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Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until

8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 1, 2011

USDL-11-0436

Technical information:
Household data:
(202) 691-6378 • cpsinfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/cps
Establishment data: (202) 691-6555 • cesinfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/ces
Media contact:

(202) 691-5902 • PressOffice@bls.gov

THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION – MARCH 2011
Nonfarm payroll employment increased by 216,000 in March, and the unemployment rate was little
changed at 8.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred in
professional and business services, health care, leisure and hospitality, and mining. Employment in
manufacturing continued to trend up.
Chart 1. Unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted,
March 2009 – March 2011

Chart 2. Nonfarm payroll employment over-the-month
change, seasonally adjusted, March 2009 – March 2011

Percent

Thousands

11.0

600

10.0

400
200

9.0

0

8.0

-200

7.0

-400

6.0

-600

5.0

-800

4.0

-1000

M ar-09 Jun-09 Sep-09 Dec-09 M ar-10 Jun-10

Sep-10 Dec-10 M ar-11

M ar-09 Jun-09 Sep-09 Dec-09 M ar-10 Jun-10 Sep-10 Dec-10 M ar-11

Household Survey Data
The number of unemployed persons (13.5 million) and the unemployment rate (8.8 percent) changed
little in March. The labor force also was little changed over the month. Since November 2010, the
jobless rate has declined by 1.0 percentage point. (See table A-1.)
Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (8.6 percent), adult women
(7.7 percent), teenagers (24.5 percent), whites (7.9 percent), blacks (15.5 percent), and Hispanics (11.3
percent) showed little change in March. The jobless rate for Asians was 7.1 percent, not seasonally
adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, at 8.2 million, was little
changed in March but has fallen by 1.3 million since November 2010. The number of long-term
unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was 6.1 million in March; their share of the
unemployed increased from 43.9 to 45.5 percent over the month. (See tables A-11 and A-12.)
In March, the civilian labor force participation rate held at 64.2 percent, and the employmentpopulation ratio, at 58.5 percent, changed little. (See table A-1.)
The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) was little changed in March, at 8.4 million. These individuals were
working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time
job. (See table A-8.)
In March, 2.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, up slightly from a year
earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted
and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not
counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)
Among the marginally attached, there were 921,000 discouraged workers in March, little changed from
a year earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently
looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.5 million persons
marginally attached to the labor force in March had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)
Establishment Survey Data
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 216,000 in March. Job gains occurred in several
service-providing industries and in mining, and manufacturing employment continued to trend up. Since
a recent low in February 2010, total payroll employment has grown by 1.5 million. (See table B-1.)
In March, employment in the service-providing sector continued to expand, led by a gain of 78,000 in
professional and business services. Most of the gain occurred in temporary help services (+29,000)
and in professional and technical services (+35,000).
Health care employment continued to increase in March (+37,000). Over the last 12 months, health care
has added 283,000 jobs, or an average of 24,000 jobs per month.
Employment in leisure and hospitality rose by 37,000 over the month, with more than two-thirds of the
increase in food services and drinking places (+27,000).
Manufacturing employment continued to trend up in March (+17,000). Job gains were concentrated in
two durable goods industries—fabricated metal products (+8,000) and machinery (+5,000). Employment
in durable goods manufacturing has risen by 243,000 since its most recent low in December 2009.
In March, employment in mining increased by 14,000, with much of the gain occurring in support
activities for mining (+9,000).

-2-

Employment in local government continued to trend down over the month. Local government has lost
416,000 jobs since an employment peak in September 2008.
The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.3 hours in
March. The manufacturing workweek for all employees edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.5 hours, while
factory overtime was unchanged at 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours. (See tables
B-2 and B-7.)
In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls were unchanged at
$22.87. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 1.7 percent. Average hourly
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees edged down by 2 cents over the
month to $19.30. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised from +63,000 to +68,000, and
the change for February was revised from +192,000 to +194,000.
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday, May 6, 2011, at 8:30
a.m. (EDT).

-3-

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Change from:
Feb. 2011Mar. 2011

Mar.
2011

Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed................................................................... .
Employment-population ratio.......................................... .
Unemployed................................................................ .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

237,159
153,895
64.9
138,952
58.6
14,943
9.7
83,264

238,704
153,186
64.2
139,323
58.4
13,863
9.0
85,518

238,851
153,246
64.2
139,573
58.4
13,673
8.9
85,605

239,000
153,406
64.2
139,864
58.5
13,542
8.8
85,594

149
160
0.0
291
0.1
-131
-0.1
-11

Unemployment rates
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adult men (20 years and over)............................................. .
Adult women (20 years and over). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Teenagers (16 to 19 years). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian (not seasonally adjusted)............................................ .
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ .

9.7
10.0
8.0
26.0
8.7
16.5
7.5
12.5

9.0
8.8
7.9
25.7
8.0
15.7
6.9
11.9

8.9
8.7
8.0
23.9
8.0
15.3
6.8
11.6

8.8
8.6
7.7
24.5
7.9
15.5
7.1
11.3

-0.1
-0.1
-0.3
0.6
-0.1
0.2

-0.3

Total, 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less than a high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High school graduates, no college. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some college or associate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree and higher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.3
14.4
10.8
8.2
4.8

7.6
14.2
9.4
8.0
4.2

7.6
13.9
9.5
7.8
4.3

7.4
13.7
9.5
7.4
4.4

-0.2
-0.2
0.0
-0.4
0.1

Reason for unemployment
Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .
Reentrants....................................................................... .
New entrants.................................................................... .

9,368
893
3,523
1,185

8,519
910
3,357
1,351

8,334
898
3,352
1,337

8,209
896
3,262
1,360

-125
-2
-90
23

Duration of unemployment
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks................................................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,654
3,210
2,449
6,517

2,678
3,016
2,285
6,210

2,390
3,094
2,179
5,993

2,449
2,914
1,957
6,122

59
-180
-222
129

Employed persons at work part time
Part time for economic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions......................................... .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9,012
6,174
2,351
18,334

8,407
5,771
2,510
17,929

8,340
5,630
2,415
18,220

8,433
5,595
2,332
18,417

93
-35
-83
197

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)
Marginally attached to the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,255
994

2,800
993

2,730
1,020

2,434
921


- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not
necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)
Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

192
144
34
8
17
9
16
2.2
-7
110
1.5
24.9
8.3
-13
-14
2
30.0
56
43.3
31
14
48

68
94
38
5
-20
53
57
19.6
-4
56
12.9
30.5
-47.2
-7
-10
51
-1.1
29
17.9
-3
2
-26

194
240
73
4
37
32
27
0.0
5
167
13.6
-7.8
18.1
-2
-3
44
22.7
41
34.1
48
14
-46

216
230
31
15
-1
17
17
3.2
0
199
14.1
17.7
-0.1
-4
6
78
28.8
45
44.5
37
5
-14

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES2
Total nonfarm women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private production and nonsupervisory employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49.9
48.5
82.4

49.6
48.1
82.4

49.6
48.1
82.4

49.6
48.1
82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES
Total private
Average weekly hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average hourly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average weekly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.1
$ 22.48
$766.57
91.4
0.4
97.9
0.4

34.2
$ 22.86
$781.81
92.6
0.0
101.0
0.5

34.3
$ 22.87
$784.44
93.1
0.5
101.6
0.6

34.3
$ 22.87
$784.44
93.3
0.2
101.8
0.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
Total private
Average weekly hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average hourly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average weekly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33.3
$ 18.93
$630.37
98.1
0.5
124.0
0.5

33.4
$ 19.31
$644.95
99.4
-0.2
128.2
0.2

33.5
$ 19.32
$647.22
99.9
0.5
129.0
0.6

33.6
$ 19.30
$648.48
100.5
0.6
129.6
0.5

58.8
53.7

60.5
73.5

68.7
66.0

62.4
63.0

Category

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)5
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.
2 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing
industries.
3 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
4 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average
aggregate weekly payrolls.
5 Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
p Preliminary

Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates
Why are there two monthly measures of employment?
The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates of employment
and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey employment series has a smaller
margin of error on the measurement of month-to-month change than the household survey because of
its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically
significant in the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change in the
household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more expansive scope than
the establishment survey because it includes the self-employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural
workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household
survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?
It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However, neither the
establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal status of workers. Therefore, it
is not possible to determine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does not
collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does include questions which identify
the foreign and native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign born.
Why does the establishment survey have revisions?
The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by incorporating
additional information that was not available at the time of the initial publication of the estimates.
The establishment survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding
2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.
On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that re-anchors
estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment insurance tax records.
The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more information
on the annual benchmark revision, please visit www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.
Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?
Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business establishments with
fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is designed to maximize the reliability of the
total nonfarm employment estimate; firms from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled
to achieve that goal.
Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?
Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for the net employment
change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment comes from an econometric model that
forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the
net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The

establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the survey is not
immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between the birth
of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new
businesses to the survey twice a year.
Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment insurance
benefits?
No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households. All persons who
are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are included among the unemployed. (People
on temporary layoff are included even if they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or
question relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.
Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped looking for work?
Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who want a job, including
those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs are available (discouraged workers). In
addition, alternative measures of labor underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and
other groups not officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.
How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.
Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid time during the pay period, including pay for
holidays, sick leave, or other time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but
not always, results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off
work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers, such as
those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment, employees have to
be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of all employees in the payroll survey have
a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay
period, even 1 hour, are counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the
effect of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.
In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that includes the 12th of the
month. Persons who miss the entire week’s work for weather-related events are counted as employed
whether or not they are paid for the time off. The household survey collects data on the number of
persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work the entire
week, due to bad weather. Current and historical data are available on the household survey’s most
requested statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.

