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# Energy University

Slide 1

## Welcome to our course on the Building Envelope.

Slide 2

For best viewing results, we recommend that you maximize your browser window now. The
screen controls allow you to navigate through the eLearning experience. Using your browser
controls may disrupt the normal play of the course. Click the paperclip icon to download
supplemental information for this course. Today we will address many mathematical formulas,
and you may find it helpful to have a calculator, a pencil, and some scrap paper on hand while
participating in this course. Click the Notes tab to read a transcript of the narration.

Slide 3

## At the completion of the course, you will be able to:

Define building envelope and building load and the terms “thermally light” and “thermally heavy”
Use heat flow equations to calculate losses by transmission, infiltration and ventilation, and gains
from people and equipment
List and describe methods of minimizing load and losses through the building envelope

Slide 4

The building envelope is a critical component of any facility since it protects the building
occupants and plays a major role in regulating the indoor environment. Consisting of the
building's foundation, walls, roof, windows, and doors, the envelope controls the flow of energy
between the interior and exterior of the building. A well designed envelope allows the building to
provide comfort for the occupants and respond efficiently to heating, cooling, ventilating, and
natural lighting needs.

Today we will examine the elements of the building envelope (floors, walls, windows and ceiling)
and how those elements participate in heat transfer, whether it’s through conduction or insulation.
Specifically we will discuss heat loss or gain due to transmission, infiltration and ventilation. This

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Building Envelope Course Transcript

course contains many equations used to determine heat loss and gain through the building
envelope, and we will supply a sample case study of a building throughout the course to help
explain each topic. We will begin our discussion with some basic definitions.

Slide 5

Building envelope components separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or from
outside air. For example, walls and doors between an unheated garage and a living area are part
of the building envelope; walls separating an unheated garage from the outside are not. Think of
the building envelope as the boundary separating the inside from the outside and through which
heat is transferred. Areas that have no heating or cooling sources are considered to be outside
the building envelope. A space is conditioned if heating and/or cooling is deliberately supplied to it
or is indirectly supplied through un-insulated surfaces of water or heating equipment or through
un-insulated ducts.

Slide 6

So when we talk about building envelope, we are talking about all of the exterior surfaces of a
building that enclose the interior space. This includes walls, windows, doors, roof, foundation,
skylights, dampers, exposed floors or any other opening. Our goal today is to discuss the
reduction of heat loss from the building envelope, thereby saving energy and money!

## Some other important definitions include:

Thermal energy transfer may refer to heat lost from or gained by a building. Heat loss takes
place when we are trying to maintain indoor temperatures that are warmer than outside. Heat
gain takes place when we are trying to maintain indoor temperatures that are cooler than outside.

When we talk about building load we are talking about the amount of heat required to be
removed, or added, to maintain the internal temperature of a building at a predetermined set
point. This is usually measured in Btu/hr (U.S. only) or W.

Design cooling load is the amount of heat energy to be removed from a building by the HVAC
equipment to maintain the building at indoor design temperature when worst case outdoor design
temperature is being experienced.

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Building Envelope Course Transcript

A building is considered thermally light if its heating and cooling requirements are proportional to
the weather driven outside temperatures. This would include most homes, retail buildings, and
many commercial office buildings.

A building is considered thermally heavy if its indoor temperature remains fairly constant in the
face of significant changes in the outdoor temperatures. This would include a facility with hot
industrial processes such as painting or curing, or buildings with a large mass and little influence
from the weather.

Slide 7

When we talk about sensible cooling load, we are referring to the dry bulb temperature which is
measured by standard space temperature sensors. Sensible cooling load factors include:
Doors and windows
Sunlight on windows and glass doors
Exterior walls
Partitions
Plenums (which refers to the separate space provided for air circulation for heating, ventilation,
and air-conditioning, typically provided in the space between the structural ceiling and a drop-
down ceiling; may also be under a raised floor)
Roofs
Air infiltration
People
Equipment and appliances
Lights
Ductwork located in unconditioned space
Air ventilation

When we talk about latent cooling load we are talking about the wet bulb temperature, which is
related to indoor humidity. Latent cooling load factors include:
People breathing
Equipment and appliances
Air infiltration due to unconditioned outside air

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Characteristics of Air.

