB. The BTR-70 has two upgraded, 8-cylinder, 120-hp gasoline engines. The hull, which provides improved protection over the frontal arc as compared to the BTR60, is of all welded-steel. Like the BTR-60PB and BRDM-2, the BTR-70 is has a small conical turret armed with a 14.5-mm KPT machine gun and a coaxial 7.62-mm PKT machinegun. The troop compartment can hold six infantry men, seated facing out and each is equiped with a firing port and vision block. The BTR-70 is equipped with an NBC protection system, a central-tire regulation system, and a fire detection/suppression system. Mounted at the front of the hull is a winch which has 50-m of cable and can pull 6000 kg. The BTR-70 is fully amphibious. It is propelled in the water by a single waterjet at the rear of the hull. Theis space provide in the troop compartment for light antitank and crew-served weapons such as RPG-7 and two AGS-17 automatic grenade launchers. VARIANTS :
BTR-70 M1986/1 In an effort to improve the armament and survivability of the BTR-70, several improvements were made including: improved turret with high angle of fire weapons and smoke mortars, modified wave deflector, additional side armor brackets, and top mounted firing ports. BTR-70Kh This BTR-70 variant is used to conduct chemical reconnaissance. SPR-2 A proximity fuse jammer mounted on the BTR-70 chassis. This vehicle is the successor to the tracked SPR-1. This jammer is designed to prematurely detonate proximity fuzzed artillery rounds. BTR-70MS Maschina Svyazi (signals vehicle) used as a communications support vehicle. BTR-70KShM Komandno-Shtabnaya Maschina (command and control vehicle) used as a mobile command post vehicle.

BREM repair and recovery vehicle Bronirovannaya Remontno-Evakuatsionannaya Mashina (armored repair and recovery vehicle) consists of a BTR-70 with the turret removed and replaced with a crane and other repair equipment.

BTR-80 Armored Personnel Carrier
The BTR-80 is the successor to the BTR70 and has several significant improvements over the earlier wheeled APCs. The BTR-80 retains the same, boatshaped hull front, and sloped sides, although the rear deck has been reconfigured by raising the rear and squaring off the rearward-sloping engine compartment. The side-half doors of the BTR-70 have been replaced by full side doors, and the firing ports have been modified to face forward. The BTR-80 has a hull of all-welded steel armor construction. The twin gas engines of the BTR-70 have been replaced by a single, more-powerful diesel engine which give the BTR-80 better performance and lower the risk of fire. The turret, which is similar to that on the BTR-60PB and BTR-70, is armed with the 14.5-mm KPV heavy machine gun and coaxial 7.62-mm PKT machine gun. This turret is improved in that it can be elevated to +60 degrees compared to the +30 degrees of earlier vehicles. The sighting system for the machineguns is improved as well. There are six 81-mm smoke mortars mounted on the rear of the turret which can be fired from inside the vehicle. The full side doors of the BTR-80 are positioned between the second and third axles of the vehicle. Each side door consists of an upper half which opens forward, and the lower half which opens down and forms a step ladder for troops entering or exiting. The upper half of the door is also fitted with a firing port. The crew of the BTR-80 consists of a commander, gunner and driver, and can carry seven infantry men. There are three forward-facing firing ports along the length of the hull, one at the front of the vehicle for the commander, and two in the roof hatches. The front two firing ports are designed for the 7.62-mm PK general purpose machine guns. The remaining firing ports are designed for AKMS/AK-74 individual weapons. The BTR-80 is fully amphibious and has a front-mounted winch, overpressure NBC system, night vision equipment and a central tire-pressure regulation system. VARIANTS:
BTR-80K This is the commander's variant of the BTR-80, and is equipped with an 11 meter telescopic mast. The vehicle enables the commander of a motorized rifle battalion to control his unit and maintain communications with the regimental commander. For this purpose it is fitted with two R-163-50U VHF radio sets, two R-159 remote VHF radio sets, and a TNA4-6 type navigational device with an indicator board. BTR-80UNSh The UNSh variant of the BTR-80 was developed as a common base for command and staff duties, for fire control and radar vehicles as well as for mobile radio communication posts. With a wider and raised superstructure, the vehicle gives greater space for operators and additional equipment.