Technical Note
This news release presents statistics from two major
surveys, the Current Population Survey (household survey)
and the Current Employment Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment
that appears in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD
DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS).
The establishment survey provides information on
employment, hours, and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables, marked
ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. The sample includes about
140,000 businesses and government agencies representing
approximately 410,000 worksites and is drawn from a sampling frame of roughly 8.9 million unemployment insurance
tax accounts. The active sample includes approximately
one-third of all nonfarm payroll employees.
For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a
particular week or pay period. In the household survey, the
reference period is generally the calendar week that
contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the
12th, which may or may not correspond directly to the
calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between
surveys
Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect
the entire civilian noninstitutional population. Based on
responses to a series of questions on work and job search
activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in
the labor force.
People are classified as employed if they did any work
at all as paid employees during the reference week; worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or
worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or
farm. People are also counted as employed if they were
temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.
People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of
the following criteria: they had no employment during the
reference week; they were available for work at that time;
and they made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting
recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The unemployment data derived from the
household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility for
or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and
unemployed persons. Those not classified as employed or
unemployed are not in the labor force. The unemployment
rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the labor
force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the employed as a percent of the population.
Additional information about the household survey can be
found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.
Establishment survey. The sample establishments are
drawn from private nonfarm businesses such as factories,
offices, and stores, as well as from federal, state, and local
government entities. Employees on nonfarm payrolls are
those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are
counted in each job they hold. Hours and earnings data are
produced for the private sector for all employees and for
production and nonsupervisory employees. Production and
nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and
related employees in manufacturing and mining and
logging, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.
Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal activity in accordance with the 2007
version of the North American Industry Classification
System. Additional information about the establishment
survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.
Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological differences between
the household and establishment surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates derived from
the surveys. Among these are:

The household survey includes agricultural
workers, the self-employed, unpaid family
workers, and private household workers among the
employed. These groups are excluded from the
establishment survey.

The household survey includes people on unpaid
leave among the employed. The establishment
survey does not.

The household survey is limited to workers 16
years of age and older. The establishment survey is
not limited by age.

The household survey has no duplication of
individuals, because individuals are counted only
once, even if they hold more than one job. In the
establishment survey, employees working at more
than one job and thus appearing on more than one
payroll are counted separately for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment
Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor
force and the levels of employment and unemployment
undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These events may
result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such
seasonal variation can be very large.
Because these seasonal events follow a more or less
regular pattern each year, their influence on the level of a
series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation.
These
adjustments
make
nonseasonal
developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to
spot. For example, in the household survey, the large
number of youth entering the labor force each June is likely
to obscure any other changes that have taken place relative
to May, making it difficult to determine if the level of
economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the
establishment survey, payroll employment in education
declines by about 20 percent at the end of the spring term
and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because
seasonal employment changes at the end and beginning of
the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more
discernable. The seasonally adjusted figures provide a
more useful tool with which to analyze changes in monthto-month economic activity.
Many seasonally adjusted series are independently
adjusted in both the household and establishment surveys.
However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most
major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are
computed by aggregating independently adjusted
component series. For example, total unemployment is
derived by summing the adjusted series for four major agesex components; this differs from the unemployment
estimate that would be obtained by directly adjusting the
total or by combining the duration, reasons, or more
detailed age categories.
For both the household and establishment surveys, a
concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in
which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using
all relevant data, up to and including the data for the current
month. In the household survey, new seasonal factors are
used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are
used each month to adjust the three most recent monthly
estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year
revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates
Statistics based on the household and establishment
surveys are subject to both sampling and nonsampling

error. When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may
differ from the "true" population values they represent. The
exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate
based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90percent level of confidence.
For example, the confidence interval for the monthly
change in total nonfarm employment from the
establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus
100,000. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90percent confidence interval on the monthly change would
range from -50,000 to +150,000 (50,000 +/- 100,000).
These figures do not mean that the sample results are off by
these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within
this interval. Since this range includes values of less than
zero, we could not say with confidence that nonfarm
employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however,
the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then
all of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval
would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least
a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact,
risen that month. At an unemployment rate of around 5.5
percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household
survey is about +/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in
the unemployment rate it is about +/- 0.19 percentage point.
In general, estimates involving many individuals or
establishments have lower standard errors (relative to the
size of the estimate) than estimates which are based on a
small number of observations. The precision of estimates
also is improved when the data are cumulated over time,
such as for quarterly and annual averages.
The household and establishment surveys are also
affected by nonsampling error, which can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information on a timely
basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in
the collection or processing of the data.
For example, in the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete
returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive
revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered
final.
Another major source of nonsampling error in the
establishment survey is the inability to capture, on a timely
basis, employment generated by new firms. To correct for
this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an
estimation procedure with two components is used to

account for business births. The first component excludes
employment losses from business deaths from samplebased estimation in order to offset the missing employment
gains from business births. This is incorporated into the
sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting
sample units going out of business, but imputing to them
the same employment trend as the other firms in the
sample. This procedure accounts for most of the net
birth/death employment.
The second component is an ARIMA time series
model designed to estimate the residual net birth/death
employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance
universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.
The sample-based estimates from the establishment
survey are adjusted once a year (on a lagged basis) to

universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance
program. The difference between the March sample-based
employment estimates and the March universe counts is
known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough
proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also
incorporate changes in the classification of industries. Over
the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total
nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a
range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.
Other information
Information in this release will be made available to
sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone:
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, sex, and age

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

237,159
153,660
64.8
137,983
58.2
15,678
10.2
83,499
5,719

238,851
152,635
63.9
138,093
57.8
14,542
9.5
86,216
6,405

239,000
153,022
64.0
138,962
58.1
14,060
9.2
85,977
6,250

237,159
153,895
64.9
138,952
58.6
14,943
9.7
83,264
5,996

238,715
153,950
64.5
138,909
58.2
15,041
9.8
84,765
6,248

238,889
153,690
64.3
139,206
58.3
14,485
9.4
85,199
6,471

238,704
153,186
64.2
139,323
58.4
13,863
9.0
85,518
6,410

238,851
153,246
64.2
139,573
58.4
13,673
8.9
85,605
6,410

239,000
153,406
64.2
139,864
58.5
13,542
8.8
85,594
6,509

Men, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114,821
81,949
71.4
72,253
62.9
9,696
11.8
32,872

115,907
81,360
70.2
72,796
62.8
8,564
10.5
34,548

115,988
81,491
70.3
73,187
63.1
8,304
10.2
34,497

114,821
81,942
71.4
73,163
63.7
8,778
10.7
32,879

115,640
81,986
70.9
73,337
63.4
8,649
10.5
33,653

115,731
81,845
70.7
73,600
63.6
8,245
10.1
33,886

115,828
81,544
70.4
73,800
63.7
7,744
9.5
34,284

115,907
81,720
70.5
74,122
63.9
7,598
9.3
34,187

115,988
81,674
70.4
74,108
63.9
7,566
9.3
34,313

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106,198
79,059
74.4
70,238
66.1
8,821
11.2
27,139

107,292
78,672
73.3
70,842
66.0
7,829
10.0
28,620

107,381
78,788
73.4
71,207
66.3
7,581
9.6
28,593

106,198
78,841
74.2
70,977
66.8
7,864
10.0
27,357

107,114
78,980
73.7
71,130
66.4
7,849
9.9
28,134

107,216
78,906
73.6
71,480
66.7
7,426
9.4
28,310

107,203
78,506
73.2
71,589
66.8
6,917
8.8
28,698

107,292
78,795
73.4
71,954
67.1
6,841
8.7
28,497

107,381
78,764
73.4
71,959
67.0
6,805
8.6
28,617

Women, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122,339
71,712
58.6
65,730
53.7
5,982
8.3
50,627

122,944
71,275
58.0
65,297
53.1
5,978
8.4
51,668

123,012
71,532
58.1
65,775
53.5
5,756
8.0
51,481

122,339
71,954
58.8
65,789
53.8
6,165
8.6
50,385

123,075
71,964
58.5
65,572
53.3
6,392
8.9
51,112

123,158
71,845
58.3
65,605
53.3
6,240
8.7
51,313

122,876
71,642
58.3
65,523
53.3
6,119
8.5
51,234

122,944
71,526
58.2
65,451
53.2
6,075
8.5
51,418

123,012
71,732
58.3
65,756
53.5
5,976
8.3
51,280

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

113,974
68,967
60.5
63,537
55.7
5,430
7.9
45,007

114,714
68,728
59.9
63,277
55.2
5,451
7.9
45,986

114,792
68,903
60.0
63,681
55.5
5,223
7.6
45,888

113,974
68,976
60.5
63,479
55.7
5,497
8.0
44,998

114,801
69,151
60.2
63,385
55.2
5,766
8.3
45,651

114,894
69,027
60.1
63,428
55.2
5,599
8.1
45,867

114,637
68,839
60.0
63,392
55.3
5,447
7.9
45,798

114,714
68,802
60.0
63,319
55.2
5,483
8.0
45,912

114,792
68,898
60.0
63,566
55.4
5,332
7.7
45,894

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,987
5,635
33.2
4,207
24.8
1,427
25.3
11,352