Now that we have built a foundation with our definitions, let’s move on and discuss some
important formulas. We will talk about losses and gains through the building envelope and overall
heat loss. We will begin by telling the story of the ACME company’s building, and we will use
ACME’s building throughout this course when discussing our formulas and examples.

Slide 8

The ACME building is a small office building. The only tenant is a call center business where
customers of that tenant can call to get phone support. The space is filled with desks, personal
computer equipment and standard office equipment. Here we see a diagram of the floor plan at
COURSE – Acme Building Example, as you will need to have this information readily available
to do the calculations throughout this course.

## How is ACME’s building affected by heat loss? Let’s see…

Slide 9

Here we see the overall heat transfer equation. When we talk about overall heat transfer, we
need to account for three variables. Adding these three variables gives us the overall heat loss.
Those three variables are shown here: Heat loss due to transmission, heat loss due to ventilation,
and heat loss due to infiltration. We will explore these three variables and their formulas in depth.

H = Ht + Hv + Hi
Where
H = overall heat loss (W or Btu/hr)
Ht = heat loss due to transmission through the surfaces of walls, windows, doors, floors and more
(W or Btu/hr)
Hv = heat loss caused by ventilation (W or Btu/hr)
Hi = heat loss caused by infiltration (W or Btu/hr)

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It’s important to note that when we are talking about overall heat loss the same equations would
apply during periods when we were managing heat gain instead.

Slide 10

First, we have the heat transfer by transmission equation. Heat transfer by transmission is heat
transmitting through different surface materials, like windows, walls, doors, or floors. Because
different surface materials are involved, we will see a few different equations here.

First, we’ll look at the basic equation. When the answer to this equation is a positive number, the
outdoor temperature is higher than the indoor temperature, and the result is a heat gain. When
the answer to this equation is a negative number, the outdoor temperature is lower than the
indoor temperature, and the result is a heat loss.

Ht = A U (to - ti)
where
Ht = transmission heat loss (W or Btu/hr)
A = area of exposed surface (m2 or ft2)
U = heat transmission coefficient (W/m2K or Btu/hr ft2 °F)
ti = inside air temperature (°C or °F)
to= outside air temperature (°C or °F)

## Let’s work through a basic example using the ACME building.

Slide 11

To calculate the heat loss, we need to know the area of the wall. We need to know the U-value,
which we will assume is 0.57 watts per square meter per Kelvin (W/m2K) or 0.1 BTU per hour per
square foot per degrees Fahrenheit (Btu/hr ft2 °F). We will be discussing the concept of “U value”
a little later in this course. We also need to know the outdoor temperature, and the indoor
temperature. Click metric or US customary to view the corresponding version of the equation.

Slide 12

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## Ht = (7.6*4.6)* 0.57 * (35-22.2)

Ht = 34.96 * 0.57 * 12.8
Ht = 255.1 W or 0.255 kW

This means that for every hour that the outdoor air temperature is constant, this wall will allow
255 watts to flow through it into the conditioned space.

Slide 13

## Ht = (25*15) * 0.1 * (95-72)

Ht = 375 *0.1 * 23
Ht = 862.50 Btu/hr

This means that for every hour that the outdoor air temperature is constant, this wall will allow
862.5 Btu flow through it into the conditioned space.

Slide 14

## Now let’s go back to this basic equation.

Ht = A U (to - ti)
where
Ht = transmission heat loss (W or Btu/hr)
A = area of exposed surface (m2 or ft2)
U = heat transmission coefficient (W/m2K or Btu/hr ft2 °F)
ti = inside air temperature (°C or °F)

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## to= outside air temperature (°C or °F)

It’s important to note that U is a crucial factor here in this equation. U is the Overall Coefficient of
Heat Transmission, also known as thermal conductivity, which represents the rate of heat flow
through a unit area of building envelope material or assembly, including its boundary films, per
unit of temperature difference between the inside and the outside air. The term is commonly
called the "U-value". The Overall Coefficient of Heat Transmission is expressed in Btu/hr ft °F or
watts per square meter per Kelvin (W/mK). The U value will change based on the type of
material we are addressing. For example, the U value for a window will be different than the U
value of a door or a wall. U values can be found in widely available tables for common building
materials.

