IT Assignment on Networking

Abhishek Srivastava PGDM Sec B Roll.no 04
Acharya Institute Of Management & Sciences Page 1

Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain subnetworks . the act of connecting computers into network. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. the act of meeting new people in a business or social context Types of networks: Personal area network A personal area network(PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. or an airport. PDAs. star. and even video game consoles. Campus area network A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. or both kinds of signals. telephones. Such a PAN may include wired and wireless connections between devices. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers. and Unshielded Twisted Pair). the university library 2 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences . printers. data.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables. coaxial cable. fax machines. but this is expected to increase with technology improvements. dedicated or non-switched. by the usual nature of its connections (dial-up or switched. In the case of a university campus-based campus area network. or small group of buildings. or virtual connections). a TCP/IP or Systems Network Architecture network). Local area network A local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area. metropolitan area networks (MANs). such as a school. The reach of a PAN is typically at least about 20-30 feet (approximately 6-9 meters). Networks can also be characterized in terms of spatial distance as local area networks (LANs).NETWORKING NETWORKING DEFINITION: In information technology. by whether it carries voice. scanners. and by the types of physical links (for example.A given network can also be characterized by the type of data transmission technology in use on it (for example. and mesh topologies. Large telephone networks and networks using their infrastructure … The act of working using computer network. It can be considered one form of a metropolitan area network. like a home.The most common topology or general configurations of networks include the bus. academic departments. although new standards like ITUG. a network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. and wide area networks (WANs). specific to an academic setting. by who can use the network (public or private). phone lines and power line. the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including. token ring. optical fiber. office.

The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. regional. however. and the network layer Global area network A global area networks (GAN) (see also IEEE 802. In IEEE Project 802. or metropolitan area networks (MANs). though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room). a WAN is a network that uses routers and public communications links. A campus area network is larger than a local area network but smaller than a wide area network (WAN) (in some cases). campus or specific metropolitan area (e. This is a network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus. such as telephone companies. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. this involves a succession of terrestrial WIRELESS local area network (WLAN) 3 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences .e. Contrast with personal area networks (PANs). or home usually contains a single LAN. satellite coverage areas. school. the data link layer. which are usually limited to a room. etc. but is generally limited to a smaller area than a typical MAN. and there is no common definition. A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.NETWORKING and student residence halls. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer. In general. Less formally. industrial complex.g. A networked office building. Metropolitan area network A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that connects two or more local area networks or campus area networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town/city. a city) respectively. a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. building. Wide area network A wide area network(WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. or national boundaries.20) specification is in development by several groups. or a military base.. and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. campus area networks (CANs). This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan. switches and hubs are connected to create a metropolitan area network. The main aim of a campus area network is to facilitate students accessing internet and university resources. This should not be confused with a Controller Area Network. local area networks (LANs). Routers. A CAN may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network). A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. office building.

for example. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. If connected to the Internet. although it may serve as a portal for access to portions of an extranet. Most commonly. Any interconnection among or between public. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. A large intranet will typically have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. In modern practice. such as a router. 4 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences . The result is called an internetwork (often shortened to internet). the intranet or extranet is normally protected from being accessed from the Internet without proper authorization. the Internet) instead of by physical wires. using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. Internetwork An Internetwork is the connection of two or more distinct computer networks or network segments via a common routing technology. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet.. Intranet An intranet is a set of networks. that is under the control of a single administrative entity. The Internet is not considered to be a part of the intranet or extranet. commercial. That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific. A VPN allows computer users to appear to be editing from an IP address location other than the one which connects the actual computer to the Internet. or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork. such as authentication or content encryption. an intranet is the internal network of an organization.g. depending on who administers and who participates in them: • • • Intranet Extranet Internet Intranets and extranets may or may not have connections to the Internet. authorized users. Two or more networks or network segments connect using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model. There are at least three variants of internetworks. private. industrial. VPNs.NETWORKING Virtual private network A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e. but a VPN need not have explicit security features. interconnected networks use the Internet Protocol.

for historical reasons and to distinguish it from other generic internetworks. academic. Technically. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide We (WWW). while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint).S. Diagram of Networking 5 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences . or other type of network. Department of Defense. protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP Addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented. by definition. it must have at least one connection with an external network. Internet The Internet consists of a worldwide interconnection of governmental. MAN.g. and private networks based upon the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol Suite. forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet. although. but not necessarily. and often standardized. The 'Internet' is most commonly spelled with a capital 'I' as a proper noun. an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the U..NETWORKING Extranet An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually. trusted organizations or entities (e. public. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN. WAN.

NETWORKING 6 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences .

