You are on page 1of 33

Report of the Long Range Plannirg Phase of the

School Facilitics Survey
E. GT,BNll FBaTHERSToNT, Director
Ray L. Hzmon, Chief
,{.dminisrration of State and Local School Systems Branch
N. E. Viles, Associøte Chief
'W'¿yu¡ O. Rnno,
Assistønt Commis¡iorcer
Division of State and Local School Systems


Elmer C. Deering DECEMBER 1955
Roy C. Prentis
Harold A. Rice

Mqrion B. Folsom, Secretory
Office of Educqtion, Somuel M¡ller Brownell, Commissioner

Alice Pool, Research , ssi¡tønt

t-J L/
,.U &
jr. ¡\

l-\ -j é'
ì )

e 'Jl v '2-*


For sqle by the Superintendeni of Documents
U. S. Governmenf P¡inting Office
Woshingfon ?5, D. C.
Price 55 cents
wH'Ä'T DOES THIS Report of the Long R.,nge Planníng Phase oJ the School
FacíIitíes Suroey
present? what are the lirnitations which should be kept in rnind by readers?
Most of the data were gathered by the States in 1954. The earliest replrts were received
late in
1953; the last reporrs, early in l9SS.
Each' State was asked to subrnit a report to the Office of Education
of a projected statewide
plan for school plant construction in the light of needs, and according to existing antd.
plated sot'isJactory administrative units and according to suitable school centers
serving logical
attendanee areas.
The treport presents data supplied by state d.epartments of edueation of 3B states.
rt indicates
the proje:cted plans of the States for rneeting classroorn needs for estirnated 195H0 public
State:s differ in the plans they have for reorganization of districts, and for
financing school
construcl'-ion. They do not necessarily agree on such policies as the optirnurn nurnber
of pupils per
classroonr' or when buildings should be replaced. These and other differences arrong
States afrect
their building needs and plans. Cornparison between States rnay lead to erroneous conclusions
r-rnless one exarnines the bases used by the States in arriving at their figures.
Although the Office of
Educatio.n supplied broad criteria, each State set and applied its own standards in developing
plan. The data reflect honest atterìpts by the states to plan ahead.
However you interpret the faets, it is clear that there is a big classroorn deficit. There will be
rnany classroorns needed each year as far as r{e can see ahead. Much activity is in process and rnore
ie needed if sufficient classroorns-by any reasonable standard-are to be provided. It will cost a
lot of money' and rnany States will have to ¡nake changes in existing financing provisions in order
to build 'the necessary classroorns.
The ;report indicates that if the expected schoolchildren to be enrolled in f9S9-60 are to be
housed iln reasonably satisfactory classroorrts, the citizens of the Nation will need to finance
approxirnately $16 billion in capital outlay to pro.vide approxirnately 4761000 classroorns (see table

F, page 20) and related facilities l¡erween I9S4-SS and 1959-60.

Cont¡níssioner oJ Educatíon.
Repont of the !-ong Range Ffanning phase
of the
School Facillties Sunvãy
SECTION l_lntroduction
Authority and Appropriatíon
Title f, Surveys and State plans
It witt be noted that a few States did not
participate in rhe
Public Larv BIS, BIst Congr""., for School Construction,r
Survey, some did not request
their full allotrnents,,Silî""
À."ä"U Session, authorized are rerurning srnall tralances,
and severat of tn"
an appropriation of $3 rnillion
to I¡e allotted to the States, spent considerably rnore State
aecording to school-age p-opulati"., funds on the S,r.""y th.,
of public elementary ancl secondaryr"" rnaking inventories the
alount required to rnatch e.àì""f payrnenrs.
June 30, I9S4, Stares have continueã Since
veying the need for_the constructi;ofschool facilities, sur_ the Survey rr_ithout
additional faeilities, Federal fi nancial assistanee.
der.eloping State plan" f""
a d siu d
fi.' * .r,"' ad equ acy".h;;i';; ""iä "i;î,
available "a ¡;
ro rneer ..hoål f".ifiai*.-.ã!rri...rr"rrt". "å""iTff: How the Survey Was Conducted
purpose of Title f, the Act defined .iState,, For the Public Law BIS was approyed on September
a to include the 23, 1950.
Districr of Columbia, Alaska, The Supplernental"iatior,
Virgin fslands.
ff"*ir, puerro Rico, and the 843, including under;À"pa""
,t.t of l95l, public Law
1å V
ilt: Pursuant to the foregoing authority, vey, was approved on Sep,t-ernber"pp""p"iarion for this Sur_
the Congress in_ 22, Iì50. On O"tot ì2,
irlli cluded the appropriatià f* 1950, the Cornrnissioner of ""
mental Appropriation Acr of 1951. publicin the Supple_
Edueatioá issued an inforrnation
bulletin to rhe chief State school;C;""
Congress, First Session, howeverr".a.r..¿ Law lT0, BBd the provisions of Title f, public notifying thern of

the approp¡iation L";ãi;, and advising thern
tir. I
by the amounr 6,unexpend.t';;;.cernber for qualifying f"" p;;;;rts under
F.l:"I funds paid to tr,. st.t".";";;;;;. 3I. 19s3.,, :f o,"1""{"1es
On .l-\Iarch 21, 1951, the Corimi"io.r"" that title.
available to the States for payingî-p.""".rt îi."'î1". Regulations 2 governing the adrninis¿ration
i""ued the Rules and
pendirures, pursuant to TitIL of their ex_ S.chool Housing Section of the
of Title I. The
i af"""gf, June 30, 1954. signed the responsibilities for the
Office of Education was as_
Fiscal Status ordination of the Survey at the Federal "l.rrrrrr"r"rtion and co-
Table A shows the fiscal starus During the winter of l95G_Sl, , .*"tt
of the School Facilities Sur_ survey staff was recruited, and School Facilities
vey accounts with the various conferences were held with
States as of Octob." Zf,- f SSi. recognized school plant survey
authorities frorn representa_
to in this publication and rclatcd
documer ae the "School !-acilities
uocumenta tive State departments of education
^lRef*red and universities.
3.1723U O-5{i-2 'In FEDERAL REGISTËR, March 28,, pp. 27064S.

PUBLTC r¿w ar5, SLst coNGnESS' AS OF OCTOBm 21' 1955

ÀLlotnents Pald to- recelved
EËglbLe Staæel
Ståte6 to States

$ lu $ 72,8oo.oo $ 81,517.12
\labåma . . $ 72,Boo.oo 72r8Oo.oo
$151, .12
35,832.1+z 15,960.00 19,872.1]2
Lrizona . . 15,960. oo
Lz,óoo.oo 99,989.O|t lr? , 6OO. OO 52,389.dl
lrkansag LT,600. oo 22r,610.82
171,080.00 1?1,oBo.oo )92,690.82 1?1,080.00
lall fornla 21, o8o . oo 2l+,089.W 55,1+56.28 2L, o8o. oo 3r 376.28
lolorado 81 ,518 .8ó 33'600.oo l+7 ,9I8.86
lonnecticut 33, óoO. oo 331600.0o
3, Ol7 .oó
10r 000.00,oO 131965.88 6,982,9L 6,982,91+
Ló. Z6o. oo
Jelaware r\3 )l!r.92 Ló, ?ó0. oo 96,58t.92
F1øIda 1,6,760.o0 g7
ieorgia . . 77,000.00 ??;ooo.oo r?L,r77.33 77,o00.oo ,L77.33
Idaho . . . u, óoo.oo Did not particiPate ln the SurveY
I1llnols 1u3 , 360.00 18.6Lt.oo 32,680.OO 16,3110. OO 16, 310.00
72,5BI!.oo 1,896"00
Indiana . . ?lr , [rBO. OO ?L;L8o.oo 115,168.00 72 ,58lr.oo
Iot¡a L? , óoo. oo L6. )+¡0. oo 8lr ,362 .5o l+z rl1t.z5 ltz Il3I.?5
Kaneas 35, ooo. oo r2',r35.CO 2b,lÑ6,2t l.2,r35.oo
Kentucky 6? ,lr80. oo 6?,h8o.oo ll-o,9oo.20 55,\ 55
Loulsiana . . . 59,3&.OO 59 ,3&.OO r23]..2,2rr.5ll
-9.817.0O ,985 .8.9 59,360.oa
6,ro5.77 6,l:05.77 3171¡ .23
Maine . 18,L8o.oo nr.76
Yaryland 38 r 920. 00 ]s;óù.oo 36,761.18 18,382.21 18, 182 . 2l+