For surfaces, such as walls, that are made up of a cross section of several materials, the U value
for each material can be referenced and then all the values would be combined.

Slide 15

Here we can see an example chart defining building elements and heat transfer coefficients. If
you wish, you can click the paperclip icon to download a copy of this chart. We can see that the
lower the U value, the more insulating the material is. This means we want to aim for a very low U
value whenever possible.

Slide 16

## U = 1 / (1 / fi + x1 / k1 + x2 / k2+ x3 / k3 +..+ 1 / fo)

where
fi = surface conductance for inside wall (W/m2K or Btu/ft2 )
x = thickness of material (m or ft)
k = thermal conductivity material (W/m2K or Btu/ft2 )
fo= surface conductance for outside wall (W/m2K or Btu/ft2 )
where the surface conductance and thermal conductivities are found in common lookup tables.

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In practice, U-values are calculated and modeled by independent laboratories using computer
programs that account for each material. Then a physical test is performed to confirm the model.

Slide 17

Let’s work through another example from the ACME building. Take the right-facing wall with the
door. This surface is composed of two different materials: the wall and the door. Therefore, heat
transmission must be calculated separately for each. The area of the door must be subtracted
from the area of the entire wall to properly account for the surface area of the wall material.
Again, assume that the U-value of the wall material is 0.57 W/m2K or 0.1 Btu/ hr ft2  and the U-
value of the door material is 3.69 W/m2K or 0.65 Btu/ hr ft2 . Click metric or US Customary to
view the corresponding version of the equation.

Slide 18

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

## Ht = ((7.6*4.6) – (0.9*2.0) * 0.57 * (35-22.2)) + ((0.9*2.0) * 3.69 * (35-22.2))

Ht = ((34.96-1.8) * 0.57 * 12.8) + (1.8 * 3.69 * 12.8)
Ht = (33.16 * 0.57 * 12.8) + (1.8 * 3.69 * 12.8)
Ht = 241.9 + 85.0
Ht = 326.9W or 0.327 kW

Slide 19

Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

## Ht = ((25*15-3*6.6) * 0.1 * (95-72)) + ((3*6.6) * 0.65 * (95-72))

Ht = ((375-19.8) * 0.1 * 23) + (19.8 * 0.65 * 23)
Ht = (355.2 * 0.1 * 23) + (19.8 * 0.65 * 23)
Ht = 816.96 + 296.01
Ht = 1112.97 Btu/hr

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Slide 20

Let’s talk a bit more about heat transfer by transmission. As we said earlier, the equation will
need to be modified depending upon the type of material through which the heat loss is occurring.

Typically rooftops are exposed to direct sunlight. When talking about roofs, the equation should
account for 15% more because of the radiation to the space so the equation can be modified to
this:
Ht = 1.15 A U (to - ti)

For walls and floors that are against dirt or earth, the equation should be modified with the earth
temperature, like we see here:
Ht = A U (te - ti)
Where te = earth temperature (C or )

Let’s do an example. To calculate the heat transmission for the ACME roof, assume the roof is
made of a 2"/5cm concrete slab with 1"/2.5cm insulation. Using the table, the U-value would be
0.85 W/m2K or 0.15 Btu/hr ft2 . Click metric or US Customary to view the corresponding
version of the equation.

Slide 21

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

## Ht = 1.15 ((7.6*7.6) * 0.85 * (35-22.2))

Ht = 1.15 (57.76 * 0.85 * 12.8)
Ht = 722.7 W or 0.723 kW

Slide 22
Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

## Ht = 1.15 ((25*25) * 0.15 * (95-72))

Ht = 1.15 (625 * 0.15 * 23)

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Ht = 1653.13 Btu/hr

Slide 23

Here is the overall heat transmission equation for walls with insulation. You may have heard that
insulation has an R value associated with it. Well, R is the resistance to heat flow through a
material and is traditionally measured in units of square meters Kelvin per watt (m2K/W) or hours
square foot degrees Fahrenheit per BTU (hr ft2 °F/Btu). The relationship of R to U is quite simple.
We see that here.

