This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
Prepared by: COMMITTEE ON ELECTRICAL FIRE PROTECTION
OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE 7th Floor, ‘New Delhi House’ 27-Barakhamba Road New Delhi 110001
Oil Industry Safety Directorate(OISD) publications are prepared for use in the oil and gas industry under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas. These are the property of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or exhibited to others without written consent from OISD.
Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in these documents, OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from their use.
These documents are intended to supplement rather than replace the prevailing statutory requirements.
With this in view. This lack of uniformity coupled with feedback from some serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad. Accordingly OISD constituted a number of functional committees comprising of experts nominated from the industry to draw up standards and guidelines on various subjects. operating and maintaining oil and gas installations. standardising and upgrading the existing standards to ensure safer operations. Standardisation in design philosophies and operating and maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in existence. a variety of practices have been in vogue and various international codes. may go a long way in improving the safety in the oil and gas industry. standards are being followed. and various national and international codes and practices.FOREWORD The oil industry in India is nearly a 100 years old. Due to various collaboration agreements with foreign companies. It is hoped that the provision of this document. Suggestions from industry members may be addressed to: The Coordinator Committee on Electrical Fire Protection OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE 7th Floor. This document is based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members. The first edition of the document on ‘Fire Prevention and Fire Protection System for Electrical Installations’ was prepared by the Committee on ‘Electrical Fire Protection’ and published in July 1996. The present revised edition has been prepared by Committee constituted with help of member industries. the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in 1986 constituted a Safety Council assisted by the Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) staffed from within the industry in formulating and implementing a series of self regulatory measures aimed at removing obsolescence. emphasised the need for the industry to review the existing state of the art in designing. This document will be reviewed periodically for improvements based on the new experiences and better understanding. ‘New Delhi House’ 27-Barakhamba Road New Delhi – 110 001 3 . if implemented objectively.
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Engineers India Ltd. Cochin Refineries Ltd. Engineers India Ltd. Gas Authority of India Ltd.COMMITTEE ON ELECTRICAL FIRE PROTECTION LIST OF MEMBERS ____________________________________________________________________ NAME ORGANISATION ____________________________________________________________________ LEADER Shri V P Sharma MEMBERS Shri K K Gupta Shri N V Mani Shri G C Dwivedi Shri P Kamalasekharan Shri Niraj Sethi MEMBER CO-ORDINATOR Shri J K Jha Oil Industry Safety Directorate Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 .
Kochi Refineries Ltd. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. Engineers India Ltd. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 . Numaligarh Refinery Ltd. Oil Industry Safety Directorate Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.COMMITTEE ON REVISION OF OISD-STD-173 LIST OF MEMBERS ____________________________________________________________________ NAME ORGANISATION ____________________________________________________________________ MEMBERS Shri R P Singh Shri K S Mishra Shri S M Ghotavadekar Shri K V Bhaskara Rao Shri Niraj Sethi Shri H K Sarsar Shri A K Das Shri A P Chakravarty MEMBER CO-ORDINATOR Shri C M Sharma GUIDANCE Shri V P Sharma (Leader of 1st Committee) Shri Anant Narayan Engineers India Ltd. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Engineers India Ltd.
0 10.0 4.0 5.0 8.0 INTRODUCTION SCOPE DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FIRE PROTECTION FOR SUBSTATION ELECTRICAL GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION CABLE INSTALLATION TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS REFERENCES 1 1 1 3 9 13 14 16 18 20 6 .0 6.0 3.0 9.FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS CONTENTS SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE 1.0 7.0 2.
It also excludes drilling rigs and well head installations. Chief Controller of Explosives. Directorate General of Mines Safety. Fire protection system shall be designed in accordance with applicable OISD standards as amended time to time. 7 . iii) CABLE RACK Two or more cable trays arranged one above the other. Consideration has been given to the prevalent national and international standards on fire protection of Electrical Installations. However. This standard in no way supercedes the statutory rules such as Indian Electricity Rules and Regulations of the Chief Electrical Inspectorate. A cable tray may support one or more cables. iv) CABLE TUNNEL/ GALLERY Any closed section of the structure or building which primarily serves as a distribution route for cables for electrical power and / or the control & monitoring of equipment and having walk-through corridors. ii) CABLE TRAY A horizontal or vertical metal / FRP support for a cable run. Factory Inspectorate. this standard does not cover off-shore oil installations.0 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this standard. vi) CABLE CELLAR The space below the substation floor. A stretch of cable(s) for carrying electrical current from one point to the other.0 SCOPE This document provides the minimum requirements for preventing fire hazard. The Tunnel / Gallery could be above ground or below ground.FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS i) CABLE RUN 1. 3. the following definitions will apply. vii) CABLE SHAFT AND RISERS Vertical ways for carrying cables constructed either of concrete / masonary or fabricated from steel. 2. RCC lined trenches are usually provided with removable covers. Central Electricity Authority or other Government bodies. which is utilised for installation of cable trays in sub stations with the floor raised above grade level. v) CABLE TRENCH An Underground or below ground section with RCC / Brick lining which primarily serves as a distribution route for cables for electrical power and / or the control and monitoring of equipment. containing and suppression of fire in the electrical installations in the petroleum.0 INTRODUCTION Fire protection assumes greater importance in context of the electrical installations located in hydrocarbon industry where classified hazardous atmosphere may be encountered and electricity may constitute one of the sources of ignition for fire incidents and explosions. oil and gas sector. It is therefore imperative that the concept of fire prevention / protection is built into the electrical system right from the design and engineering stage and continued to the operation / maintenance stage.
g. 8 Flammable liquids vary in volatility and have a flash point below 93 degree C. ix) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Electrical installations include generating stations. and their means of support through the wall or opening to prevent the spread of fire. xv) VOLTAGE The difference of electric potential measured in volts between any two conductors or between any part of either conductor and the earth as measured by a suitable voltmeter and is said to be. e. “Low” where the voltage does not exceed 250 volts under normal conditions subject. xiii) CLASSIFICATION FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF “Petroleum Class B”: means petroleum having a flash-point of twenty-three degrees centigrade and above but below sixty-five degrees centigrade. however. “Medium” where the voltage does not exceed 650 volts under normal conditions subject. ducts and pipes. xiv) HAZARDOUS AREA In accordance with the Petroleum Rules applicable to Hydrocarbon liquids. sub-stations. . transformers. xii) FIRE BREAKS Fire breaks are passive fire protection systems like chemical coating which prevent the propagation of fire in horizontal or vertical run of cables and prevent spread of fire to nearby combustibles.viii) CABLE VAULTS Cable vaults are generally built below a control room wherein cables from various facilities terminate before entering the control panels. to the percentage variation allowed by Indian Electricity Rules. x) FIRE STOP A through penetration fire stop is a specific construction consisting of materials that fill the opening around penetrating items. cabling systems and outdoor switch yards. for preventing propagation of fire in long cable runs in the cable galleries. to the percentage variation allowed in Indian Electricity Rules. to the percentage variation allowed by Indian Electricity Rules. Bus Ducts. These are divided into following three classes as per the Petroleum Act. conduits. cable trenches and cable cellars etc. switch gear rooms. blended. 1934 is applicable for Hydrocarbon liquids with Flash Point upto 93 Degrees Celsius. xi) FIRE BARRIERS Fire barriers are passive fire protection systems which prevent propagation of fire through floor penetration or wall penetrations. “High“ where the voltage does not exceed 33. however. The Petroleum Act. handled or stored at or above its flash point.1934: “Petroleum Class A”: means petroleum having a flash-point below twentythree degrees centigrade. where: a) Petroleum having flash point below 65 0 C or any flammable gas or vapour in a concentration capable of ignition is likely to be present b) Petroleum or any flammable liquid having flash point above 650C is likely to be refined. cable trays. an area shall be deemed to be a hazardous area.000 volts under normal conditions subject. “Petroleum Class C“: means petroleum having a flash-point of sixty–five degrees centigrade and above but below ninety-three degrees centigrade. such as cables. however.