BTR-80 Medical Vehicles The BTR-80UNSh vehicle has been adapted to a series of medical vehicles. BMM-1 is a medical evacuation vehicle, BMM-2 is a battalion medical station, and the BMM-3 is a mobile dressing station with a team of doctors and an AP-2 set of equipment. Up to four casualties on stretchers can be carried inside the hull, and an additional 12 can be housed in an attached tent. RKhM-4 Chemical and reconnaissance vehicle. 2S23 Self-Propelled 120-mm Combination Howitzer-Mortar Available details of this are given in the Self-Propelled guns and howitzers section. BTR-80A This vehicle incorporates a new turret system which is referred to as the modular weapon station (MWS). The MWS is of all welded steel construction. Mounted externally on the top of the turret is the same 30-mm 2A42 cannon that is fitted to the BMP-2. A PKT 7.62-mm machine-gun is mounted coaxially to the right of the 30-mm cannon. Mounted on either side of the cannon is a bank of three 81mm electrically operated, forward firing smoke grenade launchers. Turret traverse is through 360? with weapon elevation being between -5 and +70?. Although it lacks the protection level of the BMP-2 , the BTR-80A has the advantage of a higher road speed and range and, therefore greater strategic mobility. BREM-K The recovery version of the BTR-80 (8 x 8) APC is referred to as the BREM-K, although it also has the designation GAZ-59033. Standard equipment includes an A-frame, which, tow bars, small stowage platform to the turret rear and stabilizers under the nose of the vehicle. This vehicle is not armed.

MT-LB Multipurpose Armored Vehicle
The MT-LB is an amphibious armored tracked vehicle. It has a low-silhouette, box-like hull made of welded steel plates, and a small turret on the right front that mounts a single 7.62-mm machine gun. There are four firing ports: one on each side of the vehicle and one in each of the two rear exit doors. The flat hull roof has two forward-opening, troop exit hatches. The flat-track suspension consists of six road wheels with no return rollers. The hull of the MT-LB is all-welded steel with the crew compartment at the front, engine immediately behind the crew compartment on the left side and the troop compartment at the rear of the hull. The machine gun turret is mounted to the right of the commander's position and is armed with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. Both the driver and machine gunner have a windscreen in front of their positions which, when in action, is covered by a flap hinged at the top. There is a vision block in each side of the hull, to the left of the driver's and the right of the machine gunner's position. An aisle provides access from the crew compartment at the front of the vehicle to the personnel compartment at the rear which has inward-facing folding canvas seats for the 10 infantrymen. Two hatches over the top of the troop compartment open forwards. The infantry enter and leave the vehicle by two doors in the rear of the hull, both of which are provided with a firing port. There is an additional firing port and vision block in each side of the troop compartment. An unditching beam is often carried on the roof or side of the vehicle. The MT-LB is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by its tracks. Standard equipment on all vehicles includes an NBC system. The MT-LB has air-actuated brakes which can be connected to a trailer. Night vision equipment includes an OU-3GK white/infra-red searchlight with a range of 400 m for the commander and a TVN-2 infra-red periscope for the driver with a range of 40 m. It can also tow a trailer or weapon weighing up to 6500 kg or carry up to 2000 kg of cargo or stores. VARIANTS:
1V13 Battery fire direction center vehicle, called 1W13 by Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Called MT-LBO by Bulgaria. 1V14 battery command post vehicle, called 1W14 by Poland, also used by Czechoslovakia and Hungary 1V15 battalion command vehicle, called 1W15 by Poland, also used by Czechoslovakia and Poland 1V16 battalion fire direction center vehicle, called 1W16 by Poland, also used by Czechoslovakia and Hungary