U = 1/(R1 + R2…)

Make certain the R-value you are using is in the proper units, whether they be metric or US
Customary.

The conversion of R-value to U-value is especially helpful when U-value is not available. This
issue comes up many times when dealing with materials that do not have a standard thickness or
composition, such as concrete and insulation. You will again need to refer to a reference table for
R-values.

## The R-value can be approximated for materials using this equation.

R = t/K
where
t = thickness of the material (cm or in)
K = Conductivity of the material (W cm/m2 °C or Btu in/h ft2 °F)
Conductivity values can be found in reference tables. Click the paperclip icon to download a
sample.

To calculate the heat transmission for the ACME floor, assume the floor is made of poured
concrete. The R-value of 12 inches of this concrete is 0.98 m2K/W or 5.6 hr ft2 °F/BTU. Assume
the earth temperature is 18.9°C or 66.0°F.

## Click metric or US Customary to view the corresponding version of the equation.

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Slide 24

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

U = 1 / 0.98
U = 1.02 W/m2K

## Ht = (7.6*7.6) * 1.02 * (18.9-22.2)

Ht = 57.76 * 1.02 * -3.3
Ht = -194.4 W or -0.194 kW

Slide 25

Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

U = 1 / 5.6
U = 0.18 Btu/hr ft2 °F

## Ht = (25*25) * 0.18 * (66-72)

Ht = 625 * 0.18 * -6
Ht = -675.0 Btu/hr

Slide 26

Notice that the value is negative since the earth is cooler than the indoor air temperature. This is
the only surface where the building is not absorbing heat. Instead, the earth is cooling the
building.

Slide 27

Another insulating aspect is surface air film resistance. Surface air film resistance refers to the
layer of still air near the surface of a material which provides additional insulation against heat
transfer. In conditioned rooms there is usually significant air movement and the thickness of the

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air layer close to the wall is very thin. This means that the air layer and thermal resistance of that
layer on the inside of the conditioned room can be ignored. In most cases this is also true for the
outside of the wall. In both cases, the thermal conductivity of the air layer should be taken into
account if there is no air movement. Surface film can be accounted for using the same method as
any other surface. Simply add the R-value of the surface film to the overall R-value of the surface.

Slide 28

Let’s work through an example where we do not know the U value but we do know the
composition of the material.

## Here is our problem…

The left facing wall of the ACME building contains two windows with a known U value of 3.97
W/m2K or 0.7 Btu/hr ft2 °F. The wall consists of 25mm or 1 inch ply wood, 90 mm or 3 ½ inch of
fiberglass insulation and 12.5 mm or ½ inch gypsum board. Include surface films for the
composite wall surface assuming it is summer. How much heat is gained through the wall?

## Click metric or US Customary to view that version of the equation.

Slide 29

Here we can see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version of
the equation, or click continue.

## Uwall = 1/(0.04 + 0.12 + 0.35 + 90/25*0.71 + 0.078)

Uwall = 1/(0.04 + 0.12 + 0.35 + 2.556 + 0.078)
Uwall = 1/(3.144)
Uwall = 0.318 m2K/W

## Htwall = (7.6*4.6-2*(0.6*0.9)) * 0.318 * (35-22.2)

Htwall = 33.88 * 0.318 * 12.8
Htwall = 137.9 W or 0.138 kW

## Htwindow = 2 * (0.6*0.9) * 3.97 * (35-22.2)

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## Htwindow = 2 * 0.54 * 3.97 * 12.8

Htwindow = 54.9 W or 0.0549 kW

## Httotal= 137.9 + 54.9

Httotal = 192.8 W or 0.193 kW

Did you get the same results for the surface air film example? If not, and you need some extra
help calculating the U-value in the Surface Air Film example, please click the paperclip icon to

Slide 30

Here we can see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version of
the equation, or click continue.