Massachusetts 79, 8oo. o0 Lç.zLó.oo 59,8oB.oo 29'9dt,o.o 29,90[.oo
. 122 r o8o. oo ái',aEç.oo 159',675.r8 79,Ð7 .59 79,837 .59 lr, O1?

I'tlnnesota . . . 56,28O.OO 39,877 .$ ]-9,50r.57
31,618 À3
ì4ississinPi. 55,tá.]..oo íç',leo.ooDidTr,316.86 35,658 .\3
not particlpate ln the Survey 12,087.00
Hi ssouri 72,52O.OO iã.oAZ.oo
Montana 11, 2 00. 00 tl;2oo.oo 23,06r.29 11r2oo'oo 11,861.29

Nebraslta 2l+, óLo. oo Participated in the Survey without Federal funds 2,t57 .olr
Nevada 10, 00o .00 to,oòo.oo rl)'885.92 7 ,lr)J2.96
g,880. ó9
,8Bo .69 119.31
New HanPshire . 10r000.00 Io;ooo.oo 19

Neu Jersey 77 ,560.æ 7L, oo3 . oo
IL,8LO.OO 50,57O.OO 1lr, BLo . oo 35,73o.oo'
ìrlew Mexi co rI,8Lo.oo
Ner¡ York 232,960.æ Did not particíPate in lhe SurveY
6L,989.3r 7,626,69
Nort,h Carollna g3,52O.0O 69,6t6.oor23,978.62 6r,989.31
No¡th Dakota 13, )'ro'oo 3;LLo.oo 7,r72.38 3,1ùo.oo
28, l+óó . B0 I+gz,Zo
Ohlo r\2,52O.00 28',959.OO 56,Ð3.60 28, b 66 .80
0kl-ahorna 50, lroo ' oo oo r29 ,\9r .29
5o , Lo o . 5o,lroo. oo 79,09r.29
0regon 28 ,00o. 00 28:ooo.oo 63,6}3.3\ 28r ooo. oo 35,6l-3 .31+
l-95,16.oo rg5',LéÐ.OO 5O2,o53 .\7 195,160.00 306,8Ð,1]7
Pennsylvania .
l.,2,rbg.7t I+5o.\7Y
Rhode Tslard 12, ó00.00 12,óoo.oo 2\,299.trz lr2'lltg'7r
South Carollr¡å 52 , o8o. oo Did not partlciPate in the SurveY
-- i¡ . r'¿o. oo 3l¡ ,683 . 3l+ 13, 1óo ' 0o 2r,523 ],l+
South Dakota . 13, fóo. oo
Tennessee . . . 72 ,8oo. oo io'r6ds.oo 5L',255 ,96 27 ,r27 '98 27,l.27 ,98 3,537 .O2
Texag . r"5ó,8oo. oo 12 ?, lLI . oo
Utah 15,g60.oo Did not partlcinate in the SurveY

Væmont 10r000.00 lo,ooo.oo 20,r5l4,914 10,000.0o 10 ,151-r . 9lr

Virginla 65,52O.æ --- not
Dld ¡ti ciPate ln the SurveY

,{ashington 13,9óo. oo )t,çBo.oo 111,9?1.8,1+ 13,960'00 ?1, OIlr . 8l+

Virqi.nia LT,olro.oo r1.oos.Oo 62,617.32 31,009.00 3r,638.32
7s;t55 ]l!
¡[sconsin . . 63, 8Lo. oo ttoiozi .oo 39
.67 39 ,077 ,67 91rf .33

hloming I O-arn-oo Did not particiPate in the SurveY

Dist. of Co].
a,aoo.oo ---
q,qoo.oo 17'0?2 'l+o 8,536.70 263.30
Ala s ka :: 26"832.æ 5{,fi6'7o ^B'52ç'7q
25'768'35 25 ,7 68 .35 r,063.65
Har¡a1Í 35,OOO.0O
Puerto Rlco . :: íú,ooo.oo 5l+,9ôo.oo 121+,189'00 5L'000'0o 70, [B9.oo
888 .00
Virgin Tslands 5,ooo.oo 8BB. oo
Unallotted avallable only to the District of colurnbÍa, Alaska' Hawail, Puerto
L7r2OO.OO, r,¡as
and lhe Virgln Islards'

S3rooorooo.o6lr/ $trglrorBoo.oo (cannol be deternined until
finar settlenpnt of J pending accounts)
T otal-s

1/ pâid prlor to Decenber J:., L953t no payrnents were made to states after tùat date.
ã7 ¡*.ruåi"e of l_ocal school admlnlstrative unit expendltures.
1/ ou", refurd of fio.18. the First session of the 83d congress
authorlzed and aopropriated,
It ót-inZ-àrr?i*r'5¡rooo,ooo.0o
rescinded $1,o59r2oO.o0
Although the Act aurhorizing the Survey did not
specify Survey information bulletins,
a cornpletion date, it was recognized by the ^ the purpose of assuring sorneissued to the States, were
study of this rnagnitude, including all the
stafi ùat a for uniforrnity of
States and the and to set up soûre general guiding principles for ""på"tiog
rnaj'or territoÌies wirh thejr o..¡rr! problerns deierrnin_
school organization, would r"qui"ã'2 o" ^rrd
typ." of ing school plant ueeds. These bulietins did not establish
S years. It was standards. The States developed and applied th"i"
also realized that the Congre"" the public would expect standards. This relationship rnay be illustrated b;;