Oil and gas handling or bearing equipment. a mandatory 4. OISD-STD-137 etc. apparatus for distribution or any other apparatus for switching. and includes the apparatus therein. 9 . piping related to fuel oil and gas are risk prone areas. shall not be used on energized equipment. which are not easily accessible by a fire tender) shall be considered indoors for the purpose of fire protection. however. distribution station etc. being large enough to admit the entrance of a person after the apparatus therein is in position. be used on de-energized equipment. as well as. b) Small Sub-Station Sub Station having Medium and Low Voltage cabling and switchgear. however. v) Flammable cleaning fluids such as gasoline. to the percentage variation allowed by Indian Electricity Rules. xxi) SHALL “Shall’’ indicates requirement.“Extra High” where the voltage exceeds 33. iii) Electrical equipment shall be regularly inspected and tested to prevent the chances of fire. ii) All the above fire risks need to be minimized by taking suitable measures for the prevention of fire and also for protection against fire. ether.e IS : 1646. xviii) SWITCH BOARDS Switch Boards shall mean a Panel assembly including the switch gear for the control of electrical circuits. electrical connections and supporting frame. The equipment should be left in de-energised condition at least half an hour after such cleaning. xxii) SHOULD ``Should’’ indicates a requirement which is recommendatory in nature. These fluids may. switch boards and other equipment required to generate / control power. Precautions to be adopted for fire safety of electrical installations should conform to relevant Indian Standards i. controlling or otherwise regulating the energy. cut outs and other apparatus used for the operation.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS i) Electrical installations including generating stations. xvi) INDOOR TRANSFORMER The transformer installations which have limitations in approach for the Fire Tender (in other words. iv) Periodic tests of electrical equipment shall be carried out as per IS : 1646 and preventive maintenance schedule shall be prepared based upon the recommendations of equipment manufacturers. are exposed to considerable fire risk since these facilities handle hydrocarbons as fuels. benzene. a) Large Sub-Station Sub Station housing High and Medium Voltage cabling and switchgear. containing apparatus for transforming or converting energy to or from a voltage. alcohol etc. storage of fuel oil. xx) GENERATING STATION Any building or part thereof where power generating sources are installed and operated along with switchgear.000 volts under normal conditions subject. xix) SUB – STATION Sub – station means any premises or enclosures / building or part thereof. regulation and control of circuits. xvii) SWITCH GEAR Switch gear shall denote circuit breakers. mineral oils for transformers which are highly flammable.
T4. viii) Generating stations shall be kept clean and free from any obstacles at all times.e. CPRI or independent test laboratory of country of origin for such equipment. Zone-0. • System neutral earthing.e. All hazardous area equipment shall be approved by the applicable statutory authority. in general cover the following: • Equipment earthing for personnel safety. oil deposits. 4. it is necessary that the equipment is suitably selected for installation in hazardous areas.2. Earthing system shall.T2. Electrical equipment intended for service in hazardous area shall be selected in accordance with IS:5571 and these shall be tested by agencies such as CMRI. in general controlling should be i. IS: 13408. NEC – 1985.T5 or T6 (Refer OISDRP-147 for temperature ranges) d) Environmental conditions which the apparatus is to installed: in be . The earthing system shall have an earthing network with required number of earth electrodes connected to it. from appropriate authority.1 PLANT EARTHING It is recommended that all electrical equipment be suitably earthed. welding etc. shall not be permitted in storage area or in the vicinity of fuel oil tanks. 5572. The following shall be earthed: • System neutral • Current and potential transformer secondary neutral 10 4. Zone-1 or Zone-2 (Refer OISD-STD113 for definitions) b) Gas group classification i. OISD-STD–113. T3. 4. In case it is unavoidable.1 In order to ensure that electrical equipment does not become a source of ignition in an oil / gas handling installation. Petroleum Rules and Oil Mines Regulations shall be referred. enclosure protection etc.e. ERTL.1.vi) All electrical equipment shall be kept free of carbon dust.1. vii) All electrical equipment shall be effectively earthed in accordance with requirements of IS : 3043. shall be obtained and due care and protection shall be exercised in line with provisions under OISD-STD105 in respect of Work Permit . prior permission in writing. gas and other combustible material.e. IIB or IIC (Refer OISDSTD-113 for gases covered in the gas groups) c) Temperature classification i.. Indigenous Flameproof equipment shall comply with relevant BIS standard as per requirements of statutory authorities. T1.2 4. non- ii) While deciding the route of overhead power lines.1 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS AREAS FOR i) Electrical apparatus and switching and apparatus in particular installed in safe area hazardous area. OISD-RP-149. Waste material shall not be dumped near storage areas for oil. 4.2 Following factors shall be considered for proper selection of electrical apparatus and equipment for areas where risks due to flammable gases or vapours may arise: a) Area classification i. and • Protection against Static and Lightning discharges. OISD-RP149. grease etc. ix) Naked flame. IS:5571. For details on hazardous area classification. the gas group IIA. necessary consideration shall be given to avoid overhead lines passing through hazardous areas.