16,845
5,235
31.1
3,974
23.6
1,262
24.1
11,610

16,827
5,331
31.7
4,075
24.2
1,257
23.6
11,496

16,987
6,078
35.8
4,497
26.5
1,581
26.0
10,908

16,800
5,820
34.6
4,393
26.2
1,426
24.5
10,980

16,780
5,757
34.3
4,298
25.6
1,460
25.4
11,022

16,863
5,841
34.6
4,341
25.7
1,500
25.7
11,022

16,845
5,649
33.5
4,300
25.5
1,350
23.9
11,196

16,827
5,744
34.1
4,339
25.8
1,405
24.5
11,083

1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, race, sex, and age

WHITE
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

191,648
124,950
65.2
113,339
59.1
11,611
9.3
66,698

192,601
123,848
64.3
113,066
58.7
10,782
8.7
68,752

192,688
124,156
64.4
113,877
59.1
10,279
8.3
68,532

191,648
125,103
65.3
114,165
59.6
10,939
8.7
66,545

192,641
124,824
64.8
113,728
59.0
11,096
8.9
67,817

192,749
124,700
64.7
114,079
59.2
10,620
8.5
68,049

192,516
124,192
64.5
114,197
59.3
9,995
8.0
68,325

192,601
124,237
64.5
114,330
59.4
9,907
8.0
68,364

192,688
124,497
64.6
114,706
59.5
9,791
7.9
68,191

65,277
74.8
58,701
67.3
6,576
10.1

64,866
73.8
58,939
67.1
5,926
9.1

64,890
73.8
59,254
67.4
5,635
8.7

65,062
74.6
59,279
68.0
5,784
8.9

65,088
74.1
59,137
67.3
5,951
9.1

65,041
74.0
59,484
67.7
5,557
8.5

64,673
73.6
59,586
67.8
5,086
7.9

64,919
73.9
59,860
68.1
5,059
7.8

64,864
73.7
59,850
68.0
5,014
7.7

55,033
60.2
51,079
55.9
3,954
7.2

54,685
59.6
50,772
55.3
3,913
7.2

54,900
59.8
51,169
55.7
3,730
6.8

55,067
60.2
51,092
55.9
3,975
7.2

54,953
59.7
50,817
55.2
4,136
7.5

54,914
59.7
50,920
55.3
3,994
7.3

54,686
59.6
50,878
55.4
3,808
7.0

54,677
59.5
50,816
55.3
3,860
7.1

54,950
59.8
51,184
55.7
3,766
6.9

4,640
35.8
3,559
27.5
1,081
23.3

4,297
33.4
3,354
26.1
943
21.9

4,367
34.0
3,454
26.9
913
20.9

4,974
38.4
3,794
29.3
1,180
23.7

4,783
37.3
3,775
29.5
1,008
21.1

4,746
37.1
3,676
28.7
1,070
22.5

4,833
37.5
3,732
29.0
1,100
22.8

4,641
36.1
3,654
28.4
987
21.3

4,683
36.4
3,672
28.6
1,011
21.6

28,591
17,795
62.2
14,837
51.9
2,957
16.6
10,796

28,976
17,680
61.0
14,922
51.5
2,758
15.6
11,296

29,005
17,705
61.0
14,965
51.6
2,740
15.5
11,300

28,591
17,901
62.6
14,939
52.3
2,962
16.5
10,690

28,865
18,020
62.4
15,142
52.5
2,878
16.0
10,845

28,896
17,958
62.1
15,119
52.3
2,839
15.8
10,939

28,947
17,857
61.7
15,048
52.0
2,809
15.7
11,090

28,976
17,865
61.7
15,124
52.2
2,741
15.3
11,112

29,005
17,836
61.5
15,067
51.9
2,769
15.5
11,169

8,124
70.3
6,479
56.1
1,645
20.2

8,014
67.9
6,608
56.0
1,406
17.5

8,093
68.5
6,635
56.1
1,458
18.0

8,157
70.6
6,605
57.2
1,552
19.0

8,099
69.1
6,753
57.6
1,346
16.6

8,106
69.1
6,764
57.6
1,341
16.5

8,054
68.3
6,723
57.1
1,331
16.5

8,053
68.2
6,745
57.2
1,309
16.2

8,119
68.7
6,758
57.2
1,361
16.8

9,004
62.7
7,954
55.4
1,050
11.7

9,095
62.5
7,956
54.6
1,140
12.5

8,990
61.7
7,953
54.6
1,037
11.5

9,029
62.9
7,913
55.1
1,116
12.4

9,228
63.6
8,017
55.2
1,211
13.1

9,204
63.3
7,993
55.0
1,211
13.2

9,146
62.9
7,966
54.8
1,179
12.9

9,185
63.1
7,993
54.9
1,192
13.0

9,050
62.1
7,923
54.4
1,127
12.5

666
24.9
404
15.1
262
39.3

571
21.8
358
13.7
212
37.2

623
23.8
378
14.5
245
39.3

715
26.7
421
15.7
294
41.1

693
26.3
372
14.1
321
46.3

648
24.6
361
13.7
287
44.2

658
25.1
359
13.7
299
45.4

627
23.9
386
14.7
241
38.4

668
25.6
387
14.8
281
42.1

11,089

11,345

11,301

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age — Continued
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, race, sex, and age
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mar.
2010
7,174
64.7
6,633
59.8
541
7.5
3,915

Feb.
2011
7,351
64.8
6,850
60.4
502
6.8
3,994

Mar.
2011
7,410
65.6
6,881
60.9
529
7.1
3,892

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010






Dec.
2010






Jan.
2011






Feb.
2011






Mar.
2011












1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced
annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, sex, and age

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

33,414
22,656
67.8
19,650
58.8
3,006
13.3
10,758

34,079
22,373
65.7
19,580
57.5
2,793
12.5
11,706

34,155
22,585
66.1
19,896
58.3
2,690
11.9
11,570

33,414
22,697
67.9
19,854
59.4
2,843
12.5
10,716

34,102
22,915
67.2
19,899
58.4
3,016
13.2
11,188

34,188
22,868
66.9
19,906
58.2
2,962
13.0
11,320

34,001
22,823
67.1
20,099
59.1
2,724
11.9
11,178

34,079
22,519
66.1
19,912
58.4
2,606
11.6
11,561

34,155
22,676
66.4
20,105
58.9
2,571
11.3
11,479

12,857
82.7
11,211
72.1
1,647
12.8

12,844
81.5
11,282
71.6
1,562
12.2

12,889
81.6
11,452
72.5
1,437
11.1































8,763
59.9
7,716
52.7
1,047
12.0

8,645
57.9
7,685
51.5
960
11.1

8,788
58.7
7,825
52.3
963
11.0































1,035
32.0
724
22.4
311
30.1

884
26.1
613
18.1
271
30.6

909
26.8
619
18.3
290
31.9































1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release
of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Educational attainment

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Less than a high school diploma
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

11,803
46.2
9,889
38.7
1,914
16.2

11,045
44.4
9,293
37.4
1,752
15.9

11,565
45.7
9,809
38.8
1,756
15.2

11,842
46.3
10,133
39.7
1,709
14.4

11,803
46.6
9,955
39.3
1,848
15.7

11,758
46.0
9,963
39.0
1,795
15.3

11,383
45.1
9,770
38.7
1,613
14.2

11,317
45.5
9,749
39.2
1,568
13.9

11,652
46.1
10,059
39.8
1,593
13.7

High school graduates, no college1
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

39,202
62.6
34,527
55.1
4,674
11.9

37,806
60.7
33,750
54.2
4,056
10.7

37,541
60.6
33,604
54.3
3,937
10.5

38,670
61.7
34,487
55.0
4,183
10.8

37,824
61.1
34,035
55.0
3,789
10.0

38,203
60.9
34,465
54.9
3,738
9.8

37,513
60.3
33,972
54.6
3,541
9.4

37,525
60.3
33,965
54.6
3,560
9.5

37,171
60.0
33,654
54.4
3,517
9.5

Some college or associate degree
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

36,579
70.8
33,410
64.7
3,170
8.7

36,928
69.7
33,916
64.0
3,012
8.2

36,519
69.5
33,708
64.1
2,811
7.7

36,647
70.9
33,640
65.1
3,007
8.2

37,037
69.8
33,832
63.8
3,205
8.7

36,809
70.2
33,821
64.5
2,988
8.1

36,841
70.2
33,878
64.6
2,963
8.0

36,784
69.5
33,919
64.1
2,865
7.8

36,653
69.7
33,938
64.6
2,715
7.4

Bachelor’s degree and higher2
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

45,742
77.1
43,570
73.4
2,172
4.7

46,520
76.8
44,495
73.4
2,025
4.4

46,979
77.0
44,943
73.6
2,036
4.3

45,747
77.1
43,540
73.4
2,208
4.8

46,322
76.6
43,952
72.7
2,370
5.1

46,312
76.9
44,095
73.2
2,217
4.8

46,263
76.4
44,322
73.2
1,941
4.2

46,591
76.9
44,588
73.6
2,003
4.3

46,919
76.9
44,843
73.5
2,076
4.4

1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
2 Includes persons with bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service,
and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service

Mar.
2010

Men
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Women
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

VETERANS, 18 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22,124
11,819
53.4
10,656
48.2
1,163
9.8
10,305

21,729
11,273
51.9
10,259
47.2
1,014
9.0
10,456

20,342
10,727
52.7
9,663
47.5
1,064
9.9
9,615

19,932
10,136
50.9
9,234
46.3
902
8.9
9,796

1,782
1,092
61.3
993
55.7
99
9.1
690

1,797
1,137
63.3
1,025
57.0
112
9.9
660

Gulf War-era II veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,103
1,713
81.4
1,461
69.5
252
14.7
390

2,449
1,948
79.6
1,736
70.9
213
10.9
500

1,743
1,451
83.3
1,236
70.9
215
14.8
292

1,980
1,632
82.4
1,443
72.9
189
11.6
348

360
262
72.7
225
62.4
37
14.2
98

469
316
67.5
293
62.4
24
7.5
152

Gulf War-era I veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,996
2,608
87.0
2,360
78.8
248
9.5
388

2,953
2,480
84.0
2,274
77.0
207
8.3
472

2,545
2,272
89.3
2,037
80.1
235
10.3
273

2,521
2,154
85.4
1,973
78.3
181
8.4
367

451
336
74.4
323
71.6
13
3.8
115

432
326
75.6
301
69.6
26
7.9
105

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,113
4,014
36.1
3,705
33.3
309
7.7
7,098

10,558
3,602
34.1
3,292
31.2
310
8.6
6,956

10,743
3,904
36.3
3,599
33.5
305
7.8
6,839

10,236
3,473
33.9
3,177
31.0
296
8.5
6,763

370
110
29.9
106
28.7
4
3.8
259

322
129
40.0
115
35.8
14
10.6
193

Veterans of other service periods
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,912
3,484
58.9
3,130
52.9
354
10.2
2,428