earlier reports on the study. For"ndthese S;;-
reasorrs, the School ta¿ion fro¡n the survey report published by one
Fa_cilities Survey was organized as a two_phase
study. pro_ of th" Stàt""
referring to the Office of Education procedure: .,.
cedures for the first or status phase were
de"elop.j . . each
vide a school fac'ities inventory and to deterrnine ao p"o_ state was allowed â great deal of latitude in carrying
orrt it.
needs for additional facilities. The second
current study. . Methods of procedure, stand""d",
or long_range rvere not ".rà'criteria
planning phase of the study was deyeroped to d.å.rrii"
projected plans for rneeting school plant neecls Älthough national in scope, this Survey has truly been
as of Sep_ a
series of State studies, rather than a Federal study,
ternber 1959.
school facilities. "f
Fo¡rns cooperatively designed. for the purpose of re_
po-rting Survey findings frorn the states to the office of Status phase Reports
Education; narnely, Forrn RSA_6 for the
first phase,
Forrn RSA-IO 3 for the second phase. .fhese forrns and The OfÊce of Education has published three reports
were on the
developed and used not as rnere questionnaires, first or status phase of the School Facilities S.ì"o.y. The
purpose of reporting state-verified surnrnaries
but for the first report I was a surnrnary of the inventories of public
of field data school facilities in 25 States, as of March l95l. The
based on intensive studies by State and local Jecond
suryey teams report 5 was a surrmary of school plant needs and applicable
at the school district level.
The School Housing Section has coo¡dinated the resources in 3Z States, as of Septernber 1952. The
suryeys fi.."l
port 6 on the status phase of the Survey absorbed the "e-
in the States through the following rnedia of co.n..rtrnic"_ two
tion: (l) two series of regional .orrfá.rr""s with .il;;;";;. progress reports, and constituted a surnrnary of the
directing the surveys in the different States; findings in 43 States.
visits and consultative services to the States ly <Z)
f".qr..t Since New Jersey and nlassachusetts had not yet
é"hoot n"_ _ corrr_
cilit-ies Survey representatives, including sorne local pleted the first phase of the study when the Federal
pilot surn_
studies; (3) the issuance of rnore than S0 inforrnationïul- rnâry on the first phase went to press, data frorn these
letins and rnernoranda; (4) a very large volurne of corre_ States could not be included in thaì report. These
spondence with individual States; and hov-ever, did cornplete the first phase of the study
1S¡ ,r." of telephone 1"t.".
and telegraph services, when necessary. New Jersey 7 published its own separate report on the
As reports r.yere received frorn the Siates on
the prepared a Fírst Proíress
Report; School FacíIities Srrruey- Officc of Edrrcation, Federat
forrres, data were further checked for consistency. crr¡ity,{gency. washingron, rJ. s. Government printing ofrìce, rg52. Se_
Surn_ ¡ second Progress
¡naries of data were then sent to the respective -
Report, sc,ool Føciri¿ies sr"ru.y- òffi"" of Education, Federal
States for Sæurity Ágency. IVrehington, IJ- S. Government printing OlIice, 1952.
verifi cation and/or corrections. 6 Report oJ the
Status Phase of the Scltool Facilìties Srrruey.
Department of Health, Education, and IVelfare. Waehington, Office of Education,
I'rinting Oftìce, 1953. U. S. Government
3 See appcndix. tablce I, II, and III. ; Neu Jersey Public Scn.ool
S*rucy. State f)eprrtment of Education,
Trenton, N- J-,1954. 'bcitities

phase, and i\'IassachusettsB published its own separate re- These data were presented for individual States, and on a
port orr both phases of the study. Both of these States percentage basis, for all 43 States included in the report.
are included in this second phase summary. Since all the States were not included in the status re-
The Report of the Súø¿r¿s Phase of the Scltool Facílitíes port, that publication projected, on the basis of relative
Suraey included Ítany tables and charts showing data re- enrollrnents, certain data for the entire United States.
lated to the school facilities inventory, school plant needs, These projections indicated a Septernber I:9S2 need of
and applicable resources under the then existing State laws. 312,000 instruction roorns to house nearly 9 rnillion pupils,
6r}fossccl¿use¿ts Public Sc/¡.oot Facílíxies Suroe¡. Comnon*-calth of MÊEsachuBetts. and that these roorns and related facilities would have cost
DeprÌtncnt of Education, Bostoú, Maes., t9SS. $10.6 billion, at 1951 prices.
SECTION I t-The School Plant Program
Factors Contributing to Schoot plant Needs
estirnates r in the Fírst
Yarious factors contribute to the current and anticipated 'sed issued in Frogress Report of the school
Facilities Suraey, 1952, showed an anticipated
schoolhousing needs. Sorne of the rnore irnportant of peak public elernentary and secondary enrollrnent of about
these factors are: (t) enrollrnent increases, (2) àobility of 32,000'000 in the r95B-59 schoor year. This was revised in
population, (3) reorganization of school districts, (4) scúool the Decernt¡er l95B Report of the status phase oJ the school
progrârrl changes, (5) backlog accurnulations of need, and Facilìties Suroey to show anticipated I9SB_S9 public ele_
(6) financing lirnitations. and secondary school enrollrnents of BSrBB0r000 to
be followed by 36,250,000 in t9S9-60. In February 1955, in
Enrollment Increases
light of revised census data, the office of Education raised
Population increases, nearly 64 percent frorn I9I0 to 1950, its 1959-60 estirnate to B?,36Jr000, as indicated in table C
continue at an accelerated pace, Recent estirnates indi_ and chart 2. The high r95r-to-r954 birth revel indicates
cate by June 30, L954, a total increase of about 11,000,000 that the enrolknent peak is still in the future.
people, or about 7.4 percent, over the 1950 census. A recent
report indicates a population growth of about 2rT00,000 in Enrollrnent predictions beyond 1960 have not been issued
the year 1954,. by the Office of Education. However, data on the distribu-
These increases reflect the effects of both increased lon_ tion of school-age population by age groups for 1954 and
gevity and the increases in the nurnber of live births. As is 1965 were derived, frorn Bureau of the Cens's releases, and
shown in table B and chart I the nurnber of live births in_ published by the Rurnl cornrnittee 2 in Decernber r9s4. The
ereased frorn about 2'BSB,000 in 1945, to J,632,000 in 1950, following data derived frorn that report indicate a sharp
and to about 41100,000 in 1954. Contrary to expectations increase in the interrnediate and secondary school_age
the 1948 drop in the nurnber of rive births did not contin'e brackets during the ensuing decade.
and the years 1951 through LgS4have each set new records
in the nurnber of live L¡irths. The birth rate per thousand Percent
in 1954 was higher than at any tirne since 1924. Youth t954 I965
The nurnber and the distribution of the live births are
.irnportant as indicators of future school plant needs. The (In (In
large numbers of live births presage a wave of increased thousands) thorusands)
r0,863 tl,279
enrolhnents up through the grades. pupils at primary, Ll,744 l4,948
interrnediate, junior, and senior high school levels L4f17
different types of school plant facilities. For efficienr 'eed
eco_ Total 5-17 3s, 951 48,094
nornical educational developrnent it is desirable that s'it-
able facilities be available rvhen needed by the vario's grade
groups. I Smitlr, Roee Maric. "Rising Enrollmente in Non-pul¡lic Schoola," School LíJe,
The sustai'ed high level of live births has red to revisions 32:116, May 1950.
in the futu¡:e enrolhnent predictions. The l9S0 Office z Fínancírtg Pul>ric Education in the
Decade Aheed, N¡tionsl citizens commiesion
for the Public Schools, f)ecember 1954, p. 45.