However. • Unless adequately connected to earth elsewhere. • Electrical equipment fencing (e. All joints shall be rivetted. spheres.) • Cable shields and armour. control stations. all utility and process pipelines should be bonded to a common conductor by means of earth bars or pipe clamps and connected to the earthing system at a point where the pipelines enter or leave the hazardous area except where conflicting with the requirements of cathodic protection . b) The connections and the contacts required under (a) shall have as few joints as possible.8 mm may . lighting / power panels.g. vessels. • Pump handling Hydrocarbon if its base Plate is separate from motor‘s base plate. • Steel structures. this value shall not be more than 1 Ohm.2. a) Every tank or other receptacle for the storage of petroleum in bulk. lightning protection shall be provided as per the requirements of IS:2309. Self conducting structures having metal thickness of more than 4. loading 4. lighting mast and poles. receptacles etc. provision for • Flexible earth wagon. • 10 Ohms in the case of all noncurrent carrying metallic parts of major electric apparatus or any metallic object. Following requirements should be met: • All earth connections should be visible for inspection to the extent possible. terminal boxes. at two points at the base.3 not require lightning protection with aerial rod and down conductors. other than a well head tank or tanks of less than 50. • Storage tanks.3 Where installed. platform etc. yard etc. at least. • Earthing of Tanks • Cable trays and racks. columns and all other process equipment.2 pump handling Plant earthing design shall generally be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Indian Electricity Rules and IS : 3043. however. motors. The roof and all metal connections of such tank or receptacle shall be in efficient electrical contact with the body of such tank or receptacle. 11 4.• Metallic non-current carrying parts of all electrical apparatus such as transformers. • Turbo driven hydrocarbon 4. be connected to the earthing system. OISD-GDN-180 may be referred for details on lightning protection The resistance values of an earthing system to the general mass of earth should be as below: • For the electrical system and equipment a value that ensures the operation of the protective device in the electrical circuit but not in excess of 4 Ohms. welded or bolted and also soldered to ensure both mechanical and electrical soundness. lighting fixtures. c) The resistance to earth shall not exceed 7 Ohms and the resistance to any part of the fitting to the earth plate or to any other part of fitting shall not exceed 2 Ohms. truck. the generating stations and large sub stations. switchgears.000 litres capacity containing petroleum Class C shall be electrically connected with the earth in an efficient manner by not less than two separate and distinct connections placed at the opposite extremities of such tank or receptacle. They shall. transformer.2.
minimum at two points.1 Earth rods and conductors shall be designed to cope with the conditions imposed.3. An independent earthing network shall be provided for lightning protection and this shall be bonded with the main earthing network below ground. 4.5 The main earthing network shall be used for earthing of equipment to protect it against static electricity. etc. The earth conductor shall be adequately sized to carry the applicable maximum earth fault current without undue temperature rise. It shall 12 4.2 All the electrical equipment operating above 250 volts shall have two separate and distinct connections to earth grid. lizard entry etc. weekly. c) Live parts of switch gear shall be made inaccessible from any inadvertent physical contact.3 In all cases. 4.6 An approach for removing fire or explosion danger is to provide means for adequate dissipation and prevention of accumulation of static electricity. installation and operating personnel. nickel plated hardware.4 MINIMISING EQUIPMENT FAILURE 4. quarterly or annual depending upon the type of equipment. Adequate logs shall be maintained to ensure that maintenance is carried out as per approved checklists. the same shall be promptly sealed using blanking plates or other means. in detail in OISD-STD-110 and same should be referred. connection to earth should be made in accordance with IS : 3043.3.4 For further details on earthing installation practices. the resistance value between each joint shall not exceed 1 Ohm.• All joints in pipelines. One of the methods to eliminate risk of static electricity build up is grounding and bonding. The subject of Static accumulation caused by flow of petroleum products and the mitigation methods are dealt . These shall be suitably covered by barriers and shrouds.3. This enhances equipment life and also ensures safety of the equipment. All joints shall be protected against corrosion. 4. plants . 4. Battery rooms shall be kept dry and well ventilated and all terminals shall be kept covered with petroleum jelly to avoid corrosion. valves. Preventive maintenance should be carried out as per schedules laid down in OISDSTD-137.3. b) Maintenance may be daily. through provision of canopies for outdoor equipment and covering of terminal boxes to prevent ingress of water etc.3. refer OISD-RP147 and OISD-RP-149. Pipeline runs / installations having cathodic protection shall be governed by Rule-109 of Indian Petroleum Rules-2002. which leaves an open cutout on the equipment. d) It shall be ensured that the electrical installation shall be rust / corrosion protected. 4. e) During maintenance if any equipment is removed from panel doors. to ensure that there is no loss of the degree of ingress protection and also that this does not provide a means of access for entry of dust / vermin etc. 4.4. This should be achieved by painting all equipment at regular intervals by use of zinc passivated.3. stainless steel hardware. thereby ensuring that static discharges do not occur.1 Maintenance a) Proper functioning of electrical equipment can only be ensured by means of periodic preventive and predictive maintenance of the equipment. storage tanks and associated facilities and equipment for petroleum shall be made electrically continuous by bonding or otherwise.
l) Conduits used for cable entry shall be sealed and earthed. g) Insulation resistance of all electrical equipment. Protective Relays shall be tested / calibrated once an year to ensure proper operation as per manufacturer’s recommendations. electrolyte level etc. shall be measured at regular intervals and recorded and oil filtration shall be carried out wherever necessary. o) Transformer and switchyards shall be maintained free of vegetation / dry grass. k) Unused cable entries in any switchboard / Electrical installation shall not be kept open. shall be routinely measured and logged to ensure healthiness of equipment. bus-bar joints. f) All battery banks shall be routinely checked for healthy cell voltage. transformers. specific gravity of cells. use of soldering apparatus or other means involving 13 . Oil Circuit Breakers etc. m) All wall openings of an electrical sub station including cable entries shall be properly sealed to arrest water entry inside sub station.be ensured that all unused cable entries are blanked off. n) All switchboards shall be provided with safety interlocks as covered under OISD-RP-149 and inspected as per OISD-STD-137. cables etc. to ensure that there are no hot spots which could lead to fire / equipment failure. The voltage shall not be restored thereto until the work has been completed and the safety characteristics provided in connection with the apparatus and wiring have been fully restored. more so for equipment subjected to vibrations. j) Settings of protective relays shall be checked to ensure that they are set as per the recommended settings. p) Earth grid resistance shall be measured and recorded regularly to ensure operation of related protective devices in case of fault. Dissolved Gas analysis for transformers rated 5MVA and above may be carried out as a predictive method to assess health of transformer. The rules are quoted for ready reference: Rule-112: “Maintenance of approved electric apparatus and wiring: All electric apparatus and wiring in a hazardous area shall at all times be so maintained as to retain the characteristic on which their approval has been granted” Rule-113: “Repair and test work: 1) No Flame proof or intrinsically safe apparatus shall be opened and no work likely to impair the safety characteristics of such apparatus or electric wiring connected thereto shall be carried out until all voltage has been cut off from said apparatus or wiring. For bulk storage tanks. The periodicity and documentation shall be governed by IE-Rule 61 (5&6). i) All cable terminations. shall be tightened. all switchboards. Rule-128 of Petroleum Rules 2002 shall be followed in respect of testing of earth connections. 2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this rule. q) Special emphasis shall be laid on the maintenance of equipment installed in hazardous areas to meet requirements of Rules-112 & 113 of Indian Petroleum Rules-2002. etc. h) Dielectric strength of transformer insulating oil. Water should be poured in the earth pits at regular intervals to maintain the required earth resistance. such as. motors.