5,770
3,243
56.2
2,958
51.3
285
8.8
2,527

5,311
3,100
58.4
2,791
52.5
309
10.0
2,211

5,196
2,877
55.4
2,641
50.8
236
8.2
2,318

601
384
63.9
339
56.4
45
11.7
217

574
365
63.6
316
55.1
49
13.4
209

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

206,214
140,085
67.9
126,083
61.1
14,002
10.0
66,129

208,483
140,108
67.2
127,531
61.2
12,577
9.0
68,375

89,984
70,338
78.2
61,987
68.9
8,351
11.9
19,646

91,497
70,506
77.1
63,349
69.2
7,157
10.2
20,990

116,230
69,747
60.0
64,096
55.1
5,651
8.1
46,483

116,986
69,602
59.5
64,182
54.9
5,420
7.8
47,384

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August
2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time
periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and
another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally
adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Persons with a disability
Employment status, sex, and age

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

Persons with no disability
Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

TOTAL, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population...................................................... .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

26,945
6,054
22.5
5,215
19.4
839
13.9
20,891

27,631
5,794
21.0
4,891
17.7
903
15.6
21,836

210,214
147,607
70.2
132,767
63.2
14,839
10.1
62,608

211,369
147,228
69.7
134,071
63.4
13,157
8.9
64,141

Men, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

2,835
38.7
2,363
32.2
472
16.6
4,495

2,671
35.2
2,196
29.0
474
17.8
4,907

75,455
83.1
66,499
73.2
8,956
11.9
15,359

74,933
82.3
67,376
74.0
7,557
10.1
16,158

Women, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

2,413
31.8
2,115
27.8
298
12.4
5,183

2,238
29.3
1,876
24.5
362
16.2
5,406

66,307
71.4
60,814
65.4
5,493
8.3
26,614

66,171
71.0
60,952
65.4
5,219
7.9
27,065

Both sexes, 65 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

806
6.7
737
6.1
69
8.5
11,213

886
7.1
819
6.6
67
7.6
11,524

5,845
22.1
5,455
20.6
390
6.7
20,635

6,124
22.6
5,743
21.2
380
6.2
20,917

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing
even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition;
has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or
shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status and nativity

Mar.
2010

Men
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Women
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

Foreign born, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34,991
23,855
68.2
21,239
60.7
2,616
11.0
11,136

35,996
24,034
66.8
21,728
60.4
2,306
9.6
11,961

17,428
14,093
80.9
12,501
71.7
1,592
11.3
3,334

17,886
14,259
79.7
12,886
72.0
1,373
9.6
3,626

17,564
9,762
55.6
8,739
49.8
1,024
10.5
7,802

18,110
9,775
54.0
8,842
48.8
933
9.5
8,335

Native born, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

202,168
129,805
64.2
116,743
57.7
13,062
10.1
72,363

203,004
128,988
63.5
117,234
57.7
11,754
9.1
74,016

97,393
67,856
69.7
59,752
61.4
8,104
11.9
29,537

98,102
67,231
68.5
60,301
61.5
6,931
10.3
30,870

104,775
61,949
59.1
56,991
54.4
4,958
8.0
42,825

104,902
61,756
58.9
56,933
54.3
4,823
7.8
43,146

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or
one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the
United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Category

CLASS OF WORKER
Agriculture and related industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private households........................... .
Other industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME2
All industries
Part time for economic reasons3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries
Part time for economic reasons3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

2,103
1,242
835
26
135,880
127,009
21,472
105,537
733
104,804
8,797
74

2,097
1,233
849
15
135,996
127,336
20,985
106,351
688
105,663
8,573
87

2,145
1,303
824
17
136,818
128,060
21,082
106,978
695
106,283
8,652
105

2,212
1,370
851

136,842
127,745
21,250
106,515

105,770
8,937

2,185
1,385
771

136,752
127,728
20,600
107,146

106,516
8,832

2,176
1,384
775

137,001
128,043
20,759
107,303

106,665
8,783

2,256
1,390
861

137,088
128,151
20,740
107,409

106,774
8,864

2,255
1,340
889

137,443
128,664
20,933
107,681

106,965
8,688

2,251
1,423
835

137,738
128,800
20,858
107,946

107,251
8,773

9,343
6,443
2,611
18,739

8,749
6,051
2,402
18,669

8,737
5,812
2,529
18,912

9,012
6,174
2,351
18,334

8,960
6,025
2,557
18,326

8,931
6,011
2,568
18,184

8,407
5,771
2,510
17,929

8,340
5,630
2,415
18,220

8,433
5,595
2,332
18,417

9,210
6,343
2,606
18,430

8,633
5,974
2,388
18,321

8,537
5,708
2,503
18,565

8,903
6,093
2,378
18,001

8,822
5,941
2,555
17,929

8,789
5,911
2,542
17,829

8,242
5,661
2,513
17,552

8,248
5,558
2,383
17,835

8,265
5,504
2,305
17,984

1 Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
2 Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the
entire week.
3 Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions,
inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
4 Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training,
retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during
the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of
the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

AGE AND SEX
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137,983
4,207
1,243
2,964
133,775
12,380
121,396
93,620
29,860
30,623
33,137
27,776

138,093
3,974
1,155
2,819
134,119
12,664
121,455
93,017
30,110
30,156
32,751
28,437

138,962
4,075
1,172
2,903
134,887
12,823
122,064
93,442
30,303
30,453
32,686
28,622

138,952
4,497
1,393
3,093
134,455
12,608
121,804
94,096
30,115
30,790
33,191
27,708

138,909
4,393
1,440
2,961
134,515
12,774
121,744
93,723
30,214
30,527
32,982
28,021

139,206
4,298
1,434
2,869
134,908
12,713
122,196
93,962
30,345
30,447
33,170
28,234

139,323
4,341
1,406
2,939
134,982
12,941
122,026
93,758
30,438
30,373
32,946
28,268

139,573
4,300
1,311
3,000
135,274
12,954
122,245
93,764
30,412
30,409
32,943
28,481

139,864
4,339
1,326
2,990
135,525
13,021
122,479
93,949
30,538
30,605
32,806
28,530

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72,253
2,014
602
1,412
70,238
6,248
63,990
49,510
15,999
16,475
17,036
14,481

72,796
1,953
562
1,391
70,842
6,513
64,329
49,491
16,347
16,240
16,904
14,839

73,187
1,980
604
1,376
71,207
6,579
64,628
49,659
16,401
16,319
16,939
14,969

73,163
2,187
688
1,492
70,977
6,409
64,586
50,079
16,291
16,635
17,153
14,507

73,337
2,206
688
1,524
71,130
6,502
64,617
49,970
16,331
16,543
17,096
14,648

73,600
2,121
695
1,420
71,480
6,568
64,904
50,117
16,428
16,522
17,168
14,787

73,800
2,211
717
1,471
71,589
6,784
64,789
50,005
16,542
16,394
17,070
14,784

74,122
2,168
668
1,495
71,954
6,715
65,179
50,247
16,627
16,477
17,143
14,932

74,108
2,149
688
1,454
71,959
6,731
65,207
50,241
16,677
16,481
17,083
14,966

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65,730
2,193
640
1,552
63,537
6,132
57,405
44,110
13,861
14,148
16,101
13,295

65,297
2,021
593
1,428
63,277
6,151
57,125
43,527
13,764
13,916
15,847
13,598

65,775
2,095
568
1,527
63,681
6,244
57,436
43,783
13,902
14,135
15,746
13,653

65,789
2,310
705
1,602
63,479
6,198
57,218
44,017
13,824
14,155
16,038
13,201

65,572
2,187
752
1,437
63,385
6,272
57,127
43,753
13,883
13,983
15,887
13,374

65,605
2,177
739
1,449
63,428
6,145
57,292
43,845
13,917
13,925
16,003
13,447

65,523
2,130
689
1,468
63,392
6,157
57,237
43,752
13,897
13,979
15,877
13,485

65,451
2,132
644
1,506
63,319
6,239
57,065
43,517
13,785
13,931
15,800
13,549

65,756
2,190
638
1,537
63,566
6,290
57,272
43,708
13,862
14,124
15,723
13,564

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42,954
34,900
8,688

42,658
34,579
8,499

42,636
34,292
8,744

43,152
34,810

43,130
34,543

43,081
34,612

42,915
34,571

42,957
34,496

42,880
34,236

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS
Full-time workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109,877
28,106

110,731
27,361

111,186
27,776

111,454
27,402

111,187
27,594

111,744
27,394

112,356
26,901

112,660
26,878

112,775
27,087

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent of total employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,063
5.1

6,882
5.0

6,809
4.9

7,002
5.0

6,734
4.8

6,950
5.0

6,840
4.9

6,764
4.8

6,746
4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Self-employed workers, incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,446
9,632

5,221
9,421

5,169
9,476


9,788


9,603


9,559


9,724


9,577


9,608

1 Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
2 Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment rates

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

AGE AND SEX
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over............................ .

14,943
1,581
591
990
13,362
2,351
11,013
9,000
3,344
2,852
2,804
2,043

13,673
1,350
531
820
12,323
2,352
10,013
8,049
3,146
2,436
2,467
1,962

13,542
1,405
542
869
12,137
2,297
9,858
7,933
3,068
2,361
2,504
1,969

9.7
26.0
29.8
24.2
9.0
15.7
8.3
8.7
10.0
8.5
7.8
6.9

9.8
24.5
24.9
24.2
9.2
15.9
8.4
8.7
10.4
7.7
8.1
7.2

9.4
25.4
27.1
24.5
8.8
15.3
8.1
8.5
10.1
7.8
7.5
6.9

9.0
25.7
27.8
24.6
8.4
15.2
7.6
7.9
9.3
7.4
7.1
6.7

8.9
23.9
28.8
21.5
8.3
15.4
7.6
7.9
9.4
7.4
7.0
6.4

8.8
24.5
29.0
22.5
8.2
15.0
7.4
7.8
9.1
7.2
7.1
6.5

Men, 16 years and over.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over............................ .