If the foregoing estirnates are sound anrl if recent ratios ary and secondary school enroilrrrent of nearly 40 rnilion
betrteen the nurnber of 5-lZ year-old-pupils and enroll_ by 1965. The anticipated increase in the secondary school
rnents persist, it seerns wise to anticipate a public elernent_ enrollrnents is, perhaps, even rnore significant. The Rurnl
TÄBLE B.-BIRTH RATES ÄND LIYE BIRTTIS IN THE UNITED report indicates that rhere rnay be I4rZ74,000 youth in the
STATES, 19tt-54 ' L4-17 age bracket by f965. These youth are already here,
and sorne prediction of secondary enrollrnents seerns pos_
Live Live sible. If these pupil population estirnates prove valid, it
births births
per per seelrls feasible to anticipate, on the basis of the Gaurnnitz
Year thou- Nurnber of Nurnber of
sand live births 2 Year thou '
live births 2
study on high school retention 3 and the April 20, L}SA,
popula- Office release a on public vs. nonpublic enrolknents, a
tion tion possible public secondary school, grades 9-12 inclusive,
enrollrnent of about 9,600,000 by 1965. This would repre_
sent an increase ofabout 46 percent over the Lgs}-s4 enroll-
rnent in these grades.
29-9 2, 809,000 rB.4 2, 355, 000 Regular school attendance and the increased holding
29. B 2,840,000 lB.7 2,413, 000
29.5 2,869,000 19.2 2,496,000 po.rr-er of the schools are also factors in deterrnining needs
29.9 2, 966,000 IB. B 2.466,000 for school facilities and services. Recent reports available
29. S 2,965,000 19.4 2, 559,000
in the Offìce show an average daily attendance of about gT
1916... . . . 29.1 2,964,000
1917..... . 28.5 2, 944,000
,,, 2,703,000 percent of the enroll'nent. rncreased retention also creates
tgl8... . . . 28.6 2,948,000 9ra 3, 104,000 needs for additional facilities for the upper grades in school.
r9r9... . . .1 26.2 2,740, 000 2t.2
1920......i 2,950, 000
2,939, 000 Gaurnnitz 5 showed that 51.8 percent of the pupils enrolled
20- 4 2, B5B,000
I in grade 5 in 1943-44 graduated frorn grade t2 in l95G-Sl.
r92r......1 28. t 3,055, 000 1946... . . I
L922... . . .1 26.2 2,882,000 1947. -. . .
24. 3,411,000 Later data show that this retention rate arrrong the 1952
26.6 3,817,000
1923... . . .1 26.0 2,9I0, 000 1948... . . 24.9 3,637,000 graduates rnay be about 52.2 percent, and for the 1954 grad_
Le24..... .i 26.1 2,979,000 L949. .. . . 24.5 3,649,000
1925... . . .1 I uates rnay be about 59 percent.
25. 2, 909,000 1950... . . 24. I 3, 632,000
z+.2 2, 839,000 195r....- 24.9 3,823, 000 Mobility of the School Poputation
4ô. õ
2, 802,000 1952... . . 25. I 3,913,000 The rnobility of the school population continues to t¡e one
2,674,000 1953.. . . " 25. I 3, 971, 000
of the rnajor problerns in long-range sehool plant planning.
2, 582,000 1954... . . 25.2 4, 100,000
21. 3 2,618,000 Mobility does not seem to follow fixed patterns, and advance
193r...... 20. , 2, 506,000 predictions of the effect of such rnobility on future schooll
1932..... . 19. ) 2,440,000 needs are not alw-ays feasible. In rnany cases rlew school
1933... ... tB. 4 2, 307, 000
1934... ... 19. 0 2, 396,000 housing needs are created in areas affected by population
1935... .. tB. 7 2,377,000
rnobility before school sites, draw-ings, and financing plans
¡ Data-fo,r- 1911 through
l9g9- takc¡ from Births and Bírth Rotes ín the Entire uníted.
can be developed. Äs indicated in previous survey reports,
scates, 190948; Yitsl Ststietice, Sú"¡;ï R;ñ;;;3;Ë.ed
september 29. 1950. Federnl Sec_uriiy Asencyi "Hälì¡ Studiee_vái.-¡ã.ïä.ï
of Þ"ïliã
ststi.tics. Data for ts+o tiriåiäÈ-iöí+-i*åË¿""'a S;;ì;"-, li"ii".î ôfi"ä] 3 Gaumnitz, Walter H.
-vital etimared bv summarv
orNaraliry statietice. lssrr Mo.fhrj Vii"ïSt-"iíåiä'ËãË.ü,-oî.iüËüiíå..."iäii:ì High School Retentíon ðy Saates. Of6ce of Edqcation
Circular No. 398, June 1954, p. 14.
iåÌri:p;"'.';:;:i i;t_+:i,*::'*ilft glli¡rê'jj:íi;*.ili"y;.Éi":åtT',äfj::l
ti*ice, Waahington 25, D. c.
t "Enrollments in Public and Non-public Schæle." mineographcd aummary,
office of Education Reecarch and statietical standarde section, April 20. 1954.
, ¡or continentsl Un¡ted
Statee only. ¡ Ibid., p. ll.

Live Births, Continenfol united Stotes, lglS-54



r9t5 1920 t925 t930 r935 r940 t945 t950 t955
u.s. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDIJCAT|ON, AND WELFARE Offìce of Edr¡cotion - School Housing Sectíon
such movements of pupils rnay be across State lines, across During the last decade the Vest, South, Southeast, and
county lines, or .n ithin a county. The rnajority of the pu- to a consideratrle extent the Nliddle Atrantic coastal areas
pils who rnoye do not replace other pupils but add to ìhe have felt noticeable enrollrnent irnpacts frorn students
nurnber to be housed in the cornrnunities .w-here they settle, rnoving into the areas. The increases are not confined to
TÄBLE C. ACTU,{X, ÄND ESTIIVIATED EIi'ROLLNIENTS IN PUB- these areas. suburt¡an areas around rniddle-sized towns
LIC SCHOOLS OF CONTINENTÄL UNITED STATES IN CERTAIN and cities have also shown rnarked increases. rn sorne of
YEÀRS, CLÄSSIFIED ACCORDING TO GRÄDE GROUPSl the large cities there has Ìreen a new surge of school popula_
tion in rnidcity areas which had forrnerly experie.rceã en-
School Grades Grades Total Grades Total rollrnent declines, Lrut now-, -vith the developrnent of rnulti-
year K-6 7-B K-B K-r2
9-12 farnily frorn existing buildings and residences, enroll-
rnents 'nits
have ¡naterially increased. In a few cases rapid
pupil population increases have been the results of sp.cìfi.
industrial activities s'ch as the developrnent of steel plants
l9t9-20... L6,175,826 3, 203, 101 L9,378,927
t92t-22... 17, l?8, 3ll 3, 187,907 20,366,2t8
2, t99,389
2, 873,009
21, 578, 316
in the eastern part of Pennsylvania, air plant developrnent
17,672, BïL 3,226,099 20, B9B, 930 3,389, B7B 24,288, BOB in rnid-Karlsas, or the increase in governrnental activities
17, 568,633 3,415, 369 20,984,002
t927-28... 17,656, 427 3, 611, 990 21,268,4I7
in sorne of the coast centers.
1929-30... 17,647,484 3, 63r. 109 2r,278,593 4.399.422 25,678.0L5 The people corning to these new population centers rray
931-32... 7,401,075 3.734,345 2L, L35,420 corne frorn rnany cornrnunities. Since they cannot trans-
5, 140.021 26,27-Ð,441
933-34... 6,857, 103 3,907,934 20,7 65,037 5,669,L56 26,434,L93 fer building facilities with thern, there is a dernand for new
935-36... 6,470,60t' 20,392,56I
3, 921, 956
937-38... 5,852,876 3,895,298 19,748,r74
5,974,537 26,367 , 098 facilities in the centers where they settle.
6,226,934 25,975,t08
939-40. .. 5,023,437 3,808,661 tB, 832,098 6,601'444 25,433, í)42 In sorne rrral cornrnunities rnech.anized farrning has re-
94t-42... 4,434,r34 3,740,534 tB,174, 668
duced the nurnber of farrn ernployees and consequently
6, 387, 805 24,562,473
943-44... 4,054,tíX 3, ó58, 939 17,7L3,096 5, 553, 520 23,266,6t6 the rural pupil enrollees. Many of these pupils now attend
94546... 4,187,t64 3,490, 580 17,677,744
94748... 4,740,10'i. 3, 55I, 126 18,29t,227
5,622,r97 23,299,94L school in centers of population concentration.
5, 653, 305 23,944,532
949-50. .. 5,705,604 3, 699,089 19,404,693 5,706,734 25,11t,427 Reorganization of School Districts
'.. 16, û20,000
3,880,000 19,900,000
4,019,000 20, 681.000
5,769,000 25, 669,000 During recent years rnany of the States have reorganized
5,851, 000 26,532,000
1952-53 3. . 17,563, 000 4,009,000 2t,572,000 6, 167, 000 27,739,000 their local adrninistrative units. This is illustrated in the
1953-54... 18,674,000 4, 120,000 22,794, 000 6,389, 000
1954-55... 19,755,000 4,325,000 24,080, 000
29, 183,000 surnrnaries 6 of districts no.w existing. Dawson and Ellena
6, 583,000 30, 663,000
show that the total nurnl¡er of districts in the various
1955-56... 20, 683,000 4,532,000 25,2t5,000 6, 8II, 000
1956-57... 21, 509,000 4,74],000 26,250,000
32,026, 000 States decreased frorn about ll0r000 to about 98,000 frorn
7, 101, 000 33, 351, 000
1957-58. .. 22,336,000 4,942,000 27,278,000 7,401, 000 34,679,000 1944 to 1948, and to 66,472 in 1g53. They slrowed that the
r958-s9. . . 23,34?,000 4, 935,000 28,282,000 7,772,000
1959-60... 23,728,00t1 5, 503,000 29.231. 000
36, 054,000 nurnber of l-teacher sehools decreased frorn over 751000 in
B, 132,000 3?, 363. 000
l94B to 481735 in 1953. They also showed rhar the nurn_
lTheec eorollment figurea are for the contincntal
pupile enrollcd in the o'ubtic Unired. Statce orrly, exclueive of ber of school districts having fewer than l0 teachers de-
of the United State¡- -
2 Dats for 1950-51 through
"r"-".t".v ".Jï"iä"a-"ii'""¡ì"1" creased frorn 66,000 in1947 ro about 28,000 in 1952. various
- l9s9-ó0 do not include cnrollments in reeidential echool¡
i"."ori"si"f. à"p*;;;;ì"";iäii;;;;, ;;;;ï;Ëffi;äi'"tä
Ínni""tl,;l;*hildren, 6 Daweon and Ellcna. ..The Statue of SehæIa, Schæl
Dietricte, and Schæl Dia_
3 Data for 1952-53 rhrorph 1959-60 are esrimatea prepared February I, 1955. by thc t¡ict Reorganization." National Education Aeeociation, Department of Rural Edu-
lìeeeorch ând S ratiÊtical Si".á".a"-Sl"i¡.ï'å'iìì,ï öìÈË" Education.
"r cstion, mimcographed, March lS. 1954.