## Uwall = 1/(0.17 + 0.68 + 2.0 + 3.5*4 + 0.44)

Uwall = 1/(0.17 + 0.68 + 2.0 + 14 + 0.44)
Uwall = 1/(17.29)
Uwall = 0.0578

## Htwall = (25*15-2*(2*3)) * 0.0578 * (95-72)

Htwall = 363 * 0.0578 * 23
Htwall = 482.57 Btu/hr

## Htwindow = 2*(2*3) * 0.7 * (95-72)

Htwindow = 2 * 6 * 0.7 * 23
Htwindow = 193.2 Btu/hr

## Httotal= 482.57 + 193.2

Httotal = 675.77 Btu/hr

Did you get the same results for the surface air film example? If not, and you need some extra
help calculating the U-value in the Surface Air Film example, please click the paperclip icon to

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Building Envelope Course Transcript

Slide 31

Until this point, we have discussed equations that are used in properly selecting the size of
heating and cooling equipment for a space, however, these equations would be very time
consuming to determine the actual energy use in BTU/hr or W that would be required to condition
a building as outside conditions change.

In order to calculate total energy use, we need to introduce two more concepts:
Heating Degree Days, and
Cooling Degree Days

First, let’s discuss the general concept of a degree day. A degree day can be generally described
as a measure of how much (in degrees), and for how long (in days), outside air temperatures
were lower (for heating degree days) or higher (for cooling degree days) than a specific "base
temperature" (or "balance point"). The balance point indicates the outside air temperature where
balance is achieved and no mechanical heating or cooling is required to maintain the indoor air
temperature setpoint. It should be noted, however, that degree days can be modeled for a
particular building using several standard modeling tools. Degree day information may also be
available from a local meteorological source. In this case, the data will not be as accurate as the
data from modeling software because the balance point and other factors will need to be
assumed. Commonly, a balance point of 18.3°C or 65°F will be assumed for this type of data.

Slide 32

Here are the equations for degree days. Degree days are technically unit-less values but for
clarity, we will indicate °C or °F next to each value.

## Heating Degree Days (HDD) = (TB – TOA)*(D)

where
TB = Balance Point Temperature (°C or °F)
TOA = Average Outside Air Temperature for the Period (°C or °F)
D = Length of the Period (days)

## Cooling Degree Days (CDD) = (TOA – TB)*(D)

TB = Balance Point Temperature (°C or °F)

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TOA = Average Outside Air Temperature for the Period (°C or °F)
D = Length of the Period (days)

Let’s work through another example. Here we will look at calculation of heat flow for a year using
degree days.

For three days, the outside air temperature averages 10°C or 50°F each day.

Here we can see the number of HDD for this three day period is

OR

## HDD = (65 °F – 50 °F) * 3 days = 45 (US Customary)

Now let’s say that a wall has an area of 9 m2 or 100 ft2 and has a thermal conductance of 1.42
W/m2K or 0.25 Btu/ft2 hr °F. If there are 1667 degree-days (°C) or 3000 degree-days (°F) in the
annual heating season, what is the total amount of heat that must be supplied by the heating
system?

## Click metric or US Customary to view the corresponding solution.

Slide 33

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to see that version, or click
continue.

Ht = A (24*U) (HDD)

## Ht = transmission heat loss (W)

A = area of exposed surface (m2)
U = heat transmission coefficient (W/m2K)
HDD = heating degree days (°C)

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Ht = 9 * 1667 * 24 * 1.42
Ht = 511 W/yr

Slide 34

Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to see that version, or click
continue.

Ht = A (24*U) (HDD)

## Ht = transmission heat loss (Btu/hr)

A = area of exposed surface (ft2)
U = heat transmission coefficient (Btu/hr ft2 °F)
HDD = heating degree days (°F)

## Ht = 100 * 3000 * 24 * 0.25

Ht = 1.8 million BTU/yr

Slide 35

Now that we understand how to calculate the heat of transmission, it is easy to deduce that as
less heat is transmitted, mechanical heating and cooling requirements are reduced. So, how do
we reduce transmission? We reduce it through things like insulation, new windows, or window
treatments.

Shell improvements, like insulation, are most critical for those buildings that have large exterior
surface areas in comparison to internal volume. Substantially higher energy bills in the winter and
summer months indicate weather dependence and shell insulation may be cost effective for these
buildings. Openings in the building envelope can be sealed and insulation can be added to walls,
floors, ceiling and attics to reduce heat transfer, and make for a more comfortable environment. In
commercial buildings where the unconditioned attic space is used as a return air plenum, the
addition of rigid insulation during a re-roofing can help maintain return air temperatures thus
saving energy.