8,778
914
310
605
7,864
1,429
6,401
5,237
2,038
1,581
1,617
1,164

7,598
757
267
493
6,841
1,315
5,565
4,428
1,743
1,327
1,358
1,137

7,566
761
275
492
6,805
1,319
5,486
4,396
1,703
1,287
1,406
1,090

10.7
29.5
31.1
28.8
10.0
18.2
9.0
9.5
11.1
8.7
8.6
7.4

10.5
26.6
28.5
25.5
9.9
18.1
9.0
9.3
10.9
7.9
9.2
8.0

10.1
27.8
29.0
27.4
9.4
16.9
8.6
8.9
10.6
7.9
8.3
7.2

9.5
27.2
29.1
26.6
8.8
15.9
8.0
8.3
9.8
7.6
7.5
7.1

9.3
25.9
28.5
24.8
8.7
16.4
7.9
8.1
9.5
7.5
7.3
7.1

9.3
26.2
28.5
25.3
8.6
16.4
7.8
8.0
9.3
7.2
7.6
6.8

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over1 .......................... .

6,165
668
281
386
5,497
922
4,613
3,763
1,305
1,271
1,187
841

6,075
593
264
327
5,483
1,036
4,448
3,621
1,403
1,109
1,109
825

5,976
644
267
377
5,332
978
4,372
3,537
1,365
1,073
1,098
846

8.6
22.4
28.5
19.4
8.0
13.0
7.5
7.9
8.6
8.2
6.9
6.0

8.9
22.3
21.2
22.8
8.3
13.5
7.7
8.1
9.8
7.5
6.9
6.2

8.7
22.8
25.2
21.5
8.1
13.5
7.5
7.9
9.5
7.6
6.6
5.8

8.5
24.0
26.4
22.5
7.9
14.4
7.1
7.5
8.7
7.1
6.6
6.3

8.5
21.8
29.1
17.8
8.0
14.2
7.2
7.7
9.2
7.4
6.6
5.7

8.3
22.7
29.5
19.7
7.7
13.5
7.1
7.5
9.0
7.1
6.5
5.8

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,128
2,226
1,102

2,641
1,964
1,273

2,688
2,076
1,224

6.8
6.0
11.3

6.9
5.8
13.0

6.6
5.6
12.0

5.8
5.6
12.7

5.8
5.4
13.0

5.9
5.7
12.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS
Full-time workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13,067
1,960

11,798
1,873

11,746
1,835

10.5
6.7

10.7
5.8

10.2
6.0

9.7
6.2

9.5
6.5

9.4
6.3

1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
3 Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time
jobs.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of
the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Reason

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff........................... .
Permanent job losers........................... .
Persons who completed temporary jobs. . . . . .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,311
2,015
8,296
6,837
1,459
856
3,521
991

9,212
1,718
7,495
6,005
1,489
888
3,338
1,103

8,841
1,489
7,352
5,877
1,475
857
3,233
1,129

9,368
1,570
7,798
6,438
1,360
893
3,523
1,185

9,471
1,430
8,042
6,425
1,617
864
3,427
1,269

8,923
1,402
7,521
5,995
1,526
914
3,408
1,311

8,519
1,249
7,270
5,879
1,391
910
3,357
1,351

8,334
1,270
7,064
5,671
1,393
898
3,352
1,337

8,209
1,197
7,013
5,625
1,388
896
3,262
1,360

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff........................... .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65.8
12.9
52.9
5.5
22.5
6.3

63.4
11.8
51.5
6.1
23.0
7.6

62.9
10.6
52.3
6.1
23.0
8.0

62.6
10.5
52.1
6.0
23.5
7.9

63.0
9.5
53.5
5.8
22.8
8.4

61.3
9.6
51.7
6.3
23.4
9.0

60.3
8.8
51.4
6.4
23.7
9.6

59.9
9.1
50.7
6.4
24.1
9.6

59.8
8.7
51.1
6.5
23.8
9.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.7
0.6
2.3
0.6

6.0
0.6
2.2
0.7

5.8
0.6
2.1
0.7

6.1
0.6
2.3
0.8

6.2
0.6
2.2
0.8

5.8
0.6
2.2
0.9

5.6
0.6
2.2
0.9

5.4
0.6
2.2
0.9

5.4
0.6
2.1
0.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Duration

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Less than 5 weeks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 weeks and over................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,402
3,599
9,676
2,966
6,711

2,263
3,801
8,478
2,420
6,058

2,161
3,230
8,669
2,407
6,263

2,654
3,210
8,966
2,449
6,517

2,824
3,336
8,843
2,515
6,328

2,725
3,184
8,647
2,205
6,441

2,678
3,016
8,495
2,285
6,210

2,390
3,094
8,172
2,179
5,993

2,449
2,914
8,078
1,957
6,122

Average (mean) duration, in weeks1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Median duration, in weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.1
21.6

36.7
20.6

39.8
22.7

31.7
20.3

33.9
21.7

34.2
22.4

36.9
21.8

37.1
21.2

39.0
21.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 weeks and over................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.3
23.0
61.7
18.9
42.8

15.6
26.1
58.3
16.6
41.7

15.4
23.0
61.7
17.1
44.5

17.9
21.6
60.5
16.5
43.9

18.8
22.2
58.9
16.8
42.2

18.7
21.9
59.4
15.2
44.3

18.9
21.3
59.9
16.1
43.8

17.5
22.7
59.8
16.0
43.9

18.2
21.7
60.1
14.6
45.5

1 Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see
www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employed
Occupation

Total, 16 years and over1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management, professional, and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . .
Management, business, and financial operations
occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service occupations................................................. .
Sales and office occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sales and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Office and administrative support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
occupations........................................................ .
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction and extraction occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations............ .
Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations........................................................ .
Production occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and material moving occupations............. .

Unemployed

Unemployment
rates

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

137,983
52,163

138,962
53,243

15,678
2,600

14,060
2,381

10.2
4.7

9.2
4.3

21,267
30,896
24,229
33,527
15,366
18,161

21,598
31,646
24,223
33,000
14,983
18,018

1,212
1,387
2,770
3,352
1,655
1,697

1,082
1,299
2,744
3,082
1,441
1,642

5.4
4.3
10.3
9.1
9.7
8.5

4.8
3.9
10.2
8.5
8.8
8.4

12,758
852
6,968
4,938

12,575
876
6,898
4,801

3,028
238
2,275
515

2,464
225
1,754
486

19.2
21.8
24.6
9.4

16.4
20.4
20.3
9.2

15,305
7,544
7,761

15,921
7,997
7,924

2,888
1,449
1,440

2,218
1,059
1,159

15.9
16.1
15.6

12.2
11.7
12.8

1 Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the
introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is
derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with
earlier years.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted

Industry and class of worker

Total, 16 years and over1 ............................................................... .
Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.................................... .
Construction.......................................................................... .
Manufacturing........................................................................ .
Durable goods..................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ .
Professional and business services............................................... .
Education and health services..................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers......................... .
Government workers................................................................... .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment
rates

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

15,678
12,901
73
2,251
1,898
1,289
608
2,097
569
322
717
1,785
1,101
1,571
517
266
881
639

14,060
11,288
46
1,695
1,475
957
518
1,796
562
236
649
1,488
1,152
1,695
495
216
888
540

10.2
10.9
10.1
24.9
12.6
13.6
10.7
10.1
9.7
10.4
7.7
12.4
5.2
12.5
8.4
18.0
3.9
6.2

9.2
9.5
5.9
20.0
9.7
10.0
9.3
8.8
9.6
7.6
7.1
10.0
5.3
13.2
8.1
14.5
4.0
5.3

1 Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Not seasonally adjusted
Measure

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as
a percent of the civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-2 Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian
labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the
civilian labor force (official unemployment
rate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers,
as a percent of the civilian labor force plus
discouraged workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers,
plus all other persons marginally attached to
the labor force, as a percent of the civilian
labor force plus all persons marginally attached
to the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons
marginally attached to the labor force, plus
total employed part time for economic reasons,
as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all
persons marginally attached to the labor
force................................................. .

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Nov.
2010

Dec.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011

Mar.
2011

6.3

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.7

5.6

5.5

5.3

5.3

6.7

6.0

5.8

6.1

6.2

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.4

10.2

9.5

9.2

9.7

9.8

9.4

9.0

8.9

8.8

10.8

10.1

9.7

10.3

10.5

10.2

9.6

9.5

9.4

11.5

11.1

10.6

11.0

11.2

10.9

10.7

10.5

10.3

17.5

16.7

16.2

16.8

17.0

16.7

16.1

15.9

15.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are
available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a
job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for
full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Category

Mar.
2010

Men
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Women
Mar.
2011

Mar.
2010

Mar.
2011

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE
Total not in the labor force............................................ .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . ............................. .
Marginally attached to the labor force1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other persons marginally attached to the labor force3 . . . .

83,499
5,719
2,255
994
1,261

85,977
6,250
2,434
921
1,513

32,872
2,795
1,263
624
639

34,497
2,987
1,280
569
711

50,627
2,924
992
370
622

51,481
3,263
1,154
351
802

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent of total employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary job full time, secondary job part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both full time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hours vary on primary or secondary job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,063
5.1
3,821
1,823
258
1,126

6,809
4.9
3,659
1,816
240
1,048

3,536
4.9
2,110
613
174
618

3,292
4.5
1,994
555
180
537

3,527
5.4
1,712
1,210
84
508

3,517
5.3
1,664
1,261
60
511

1 Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week,
but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
2 Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling
or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
3 Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation
problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
4 Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Industry

Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

128,584
105,671
17,248

128,183
106,079
17,304

128,982
106,527
17,332

129,907
107,360
17,502

129,438
106,916
17,701

130,328
108,102
17,835

130,522
108,342
17,908

130,738
108,572
17,939

Change
from:
Feb.2011 Mar.2011p
216
230
31

Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, except oil and gas1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coal mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support activities for mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

668
47.7
620.6
155.6
193.6
79.2
271.4

723
46.8
676.6
162.4
195.3
83.2
318.9

726
47.4
678.1
163.4
195.5
82.6
319.2

744
47.3
696.9
166.4
200.4
84.4
330.1

680
50.4
629.8
156.8
200.7
79.1
272.3

739
48.1
691.0
163.4
205.1
83.2
322.5

743
48.7
694.3
164.9
205.8
83.0
323.6

758
49.8
707.9
167.7
207.2
84.3
333.0

15
1.1
13.6
2.8
1.4
1.3
9.4

Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction of buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heavy and civil engineering construction. . . . . . .
Specialty trade contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential specialty trade contractors. . . . . . .
Nonresidential specialty trade contractors. . . .