Enrollmenï, Pu b Iic E lemento ry ond Secondor)/ Schools, l920-60

t920 t925 t930 t935 r940 1945 t950 t955 1960
, S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDLCATION, AND WELFARE Offìce of Educofïon - School Housing Section

317238 ( )--5û--iJ
reasons are given for district reorganization. Horvever, graÍrs, an increase in science training, expanded rnusic
rr;e are conce¡ned here prirnarily rvith the effect of school prograrns, physical education, and art call for special roorn
district reorganization on school plant needs. In rnost and service facilities not available in sorne of the older
cases district reorganization involves sorne changes in at- buildings. In lil<e rrlanner, changes in instructional rneth-
tendance centers. This nearly alt'ays brings a neecl for ods usually require larger areas than forrnerly provitletl.
new school plant facilities. 1'he¡e are several illustrations Thus, prograrn trends call for increasetl classroorn areas
of the elTect of such reorganization. South Carolina has as-rvell as for rnore and larger related facilities. The gross
reduced frorn about 1,700 to 103 school districts. Arliansas floor area needed for a rnodern educational program is
reduced frorn about 3,000 to slightly over 400. It is antici- probably 50 to B0 percent rnore than that require<t in 1930
pated that district reorganization rv-ill continue to bring for the same enrollrnent. The foregoing factors increase
-adjustrnents in school centers and *-ill continue to be a very materially the total dernand for school building space.
factor in school building needs.
Backlog of School Plant Needs
School Program Changes During rnost of the 1930 decade school plant mainte-
School changes seeûÌ to be essential for a dynarnic educa- nance and building upkeep r.v-ere neglected because of fund
tional prograÌn in a changing civilization. These changes lirnitations. During the w-ar period rnanpower and labor
are of various types and each rnay have an impact on total restrictions rnade it difficult to construct, or even to rnain-
school plant needs. tain school buildirrgs in a satisfactory rnanner. Conse-
One of these is the extension of the school program. The quently, frorn about 1931 through 1945, there .was but little
programs have been extended downward to include kinder- school construction, rnaintenance was neglected, and
garten, and in sorne cases mrrsery schools. The public depreciation continued at an accelerated pace. Sorne
school kindergarten enrolknent of over 1.200,000 pupils in buildings becarne so dilapidated and obsolete that rernodel-
1953-54 created f,acility needs not present a decade previ- ing for conbinued use was no longer profitable. Then,
ously. l{any secondary school prograns have been ex- befo¡e postwar constrrction prograrns got undenvay, the
tended u¡rrvard to include grades 13 and 14 and continua- schools were swârnped with increased enrollments and were
tion programs. fncreased interest in these program ex- faced w-ith building rnaterial shortages due to the l(orearr
tensions rray create substantial increases in school facilitv crisis. ïhese factors rvere largely responsible for tb.e 1952
needs. backlog of 312,000 classroorns and related facilities as
School organizational pattern changes also create school revealed by the Report of the Súø¿¿s Phase o.f tlæ School
plant needs. In sorne instances neighborhood prirnary Facilities Su.ruey.
schools have t¡een developed. In other instances new junior Financing Limitations
high schools have been erected and in sorne cases nerv 6- or In rnost of the States, capital outlay financing is con-
T?-year schools have been developed. These do not alv-ays
sidered to be prirnarily a local responsibility. .4. sutrstantial
call for total additional space, but they do usually call for part of school construction costs are still financed frorn local
specific school plant facilities.
bonds and/or local building tax levies. In rnany school dis-
Prograrn changes in the educational offerings and in the tricts capital outlay fund raising possibilities are lirnited by
rnethods of teaching also have an effect on school plant lorv econornicability, cornpeting tax dernands, and legislative
needs. Sorne of the specific areas such as school shop pro- and constitutional restrictions on voting bonds and taxes.