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In most cases the installation of new replacement windows is often too expensive to justify on
energy savings alone. Justification may be easier for those buildings with large single-pane
windows which face the path of the sun, or in the case where a tall building's windows are in poor
condition.

Window treatments – shades, films, screens – can be beneficial for large glass windows facing
the path of the sun. This is especially true in the summer in warmer climates. Window treatments
to reduce solar gain can pay off rapidly but this depends on the treatment used. Aesthetics must
also be considered when choosing a window treatment.

Slide 36

Now that we have calculated the heat of transmission for each surface of our building, we can
combine them to calculate the total heat of transmission for the building.

From our examples, we know the values of the back or far wall, right wall, left wall, the roof and
the floor. From the diagram, we can see that the front or near wall is solid so let’s assume it has
the same value as the back or far wall.

Ht = 1.559 kW

Or

## Ht = 862.5*2 + 1112.97 + 1653.13 – 675.0 + 675.77

Ht = 4491.86 BTU/hr

Slide 37

Our next topic is the heat of ventilation. When we talk about ventilation, we are addressing the
actual cost to ventilate a space. You always have to bring in outdoor air so that you are
maintaining a minimal level of indoor air quality and a slightly positive building pressure to ensure
doors and elevators operate properly. By maintaining a slightly positive building pressure, you are

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also assured that almost all ventilation air is being brought in through the mechanical conditioning
system so the air is being treated which will reduce mold and moisture problems. Because the
outdoor air temperature is rarely the temperature we need, that extra ventilation air requires
energy to condition and you have to account for that! It’s important not to over-ventilate and to
consider participating in Energy Efficiency with Building Automation and HVAC Equipment and
Optimization.

Slide 38

The heat loss due to ventilation without heat recovery can be expressed as this:
Hv = cp ρ qv (to - ti)
where
Hv = ventilation heat loss (W or Btu/hr)
cp = specific heat capacity of air (W/kg K or Btu/lb °F)
ρ = density of air (kg/m3 or lb/ft3)
qv = air volume flow (m3/hr or ft3/hr)
ti = inside air temperature (°C or °F)
to = outside air temperature (°C or °F)

Specific heat capacity changes with altitude therefore; at high altitudes, this value will need to be
adjusted but in most cases a constant of 0.2805 W/kg K or 0.241 BTU/lb °F can be used. Also,
density changes with air temperature, but we will use 1.25kg/m3 or 0.080lb/ft3. If the building will
operate in temperature extremes, it might be prudent to adjust the density value used in those
calculations.

Slide 39

To factor in the effects the of the heat recovery system, multiply the equation times the efficiency
of the heat recovery system. We see that here.

H = (1 - ) c ρ q (t - t)
where
 = heat recovery efficiency (%)

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A heat recovery efficiency of approximately 50% is common for a normal cross flow heat
exchanger. For a rotating heat exchanger the efficiency may exceed 80%.

Heat recovery systems are commonly found in a poorly maintained condition during energy
audits. Therefore, you need to investigate how the heat recovery system is running and verify that
it is still operating at that efficiency.

Slide 40

Ventilation code varies from region to region so for our example, let us assume that code for our
example building requires ventilation of 17 m3/person/hr or 600 ft3/person/hr. Our building has 10
occupants. Let’s calculate the heat of ventilation for this space without a heat recovery system.

## Click metric or US Customary to view the corresponding solution.

Slide 41

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

Hv = cp ρ qv (to - ti)
Hv = 0.2805 * 1.25 * (17*10) * (35-22.2)
Hv = 0.2805 * 1.25 * (170) * (12.8)
Hv = 763 W or 0.763 kW

Slide 42

Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version of the
equation, or click continue.