Note: The 1V12 family consists of the 1V13, 1V14, 1V15 and 1V16. These are the original command and control set with the 1V14, 1V15 and 1V16 each having an APK digital data transmission set and the 1V15 and 1V16 also having the 9V59 artillery fire control computer. The 1V12M family consists of the 1V13M, 1V14M, 1V15M and 1V16M, they are modified artillery command and control set with each vehicle giving an APPK artillery data computation and digital transmission computer system. (For full details of these systems see the Artillery Support Vehicles section.) 1V21 Staff command vehicle, called MP-21 by Czechoslovakia, also used by Poland. Has new C3 equipment fitted. 1V22 Air defense management vehicle, called MP-22 by Czechoslovakia, also used by Poland. Has new C3 equipment fitted. 1V23 Command and control vehicle, called MP-23 by Czechoslovakia, also used by Poland. Has new C3 equipment fitted. 1V24 Artillery C3 vehicle, called MP-24 by Czechoslovakia, also used by Poland. Fitted with new C3 equipment. 1V25 Air defense management vehicle, called MP-25 by Czechoslovakia, also used by Poland. Has new C3 equipment installed. MT-LB 9S743 Bulgarian MT-LB with radio system and generator at hull rear MT-LB KShM R-80, Bulgarian MT-LB with table and increased headroom MT-LB KShM R-81 Bulgarian MT-LB with radio equipment MT-LB TRI Polish engineer reconnaissance vehicle MT-LB WPT Polish recovery and maintenance vehicle MT-LB Sova Bulgarian MT-LB with dismountable surveillance radar system Beta EM, Polish communications vehicle. MT-LBV The MT-LB can also be fitted with 565 mm wide tracks for operation in snow and swampy ground; it is then called the MT-LBV. This version has a ground pressure of 0.28 kg/cm{2}. MT-LB Artillery Tractor The MT-LBs used as artillery prime movers have been observed with a fully enclosed box mounted over the troop compartment roof containing the gun section equipment. MT-LBU (Command) This is the command version of the MT-LB and has additional radios, generator, land navigation system and a canvas cover that can be extended to the rear when the vehicle is being used in the static role. MT-LB M1975 (SNAR-10) This vehicle is an MT-LB fitted with an artillery/mortar-locating radar which has been allocated the NATO reporting name of BIG FRED. When traveling the antenna folds forward onto the top of the large turret which is to the rear of the vehicle. The forward turret-mounted 7.62-mm machine gun is retained. The radar is believed to be of a similar type to the British THORN EMI Cymbeline in that the radar measures the slant range and bearing of two points in the mortar bomb/artillery shell trajectory. The time taken for the bomb/projectile to travel between the two points is also measured

and the onboard computer uses this information together with the pre-set elevation angles to determine the position of the enemy mortar or artillery piece. This information is then relayed to the field artillery units and the target is engaged. The radar has a range of about 20 km. Specifications of the MT-LB with BIG FRED are similar to those of the basic MT-LB except for a weight of 11500 kg, height with antenna down of 2.9 m and a crew of four to six. MTP-LB Repair Vehicle The MTP-LB is designed for field maintenance, repair, and recovery of tanks and other AFVs and is recognizable by its lack of a machine gun turret. Mounted at the front of the vehicle is an A-frame which can lift a maximum load of 1500 kg. Standard equipment includes tools, gas welding and cutting equipment, cable winch with 85 m of cable and a capacity of 6700 kg, jacking device, towing attachment hooks and a crane. MT-LB (Ambulance) This is an MT-LB used as an armored evacuation vehicle (armored ambulance) with stretchers fitted in the rear compartment. MT-LB Engineer Vehicle This is similar in appearance to the basic MT-LB but modified to mount a plow blade on the roof. Hydraulic devices at the rear of the vehicle allow manual mounting of the plow blade to the rear only. MT-LB with Vasilek For use in Afghanistan, a self-propelled version of the towed 2B9 Vasilek 82 mm automatic mortar described and illustrated in the Towed guns and howitzers section was developed. The mortar has had its wheels removed and has been propped up on the upper rear deck on steel ammunition boxes. 9P149 MT-LB with AT-6 SPIRAL ATGM This tank destroyer consists of a modified MT-LB, with a retractable AT-6 SPIRAL launcher, and missile guidance controls. The system is entirely automated, with the launcher assembly protected under armor till used. The autoloader assembly holds 12 missiles and the rate of fire is 3-4 missiles per minute. The radio command guidance system is mounted in the right forward station of the hull superstructure, replacing the small turret with PKT 7.62-mm machine-gun. MT-LB 120 mm mortar The Bulgarian Army has mounted a 120 mm mortar in the rear of the MT-LB multi-purpose armored vehicle. MT-LB with WAT Turret Poland has fitted an MT-LB with the WAT turret, as installed on the OT-64C(2) (SKOT-2AP) and OT-62C APCs, which is armed with a 14.5 mm and a 7.62 mm machine gun. SA-13 Gopher SAM system The MT-LB multi-purpose armored vehicle chassis is also used as the basis for the SA-13 Gopher SAM system. Mounted in the center of the hull roof is a turret with an arm, on which is carried a total of four SA-13 missiles in the transport/launch containers, with the operator being seated below and between the missiles. The SA-13 entered service in 1977 and is replacing the SA-9 on a one for one basis. It retains the amphibious capability of the MT-LB and has a range-only radar. Iraqi 120 mm self-propelled mortar Early in 1989 an MT-LB was shown in Iraq for the first time, with wide tracks modified locally to carry a 120 mm mortar in the rear of the vehicle. The roof hatches have been modified and now open to either side of the hull to allow the 120 mm mortar to fire to the rear. A base plate is carried on the right side of the hull to allow the mortar to be deployed away from the vehicle if required by the tactical situation. MT-LBus (R-330P) VHF Jamming vehicle This is the MT0-LB-based ACRV chassis fitted with an auxiliary power unit mounted at the rear of the hull. while mounted on the roof is an antenna for the Type R-330P VHF jamming set. When in use the 11 element fan-type antenna is in the vertical position, but it can be lowered into the horizontal position if required.