5,213
1,186.3
553.1
633.2
735.0
3,291.5
1,388.0
1,903.5

5,067
1,157.9
528.3
629.6
720.2
3,189.0
1,338.5
1,850.5

5,074
1,146.4
527.5
618.9
725.6
3,201.6
1,339.7
1,861.9

5,183
1,167.1
535.9
631.2
759.3
3,256.9
1,354.9
1,902.0

5,550
1,245.0
585.1
659.9
814.8
3,490.2
1,487.5
2,002.7

5,478
1,219.7
562.4
657.3
830.5
3,427.8
1,445.9
1,981.9

5,515
1,221.4
565.9
655.5
837.5
3,455.9
1,454.6
2,001.3

5,514
1,224.6
566.5
658.1
839.9
3,449.2
1,446.6
2,002.6

-1
3.2
0.6
2.6
2.4
-6.7
-8.0
1.3

Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,367

11,514

11,532

11,575

11,471

11,618

11,650

11,667

17

Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmetallic mineral products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fabricated metal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machinery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and electronic products1 . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and peripheral equipment. . . . . . .
Communication equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Semiconductors and electronic
components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical equipment and appliances. . . . . . . . .
Transportation equipment1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and related products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,960
332.6
358.2
353.4
1,253.4
977.9
1,092.8
159.2
116.2

7,132
332.4
351.5
368.6
1,318.1
1,016.7
1,114.0
167.3
119.5

7,151
332.8
352.2
371.6
1,317.8
1,023.2
1,114.8
169.5
117.4

7,185
333.5
358.4
373.9
1,329.5
1,028.0
1,116.7
170.5
117.7

7,010
343.2
371.7
354.0
1,262.0
981.4
1,095.0
159.3
116.6

7,183
340.9
369.6
369.4
1,323.2
1,018.3
1,115.2
167.6
119.2

7,210
343.0
371.3
373.3
1,329.5
1,025.4
1,116.6
169.9
117.2

7,227
343.4
371.8
374.4
1,337.7
1,030.3
1,116.9
170.2
118.2

17
0.4
0.5
1.1
8.2
4.9
0.3
0.3
1.0

365.6
406.1
353.3
1,318.7
665.8
355.9
563.7

377.4
405.2
368.3
1,343.8
686.8
346.8
571.5

378.2
404.5
367.6
1,350.5
692.2
346.4
574.5

379.1
404.4
364.3
1,359.8
698.2
347.7
572.7

366.3
406.9
355.5
1,320.5
664.4
359.3
567.2

377.5
406.3
368.2
1,351.8
693.8
352.2
574.2

378.7
405.6
368.0
1,355.2
693.8
351.2
576.0

378.9
404.9
366.1
1,361.3
697.0
350.9
574.6

0.2
-0.7
-1.9
6.1
3.2
-0.3
-1.4

Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beverages and tobacco products. . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile product mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leather and allied products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and paper products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing and related support activities. . . . . . . .
Petroleum and coal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastics and rubber products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,407
1,418.0
178.2
118.9
117.8
158.5
27.4
392.6
487.4
109.8
784.8
613.8

4,382
1,424.9
172.6
118.7
114.7
154.5
27.8
396.3
471.9
105.2
771.2
624.6

4,381
1,417.6
173.6
119.9
114.9
155.9
28.8
394.5
470.8
107.0
773.3
624.3

4,390
1,417.0
173.0
120.5
115.6
154.9
29.4
395.0
473.3
109.7
774.6
627.4

4,461
1,448.3
183.8
119.2
118.9
159.0
27.6
395.7
489.5
113.3
786.6
618.9

4,435
1,446.9
177.6
119.9
115.6
157.9
28.2
396.5
476.4
111.6
773.9
630.2

4,440
1,449.3
179.8
120.7
116.3
156.0
29.1
396.4
474.7
112.7
775.3
629.9

4,440
1,446.5
178.4
120.8
116.2
155.3
29.4
397.4
475.5
113.5
776.1
631.2

0
-2.8
-1.4
0.1
-0.1
-0.7
0.3
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.3

Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88,423

88,775

89,195

89,858

89,215

90,267

90,434

90,633

199

Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24,278

24,538

24,379

24,522

24,559

24,740

24,765

24,797

32

Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic markets and agents and brokers.. .

5,410.4
2,694.3
1,917.6
798.5

5,440.5
2,725.2
1,912.4
802.9

5,452.1
2,734.2
1,913.7
804.2

5,487.3
2,748.6
1,930.6
808.1

5,444.6
2,708.9
1,934.0
801.7

5,492.4
2,744.6
1,939.6
808.2

5,506.0
2,754.8
1,941.3
809.9

5,520.1
2,763.8
1,944.8
811.5

14.1
9.0
3.5
1.6

Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle and parts dealers1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automobile dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and home furnishings stores. . . . . . .

14,203.6
1,599.4
997.0
432.4

14,372.6
1,621.0
1,011.0
440.1

14,195.0
1,630.4
1,016.8
428.3

14,289.3
1,641.5
1,020.4
426.3

14,408.4
1,614.8
1,002.0
438.7

14,477.7
1,650.8
1,023.3
435.4

14,469.9
1,654.8
1,025.2
434.1

14,487.6
1,656.7
1,024.9
433.0

17.7
1.9
-0.3
-1.1

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
— Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Change
from:
Feb.2011 Mar.2011p

Electronics and appliance stores. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building material and garden supply stores.. .
Food and beverage stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and personal care stores. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing and clothing accessories stores. . . . .
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music
stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General merchandise stores1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Department stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous store retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonstore retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

491.5
1,131.5
2,778.7
973.9
804.0
1,318.2

504.0
1,061.1
2,801.0
972.2
803.6
1,414.0

493.7
1,065.9
2,787.6
965.3
799.4
1,363.1

491.6
1,111.3
2,786.0
961.2
805.3
1,365.5

492.5
1,149.0
2,806.9
979.9
814.4
1,364.0

500.0
1,117.3
2,816.1
971.9
814.9
1,412.1

496.1
1,113.7
2,815.5
970.0
812.0
1,413.6

494.0
1,121.5
2,813.9
967.9
814.9
1,415.7

-2.1
7.8
-1.6
-2.1
2.9
2.1

584.6
2,935.0
1,453.2
746.5
407.9

611.9
2,982.8
1,513.9
743.8
417.1

588.9
2,917.8
1,464.0
748.9
405.7

582.5
2,969.3
1,478.0
746.4
402.4

602.1
2,964.6
1,484.8
765.0
416.5

597.6
2,987.2
1,498.9
758.7
415.7

598.5
2,989.1
1,501.9
759.0
413.5

599.2
2,996.1
1,506.3
762.9
411.8

0.7
7.0
4.4
3.9
-1.7

Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rail transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transit and ground passenger
transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pipeline transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenic and sightseeing transportation. . . . . . . .
Support activities for transportation. . . . . . . . . . .
Couriers and messengers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warehousing and storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,111.2
461.7
210.8
60.3
1,207.9

4,177.5
466.6
217.2
63.0
1,228.0

4,183.3
468.5
218.9
62.8
1,230.9

4,196.3
471.2
219.2
63.0
1,240.1

4,151.5
462.5
211.7
62.6
1,234.5

4,221.2
469.3
219.1
65.1
1,255.2

4,239.3
470.7
220.0
65.9
1,265.6

4,239.2
471.3
220.0
65.3
1,267.2

-0.1
0.6
0.0
-0.6
1.6

436.5
42.4
20.7
532.3
513.9
624.7

454.0
42.6
19.4
541.3
522.8
622.6

454.3
42.5
20.4
548.1
515.1
621.8

455.0
42.8
21.5
547.3
514.4
621.8

424.0
42.7
27.2
536.9
521.3
628.1

443.9
42.4
27.1
546.1
524.9
628.1

444.6
42.6
27.4
550.0
524.2
628.3

443.9
43.0
27.8
551.2
524.1
625.4

-0.7
0.4
0.4
1.2
-0.1
-2.9

Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

553.0

547.2

548.4

548.9

554.3

548.9

550.1

549.9

-0.2

Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing industries, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . .
Motion picture and sound recording
industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadcasting, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data processing, hosting and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other information services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,715
761.5

2,663
753.7

2,679
754.3

2,678
755.5

2,718
762.5

2,687
756.2

2,685
756.8

2,681
756.9

-4
0.1

365.4
293.5
913.4

352.0
295.3
876.9

366.0
295.8
875.9

368.5
294.8
869.8

367.0
294.3
912.7

371.1
295.8
876.8

370.3
296.8
873.1

370.5
295.5
869.3

0.2
-1.3
-3.8

243.6
137.6

238.0
146.7

238.3
148.4

239.8
149.6

243.0
138.5

239.8
147.0

239.6
148.5

239.1
150.0

-0.5
1.5

Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finance and insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monetary authorities - central bank. . . . . . . . . . .
Credit intermediation and related
activities1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depository credit intermediation1 . . . . . . . . . .
Commercial banking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Securities, commodity contracts,
investments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insurance carriers and related activities. . . . . .
Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles. . .
Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental and leasing services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets. . . . .