This kind of architecture helps save cost. Investment vehicles. HDFC Bank says.com Current Status 761 branches 1977 ATM’s in the country 327 cities in India All branches are OLRT connected 16 branches in Middle east 6 in Africa Representative offices in Hong Kong.634. Capital Markets and allied industries Products Loans. All branches across the country converge at their respective zonal hub location. London & Singapore Networking at HDFC HDFC Bank had a centralized IP-based network right since its inception.. Savings. Head-Information Technology.NETWORKING HDFC BANK (PROFILE) Housing Development Finance Corporation Founded in 1977 by Hasmukh bhai Parakh HDFC Bank was incorporated in August 1994 Among the first in new generation commercial banks Registered office in Mumbai. depending on the total volume of the transactions that pass through. Mumbai. Net revenue :Rs. Insurance." 7 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences . Mumbai. which in turn conects to the data center at Chandivili.hdfcbank. Credit Cards. C.6 crores Net income :Rs. the branches are distributed under different regions and each major location has a regional hub. Insurance etc. 2. New York. India Industry Banking. as to connect every branch directly to the data center involves huge costs. BSE. the parent company IPO in India in 1995 Listed in NSE.509.N. "Each branch is connected to their regional hub. Ram. 4. India Promoted by HDFC. These hubs then connect to the central site (data center) using a combination of 2 Mbps and 64 Kbps pipes. The branches falling under a location connect to the hub at the main region.3 crores Website :www. NYSE(ADR) Type: Public Founded :1994 Headquarters :HDFC Bank Ltd. Network Based on the bank's hub & spoke architecture for the network.

if the Kolkata-Chandivili link fails. Till recent times the database was operating on a direct attached storage (DAS). Ram.NETWORKING A highlight of HDFC Bank's network is the presence of two or more hubs in one location. For example." explained C. Ram. and in remote areas it is difficult to set up the required infrastructure. Now the applications run on Sun's Star Fire 15K Server.N. so that one hub failure does not incapacitate all the branches in that region. and from 1st April 2003 the bank switched to storage attached network (SAN). 4500. over time it moved to Sun Ultra 3500. With the growth in transaction volumes. On the corporate side HDFC Bank started with MicroBanker and then moved to Flexcube in 2002. The bank has tested CDMA and GSM solutions—specially for ATMs as they consume very small bandwidths. number of branches and the number of users the hardware platform has also been upgraded. Madras could be connected to Bangalore and Kolkata. which operates on a Compaq Alpha box-GS160. Since then the bank has been running applications on a Sun platform. The bank's servers have also undergone phases of development inline with the bank's expansion plans. The software then used was MicroBanker from i-flex Solutions (then called CITIL). This 8 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences . with built-in redundancy in the network. Banking applications The bank uses separate software for corporate and retail banking as there was no single package that met both their business requirements. A step ahead In the coming years HDFC Bank plans to deploy connections. They use Flexcube UBS. The bank's earliest server was a Sun Ultra 170. Servers The bank started with applications on SCO-Unix boxes from Compaq almost eight years back. with all three of them being connected to Chandivili. and then Sun E10 K. Therefore. "To balance the load and reduce the dependency on a single line." said C. the bank has two hub locations within a region to share the load. "With an expansion in the number of branches the bank felt the need to consider Unix/RISC boxes rather than an Intel/SCO Unix platform. The branches are split between the two hubs. The bank is also considering alternate connectivity solutions as VSATs are relatively more expensive.N. The set-up supported about 10 branches initially. then Kolkata will use the Madras link to connect to the Chandivili data center. and selected the Sun platform.

"Our approach is that we need to protect our data first as the basis for a business continuity plan. Storage The bank currently deploys SAN but feels they will need to consider NAS sometime in the future. With an increase in data volume. On the retail side the bank uses Finware from i-flex solutions. disaster recovery and others need to be addressed. The bank has to store data for seven years as per the RBI guidelines. According to C.N. The bank anticipates storage costs to come down. "When HDFC Bank had acquired Times Bank in 2000 all the Times Bank customers were shifted from their package (called Kapiti) to HDFC Bank's Finware and MicroBanker. The data at the main center is replicated in real-time on-line at the Chennai site. If some disaster was to occur. the bank and the customer a feeling of security. Ram. and be available. Disaster Recovery setup C. This calls for huge investments as all areas like backup. and bulk purchases would be economical. data (up to the last second) will be replicated. N. the capacity of the hardware also needs to be updated." The bank has a disaster recovery (DR) site at Chennai. Ram says.N. The vendors have programs that enable the migration or upgrades. The bank uses SAN solutions from Hitachi Data Systems. We had the vendors develop the software required to migrate the data from Kapiti to Finware so that the task for the operating departments was greatly reduced and the conversion was done in a short space of three months with minimum disruption to customer service. This gives both. 6f643109fc3c2298d4b37ac760 9 Acharya Institute of Management & Sciences .NETWORKING database was also on DAS and was moved to SAN over last year (December 2002). The bank did not face any serious migration issues as they use upgraded products or new products usually from the same vendors." said C. Ram the bank's storage requirement is growing at a rate of four to five percent every month. and as it is not necessary to store the data on-line—the bank uses tapes for off-line storage. The data is stored on the servers at the DR site and the database is constantly replenished.

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