Equipment enclosures and fittings shall be examined to see that all stopping plugs and bolts are in position and properly tightened.6 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM The plant shall have adequate communication system in line with the requirements of OISD-RP-149. fire or heat or use of industrial type of apparatus in a zone “1” area shall be permitted for the purposes of effecting repairs and testing and alterations. has first been made safe and certified by a competent person after testing with an approved gas – testing apparatus to be safe and free from inflammable vapours.1 In addition to the normal lighting. 4. shall be made to any apparatus. Gas detectors shall be employed in outdoor / indoor process areas handling hydrocarbons. A system shall be established to record the results of all inspections and the action taken to correct defects. The tripping should be based on a logic to prevent any nuisance operation.5 FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEM GAS 4.) 4. each installation shall be equipped with emergency (AC) and critical (DC) lighting. If at any time. complying with the approval certificate. in a luminaire or other enclosures.flame. summoning of fire fighting organisation.g. provided that the area in which such apparatus or wiring has been installed. conduit or conduit accessories. triggering of the extinguishing process etc. gases or liquids and is maintained in such conditions. 4. as well as give signal to shut-off valves to prevent further release of the hazardous gases in the concerned areas when 40% LEL has reached. or by manual operation of manual call points i. evacuation of personnel. brake glass units.5.7. are available only with thread forms which differ from those provided on the apparatus.1 Each installation should be equipped with a fire detection and alarm system which shall be able to detect fire at the earliest and to give an alarm so that appropriate action can be taken (e.e. there is a change in the area classification or in the characteristics of the flammable material handled in the area or if the equipment is relocated in the area. suitable adaptors having necessary certification and approval shall be employed. No attempt shall be made to replace or repair a glass in a flameproof enclosure e. smoke detectors.2 The alarm system may be activated by automatic detection devices viz.5. 4.5. Replacement fasteners. If replacement components such as cable glands. the area classification drawing should be correspondingly revised and a check shall be made to ensure that the equipment selection corresponds to the revised area classification. 14 . 4. Locking and sealing devices shall be checked to ensure that they are secured in prescribed manner. studs and bolts shall be of the type specified by the manufacturer for the particular apparatus. heat detectors etc.7 EMERGENCY LIGHTING 4. so long as the work is in progress” No alteration that might invalidate the certificate or other document relating to the safety of the apparatus. nuts.g. except by replacement with the complete assembly or part obtainable from the manufacturer.3 Installations involving hazardous gases shall additionally be equipped with gas detection system which shall be able to detect the leakage of hazardous gases and give alarm when the gas concentration has reached 20% of lower explosive limit (LEL) and should activate the shutdown system.
abnormal operating 5. Cables are normally PVC/XLPE insulated and pose fire hazard in case of overheating or short circuit. fire alarm stations etc. to gain access and permit ready identification of fire fighting facilities such as fire water pumps. assembly point and critical installations such as first aid centre. and areas housing critical equipment including power supplies required for safe shut down of plants located close to process units / hydrocarbon storage areas shall be governed by provisions in OISD-STD-163.6 For details on lighting philosophy and installation practices. Accordingly.7.1 Sub-station is a vital Electrical installation which has a number of sources of fire hazards like Cables.5 For hazardous areas.2.3 Critical lighting. overloading. 5. b) The continuity of operation of those parts of the system not affected by the fault.2 Emergency lighting shall enable the operators to carry out safe shut-down of the plant. control rooms. ii) Ease of operation.4. Consideration should be given to cooling tower sprays. sourced from 220V or 110V DC system shall enable safe evacuation of operating personnel and shall be employed along escape route.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOM / BUILDING CONTROL conditions. the AC emergency load should be considered as 20-25% of normal lighting load. 4.4 As a good engineering practice. is maintained. Refer OISD-RP-149 for further details. and other factors affecting the safe operation of the sub-station.7.1 The sub-station shall be located in a safe area as close to the load centre as possible. 4. 4. critical DC lighting system may take care of the entire emergency lighting. Circuit Breaker and other switchgear items may cause low intensity fire along with explosion in case of severe earth fault.7. 15 . Refer also OISD standard 118 ‘Layout for Oil and Gas installations’) 5. manned sub-stations.3 LAYOUT OF SUB STATION Following requirements should be borne in mind while engineering the layout of a sub-station: i) Access for initial installation of the switchgear. refer OISD-RP147. possible removal.9 REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION The electrical system shall be designed and selected to ensure the following: a) Protection of equipment against damage which can occur due to internal or external short circuits. fire water pump house etc.2 Manned areas such as control rooms. OISD-RP-149. overhaul or replacement. An Oil filled Transformer contains large quantity of oil and is liable to explosion and fire in case electrical faults do not clear fast or get sustained.0 FIRE PROTECTION FOR SUBSTATION 5. LOCATION OF SUB-STATION 5. switching. vapours contributing to insulation breakdown etc.7. 4. In small plants. 4. c) Personnel and plant safety. 4. lightning surges etc. operator rooms etc.7. with small AC emergency load and where there is no separate standby DG set. irrespective of the area being classified as zone-1 or zone-2. as well as fire fighting etc. Transformers and Circuit Breakers. relays and protective devices shall be suitably selected and coordinated. emergency lighting fixtures shall be explosion proof Ex(d) type.
location and provisions for indoor transformers shall be governed by relevant clauses of Rule-64 of Indian Electricity Rules. Large sub-stations shall have three exits.8 Cable trenches inside sub-stations shall be filled with sand. in a boiler house of the building) should be adequately ventilated in order to avoid excessive cubicle temperature. If unavoidable. Maximum distance for a man trapped in fire shall not exceed 30 meters to the nearest fire escape.3. These exits shall be located at opposite ends of the building.10 The switchgear rooms should be kept clean and tidy and should not be used as a storage room.3.3. 5. suitable for electrical fires (CO2 type) and round bottom fire buckets with clean dry sand. There should be no door or window opening in the surrounding building if transformers are within 6 Metres thereof. maintenance and inspection of equipment. to prevent the possibility of operating personnel being trapped in case of fire. the main sub-station floor shall be raised above grade level and the space below the sub-station floor (cellar) shall be utilised for installation of cable trays.51(c) shall be referred in the context. The doors shall open outward and be equipped with exit signs. rags for cleaning etc.3 The cable cellar level of the substation floor shall be suitably raised from adjacent grade level to avoid water ingress. b) If the transformers are within 6 Metres of doors and window openings of surrounding buildings then they shall be protected by single 16 .4 In line with provisions under Rule-642(e-iv) of Indian Electricity Rules.1 In large plants. should be kept in easily accessible position near the switchgear enclosure. 22.214.171.124.3. 5. pebbles or similar non-flammable materials or covered with incombustible slabs.9 Fire extinguishers. 5.7 Switch boards should be provided with space heaters of sufficient rating to prevent condensation. Further guidelines on sub-station layout may be referred to OISD-RP149.3. All cable entries to the sub-station building should be properly sealed to prevent entry of any fluids/chemicals etc.6 The design of the floor must take account of any fixing arrangements and base channels for switch boards. newspapers.3.3. having an individual or aggregate oil content of 2000 Litres or more shall be located in a suitably fenced and locked enclosure separated on all sides by at least 6 Metres from any building including substation. 5. especially for combustible materials such as discarded printer outputs. 5. It is essential to ensure that the holes or slots for cables are clear of floor steelwork or reinforcement. cans. conspicuously marked. iv) It is imperative that any water tanks or pipes are not positioned directly above the switchgear. Switchgear located in a high ambient temperature (for example. 5.iii) The location must be considered in conjunction with possible cable routes.5The switchgear layout shall allow sufficient space at front of the switchgear to withdraw and maneuver the circuit breaker trolley and at the rear to allow access for cable terminations. 5. 5. Dry Type transformers should be preferred over Oil filled transformers for indoor duty. IE-Rule-64-2 (g) shall be referred in the context.3. Panel and equipment layout shall be so designed that personnel can go out from any exit. Indian Electricity Rule No. The roof shall be given adequate water proofing treatment to ensure that rain water does not seep into the sub-station.2 Every sub-station shall have a minimum of two exits.11 a) Transformers and equipment installed outdoors. 5. 5.