Hv = cp ρ qv (to - ti)
Hv = 0.241 * 0.080 * (600*10) * (95-72)
Hv = 0.241 * 0.080 * (6000) * (23)
Hv = 2660 BTU/hr

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Slide 43

Infiltration is the uncontrolled movement of unconditioned air into a building through the building
envelope. It’s an important topic to cover, as infiltration is something that we want to try our best
to mitigate; it costs money to run HVAC equipment and we want to try to save as much money
and energy as we can!

All buildings leak air. The unconditioned air comes in through doors, or cracks. Specifically,
infiltration can be caused by:

Wind. This becomes an issue when air enters on the side that the wind is blowing toward causing
a positive pressure on the other side of the building.

Mechanical systems. If your building is negatively pressurized, you will have infiltration. Supply air
volumes rarely equal the exhaust air in the building. Typically, try to keep it positively pressurized.

Stack effect, which is typical of high-rise buildings. This occurs when rising warm air creates
negative pressure on the lower floors and positive pressure on upper floors
When on site, it’s important to inspect the walls, roofs and windows to check for negative and
positive pressure in buildings. (Note: Air flow to the exterior indicates positive pressure, air flow
into the building indicates negative.)

## What is the impact of infiltration? It can lead to:

Condensation
Inconsistent interior temperatures, for example, if wind hits one side of the building, it can actually
create different temperature zones across the building space
Excessive humidity, because the air is not entering the building through an air handler, it has not
been dehumidified and therefore can contain more humidity than desired
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problems, this can be a problem because it can lead to an environment
where micro organisms flourish

## How do we measure air leakage? Let’s talk about that next!

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

Slide 44

Building air leakage is usually measured by pressurizing a building to a given pressure differential
and measuring the flow rate needed to maintain that differential.

There are machines made up of large fans on diesel generators that measure infiltration by
blowing air at a variable rate into the building.

There are electrically powered measuring devices. Here we see one that is placed in front of a
double door.

And there are even smaller units that can even measure the infiltration in smaller spaces like your
home.

Slide 45

## H = 3600*c ρ n V (to - t)

where
Hi = heat loss infiltration (W or Btu/hr)
cp = specific heat capacity of air (W/kg K or Btu/lb °F)
ρ = density of air (kg/m3 or lb/ft3)
n = number of air shifts, how many times the air is replaced in the room per second (1/s)
(0.5 1/hr = 1.4 10-4 1/s as a rule of thumb)
V = volume of room (m3 or ft3)
ti = inside air temperature (°C or °F)
to = outside air temperature (°C or °F)

## Let’s take a look at this in relation to our example building.

For our building, assume that infiltration has been measured and the number of air changes is
0.000025 times per second. Click metric or US Customary to view the corresponding equation.

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

Slide 46

Here is the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version, or click
continue.

## Hi = 3600*cp ρ n V (to - ti)

Hi = 3600 * 0.2805 * 1.25 * 0.000025 * (7.6*7.6*4.6) * (35-22.2)
Hi = 3600 * 0.2805 * 1.25 * 0.000025 * 265.7 * 12.8
Hi =107.3 W or 0.107 kW

Slide 47

Here is the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version, or click
continue.

## Hi = 3600*cp ρ n V (to - ti)

Hi = 3600 * 0.241 * 0.080 * 0.000025 * (25*25*15) * (95-72)
Hi = 3600 * 0.241 * 0.080 * 0.000025 * 9375 * 23
Hi = 374 BTU/hr

Slide 48

## Next, let’s discuss some infiltration reduction methods.

Create slight positive pressurization, so all the air that is in the building is moving outward and all
the air that is coming into the building is conditioned air.
Install new windows
Replace door sweeps, creating a better seal
Caulk holes or gaps in the building envelope
Control outside air dampers, keeping these closed when not in use
Control exhaust fans, turn these off at night so that you don’t draw in heat and outside air when
the HVAC system is not running.
Look at door vestibules, and
Utilize air barriers, which prevent air from getting through porous materials like cinder block.

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

Slide 49

There are two other factors that are considered sources of heat in a building. They are heat load
from people and the heat load from equipment.

People add quite a bit of heat to a space. This is something that can change based on the
amount of people and the activity in the space. For example, 117 W or 400 BTU/hr per person
might be for a typical office building, but in the case of a gym, that number would increase.
BTUs/hr will need to be adjusted based on the activity in the space. These values are typically
found in tables as they are very difficult to accurately measure. For most spaces where the
majority of the occupants are sedentary, use the values we provided here (117 W or 400 BTU/hr )
and multiply by the average number of people in the space.