During the 1930 decade school boards were paying on
corne frorn the local districts, and people seerrì. ïnore
honds voted during the exrensive 1920 deeade
."hooi ¡iila_ willing
ing prograrn. Tax collections often lagged during the to vote tax levies or bónd issues in the so_called prosperous
l9S0 periods.
decade depression years and many school boards
eurtailed While data are aliita,lte on total expenditures for capital
current operating expenditures in order to rneet the dis-
trictts bond obligations. rn other cases the board outlay during the 1920 decade, data are not available to
refi_ the costs per classroorn during that period. Sorne data
nanced their bonds, thus extending the tirne are
ultirnate cost.
and the available, however, to show average,costs of about S16.000 ?

per classroorn for buildings erected under the pWA p"ogr.r'
Al¡o during the period l9B0 to 1946 several facrors such during the rnid-1930's. Dara developed frorn trre corrtrloltea
^ as
fund, ûranpower, or material lirnitations curtailed preser_ I'Iaterials Prograrn tluring 19sr and t9s2 show or""ug" .o"i"
vation rnaintenance, and builcling clepreciation and for construction (including designing and s.rpã.viso"y
lescence inereased rapidly. I.r. - States property costs; but excluding of site, equipment, and adÃinistra_
assessrnents and/or bonding limits"oå. have L¡een increased in tive costs) of rnore than g33,000 per classroorn. Since that
order to irnprove locatr district fiseal capacity. tirne construction costs have increased nearly 12 percent.
. Local
financing of school construction is Leing irnproved
sorne areas by rnore realistic property assessrìerrts,
Table D and chart B present dara on public eleÀentary
eas_ and secondary total capital outlay frorn 1920
ing of bonding restrictions, and ihelreation of larger to 1955.8 The second colurnn of "*p..rdit,r"es
fiscal tabte D shows capital
outlay expenditures in terrns of current dollars at the ìime
Expenditures for Capital Outlay of expenditure. Colurnn 3 shows these eosts adjusted to
1954 construction cost levels, rrased on the generar
The history of school plant construction since 1920 seerns ãonstruc-
to indicate a cyclical trend wherein the const.rction rate tion cost index for the carendar years preceding the school
lagged during certain years, then accelerated to pick or fiscal vears. This is based on the assumption that cost
up indices for the calendar year of contract ar'ard are reflected
sorne of the lag. History also indicates that it is
diffìcult to in construction expendit'res during the folowing fiseal
pick up all of the lag. The 1920 decade and the early years
of the 1950 decade have had sorne sirnilar characteristics in year 6 rnonths later.
that each period brought enrollrnent increases, school colurnns 4 and 5 of tabre D give inforrnation on rerative
prograrn changes, and dernands for expanded and costs. Colurnn 4 shows capital outlay expenditures per
special pupil enrolled, given in terrns of 1954 constant dollars to
types of school facilities. Arso each of the 1920 and
the 19s0 provide a basis for cornparing capital outlay expenditures
decades followed periods when schoor const.rction had r¡een throughout the years. Colurnn S shows the relationship
allowed to lag. School plant construction, in the face of of capital outlay expenditures to current expenditures, botir.
cornpeting dernands, is often deferred unritr baeklogs in unadjusted dollars. Capilal outlay expenditures varied
of need
accurnulate and attention t.o the need becornes irnperative. frorn 18 to 30 percent of current expenditures during the
During the 1920's and the early part of the I9S0's extensive 1920's, dropped to 4 percent in 1933-84, antl dropped ãgain
school construction prograrns carne during periods rvhen ? f)erived from Barrowe,
Alicc, The School BuìItling Situatíon anl Needs- Vael¡_
construction costs were relalively high. This is under_ ington- IJ. S. Gowernmcnt Printing Olfice, 1938. (U. S. Dcpartment
of tlre Intcrior.
Officc of Education Bullerin 1937, No- 35, talrlc ll.)
standable. The initiative for, and rnuch of the financing ! capital or¡tlay costs ae reported
by thc statee up through l95Ì-s2 incl¡¡<le certain
of, public elernenLary and seconclary school construetion non-conatrr¡ction coets arrch ae for brrscs and Iilrr:rry l¡ooke anri are
uot frrlly corn_
parable with tLe estimetcr fo¡ ìater ycars wlrich cover only
l>lant improvemeni co"te.

Totol Copitol Onrtloy, Pub$ic Elernentory ond Secondory Schools, 1920-55


7f=s"u-{ -

f \ rgs+ Dollors
\ i! I

400 rt
Actuo Do I lo rs

\ j2
v t-
t9t9-20 '24-25 '29-30 '34-35 '39-40 '44-45 4g-so 's4-5
uo s. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, ED|JCAT|CN, AND WELFARE Cffìce of Educotion - School Housing Secti
TÄBLE D. EXPENDITURES FOR C,{.PITAL OUTL.ô.Y, ÄDJUSTED to an average of less than 5 percent during the war period
EXPENDITURES FOR PUBLIC ELEI{ENTÄRY -A.ND SECONDÀRY It.r'ill be noted that câpital outlay expenditures were .nr*l
to 30 percent of the current expenditures in L924_25,ànd
that they did not again reach this rario until 1954-SS. De_
Capital Capital Capital Percentage sign and construction patterns change and the erection of
outlay ex- outlay ad- outlay capital out- rrlore or fewer large area units such as auditoriurn, gyrrrna_
School year penditures justed to (1954 cost Iay was
(in 1954 cost ìevel) per of current siurn, or lunchroorn units during any period rnakes it difü_
rnil li,rns) level 2 (in pupil expendi- cult to estirnate the nurnber of classroorns erected by corn_
millions) enrolled tures
paring total capital outlay expenditures for two or rnore

l-ocal and State Financ¡ng of Gapital Outlay
$154 $489 $23 IB
L92t-22 306 4l
953 1ì This reporr of the School Facilities Survey includes surn-
3BB t, t40 47 28
rnaries of State and local long-range sehool plant planning
434 L,270 5t 30 programs. The developrnent of irnrnediate and long-range
411 t,249 4B
r,169 46 ,, fìnancing progrâms is an essential part of such long-range
37r 1,t27 44 20 school plant planning.
193r-32 2Il ¿óJ 28 12 Local Financing of Capital Outlay
r933-34 59 2tB o 4
1935-36 t7t 549 2L IO As previously stated, rnost of the funds for public ele-
1937-38. 239 640 ZJ I3
1939-40 688 ,a I3 rnentary and secondary school capital outlay are derived
194(Hl 149 t5 7
frorn local sources. fn rnany local districts long-range
194t-42 t3B 336 I4 i school plant financing patterns have not yet been devel-
1942-43 69 t57
r943-44 54 117
, oped. Vhen the tirne corrÌes that school plant needs can
194ç45 76 t60 7 Õ no longer be ignored, a local distriet rnay find it is faced
94H6... 111 10 4
with an irnmediate need for heavy capital outlay expendi-
94tu7... 205 Jió L6 I tures. This condition norv exists in rnany school districts
94748 412 627 26 I1
664 906 t6
throughout the country.
1,014 l, 337 Jð 22 But very few school districts have built up reserve funds
L,256 l, 552 60 àõ
to finance anticipated capital outlay, and rnost of thern
1,477 1,7l4 b5 26 find it difficult to finance periodic construction frorn cur-
952.-53 3 1,570 L,736 t63 5r=
953-54 3 I,806 L,896 r65 528 rent tax levies. Nfost of the local funds for capital outlay,
954-5s 3 2,140 2,t40 t70 5 3l_ therefore, must corne frorn the sale of local sehool bonds,
N'Iost of the funds to retire school district bonded debts,
¡ Bacic data, unlcse otherwiec indicated,
are f¡om .S¿d¿;s¿
Bþ1njgl Srrrueys of Educetion ¡rt the Unírc¿ jt;i;". --"- ics of S¡ale School S!stems, as well as constmction funds and. annual rnaintenance and
to I954 coct level are r¡acecr on Engíneering Netcs Reeord aencral
in<ìicr:c for crlø<I:rr ycsrs prcced¡nß t¡,J
rernodeling expenses, are derived frorn local property taxes.
3 Ectimated on rhc l¡aeie
of-contiac¿ ""t ooi ã.yeu.*
n.""f ;;;;.
¡,icc"ãi.g.clroot There is a great variation in property assessrnent rates,
ycare. Partial retu¡ne fo¡ lgSB-54 eeem "i".a"ì"?i.g-J".c.r
ro indi;;-te;
that year.
{ Baeed on enrollmeat catiñstcs.
"";;;ù;ïËiglr;;-À;.;'i;_ arld rnany authorities quest.ion property ownership as a
5 Ba¡ed on current
expencliture eatimates. valid rneasure of tax-paying ability. Since reliable rrìeas-