It shall be ensured that the discharge from any pressure relief devices on the transformer shall be directed away from any nearby equipment in order to prevent any damage to that equipment by discharged flaming oil. 17 Clear Separating Distance(Mtrs) 8 15 f) The provisions as above shall not be applicable if the transformer is filled with non-combustible insulant liquid.4.) should be followed.4 TRANSFORMER It is essential to pay major attention to early detection of any abnormality / fault and to protect the transformer from faults/fires so that fault is cleared before transformer catches fire. . Differential protection etc. 5. 20000-30000 Lit. Regular monitoring of checks as specified by manufacturer (such as Oil Temperature. separating walls shall be provided unless all equipment / buildings / plants are located at a clear distance of not less than the following: Oil Capacity of Individual Transformer 5000-20000 Lit. The separating wall shall extend at least 600 mm beyond the width of the transformer and cooling radiators. however.fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glass in steel frames respectively. non-flammable coolants and having primary voltage not more than 33 kV. Separating walls shall be carried right upto the roof level. in which case.12.3. the wall shall be carried upto a height of at least 600 mm above the top of the equipment (e. do not apply to dry type transformers or transformers having sulphur hexa fluoride.5 SWITCHGEAR ROOM a) Smoke detectors of ionization and optical types in sufficient quantity on cross-zoning principle with suitable time delay devices incorporated as per guidelines given in IS:2189. Restricted earth fault protection. Separating wall for indoor oil transformers shall be as per Clause 5.g: Transformer conservator) level. d) Separating walls shall not be necessary in case of transformers having an aggregate oil capacity exceeding 2000 Litres but individual oil capacity of less than 5000 litres if the distance between transformers and other apparatus is more than 6 Metres or if the transformers are protected by an approved type of high velocity water spray system. Stand by earth fault protection. 5.3. In general. a) OUTDOOR TRANSFORMER For outdoor transformer.12 Separating walls between sub-station and outdoor transformer bays. All openings from out door transformer bays into the building shall be sealed to prevent smoke from entering other portions of the sub-station. above the highest point of the equipment. shall have a four hour fire rating. however. b) INDOOR TRANSFORMER Selection of indoor transformer shall be guided vide clause 5. oil capacity of individual transformer is larger than 5000 litres. Winding Temperature and calibration / testing of IDMT and instantaneous Over current / Earth Fault protections. e) Where. fire fighting equipment and fire prevention arrangement shall be as per Clause 7. The requirements under this clause. a 230 mm thick reinforced concrete wall or a 355 mm thick brick wall is considered to provide adequate fire protection. 5.3. c) Separating walls shall be provided between transformers having an individual or aggregate oil content of 2000 Litres if the distance between transformers cannot be maintained as 6 metres minimum. if required.0. unless the roof is more than 3 mtrs.
8 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT FOR MINOR FIRES b) Capacitor units containing a flammable dielectric fluid. The water spray system consists of a number of spray nozzles mounted on piping network covering the complete span of cable trays laid horizontally and vertically. Capacity) 18 . Lighting fixtures shall be corrosion resistant and gas tight. 5. Performance / efficacy of such system shall be checked periodically. fixed fire extinguishing system with deluge facility using water spray may be applied for cable galleries and cable tunnels.should be installed substations . To avoid total flooding. ii) All foams are electrically conductive and should not be used on fires involving exposed energized electrical equipment. Performance / efficacy of such system shall be checked periodically and documented. 5. detection unit in that zone will actuate 5. if located indoor. After deenergization. cable galleries and tunnels may be divided into a number of zones. and only extinguishers expelling dry powder.8. Selection of fire fighting equipment should be governed by provisions under item 5. Alarm / annunciation system shall be provided in Control Room / Manned Sub station to facilitate appropriate action. Carbon Di-oxide (without metal horn) or vaporizing liquids should be used. As an abundant safety measure.8. Light switches should be located outside the battery room. Selection of fire fighting equipment should be governed by provisions under item 5. Once the electrical equipment is de-energised.8.7 CABLE CELLAR An effective fire/smoke Detection system shall be installed. 5. When fire occurs in a particular zone. Additionally. 5. Following fire fighting equipment shall be provided in electrical substation to fight minor fires: i) Dry Chemical Powder fire extinguisher (10 Kg. in large and corresponding deluge valve will open and spray water. Each zone is controlled by one deluge valve assembly connected to detection network. Hydrants at strategic locations for fighting fire in major emergencies may be installed. fire extinguishers should be used depending on class of fire.8.6 CABLE TUNNEL/ GALLERY An effective fire / smoke Detection system shall be installed.1 Electrical de-energisation / isolation of the equipment from the energized system should be the first step to fight an electrical fire. c) Fixed exhaust and ventilation systems should be switched off during a hydrocarbon leak. Alarm / annunciation system shall be provided in Control Room / Manned Sub station to facilitate appropriate action.2 Annexure B of IS:2190 shall be referred for assessment of class of fire / nature of occupancy criteria etc. d) The Battery rooms should be given special attention and the amount of hydrogen evolved from the batteries during charging should be well ventilated to preclude a build-up of flammable atmosphere. the non-conductivity of the extinguishing media is if utmost importance. Following should be given attention: i) Where energized electrical equipment is involved in a fire. extinguishers suitable for the class of fire risk involved can be used safely. should be separated from adjacent electrical equipment by a one hour fire barrier. The entrance door to a battery room shall have a NO SMOKING warning sign.