7,606
5,695.1
20.6

7,560
5,666.0
21.0

7,561
5,662.0
20.8

7,573
5,660.3
21.1

7,643
5,698.0
20.6

7,607
5,677.0
21.1

7,604
5,667.8
21.0

7,610
5,663.4
21.1

6
-4.4
0.1

2,543.5
1,726.6
1,303.7

2,542.5
1,743.9
1,316.4

2,538.9
1,741.7
1,314.7

2,534.5
1,741.3
1,314.4

2,543.6
1,730.3
1,305.0

2,543.9
1,743.1
1,315.8

2,538.5
1,743.0
1,315.2

2,535.3
1,743.8
1,316.0

-3.2
0.8
0.8

795.6
2,249.0
86.4
1,910.6
1,378.9
506.3
25.4

802.5
2,213.0
87.0
1,893.9
1,368.6
499.8
25.5

804.7
2,210.4
87.2
1,898.7
1,374.8
498.5
25.4

806.5
2,211.7
86.5
1,913.0
1,377.9
509.5
25.6

795.5
2,251.6
86.7
1,944.6
1,398.8
520.1
25.7

804.7
2,220.1
87.2
1,929.5
1,390.8
513.0
25.7

806.0
2,215.1
87.2
1,936.6
1,395.6
515.4
25.6

806.6
2,213.4
87.0
1,946.1
1,397.6
522.8
25.7

0.6
-1.7
-0.2
9.5
2.0
7.4
0.1

16,343
7,467.9
1,109.1
1,005.2
1,260.8

16,601
7,513.7
1,107.2
977.6
1,262.3

16,736
7,576.4
1,106.2
1,019.4
1,263.1

16,879
7,600.3
1,108.4
1,018.0
1,271.1

16,546
7,403.3
1,113.4
891.1
1,279.2

16,953
7,486.6
1,115.1
883.3
1,280.5

16,997
7,494.2
1,113.1
878.0
1,284.2

17,075
7,528.9
1,112.6
898.2
1,289.4

78
34.7
-0.5
20.2
5.2

1,416.7

1,467.3

1,472.2

1,473.9

1,424.9

1,472.1

1,475.8

1,482.2

6.4

981.7
1,849.9
7,024.7

1,000.1
1,862.0
7,225.5

1,009.9
1,862.5
7,297.2

1,010.0
1,867.0
7,411.2

989.2
1,855.3
7,287.3

1,011.8
1,871.4
7,594.6

1,017.6
1,871.5
7,631.4

1,017.3
1,872.5
7,673.4

-0.3
1.0
42.0

Industry

Retail trade - Continued

Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and technical services1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting and bookkeeping services. . . . . . .
Architectural and engineering services. . . . . . .
Computer systems design and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management and technical consulting
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management of companies and enterprises. . . .
Administrative and waste services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
— Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted

Seasonally adjusted

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Change
from:
Feb.2011 Mar.2011p

Administrative and support services1 . . . . . . . .
Employment services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business support services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services to buildings and dwellings. . . . . . . .
Waste management and remediation
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,681.2
2,517.3
1,908.1
809.4
1,591.3

6,872.2
2,693.0
2,066.0
804.6
1,605.5

6,945.2
2,756.4
2,111.0
810.7
1,600.2

7,059.4
2,817.0
2,161.8
813.3
1,636.5

6,936.3
2,639.4
2,006.2
804.6
1,715.5

7,234.7
2,867.1
2,206.1
805.4
1,770.5

7,270.4
2,899.2
2,228.8
808.3
1,765.2

7,313.3
2,935.1
2,257.6
809.2
1,764.1

42.9
35.9
28.8
0.9
-1.1

343.5

353.3

352.0

351.8

351.0

359.9

361.0

360.1

-0.9

Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ambulatory health care services1 . . . . . . . . .
Offices of physicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outpatient care centers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Home health care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nursing and residential care facilities1 . . . .
Nursing care facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social assistance1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Child day care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19,599
3,284.8
16,314.4
13,694.6
5,924.2
2,305.7
594.4
1,065.9
4,665.7
3,104.7
1,649.4
2,619.8
868.3

19,670
3,113.6
16,556.0
13,894.5
6,031.2
2,328.8
610.0
1,098.1
4,705.4
3,157.9
1,675.3
2,661.5
868.6

19,925
3,336.5
16,588.3
13,921.5
6,060.8
2,334.0
613.7
1,107.5
4,705.8
3,154.9
1,668.5
2,666.8
870.6

20,019
3,352.7
16,666.1
13,977.6
6,085.1
2,343.0
614.4
1,113.5
4,719.7
3,172.8
1,678.6
2,688.5
879.2

19,455
3,131.1
16,323.8
13,722.2
5,935.1
2,309.6
594.6
1,067.9
4,674.4
3,112.7
1,654.2
2,601.6
849.9

19,789
3,190.0
16,598.5
13,935.8
6,056.1
2,333.4
611.8
1,105.0
4,712.0
3,167.7
1,679.4
2,662.7
860.2

19,830
3,196.9
16,632.6
13,968.4
6,079.3
2,338.9
614.3
1,113.6
4,717.4
3,171.7
1,678.1
2,664.2
858.6

19,875
3,198.3
16,677.1
14,005.0
6,096.9
2,346.5
615.0
1,115.6
4,727.6
3,180.5
1,682.8
2,672.1
860.7

45
1.4
44.5
36.6
17.6
7.6
0.7
2.0
10.2
8.8
4.7
7.9
2.1

Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing arts and spectator sports. . . . . . . . .
Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks. . .
Amusements, gambling, and recreation. . . . . .
Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food services and drinking places. . . . . . . . . . .

12,578
1,740.3
369.9
119.3
1,251.1
10,837.9
1,678.5
9,159.4

12,399
1,652.8
360.0
115.4
1,177.4
10,746.0
1,678.0
9,068.0

12,531
1,690.8
379.8
117.4
1,193.6
10,840.3
1,689.5
9,150.8

12,774
1,738.9
386.3
121.3
1,231.3
11,034.9
1,715.2
9,319.7

12,963
1,896.0
393.6
128.3
1,374.1
11,066.6
1,743.5
9,323.1

13,071
1,886.5
406.8
128.0
1,351.7
11,184.3
1,769.0
9,415.3

13,119
1,895.8
413.5
129.3
1,353.0
11,223.2
1,772.1
9,451.1

13,156
1,898.3
413.5
129.6
1,355.2
11,257.7
1,780.1
9,477.6

37
2.5
0.0
0.3
2.2
34.5
8.0
26.5

Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repair and maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and laundry services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Membership associations and organizations. . . .

5,304
1,127.8
1,259.1
2,916.8

5,344
1,129.8
1,248.3
2,965.9

5,384
1,140.1
1,261.1
2,983.1

5,413
1,150.2
1,273.0
2,989.4

5,331
1,130.7
1,266.1
2,933.8

5,420
1,148.5
1,268.0
3,003.3

5,434
1,150.7
1,276.2
3,007.1

5,439
1,152.3
1,279.3
3,007.5

5
1.6
3.1
0.4

Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal, except U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . . .
Local government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . . .

22,913
2,905.0
2,244.2
661.2
5,280.0
2,506.7
2,773.5
14,728.0
8,432.1
6,296.2

22,104
2,828.0
2,189.4
638.7
5,049.0
2,322.0
2,727.1
14,227.0
8,047.1
6,179.9

22,455
2,827.0
2,196.1
630.4
5,232.0
2,515.9
2,716.1
14,396.0
8,214.7
6,181.3

22,547
2,832.0
2,205.4
626.4
5,253.0
2,533.1
2,720.2
14,462.0
8,271.9
6,190.2

22,522
2,926.0
2,261.4
664.9
5,142.0
2,361.8
2,780.6
14,454.0
8,058.3
6,395.8

22,226
2,850.0
2,210.8
639.1
5,136.0
2,396.0
2,739.6
14,240.0
7,939.3
6,300.8

22,180
2,851.0
2,216.0
634.6
5,119.0
2,390.1
2,728.7
14,210.0
7,916.1
6,294.0

22,166
2,852.0
2,221.2
630.7
5,119.0
2,391.5
2,727.6
14,195.0
7,906.9
6,288.0

-14
1.0
5.2
-3.9
0.0
1.4
-1.1
-15.0
-9.2
-6.0

Industry

Administrative and waste services - Continued

1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.
2 Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
3 Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS
Total private............................................................................. .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................. .
Nondurable goods.............................................................. .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade...................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities........................................................................... .
Information......................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services..................................................................... .

34.1
39.3
43.3
37.3
40.0
40.3
39.6
33.0
34.2
37.9
31.4
38.1
40.6
36.5
36.9
35.3
32.8
25.8
31.6

34.2
39.6
44.1
37.3
40.4
40.7
39.9
33.1
34.4
38.4
31.3
38.7
41.8
36.5
37.0
35.7
32.7
25.8
31.6

34.3
39.9
44.0
38.0
40.6
40.9
40.0
33.2
34.5
38.5
31.4
38.8
41.3
36.6
37.0
35.7
32.7
25.8
31.6

34.3
39.8
44.3
37.8
40.5
40.9
40.0
33.2
34.5
38.6
31.4
39.0
41.9
36.7
37.0
35.7
32.7
25.9
31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS
Manufacturing........................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods................................................................... .

2.9
2.8
3.1

3.1
3.0
3.2

3.3
3.2
3.4

3.3
3.3
3.4

Industry

p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Total private................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade......................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Information............................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services........................................ .