In our example, our space has 10 occupants so the heat from that source would be:

Or

## Hp = 10 * 400 = 4000 BTU/hr

Slide 50

Most equipment located in a space will convert the majority of its power draw to heat. So to
account for this, the equipment will need to be inventoried and the power draw measured. There
are several meters on the market that are inexpensive and once you measure several similar
pieces of equipment, you will begin to build a database of values that can be used in future
calculations. Make sure the units match the overall equation though. You may need to convert.

Our example building has 1000 W or 1 kW of equipment. In US units, this would be 3,412 BTU/hr.

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

To reduce heat load from equipment, use efficient lighting, recover heat from large industrial
machines or incinerators during cold periods, and ensure that heat from large industrial machines
and incinerators is exhausted during hot periods. Avoid mixing it with the conditioned air.

Slide 51

And so with the addition of those last two heat sources we just talked about where we accounted
for the heat from people and equipment we have a slightly modified overall building heat load
equation. We see that here.

H = Ht + Hv + Hi + Hp + He
where
H = overall heat load (W or Btu/hr)
Ht = transmission (W or Btu/hr)
Hv = ventilation (W or Btu/hr)
Hi = infiltration (W or Btu/hr)
Hp = people (W or Btu/hr)
He = equipment (W or Btu/hr)

## This equation accounts for:

Transmission, heat coming in through - for example - walls or floors;
Ventilation, heat coming in through fresh air supplied to the space;
Infiltration, uncontrolled heat coming into the building through doors or cracks;
Heat from people’s activity in the space;
Heat from equipment

This will calculate your total building load, and you need to be sure that your HVAC equipment is
sized appropriately using this figure. This load needs to be less than or equal to the sizing of your
HVAC equipment. You typically want to calculate this as a worst case scenario. For example,
use the highest outdoor air temperature on the most populated day of the year - with the highest
number of people occupying the building space.

We will simply add all of the values we have calculated so far. Click metric or US Customary to
view the corresponding version of the equation.

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

Slide 52

Here we see the metric version of the equation. Click US Customary to view that version, or click
continue.

H = Ht + Hv + Hi + Hp + He
H = 1.559 + 0.763 + 0.107 + 1.170 + 1.0
H = 4.599 kW at the conditions specified in the example

Slide 53

Here we see the US Customary version of the equation. Click metric to view that version, or click
continue.

H = Ht + Hv + Hi + Hp + He
H = 4491.86 + 2660 + 374 + 4000 + 3412
H = 14,938 BTU/hr

Slide 54

Having done all this work to determine the heat load of the building, how can you use this
information?

For the hottest and coldest times of year, you can check if your HVAC system is sized
appropriately. If your building is undergoing a change - such as installation of new production
equipment - you can check if your HVAC system will still be able to cope.

Using the formulas based on degree days, you can estimate your annual heat load, determine
what it costs you, and use it to choose between buildings, or decide on investments to reduce
heat loss or heat gain.

Slide 55

Let’s take a moment to summarize some of the information that we have discussed in this course.

Energy University
Building Envelope Course Transcript

The HVAC equipment must have the ability to remove at least as much as or more heat load from
a building than the internal load in order to maintain indoor temperatures. For this reason, we use
equations to calculate the amount of heat load in a building due to transmission, ventilation, and
infiltration.

Heat can be transferred to a building from outdoors through transmission and infiltration and
ventilation and from indoors by people and equipment. All must be properly balanced out by
HVAC equipment in order to maintain comfortable environments for occupants.

Slide 56

## Thank you for participating in this course.

Slide 57

Click the paperclip icon to download a copy of the document labeled FOR TEST - ACME
Building Diagram, as you will need this document in order to answer the questions on the quiz.
To test your knowledge of the course material, click the Knowledge Checkpoint link on your
personal homepage.
Important Point! The Knowledge Checkpoint link is located under BROWSE CATALOG on the left
side of the page.

Slide 58

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