water spray may be used with proper nozzle selection. The use of fire buckets shall not be considered as a substitute for fire extinguishers. The inspection & maintenance of the above fire extinguishers shall be based on the guidelines of OISDSTD-115. One of the prime causes of fire is the failure of insulation. 6. To be located in sub-stations. ii) CO2 Extinguisher Capacity) (4. 5. ANSI/IEEE Standard 979 may be referred for further guidelines on the types of water-spray nozzles. Other causes relate to fuel burning equipment. iii) The fire fighter does not stand in a pool of water. lube oil systems and fuel oil handling / storage systems. liner beam type smoke detectors may be employed. Before selecting water for use indoors.2 Gas Turbo generator (GTG) room shall be adequately ventilated and shall be provided with fixed automatic hydrocarbon detector (LEL detectors) and alarm system.4 Carbon dioxide is ineffective for outdoor applications because it is rapidly dispersed by wind. At least 1 fire extinguisher shall be provided for every 100 m2 area. It is necessary that every effort be made to reduce the chances of fire.8. 19 6. Simulation of operation of system shall be carried out at regular intervals.To be located inside sub-station. All cable trenches. ii) The minimum distance from the equipment is at least 2 meters. In case of generator halls with high roofs. b) Generators halls should be provided with automatic fire detection system such as smoke detectors. At least 1 fire extinguisher shall be provided for every 100 m2 area.8. When water is used. 6. The number should be determined based on a maximum travelling distance of 15 meters. If conditions are such that the equipment cannot be de-energized and the fire cannot be extinguished by non-conducting agents. Water-spray nozzles can be used safely and effectively on voltages upto 138 KV. it should be determined if the equipment is water tight. 5. CO2 cylinders shall be readily accessible.0 6. phase to phase with the following precautions : i) Only spray type nozzles are used. If it is not automatic. an adequate drainage system should be provided.1 ELECTRICAL GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS A fire in a generating installation would affect the continuity of power supply along with consequent loss of production and probable replacement of highly valuable equipment. The number should be determined based on a maximum travelling distance of 10 meters. This can be realised in most case by CO2 flooding within the generator enclosure on occurrence of a fire.5 Kg. Monitoring of such a fire and CO2 flooding shall be automatic. iii) Sand Buckets One in each Transformer Bay.3 .3 Water should be used with discretion in areas of electrical equipment. tunnels and other basement areas on the turbo generator building shall also be similarly protected. a) The fire protection system of generators should consist of standard practice of generator manufacturers. Provision should be made to prevent inadvertent operation of a water suppression system.
The minimum illumination level shall be 150 lux for boiler house. manually controlled stop valves shall be located near the gas turbines. Emergency Diesel Generator should be provided with auto cut in system. and 150-200 lux for control rooms and sub-stations. To prevent the hazard of static electricity. with a capacity exceeding 45 KL shall be bonded to the ground with at least two separate and distinct connections on the opposite extremities of such tank.11 shall be 20 6.5 7. 6. c) Batteries for starting the DG set shall have containers of noncorrosive. The other is a water spray system for oil fires at or around the bearing housings. to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture. a) Emergency diesel generator (DG) sets are normally required to be operated only on failure of the normal supply.12.3. non-flammable material.2 6. turbine hall etc. further. The direction of exhaust pipe shall be so chosen as to help disperse the exhaust away from the DG room. All fuel oil tanks located above ground. The day tank for diesel shall not be located inside the emergency DG room as it is a potential source of fire and may also release flammable vapours.1 TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION A transformer is the main equipment in the switchyard / sub-station which is prone to fire hazards due to the large quantity of oil it contains. Clause no. Adequate illumination shall be provided at all locations. manual call points (break glass boxes) shall be employed for fire alarm. 6.6 7. Additionally. These emergency DG sets shall be located in well ventilated rooms and provided with air exhaust equipment in order to dissipate the heat generated during power generation. 5. for effective fire fighting purposes.0 7. the fill and recirculation lines to storage tanks shall discharge below the liquid level. However. one for areas below the operating floor of the turbo generator and designed to extinguish pool fires and also providing protection against heat generated by three dimensional or spray fires. Batteries shall be located in a well ventilated location. The roof and all metal connections of such tanks shall be bonded to the body of such tanks. these extinguishing media may not be sufficient to cope with a long duration fire. SEPARATING WALL Separating walls shall have fire rating and specifications as per clause 5. Separating wall shall also be designed to withstand the explosion of transformer bushing or lightning arrestor.7 . This shall consist of two systems of water protection. The day tank shall be located outside the DG room within a fenced area. b) The exhaust from the emergency DG shall be conveyed outside the DG room through an exhaust pipe. preferably with a corrugated sheet roof to provide protection from direct sun and rain. Fixed C02 or dry chemical extinguishing systems have been found to be inadequate for basic protection of turbo generator because of the likelyhood of reignition and.Additionally.4 Gas intake to gas turbines shall be through separate pipe-lines with remote controlled solenoid / motor operated valves located in the open area.3. in some cases.8 c) Fixed fire water spray type protection system shall be used for controlling a fire involving large quantities of lubricating Oil on Turbine generators. 6. Special attention shall be devoted to safeguard the transformer and other nearby equipment against fire. fixed dry chemical or C02 systems backed by water spray systems should be provided.
3. This margin should be proportionate to the quantity of rain falling in the region where the substation lies and to the frequency of the maintenance and emptying operations.2 Oil litres Capacity exceeding 2. it is recommended that the pit shall extend all around the transformer for a width of 20% of the transformer height.000 litres Transformers installed adjacent to sub-station/buildings shall. shall be connected by a draining pipe of earthenware or steel.3. In both the cases. to a waste oil tank as per Clause 7. The oil containing pit may be shaped as illustrated in Figure – 1. where oil capacity exceeds 2. The bottom of the pit shall be constructed of impermeable concrete.3.000 The whole pit around the transformer shall be filled with stones of about 40/60 mm granulation except that the top 150 mm of the pit shall be devoid of stones. all around the transformer. say able to contain a quantity of oil corresponding to only a third of the volume of oil contained in a transformer. not less than 150 mm diameter.3. In case oil capacity exceeds 9. In such a case. In both schemes. 7. A Porosity factor of 40% may be considered for 40/60 mm size gravel.000 litres of oil in a chamber.3 Waste Oil Tank The oil containing pit.referred for provision of separation walls / safe inter distance etc. If the emptying is automatic. A layer of stones of this size extinguishes the burning oil penetrating it. the oil containing pit shall be connected to a waste oil tank as per Clause 7. CASE – 1 The oil containing pit shall be able to contain an quantity of oil equal to that of the oil contained in the transformer.1 Oil Capacity upto 2. which may escape or leak from the tanks. provision shall be made for draining away of any oil. it shall be able to contain a quantity of oil corresponding to approximately a third or even less than the volume of oil contained in the transformer. from reaching and polluting the water bearing stratum. where two alternative solutions are considered. transformers shall have the following provisions.3 OIL CONTAINING PIT In order to prevent oil.3. the emptying system shall be laid out and controlled in such a way as to prevent oil flowing into the general drains of the sub-station. be provided with a layer of 100 mm deep stones of about 40 mm granulation. the tank should be situated either in a place central to the transformers or in the lowest part of the sub-station to assist drainage. 7.3. 7. The tank shall be of sufficient 21 Transformers installed adjacent to sub-station / building shall. whether from a small leakage or outflow from transformer tank. with a minimum width of about 800 mm.3. to a waste oil tank situated in suitable place.000 litres. 7. it shall be possible to empty the pit by means of a pump. be provided with oil containing pits. in any chamber. plus the volume of water in the fixed fire fighting installation (if any) plus a certain margin for rain water. . for a width of 20% of the transformer height or with a minimum width of about 800 mm. CASE – 2 The oil containing pit shall be similar in construction to CASE – 1. depending on the oil capacity of the transformer.000 litres. If only one waste oil tank collects the drainage of several containing pits. where oil capacity does not exceed 2. however. when of a smaller volume than required.