$22.48
23.92
27.04
25.17
23.16
24.65
20.78
22.14
19.58
26.08
15.54
20.86
32.28
30.25
27.10
27.15
22.73
13.09
20.11

$22.86
24.40
27.99
25.42
23.70
25.23
21.17
22.50
19.83
26.20
15.65
21.30
33.19
31.13
27.55
27.38
23.34
13.18
20.41

$22.87
24.27
27.97
25.40
23.51
25.00
21.04
22.54
19.86
26.18
15.68
21.42
33.10
31.30
27.57
27.49
23.40
13.15
20.40

$22.87
24.28
28.02
25.41
23.51
24.99
21.06
22.54
19.86
26.10
15.65
21.51
33.33
31.17
27.55
27.56
23.40
13.14
20.30

p Preliminary

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

$ 766.57 $ 781.81 $ 784.44 $ 784.44
940.06
966.24
968.37
966.34
1,170.83 1,234.36 1,230.68 1,241.29
938.84
948.17
965.20
960.50
926.40
957.48
954.51
952.16
993.40 1,026.86 1,022.50 1,022.09
822.89
844.68
841.60
842.40
730.62
744.75
748.33
748.33
669.64
682.15
685.17
685.17
988.43 1,006.08 1,007.93 1,007.46
487.96
489.85
492.35
491.41
794.77
824.31
831.10
838.89
1,310.57 1,387.34 1,367.03 1,396.53
1,104.13 1,136.25 1,145.58 1,143.94
999.99 1,019.35 1,020.09 1,019.35
958.40
977.47
981.39
983.89
745.54
763.22
765.18
765.18
337.72
340.04
339.27
340.33
635.48
644.96
644.64
643.51

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by
industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls2

Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction................................. .
Manufacturing............................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade.......................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services...... .
Education and health services. . . . ........ .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91.4
79.3
92.5
71.3
82.5
79.5
88.2
94.6
91.3
90.0
91.9
90.5
97.3
90.6
92.9
91.9
103.9
95.4
93.3

92.6
80.5
102.4
70.4
84.4
82.3
88.3
96.0
92.5
92.0
92.0
93.5
99.2
89.6
92.7
95.2
105.3
96.2
94.9

93.1
81.4
102.7
72.2
85.1
83.0
88.6
96.4
92.9
92.5
92.3
94.1
98.3
89.7
92.7
95.4
105.5
96.6
95.1

93.3
81.3
105.5
71.8
85.0
83.2
88.6
96.6
93.0
93.0
92.4
94.6
99.7
89.9
92.8
95.9
105.8
97.2
95.5

0.2
-0.1
2.7
-0.6
-0.1
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.5
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.4

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011p

97.9
85.7
100.4
78.0
88.9
87.1
93.0
101.4
96.2
98.0
94.4
95.8
103.8
97.6
98.3
101.0
110.6
100.8
106.5

101.0
88.7
115.1
77.8
93.1
92.2
94.9
104.6
98.7
100.6
95.2
101.1
108.8
99.3
99.7
105.6
115.2
102.3
109.9

101.6
89.3
115.4
79.7
93.0
92.2
94.6
105.3
99.3
101.1
95.7
102.3
107.5
100.0
99.8
106.3
115.7
102.5
110.1

101.8
89.3
118.7
79.3
92.9
92.4
94.7
105.5
99.4
101.3
95.6
103.3
109.8
99.7
99.8
107.0
116.0
103.1
110.1

0.2
0.0
2.9
-0.5
-0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
-0.1
1.0
2.1
-0.3
0.0
0.7
0.3
0.6
0.0

1 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual
average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
2 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding
2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly
hours, and employment.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Women employees (in thousands)

Percent of all employees

Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Total nonfarm.............. . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing..................................... .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing...................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities................................. .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality............................ .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64,649
51,810
4,105
96
736
3,273
1,727
1,546
47,705
10,039
1,647.5
7,251.7
998.8
140.5
1,114
4,513
7,401
15,019
6,794
2,825
12,839

64,662
52,037
4,067
101
712
3,254
1,724
1,530
47,970
9,991
1,650.1
7,205.2
1,001.0
134.3
1,094
4,451
7,512
15,223
6,832
2,867
12,625

64,728
52,112
4,068
102
713
3,253
1,725
1,528
48,044
9,997
1,655.1
7,205.4
1,001.8
134.3
1,092
4,439
7,554
15,244
6,850
2,868
12,616

64,814
52,199
4,071
103
711
3,257
1,728
1,529
48,128
10,007
1,656.0
7,216.1
1,000.5
134.6
1,093
4,447
7,575
15,265
6,877
2,864
12,615

49.9
48.5
23.2
14.1
13.3
28.5
24.6
34.7
53.5
40.9
30.3
50.3
24.1
25.3
41.0
59.0
44.7
77.2
52.4
53.0
57.0

49.6
48.1
22.8
13.7
13.0
28.0
24.0
34.5
53.1
40.4
30.0
49.8
23.7
24.5
40.7
58.5
44.3
76.9
52.3
52.9
56.8

49.6
48.1
22.7
13.7
12.9
27.9
23.9
34.4
53.1
40.4
30.1
49.8
23.6
24.4
40.7
58.4
44.4
76.9
52.2
52.8
56.9

49.6
48.1
22.7
13.6
12.9
27.9
23.9
34.4
53.1
40.4
30.0
49.8
23.6
24.5
40.8
58.4
44.4
76.8
52.3
52.7
56.9

p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted1
[In thousands]
Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing....... . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................................... .
Mining and logging.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.......................................................................... .
Manufacturing........................................................................ .
Durable goods..................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities................................................. .
Wholesale trade................................................................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing................................................ .
Utilities.............................................................................. .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ .
Professional and business services............................................... .
Education and health services..................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88,134
12,744
502
4,201
8,041
4,789
3,252
75,390
20,835
4,384.5
12,395.3
3,608.2
446.6
2,162
5,910
13,552
17,050
11,429
4,452

89,058
12,845
555
4,157
8,133
4,906
3,227
76,213
20,926
4,395.8
12,458.2
3,635.1
436.8
2,158
5,835
13,917
17,343
11,491
4,543

89,274
12,897
557
4,183
8,157
4,929
3,228
76,377
20,946
4,407.2
12,458.0
3,643.1
437.9
2,159
5,831
13,971
17,374
11,543
4,553

89,492
12,942
569
4,189
8,184
4,955
3,229
76,550
20,963
4,419.5
12,464.2
3,641.2
437.8
2,149
5,831
14,049
17,412
11,587
4,559

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS
Total private............................................................................. .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................. .
Nondurable goods.............................................................. .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade...................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities........................................................................... .
Information......................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services..................................................................... .

33.3
40.0
44.2
37.7
41.0
41.2
40.7
32.2
33.1
37.8
30.1
36.7
41.5
36.5
36.1
35.0
32.1
25.0
30.7

33.4
40.2
46.2
37.6
41.1
41.5
40.5
32.3
33.5
38.3
30.4
37.4
42.4
36.3
36.3
35.1
32.1
24.7
30.7

33.5
40.7
45.8
38.6
41.4
41.7
40.8
32.3
33.6
38.4
30.3
37.9
42.2
36.4
36.3
35.2
32.2
24.8
30.7

33.6
40.7
46.2
38.5
41.5
41.9
40.8
32.4
33.8
38.5
30.5
38.1
42.6
36.3
36.2
35.1
32.1
24.9
30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS
Manufacturing........................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods................................................................... .

3.7
3.7
3.7

4.1
4.1
4.0

4.2
4.3
4.0

4.3
4.4
4.1

Industry

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Total private................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade......................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Information............................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services........................................ .

$18.93
20.16
23.85
23.12
18.49
19.68
16.72
18.67
16.72
21.36
13.17
19.12
29.65
25.64
21.40
22.62
19.91
11.32
16.98

$19.31
20.55
24.14
23.48
18.91
20.14
16.99
19.05
17.04
21.90
13.37
19.47
30.23
26.23
21.74
23.02
20.48
11.32
17.22

$19.32
20.58
24.24
23.49
18.91
20.12
17.02
19.05
17.03
21.86
13.37
19.38
30.15
26.32
21.63
23.02
20.50
11.35
17.21

$19.30
20.59
24.38
23.48
18.92
20.09
17.07
19.02
17.02
21.86
13.35
19.30
30.59
26.14
21.64
23.06
20.45
11.36
17.14

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

$ 630.37 $ 644.95 $ 647.22 $ 648.48
806.40
826.11
837.61
838.01
1,054.17 1,115.27 1,110.19 1,126.36
871.62
882.85
906.71
903.98
758.09
777.20
782.87
785.18
810.82
835.81
839.00
841.77
680.50
688.10
694.42
696.46
601.17
615.32
615.32
616.25
553.43
570.84
572.21
575.28
807.41
838.77
839.42
841.61
396.42
406.45
405.11
407.18
701.70
728.18
734.50
735.33
1,230.48 1,281.75 1,272.33 1,303.13
935.86
952.15
958.05
948.88
772.54
789.16
785.17
783.37
791.70
808.00
810.30
809.41
639.11
657.41
660.10
656.45
283.00
279.60
281.48
282.86
521.29
528.65
528.35
527.91

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on
private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
[2002=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls3

Industry

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction................................. .
Manufacturing............................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade.......................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services...... .
Education and health services. . . . ........ .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98.1
77.9
117.9
79.3
75.7
74.1
78.0
103.8
96.1
97.6
94.4
99.7
94.8
90.1
102.1
106.3
118.1
104.7
95.9

99.4
78.9
136.3
78.3
76.7
76.5
77.0
105.3
97.7
99.1
95.9
102.3
94.7
89.4
101.4
109.5
120.1
104.0
97.8

99.9
80.2
135.6
80.8
77.5
77.2
77.6
105.5
98.1
99.7
95.5
103.9
94.5
89.7
101.3
110.2
120.7
104.9
98.1

100.5
80.5
139.7
80.8
77.9
78.0
77.6
106.1
98.8
100.2
96.2
104.4
95.4
89.1
101.0
110.5
120.6
105.8
98.5

0.6
0.4
3.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.7
0.5
1.0
-0.7
-0.3
0.3
-0.1
0.9
0.4

Mar.
2010

Jan.
2011

Feb.
2011p

Mar.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011p

124.0
96.2
163.5
99.0
91.5
91.1
92.1
132.9
114.7
122.8
106.6
120.9
117.3
114.3
135.1
143.1
154.5
134.6
118.6

128.2
99.3
191.3
99.2
94.9
96.2
92.5
137.5
118.8
127.9
109.9
126.4
119.5
116.1
136.2
150.0
161.7
133.7
122.8

129.0
101.1
191.1
102.5
95.8
97.0
93.3
137.8
119.2
128.3
109.5
127.8
118.9
116.9
135.5
151.0
162.6
135.2
123.0

129.6
101.5
198.1
102.4
96.4
97.8
93.6
138.3
119.9
129.0
110.1
127.9
121.8
115.2
135.2
151.6
162.1
136.4
123.0

0.5
0.4
3.7
-0.1
0.6
0.8
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.1
2.4
-1.5
-0.2
0.4
-0.3
0.9
0.0

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
2 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual
average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
3 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding
2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly
hours, and employment.
p Preliminary