Source: ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES & COMPONENTS ILLUSTRATED SOURCEBOOK

ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS

CHAPTER 18

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

A schematic is a graphical representation of an electronic or electrical assembly or installation. Vacuum Tube Cathode. Similarly. many designers use a combination of standards ranging from international. However. However. which is commonly shown in all three different versions. these binders will also contain test.digitalengineeringlibrary. If you’re a military technician looking at a commercial power distribution diagram. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. In the fields of electronics and electrics. Also like other engineering disciplines. and inspection procedures. An electrical designer that produces industrial control panels can easily produce a cryptic drawing that is 100% electrically accurate. which are the same. you’re probably going to have a lot of questions.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 288 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook schematic that is actually more difficult to interpret. Notice that there are some duplications. . Opening the case on an ordinary stereo will usually put you face-to-face with a single-sheet schematic which describes the circuitry with sufficient details to aid a repair technician in his task of troubleshooting. more often then not. Balanced Cavity Resonator Cavity Resonator − Antenna.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the symbol for a generator. Indirectly Heated Antenna Antenna. Figure 18-6. Cold Diode. There are specific standards that are published by many nations and international organizations. In addition to the circuit diagrams and schematics. Piezoelectric Capacitor. Loop + Cell Battery − + Circuit Breaker Capacitor (Condenser) Coaxial Cable Capacitor + Crystal. 3-inch thick binders that are nothing but electrical schematics and diagrams describing every aspect of the electronics and electrical systems onboard. Also note that there are devices that may have several different symbols. what gauge wire to use. rigidly adhering to one of these standards produces a Ammeter A Cathode. national. the written language is the schematic. Variable Diode. To further confuse matters. Figure 18-2. if you’re a designer tasked with drawing a schematic for a consumer audio power amplifier kit. Heated And Gate Cathode. Drawing electronic and electrical schematics is not unlike other engineering disciplines in that standard methods exist. These drawings may be as simple as a small printed label glued onto the inside of a toaster case or as complex as hundreds of engineering drawings representing the complex power distribution and control systems for a petrochemical plant. calibration. a modern airliner will have something on the order of 10 to 20. and how to cable the assembly? A little quality time spent developing a consistent drawing that is easily understandable will provide substantial returns in the future. do you really want the shop technicians deciding where to place the components. military. All rights reserved. such as an incandescent lamp. remember that the customer is probably an amateur with no formal training in electronics. industrial. The thing to remember when reading or drawing a schematic is for whom it is intended. Figures 18-1 through 18-6 provide a list of standard symbols that are commonly used in electronic and electrical schematics. Figure 18-3. and even obsolete. such as the symbol for a galvanometer. most designers apply a certain amount of leeway when drawing a schematic. Polarized Diode Capacitor. On the other hand. Military ships are so complex that their printed electrical schematics and diagrams are usually stored in a special room designed specifically for the application. Light Emitting Figure 18-1 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. . Bifilar Ferrite Bead Inductor.digitalengineeringlibrary. Iron Core Ferrite Bead Inductor. Air Core Female Contact Inductor. Interrupting Figure 18-2 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Phone. Double Jack. Single Diode.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Coaxial Ground.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS Chapter 18 Electrical Schematics 289 Diode. Phone Head Phone. Earth Jack. Chassis Jack Banana Hand Set Jack. All rights reserved. Variable Galvanometer G Integrated Circuit Ground. Photosensitive Head Phone. Zener Inductor. W/Tap Fuse Inductor.

Phono Nand Gate + Positive Terminal Negative Terminal − Potentiometer Figure 18-3 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Utility.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Neon Plug. 240 VAC Lamp Photocell.digitalengineeringlibrary. Phone. Telegraph Or Gate Lamp L Outlet.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 290 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook Jack. 3 Conductors Microphone Plug. . Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Phono Operational Amplifier Key. 3 Conductors Nor Gate Jack. Utility. Phone. Phone Male Contact Plug. Vacuum Tube Lamp. All rights reserved. 120 VAC Lamp Outlet.