economic study is to be done by the user before going for the system.4 on fire prevention rather than fire fighting should be recapitulated . The system operation shall be automatic unless : • Automatic operation presents a hazard.1 CABLE INSTALLATION Electrical cables are usually sheathed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which contributes to the rapid spread of fire.3. b) The transformers of the substation/ switch station are located in the basement of the building. • System is attended by trained personnel round the clock.4 FIRE PROTECTION The first para of Clause 5. This tank shall be provided with an air vent large enough to avoid over pressure during operation.11 nor the inter distance criteria under same clause is met. Complete impingement on all exterior surface (except bottom surface) shall be done with a rate not less than 12.3. meter. The vent shall be provided with a flame arrestor. use of dry type transformers may also be considered for such areas. Such a system shall be provided with automatic high velocity water spray system (Mulsifyre System) or foam water spray. Water spray shall not impinge on energized bushing and lightning arrestor. Alternately. when it is exposed to intense heat or is involved in fire.4.capacity to receive. Any space of width greater than 300 mm shall have separate arrangement for spray of water. Use of Nitrogen Purging is optional. The whole internal surface shall be impermeable.8. 7. provides an inert nitrogen layer on top of the hot oil to prevent any contact of oil with oxygen. Dense smoke from the cable fires hinders 22 . and a certain quantity of rain water collected from all pits. 7. Foregoing clauses 5.2 In case. PVC also gives off highly toxic products out of combustion including corrosive gases. the contents of the largest transformer of the sub-station plus the water of any fixed fire fighting system. ii) Nitrogen Purging Nitrogen injection system offers a fast fire prevention and extinguishing system for oil filled transformers.4.1 Fixed fire extinguishing systems for oil filled transformers shall be provided if any one of the following conditions exists: a) Neither separating walls having fire rating and specs as per 5. Separate arrangement of water spraying shall be considered for conservator. Necessary techno. Such system may be considered in areas where availability of water is limited or there is probability of water freezing. as well as. No other drain shall lead to the tank.8. fixed fire extinguishing systems are to be installed.1 and 5./min/sq. 7.5 ltr. 8. they may consist of the following: i) Water System Spray (Mulsifyre) Piping for spraying should not be carried across the top of the transformer unless no other alternative space is available.0 8. (Refer Figure:2). without overflowing.3 should be kept in mind while adopting water as a medium of fighting electrical fire. Pressure relief valve operation due to internal faults activates the system and nitrogen is injected from the bottom area of the tank.12 are erected in line with criteria under clause 5. which brings down the oil temperature.
b) Compartmentalisation of cable tunnel should be done by provision of separating walls at an interval not more than 30 meters and by sealing the opening with the use of fire stop / fire barriers.1 23 .V cables should be segregated by a 300 mm gap and a layer of bricks laid between the two. Fire fighting equipment and hydrants shall be located at the entrances of tunnels. Cables Laid In Trenches a) Where cables are laid in lined trenches.2 To minimize spreading of fire due to cables. The cable trays/racks shall be suitably spaced to ensure that a fire in one tier will not propagate to another tier. the outer PVC sheath of cables used in Oil industry shall have a minimum Oxygen Index of 29. b) Preventing / retarding flame propagation through cable runs. c) All cable tunnels.V. the following precautions are recommended from fire safety point of view: Directly Buried Cables Where cables are directly buried in the ground after excavation of soil and then backfilled with sand and soil. the trenches shall be with covers of fire retardant material. and M. Cable tunnel floors shall be provided with a slope leading to a sump with a sump pump.3.2 a) Preventing / delaying fire damage to the cables to preserve their functioning and increasing their resistance to fire/heat. so that maximum distance for a man trapped in fire does not exceed 30 meters to the nearest fire escape. H. For plants having sub station with trenches (without cellar) and major under ground cable runs. 8. cable trenches.3. Minimum distance between tiers shall not be less than 225 mm. is not essential. tunnels and galleries is based on the following considerations: 8. The concept of fire protection of cables. shall be provided with adequate number of fire escapes. plastic.3 For various types of cable laying methods employed. 8.3. 8. f) Avoiding cable joints in Over Head cable Racks and Trenches in hazardous areas and.fire fighting efforts and the approach to the source of fire. as above. evenly distributed. Cables may also be laid in lined trenches using the methodology as applicable for direct burial. c) Cables laid in lined trenches in safe (non-hazardous) areas should be run on cable rack/trays supported from the walls of the cable trench. c) Segregating cable runs into compartments with a view to localising a possible cable fire and its spread. care shall be taken to ensure that no combustible materials such 8. wood shavings etc. b) Lined Cable trenches located in hazardous areas. cellars etc. accumulate within the trench prior to backfilling. d) Providing effective fire detection and alarm system e) Providing effective extinguishing system. g) Avoiding cable runs in close proximity to drains carrying Steam / Hydro carbons at high temperature. The tunnels shall be kept dewatered at all times. rags.3 Cables laid in Tunnels / Galleries / Cellars a) Measures shall be taken to keep the tunnels well ventilated. fire as paper. shall be filled with sand. minimum Oxygen index requirement.
9.3. Fire hazards can also be minimized by installing fire breaks. i) Fire stops should be deployed at the locations where the trenches enter the sub-station. Same. entire length. especially if carrying hydrocarbons. Entry of cables to the blast resistant control room buildings shall be through fire resistant multi cable transits (MCTs). cellars. shall be carried out with proper work permit and precautions meeting norms under OISD-STD-105 and OISD-STD-137. e) Fire detection and alarm system shall be provided in the cable tunnels. shall be given to vertical cable runs. 8. of adequate thickness. such as the installation of fire stops or fire breaks. Fire resistance criteria shall be in line with IS-12459. a fire resistant barrier or shield shall be deployed between the trays or a passive fire-retardant coating may be applied to the cables. b) Consideration should be given to the application of passive fire coating for the following areas: i) Immediately after end termination or joints upto a length not less than one meter in either direction. therefore. if unavoidable. h) No welding or naked flame should be allowed inside cable tunnels and cellars.0 9. entire length. f) Emergency lighting shall be provided inside the cable cellars and cable tunnels.1 TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS Temporary electrical supply is generally required for installations erected for short periods of time ranging from a few hours to a few months.5 g) The fire rating of fire stop when tested according to IS : 12458 and of barrier wall when tested according to IS : 3809 shall not be less than the rating of the building components. GI sheet of adequate thickness shall be provided for protection of cables. Temporary supply installations need extreme care to avoid any hazard from electrical shock by exposure to live wires or fire due to short circuiting. to protect the cables in case of a fire in the pipe rack/equipment located below the cable trays.4 Cables Laid On Overhead Cable Trays a) Cables laid on cable trays supported on pipe sleepers etc. iv) Exposed vertical length.d) Inter-compartment movement should be through fire check doors. iii) Cable passing through high temperature area. 8. It is. Fire Prevention in above ground installation a) Above ground cable installations where proper separation can not be achieved. shall be at least 300 mm above grade level. shall be provided with GI sheet. Such installations are exposed to environmental hazards also.3. necessary to take extra precautions for such installations to 24 . The space below the cable trays shall be kept free of dry grass/vegetation. For cables running directly below the Air fin coolers/ Acid/ alkali Pipelines. ii) Crossing or T-crossings upto a length not less than one meter in either direction. d) Special attention. c) Cable trays should not be installed at an elevation where acid/hydro-carbon piping is located above the cable tray. b) Cable trays installed on elevated pipe racks. since they propagate fire more rapidly as compared to horizontal runs.