BMD Airborne Infantry Fighting Vehicle
The BMD AIFV superficially resembles the BMP-1, although it is considerably smaller. This full-tracked amphibious vehicle has a BMP-type turret. Like the BMP-1, its main armament is a 73-mm smoothbore gun with a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun mounted on the right side of the main gun and a SAGGER ATGM launcher mounted over the gun. The BMD, however, also has two additional 7.62-mm machine guns, one mounted in each of the front bow corners. The troop compartment has overhead armor cover; however, it has only one firing port on each side and one in the rear from which the mounted infantrymen can fire their weapons. The BMD has an independent suspension consisting of five small road wheels with the idler at the front and the drive sprocket at the rear. There are four track-return rollers. The independent suspension combines a hydraulic system for altering the ground clearance and maintaining track tension with pneumatic springs, which enables the ground clearance to be altered from 100 to 450 mm. Main armament of the BMD-1 is a 73 mm model 2A28 smoothbore, low pressure, short-recoil gun. This is fed from an automatic 40-round magazine to the right rear of the gunner. The weapon fires a fixed fin-stabilized HEAT round which is the same as that used in the SPG-9 infantry weapon and has a maximum effective range of 1300 m. A 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted coaxially to the right of the main armament and is fed from a continuous belt of 2000 rounds, honeycombed in an ammunition box mounted below the weapon. A cartridge case and link collector are mounted in the turret basket. Mounted over the main armament is a launcher rail for a SAGGER ATGM. Two missiles are carried inside the turret and are loaded via a loading rail through a hatch in the forward part of the turret roof. The bow machine gunner sits to the driver's right and aims the two bow-mounted 7.62-mm PKT machine guns. The two machine guns are mounted one either side of the vehicle's front firing forwards. The BMD is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water-jets at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane which is stowed on the glacis plate when not in use is erected at the front of the hull. The vehicle has electric and manual bilge pumps, a gyro-compass, engine pre-heater, smoke-generating equipment, NBC system and a centralized ethylene-bromide fire-extinguishing system as fitted to other former Soviet armored vehicles. VARIANTS :
BMD-1P Airborne Combat Vehicle This is BMD-1 with AT-3 SAGGER ATGM removed and mounted on the turret roof is an AT-4 Spigot ATGM launcher.