ures of district-by-distríct abilities to pay taxes âre seldorn have rnade provisions for State finaneial assistance to the
available, it seerns dif{ìcult, if not irnpossible, to rnake Iocal districts for school constmction. One or tw-o of these
valid evaluations of the cornparable efforts of the various programs are not now in operation because funds are not
school districts to provide adequ.ate school facilities. available. There are various types of such State-aid pro-
Lack of w-ell developed long-range school plant planning grarns. The general patterns of State aid are in the nature
and financing prograrns have often led to ernergency eon- of grants-in-aid. grants and loanso and the school building
struction prograrns and to a concentration of debt-service authority.
costs in cer¿ain periods. Probably the rnost corrrrrìorl type of school building aid
State Participation in Financing School Construction
is direct grants, and these grants are of several types. A
fery States rnake grants deterrnined by forrnula as con-
Patterns e¡f State participation in public elernentary and tinuing grants, thus encouraging long-range local district
secondary school plant financing prograrns vary. l'Iost of planning, Sorne State-aid prograrns provide flat grants
the States Jhave perrnissive larv-s authorizing the local dis- and others adjust the arnount of State assistance in inverse
tricts to vote bonds or tax levies that rnay be used for capital ratio to district fiscal ability. In at least one State the
outlay expenditures. Local bond approvals usually carry grants are in the nature of stirmrlating aids, conditioned
with thern authorization for levying the necessary debt- upon certain things that local districts rnust do to qualify.
service taxes. However, at least one State authorizes the In other cases grants are for specific purposes; for exarnple-.
issuance of local bonds by special legislative action for each in one State, grants are for the purpose of assisting in
county as requested and approved. Most of the States school plant rellabilitation. One of the rnost corrìtm.on
plaee sorne lirnit on the arnount of bonds that rnay be issued types of grants-in-aid is the special, or t'single-shottt grant
by a school district. These lirnits vary frorn State to State. authorized by legislative action to help relieve irnrnediate
In sorne cases State laws lirnit either the over-all tax levy and critical schoolhousing needs. Such grants rnay be
or the part of the tax levy that rnay be devoted to debt exploratory, and there is no assurance that they will be
service. established on a continuing basis of State-assistance to
For rnany years rnost of the States have provided sorne local school districts for long-range capital outlay financing'
financial assistance to help local districts pay current oper- Another type of State assistance is in the nature of loans.
ating costs. During the past t'n-o decades, there has }¡een The chief value of State loans seems to be in providing an
a grorving belief that the State also has sorne obliga- assured source of funds when needed w-ith an established
tion to provide financial assistance to local districts for interest rate, In at least one State these loans rnay Ìre in
school constmction costs. excess of the district's norrnal bonding capacityr and State
Sorne of the provisions for State capital outlay assistance recovery depends upon a special district tax levy authorized
are outlined in Støte Prouisiorzs for Finøncing Publíc- by constitutional arnendrnent.
Sclrcol Capital Outlay Progrants.e Since the publication
At least four States have enacted legislation perrnitting
of that bulletin, there have been changes in sorne of the the establishrnent of State and/or local school building
State assistance programs. Ät presentr solÍle 25 States authorities authorized to erect school kruildingsr to rent
e Lindman, Erick L., Hutchine, Clayton D., and otheÌs. SLdte Provísíons Jor Fí' such buildings to local school boards, and to collect rental
noncíng Pul¡líc-School Cør>ítal Outla! Progrøms. ]úashington' IJ. S' Go"ernment therefrorn. In rnost such cases rental payrnents apply on
Printing OfEce, t951. (Fcdcral Security Âgency, Ofñce of Education, Bulletin 1951'
No. 6.) ultirnate purchase cost.

As indicated, sorne of the State building aid plans seern two states have established fixed or earrnarked sources to
to be exploratory, and the funds rnay rzary frorn period to provide continuing State funds for long-range school con_
period as per legislative appropriation. Ho-""ve., at least struction prograrrs.

SECT¡ON lll-The Frojected Program
Frograming School Construction own personnel. In rnany States there Ìras a division of
For rnany years a large nurnber of school offrcials in the school plant planning which conducted the survey. In
United States have recognized the need for setting up long- other States a special suryey stalT *-as organized, while in
range programs of proposed school construction. These sorne States the responsibility for the suryey was assigned
prograûrs have rnade it possible (1) to secure sites for future to a division already worhing on problerns closely related to
school centers 'çvhile they are available at rnoderate prices, long-range progranÌs, as for exarnple, the division of school
(2) to allow adequate tirne for planning the types of facilities district organization.
rt-hich w-ill best serve the educational needs of children, and
(3) to arrange for orderly financing. Procedures
Advance planning is an irnportant factor in developing a While no tw-o States follo*-ed identical. procedures in con-
school plant prograùr that rnakes available desirable school ducting the survey, there were several patterns which were
plant facilities .w-here and when needed. Educational cornrrrorl to groups of States, often separated *-idely geo-
leaders. realize that ultirnate school plant econorny and graphically. The patterns rvere deterrnined largely by
effieiency are rnore easily attained through adequate long- current prograrils, legislation, policies, and the availability
range planning. of personnel with suryey experience. Sorne States set trp
One of the chief purposes of the second phase of the School local planning areas which crossed existing district lines.
Facilities Survey was to encourage and assist local cornrnuni- Sorne States used the county as a planning area while others
ties in developing logical long-range school plant planning based the survey on existing adrninistrative units. Ä fairly
and financing prograrns based on current and anticipated large group of 'n-idely distributed States used the high school
needs and financing possibilities. attendance area as the planning unit,
Many local school adrninistrators provided leadership and
Leadership and Direction
guidance in developing local planning area prograrns. The
The leadership in and direction of the long-range phase of States supplied reporting forrns with detailed instructions
the School Facilities Survey were furnished by the State concerning the purposes of the survey, definitions of terrns,
educational agencies. The Offi.ce of Education and the procedures to be used, and State standards, if any, to be
States jointly developed the basic principles, the scope, followed. The arnount of consultative services provided by
terrninology, definitions, and the reportin.g forrns to be used the State depended upon the adequacy of funds and per-
in the Survey. sonrrel for conducting the survey. Sorne of the sparsely
Each Sta¡e conducted its survey on the basis of its stantl- settled States with vast areas did not harze adequate funds
ards and laws, and set its own goals. Each State deter- to provide personnel and travel expenses to visit all planning
rnined for itself the procedures whieh *-ould l¡est fit its own areas. N'Iany States had sufficient funds to furnish ex-
departrnental organization and which could best utilize its cellent consultative services to all local planning areas.