DPST Switch. SPST Switch. Center Tap Terminal Rheostat Thermocouple Saturable Core Reactor Thermocouple Figure 18-4 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. All rights reserved. DPDT Switch. . Momentary. NO Relay. Rotary Resistor. DPDT Relay. Vacuum Tube Switch.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. Silicon-Controlled Speaker Rectifier. NC Resistor Switch. DPST Relay. SPDT Switch.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS Chapter 18 Electrical Schematics 291 Rectifier. SPDT Switch. Momentary. SPST Relay. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FET. Iron Core W Wattmeter Transformer. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Pentode Coil. Connected Transistor. Solenoid Tube. N Contacts.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. W/Center Tap(s) Wire Transistor. PNP Wire. P Contacts. FET. Triode Transformer. All rights reserved. NPN Wire.digitalengineeringlibrary. Air Core V Voltmeter Transformer. Crossing Transistor.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 292 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook Thyristor Tube. NO Tube. Diode C Coil. NC Transistor. Control Tube. Tetrode Thermal Cutout Figure 18-5 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. .

SPST Pressure Switch. All rights reserved. NC Autotransformer. Variable Bell G Generator Fluorescent Lamp M Motor Spark Gap M Motor. 3 Phase (Delta/Delta Shown) Fan Pressure Switch. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS Chapter 18 Electrical Schematics 293 Limit Switch. NO Autotransformer Limit Switch.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Shunt Wound Spark Gap 3 Phase. Wye Signal Generator 3 Phase.digitalengineeringlibrary. Delta Unspecified Component Pump Transformer. DPST Figure 18-6 Standard Schematic Symbols Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. .

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. A small schematic like this can be easily folded up and tucked into the chassis of the finished assembly. have a poor description. the component list may be printed on the same piece of paper. notice that all of the components are clear and easily readable. The component list should provide all of the necessary information for any given part. . including electrical data. Figure 18-8 shows a typical unregulated bench power supply schematic. To add to the confusion. in many instances the reduction required is so great that the schematic is virtually unreadable.to 120-VAC Variable Autotransformer Transformer. Notice that all of the components are clear and easily readable. The component list on this schematic is printed above the schematic. However. Once again. shown in Figure 18-10. It is common practice to shrink the schematic down to a size that allows it to be glued to the inside of a panel. the wires are spaced at a suitable distance from adjacent wires and components. If it’s not legible. Representational Schematics Figure 18-9 shows an air compressor control schematic. If you compare the schematic with the actual chassis. then it probably won’t be much use to a technician when the equipment breaks down in 20 years. part number. For small schematics. vendor. 100-volt Capacitor 400-PIV Diode 5-amp Type MDL 8-amp Type MDL 120-VAC Plug SPST Toggle Switch 0.digitalengineeringlibrary. the finished chassis would have bundled wires instead of the neatly arranged wires as shown. Get it dirty and then try to read it in poor lighting. it becomes apparent that even this very simple circuit would be difficult for a technician to follow. Also note that all of the components have an identifying code next to them. Although this does provide a schematic that is difficult to misplace. Before proceeding with this method. reduce the schematic and print it out. and the like. C1 D1-4 F1 F2 P1 S1 T1 T2 100-MFD.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 294 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook C1 T1 R2 J1 (Input) R1 C2 T2 R3 R4 C3 P1 (Output) − + B2 − + B3 − B1 + S1 Figure 18-7 Typical Tube Amplifier Schematic A simple electronic schematic for a two-stage vacuum tube amplifier is shown in Figure 18-7. the wires are spaced at a suitable distance from adjacent wires. all of the components are not labeled and those that are. All rights reserved. which corresponds to a list that is attached to the schematic. In this case all of the components are shown and the circuit is electrically accurate. 120-volt Primary. and all of the components have an identifying code next to them. 50-volt Secondary S1 F2 F1 D1-4 T1 M1 C1 + + − DC Output − P1 120 VAC T2 AC Output Figure 18-8 Typical Bench Power Supply Schematic Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.

0 1. All rights reserved.5 10 Amp DC 120 VAC Coil Seconds Fault (L2) Input Fuses (R1.4.digitalengineeringlibrary.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS Chapter 18 Electrical Schematics 295 Motor Controller 480 VAC 3 Phase C 120 V L Power M Motor Control Relay Fault L On/Off/Auto Switch Over Pressure Low Oil Pressure T Delay Off Over Temperature Emergency Stop Pressure Switch Figure 18-9 Air Compressor Schematic Control Panel Cable Control Relay (R2) On/Off/Auto Switch (S1) Power (L1) 2.2) Transformer (T1) Emergency Stop (S6) Output Fuse (F3) 115/120 VAC MOTOR STARTER 120 VAC COIL RESET 240/480 VAC Pressure Switch (S2) To Sensor Loop (S3.0 4.5) To Motor (M1) Power (240/480 VAC) Contactor (C1) Figure 18-10 Air Compressor Control Chassis Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.5 2.5 0 5. .com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 3. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.0 Delay Off Relay (R1) 1.0 .5 4.0 3.