BMD-2 Airborne Combat Vehicle This vehicle is the BMD-1 with its turret replaced with a new one-man turret. This turret is of a new design with the gunner being seated on the left and provided with a single piece circular hatch cover that opens to the front. In front of this is the gunner's day/night sight that appears to be identical to that fitted on the BMP-2. Additional periscopes give observation to the sides and a white light searchlight is mounted on the forward part of the turret roof. On the left side of the turret is another sight that moves in elevation with the 30 mm 2A42 cannon and this is believed to be the high angle of fire sight which is used to aim the weapon when it is being used in the anti-aircraft/antihelicopter role. A total of 300 rounds of 30 mm and 2940 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition is carried. Main armament comprises a 30 mm 2A42 stabilized cannon with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun mounted coaxial to the right with a launcher for an AT-4 Spigot (maximum range 2000 m) or an AT-5 Spandrel (maximum range 4000 m) ATGM mounted on the right side of the turret roof. While the BMD-1 has two bowmounted 7.62 mm PKT machine guns, one in either side, the BMD-2 has only one 7.62 mm bow-mounted machine gun on the right side with the machine gun port in the left side being eliminated. BTR-D APC The BTR-D was first seen during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and is often referred to as the BMD M1979 by NATO. It is distinguishable from the standard BMD by its longer chassis with six rather than five road wheels, different hull top and lack of a turret. The basic BTR-D is a multi-purpose armored transporter used by the former Soviet VDV (Air Assault Forces) air assault divisions, for a variety of roles including troop transporter, towing support weapons such as the 23 mm ZU-23 light anti-aircraft gun and maintenance support. This version retains the hull front and side firing ports of the BMD-1 and has two forward-firing smoke dischargers on each side of the hull roof in line with the fifth road wheel station. There are nine firing ports, two in the hull front each with a 7.62 mm machine gun, two in each side of the hull, one in the rear and the two front hatches below and either side of the commander's cupola can be used. The BTR-D is based on automotive components of the BMD-1 airborne combat vehicle and like this vehicle has a hull of all-welded aluminum construction. The glacis protection of the vehicle has been increased by the use of a dual slanted angle in the upper plates of the armor at the front. The BTR-D can carry 13 men, the driver/mechanic at the front, a bow machine gunner either side and 10 infantrymen at the rear, the bow machine gunners normally deploy with the infantry. A total of 2000 rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition is carried for the 7.62-mm PKT machine guns mounted at the front of the vehicle and an additional two 7.62- mm PKT machine guns can be mounted on the roof. Some early production vehicles had a small one-man turret armed with a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun that could be aimed and fired from within the turret. Some vehicles have also been fitted with a 30-mm AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher. BMD-KShM This vehicle is a command post version of the basic BTR-D. This has a folding Clothes Rail antenna around the superstructure but the front firing ports with their 7.62 mm machine guns are faired over and there are no firing ports in the hull sides, the forward-firing smoke dischargers have also been removed. The Commander's hatch is offset to the left and does not project forward. 1V118 This is a BMD used in artillery observation post role. 1V119 This is a BMD used in artillery fire direction center role. BMD with Shmel-1 RPV A BMD-1KShM chassis is used as the launcher and flying control station for the Shmel-1 remotely piloted vehicle. BRehM-D Repair and Recovery Vehicle This is based on the chassis of the BTR-D APC and is fitted with specialized equipment for the repair and recovery of BMD-1 type vehicles. Equipment fitted includes a crane which

can be traversed through 180°, recovery winch, combination spade and dozer blade, towing equipment, electric welding system plus tools and ready use spares. Standard equipment includes a 7.62 mm bow machine gun, radio, intercom system and an NBC system. SO-120 (Anona) (2S9) 120 mm Self-propelled Howitzer/Mortar Details of this are given in Selfpropelled guns and howitzers section.

BMD-3 Airborne Infantry Fighting Vehicle
The BMD-3 is the successor to the BMD-1 and BMD-2 AIFVs. The BMD-3 features a brand new chassis fitted with the complete turret of the BMP2 infantry fighting vehicle. The BMD-3 retains the boat-shaped hull with the two-man turret located in the forward third of the chassis. The BMD-3 has much better amphibious capability than its predecessors. There is more room inside the vehicle, a significant increase in firepower, with the two-man turret offering better overall command and control of the vehicle and its weaponry. The BMD-3 can be airdropped from transport aircraft with the complete crew of seven men remaining inside the vehicle. In the past, the crew was dropped separately, and it often took a considerable time for them to locate the vehicle. By dropping the BMD-3 with its crew ready in the vehicle, the element of surprise associated with airborne operations is enhanced. The BMD-3 is of all-welded construction which provides the crew with protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. The crew consists of commander, gunner, driver, and four infantrymen, with the commander normally dismounting with the squad. A further three infantrymen can be carried in an emergency in the rear. The two-man power operated turret is armed with a 30-mm 2A42 dual feed cannon which is fitted with a distinctive muzzle brake and is stabilized in both elevation and traverse. Maximum effective range when firing AP-T (armor piercingtracer) ammunition is 2000-m, and when firing HE-I (High Explosive-Incendiary) ammunition is 4000-m against an area target. A 7.62-mm PKT machine-gun is mounted coaxially to the right. Mounted on the roof is an ATGM launcher for either the AT-4 SPIGOT or AT-5 SPANDREL. Mounted on either side of the turret is a bank of three 81mm electrically operated smoke dischargers firing forwards. Mounted at the front of the BMD-3 on the left side is an AG-17 30-mm automatic grenade launcher while on the right bow is a 5.45-mm RPKS machine-gun. Each of the bow weapons is operated by one of the infantrymen seated in the front of the BMD-3. The power pack is located at the rear of the hull and consists of a 2V-06 water-cooled diesel developing 450-bhp which gives a very high power-to-weight ratio of 34 hp/ton. The hydroneumatic suspension of the BMD-3 is adjustable to give a ground clearance of between 130-mm and 530-mm, although for normal road travel it is 450-mm. The BMD-3 is fully amphibious being propelled by two water jets mounted on either side at the rear of the vehicle.