9. Crossing of roads shall be 9.ensure safety of personnel and equipment. cables shall be properly cleated or supported on rigid poles at least 2m high. brick and earth for ensuring mechanical protection. Rewirable type fuse should not be used.4 Each installation shall have a main switch with a protective device. The installation shall be adequately protected against overload. in some cases. earth electrodes shall be buried near the supply point and earth continuity wire shall be connected to local earth electrode/ plate and further distributed to various appliances. The height of the main switch shall not exceed 1. Unless unavoidable. birds. HRC fuses of proper rating shall be used.5 m The outgoing shall be double or triple pole switches with fuses/MCBs.3.1 The main switch shall be connected to the point of supply by means of an armoured cable adequately protected from rain water.3 9. If unavoidable.2 Temporary installations are considered as electrical installations open to sky or partially covered and intended to be used for periods not exceeding 6 months or during Plant Turn Around. vermin etc. Such joints shall be clamped at either side to avoid any strain. When laid above ground.4. The enclosure housing the main switch and other distribution equipment shall not be affected by conditions specified in Clause 9.7 9. short circuit and earth leakage by the use of suitable protective devices.rodents. 9. armour shall be bonded to the earthing arrangement of power supply source. The room housing the main switches shall be well ventilated with an adequate clearances and operational space around. taped joints shall not be employed at heights less than 3 Mtrs.9 9. 9. fire risk may be enhanced in such temporary installations due to the nature of construction material and. Loads in a 3 phase circuit should be balanced and load on neutral should not exceed 20% of load in the phases at the point of supply. Earth should not be used as Neutral of an Electrical installation. installed in an enclosure adjacent to the metering point. Such installations may be exposed to the following environmental conditions: • Water splashes/jets of water from any direction • Partial or total covering by water • Dust/ Dirt • Vibrations • Impact • Ingress of insects. All appliances and equipment shall be adequately earthed. due to storage of combustible material. • Exposure of solar radiation • Exposure of lightning strokes Apart from the above. Taped joints shall be avoided and proper Industrial Type extension cord shall be used for joining of cables in Construction power installation and temporary electrical installations. Cables shall be laid underground covered with sand. In case of local earthing.5 avoided. In case of armoured cables. Copper wire shall not be used as a replacement of fuse in fuse carriers .6 9. In construction sites.8 . protection of personnel against indirect contact shall be assured by automatic disconnection of supply by means of residual current devices having sensitivity not exceeding 30 mA with instantaneous tripping. Healthiness of the RCCB/ELCB 25 9. An independent earthing facility should preferably be established within the temporary installation premises.
k) Process Control OISD-180: Lightning Protection. such as those requiring electrical power during plant shut-down etc. these facilities shall be accessible with a flexible cable of 50 Mtrs. IS-2148: Flameproof enclosure for electrical apparatus. As a good engineering practice. length. 63A. Flexible cables used for construction power installations shall be doubly sheathed and fine wire armoured. adequacy of feeders. b) OISD-110: Recommended Practices on Static Electricity. Installation & Maintenance of Portable First Aid Fire appliances. flameproof welding receptacles. TPN. standards and publications have either been referred to or used in the preparation of this document and the latest editions of the same shall be read in conjunction with this document: (I) OISD Standards / Recommended Practices (as per latest amendments) such as: a) OISD-105: Work Petmit System . shall be provided in the plant area at regular intervals to take care of maintenance requirements during plant shut down. adequate provisions shall be made in the permanent electrical installation to cater to the requirements of temporary loads. c) OISD-113: Classification of Area for Electrical Installations at Hydrocarbon handling Facilities.shall be checked before commencement of work everytime. ensure proper earthing and bonding etc. IS-3034: Code of Practice for Fire Safety of Industrial Buildings: Electrical Generating and Distributing Station 26 10.2190 : Code of Practice for Selection. IS-2309: Protection of buildings and allied structures against lightning.11 h) OISD-147 : Inspection and Safe Practices during electrical installation. flameproof portable hand lamps for illumination of interior of vessels / equipment.10 All temporary installations shall be tested before connection of supply to ensure suitability of protection system. during maintenance shall be provided as a part of the permanent electrical installation. IS-2189: BIS guidelines for Smoke Detection. 9. to check the loads in various circuits and sub-circuits. outlets for hydro-jetting/ Stress Relieving machines etc. (II) Latest BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Publications : IS-1646 : Code of Practice for fire safety of buildings (General) Electrical Installations. IS. Adequate number of flameproof 240 V AC plug-sockets. cables etc. f) OISD-118: Layouts for Oil and Gas installations g) OISD-137 : Electrical Equipment Inspection of 9. d) OISD-115: Guidelines on Fire Fighting Equipment and Appliances in Petroleum Industry.0 REFERENCES The following codes. Temporary installation shall not be employed in hazardous areas. 415 V.. e) OISD-116: Fire Protection Facilities for Petroleum Refineries and Oil/Gas Processing Plants. j) OISD-163: Room Safety. However. i) OISD-149 : Design Aspects for Safety in Electrical System.
IS-10028: (Part 1. (V) THE PETROLEUM RULES2002 with latest amendments. IS-10810: Cables. (VI) IEC 331: Fire resisting characteristics of electrical cables. (VIII) NFPA-850 “Recommended Practice for Fire Protection for Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station. 1956 as per latest amendments. installation and maintenance of Transformer. (VII) ANSI/IEEE STD-979: GUIDE FOR SUB-STATION FIRE PROTECTION. IS-12459: Code of practice for fire safety in cable runs. of Practice for (IV) INDIAN ELECTRICITY ACT & RULES. IS-5571: Guide for selection of electrical equipment for hazardous areas.3) Code of practice for selection.(III) NEC-1985 IS-3043: Code Earthing. 27 . IS-13408: Code of Practice for the selection. IS-5572:Classification of Hazardous areas (other than Mines) for electrical installations.2. Methods of tests for IS-12458: BIS Standard for testing of Fire Rating. (IX) Oil Mines Regulation IS:3809: BIS Standard for testing of Fire Rating for Barrier Wall. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmosphere (other than mining applications or explosives processing and manufacture).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.