DPDT Pressure Switch. NO Control Relay. The C1 F1 F2 F3 L1 L2 M1 R1 R2 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 T1 Motor starter. 120 VAC Coil 2 Amp Type FNW 2 Amp Type FNW 3 Amp Type MDL 120 Volt Incandescent 120 Volt Incandescent 30 HP Motor. a technician presented with this information would have no difficulty deciphering the actual circuit. 480 VAC. 3 Phase Delay On Relay. Even though there are a number of deviations from standard symbols and methods. SPST Over Pressure Switch Low Pressure Switch Over temperature Switch Emergency Stop Switch Control Transformer BLU 16 AWG BRN 16 AWG BRN 16 AWG 6 5 4 3 7 8 1 2 R1 & R2 R1 R2 S1 ORG 16 AWG 1 WHT WHT ORG 1 YEL 16 AWG ORG 16 AWG WHT 16 AWG VOL 16 AWG YEL 16 AWG VOL 16 AWG BRN 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG GRN 12 AWG YEL 16 AWG L BRN 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG L1 L BLK 16 AWG RED 16 AWG BLU 16 AWG BLU 16 AWG L2 S6 ORG 16 AWG RED 16 AWG T1 S2 F3 F1 F2 BLK 16 AWG BLU 16 AWG ORG 16 AWG S3 S4 S5 BRN 16 AWG BLK 16 AWG C GRN 12 AWG BLK 10 AWG BLK 10 AWG BLK 10 AWG 480 VAC 3 Phase BLK 10 AWG BLK 10 AWG BLK 10 AWG M1 C1 Figure 18-11 Air Compressor Representational Schematic Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Also note that all of the components are clearly labeled and a component list is present. Notice that all of the components are arranged in principally the same locations as in the finished chassis. Components that require greater detail. The wires are routed using the same paths and locations as the finished chassis.digitalengineeringlibrary. such as R1 and R2 are detailed in a secondary drawing. . DPDT Switch.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 296 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook wire colors and gauges are clearly labeled. All rights reserved. 30 HP. SPST. as shown in the upper right hand corner. Figure 18-11 shows how the circuit is drawn using a representational schematic.

At first glance the representational schematic seems more complicated. shown in Figure 18-15. If you compare the two schematics with the finished chassis. in this case an octal base relay. . compare the schematic in Figure 18-14 to Figure 18-7.digitalengineeringlibrary. To better illustrate representational schematics. 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Printed Image DPDT Relay 6 5 4 3 Octal Socket 7 Standard Drawing Components to Be Shown 8 1 2 Representational Drawing Figure 18-12 Standard versus Representational Relay Illustrations Vacuum Tube 4 3 Octal Socket Standard Drawing Components to Be Shown 2 1 5 6 7 8 Representational Drawing Figure 18-13 Standard versus Representational Vacuum Tube Illustrations Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. it becomes clear that the representational method is much easier to follow. This provides a great deal of clarity for a technician reading the finished schematic. except in the representational method. the socket is shown with its terminals arranged as they are on the actual component.ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS Chapter 18 Electrical Schematics Figure 18-12 shows how a component is drawn in a representational schematic. 297 Figure 18-13 shows a triode vacuum tube drawn in both standard and representational methods. The basic schematic and electrical information is the same for both methods. the electrical information is the same except the representational methods also provides the pin lay out of the socket.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Once again. The basic component is shown in the middle. however. it is only because it provides substantially more information. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. The standard method of drawing is shown on the left and the representational method is shown on the right.

ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS 298 Electromechanical Devices & Components Illustrated Sourcebook C1 T1 4 5 6 7 1 8 C2 4 5 T2 R3 C3 6 7 R1 3 2 3 2 1 8 R2 R4 J1 (Input) − B2 + − B1 + S1 B2 − + P1 (Output) Figure 18-14 Tube Amplifier Representational Schematic C1 T1 R1 3 4 2 1 8 5 6 7 C2 T2 R3 3 2 1 8 4 5 6 7 J1 R2 R4 C3 + + + + B2 B1 B3 S1 P1 Figure 18-15 Tube Amplifier Chassis Layout Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.com) Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.digitalengineeringlibrary. All rights reserved. OUTPUT + + + + .

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