BRDM-2 Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle
The BRDM-2 is a fully armored, fourwheel-drive, amphibious reconnaissance vehicle. It has two-pairs of belly wheels and a centralized tire pressure regulation system for increased cross-country capability. The BRDM-2 has a box-like hull with a boat-shaped bow. The engine is mounted in the vehicle rear and there is a small conical turret mounted on the hull above the belly wheels. The driver sits at the front of the hull on the left with the vehicle commander to his right. To enter the vehicle, the crew must climb through two roof hatches. The hull, which is constructed of welded steel, provides the crew with protection from small arms and shell splinters. The turret, which is very similar to that of the BTR-60PB and Czechoslovak OT-64, is located in the center of the vehicle and is armed with a 14.5-mm KPVT machine gun with a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun. On either side of the hull adjacent to the crew position, there is a firing port. Immediately behind the firing port are three vision blocks which protrude from the outside of the hull, giving some vision to the front and rear of the vehicle. The belly-wheels are chain driven and are lowered by the driver and give the BRDM-2 improved cross-country performance and the ability to cross ditches. The driver can adjust the tire pressure on all four tires or individual tires while the vehicle is in motion to adjust to the ground conditions. The BRDM-2 is fully amphibious. It is propelled in the water by a single water jet at the rear of the hull. The vehicle has an over pressure NBC system. The BRDM-2 is equiped with infrared driving and search lights, a radio and aninertial land navigation system. At the fron tof the vehicle is a winch which has 30-m of cable and has a maximum load of 4000kg. VARIANTS :
BRDM-2-RKha (Radiological-Chemical-Biological Reconnaissance Vehicle) This is the chemical reconnaissance verion of the BRDM. It is equipped with lane-marking poles and flags. The flag/pole dispensers are located on the rear corners of the vehicle hull. This version retains the standard 14.5-mm machine-gun. BRDM-2 -RKhb This is another chemical reconnaissance version which is armed only with twin 7.62-mm PKT machineguns. BRDM-2U Command Vehicles The BRDM command vehicle consists of a BRDM-2 with the turret removed and additional radios and antennas added. There is also a generator which is often mounted on the vehicle roof, immediately behind a central hatch which is in place of the turret.

BRDM-2 with AT-2b SWATTER-C ATGMs This vehicle consists of a BRDM-2 with its turret removed and in its place, a quadruple launcher for the AT-2 ATGM which was converted from its original radio command-to-line-of-sight guidance to semi-active infra-red/command guidance. This missile weighs 29.48 kg and has a range of 3500-m compared with the 3000-m of the original Swatter. A total of eight SWATTERs is carried including the three in the ready to launch position. 9P122 BRDM-2 with AT-3 SAGGER ATGMs This vehicle is a BRDM-2 with its turret removed and fitted with a platform, under which are mounted six SAGGER AT-3 ATGMs. This platform is carried within the hull under armor protection whicle travelling. When engaging targets, the platform is raised. The gunner, who is seated on the right side of the vehicle, controls the missile through a sight mounted on the front right of the vehicle roof. The vehicle carries eight additional missiles, and the platform can be rearmed while lowered. 9P148 BRDM-2 with AT-5 SPANDREL ATGMs This vehicle consists of the BRDM-2 with the turret removed and replaced with a rotating ATGM launcher. The crew reloads the launcher through a small hatch located behind it. The gunner controls the missiles through a sight mounted on the front right of the vehicle. On 9P148 ATGM carriers, the launch platform can be fitted with AT-4 Spigot ATGMs. The vehicle can carry either 10 AT-5 SPANDREL reloads or a combination of AT-4 and AT-5 (i.e. 6 AT-5 and 8 AT-4). SA-9 GASKIN Surface to Air Missile System The SA-9 GASKIN consists of a rotating surface-to-air missile launcher/turret mounted on a modified BRDM-2 chassis (the belly-wheels have been removed). The launcher/turret is fitted with four SA-9 GASKIN infrared-seeking, fire-and-forget missiles, and is manned by one man. An additional missiles can be carried on either side of the hull.

Information from Modern SOVIET WEAPONS, Ray Bonds, MILITARY PARADE, Russia's journal, Militay-Technical Cooperation, ITAR-TASS Digest and