The Scope State and local survey teamst in arriving at the nurnber
of classroorns, considerêd the available data on estirnated
The Survey was designed to rnake it possible for State enrolknent increases up through Septernber 1959, the cur-
and local planning cornrnittees to give judicious considera- rent backlog ofunrnet needs, and proposed prograrn changes
tion to all of the factors affecting the school facility pro- in projecting proposed constmction prograûrs up to the
graûrs up to and including the 1959-60 school year. This 1959-60 school year. There were other faetors and con-
involved advance planning for a period of 6 or 7 years, de- ditions, however, which rnade it difficult for the State and
pending upon the date the studies were initiated in the local survey teanas to project total school plant íeeds up
different States. Sorne of the factors which needed to be to 1959, such as the irnpact that rnight be created by rnigra-
resolved \r'ere: (1) the nurnber of children for whorn facil- tion of school population and possible future educational
ities will be required, (2) the type and extent of the educa- and co¡n¡nunity dernands for facilities.
tional prograûr to be provided' (3) logical attendance areas
and centers, (4) logical adrninistrative units, (5) the best State-to-Federal RePoÉs
utilization of existing facilities including needed rernodel-
ing and rehabilitation, (6) the nurnber' typesr and corn- The report frorn each State to the Offi.ce of Education
pletion dates of additional faeilities required, (7) the esti- consisted of three tables and a narrative. The table forrns
rnated cost of each projected project, and (B) the rnethods are reproduced as tables I, II, and III in the Appendix of
of financing the prograrn. this publication. Surnrnaries of the individual State re-
ports for the 38 States participating in the second phase of
Relation to the First Phase the Survey are presented in the Appendix as tables IV
through XLf. The 38 individual State surnrnaries are
The status or first phase of the Survey was designed to su¡nrnarized in table E, and projected for the entire United
secure an inventory of existing facilities and estirnated States in table F.
current shortages as of Septernber 1952. It was anticipated 'fhe States reported for each planning area prograrned
that States would need arnple tirne for developing survey projects, showing the type of school, the definiteness of the
organizationsr setting up planning aleas' preparing in- project, the nurnbet of pupils to be aecornrnodated, the
structions, and training personnel for such long-range estirnated costr the nurnber of instruction roorns, and the
planning. The average State required frorn 2 to 3 years estirnated gross floor area- The projects were listed under
to cornplete the local prograrn projections and to cornpile one or rnore of the following headings: lrew sehool plants,
thern into a State report. During this period new building additions to existing plants, rehabilitation or rernodeling
construction cared for sorne of the facility needs reported of existing facilities, new school sites, or additions and irn-
in the first phase. Älso new eonstrrction underway when provernents to existing sites. The cost of constrrction
the second phase plans were projected was reported on a included arclritects' fees, adrninistrative costs' furniture
separate forrn. Neither of these was included in the 1959*60 and equiprnent, Ìrut did not include the cost of the site'
projected programs' Itrorvever, rnany of the planning areas The prograrned projects lvere divided into two categories
had sut¡stantial enrollrnent increases during this period, as to defrniteness. The ",d" category included all projects
and anticipated additional increases through the L959-60 in which a firrn decision had been rnade as to need, type of
ttBtt category included
school year. school, size, location, and cost. The
317238 ()-56- {

those projeets about which there rvas a tentative decision. opening of the 1959-60 school year represent periods ranging
In addition to the prograrned projects, rnost of the States frorn 4 to 6 years. For the sake of u'iforrnity it is assurnecl
reported a crctr category, or the estirnated scope and cost of in the table F projections that the planned prograrn is for
additional or residual facilities which could not yet tre a 5-year period, frorn Septernber 1954 to Septernber 1959.
clearly enough defined to be reported as specific projects. Table F, colurnn 17, indicates that the nationwide S-year
Explanation of Tables E, F, and G projected school plant prograûì includes 476,505 instruction
roorns. Colurnn 2l of this table indicates that the total
Table E is a surrrìary of the project-by-project reports capital outlay cost of this prograrn, exclusive of school
frorn 38 States showing the total nurnber of projects for buses, will arnount to S15,841r043r000.
elernentary, secondary, and cornbined elernentary-second-
Table G presents an analysis of all prograrned school
ary schools with toAtt and ',8" projects grouped according plants, grouped according to the nurnber of roorns. This
to the nurntrer of roorns. The residual or nonprograrned analysis gives the average cost pet pupil, per instruction
proposals are snrnrnarized as a total only. Of the pro-
roon1, and per square foot of the gross floor area; and the
grarned school plants, 73 percent are elernentary, 2l per-
average gross area per pupil and per instruction room. It
cent secondary, and only 6 percerìt are cornbined elernen-
also shows the average nurnber of instruction roorns in each
tary-secondary. fn the status phase reports, BI percent of
all schools were elernentary, only 6 percent secondary, and group. Frorn table B, colurnn 4, it will be noted that there
were 81964 prograrned new schools of all types. Table G
13 percent were cornbined elernentary-secondary. The dis-
indicates that for all of these schools the estirnated cost per
tribution of prograrned projects in the second-phase reports pupil is $1,169; the cost per instrrction roorn, ß32r772i and
indicates that larger elernentary schools and rnore separate
the cost per square foot, $14.28. The gross area is estirnated
high schools are being planned, and that fev-er high schools
at 82 square feet per pupil and21294 square feet per instruc-
are being cornbined rr-ith ele¡nentary schools.
In colurnns 5, 10, and 15 of table E, the .,nurnber of tion roorn. Tat¡le G provides a breakdown for each type of
school and for each group size according to the nurnber of
pupilstt indi.cates the pupil eapacity of ne*- school plants or
roorns, and shows the average nurntrer of instruetion roorns
the pupil capacity of the classroorns in additions. The per project for each type and group.
nurnlrer of instmction roorns reported in colurnns 7,12, ancl
17 includes laboratories and shops, but excludes large Explanation of Charts 4, 5, and 6
general-use roorns such as auditoriurns, gyrnnasiurns,
libraries, and rnultiple-purpose roorns. Chart 4 shows that 55 percent of the estirnated cost of all
Table F is a projection of table E for the entire United projects is for new school plants, 39 percent for additions to
States orr the basis of reports frorn BB States, enrolling existing schools, 3 percent for rehabilitation and rernodeling
72.62965 peÌcent of the pupils in the fall of 1954. This pro- of existing facilities, and 3 percent for nerv sites and site
jection is based upon the assurnption that the school facili- irnprovernents. The chart also shows L};,ai" 47 percent of the
ties prograrns of the States whieh did not participate in the total estirnated cost is for elernentary schools, 4l percent
second phase of this Survey are in the sarne proportion to for secondary, and 12 percent fo¡ cornbined elernentary-
the participating States as their relative enrollrnents. secondary schools.
Since the participating States collected their field data Chart 5 gives the distribution of classroorns in all pro-
and prepared their progranì estirnates_at different tirnes, the grarned projects. It shows that 3l percent of all of the
projected plans for rneeting school plant needs by the prograrned classroorns are in new elernentary schoois while
(¡n'I.Ä.Ncr,at -AxD lrrÀ D-4.TA rr rHoûs¡Ì,iDs)

Ccst of
æd site

w. w
19, 81
z'.t,869 8,89
26,5A8 20,34

o ffi ffi
1-6 L24,r9L
'7-r3 rÐ,or5 153;5L2
r1,,-20 53,2o5 r+51+,I23



t 25,O3r


ffi ffi
B, L1't 't29,31+2 24,O45
3tr'35I 8r2,A56 2A,206
v9,882 1,65,92.4 16,)r5

),15t 9,92
13,056 20,93
I7,8'Ì3 22,4C

ffi ffi
r,'7a6 7
2)9AO '1'o3
2,l'tO 36,eo3
S1ìîÍA,Rï 0F ¡F.OJECT'D pl,cr\S FOR ìjEETING SC.rjOOt ?i,rNT NEEÐS Bf 1959_60
(FL\A,'iclÂL .tu\D A,aEn DnrÀ ¡i TtÍous¡J{Ds)

Ccst of
and süe

a9,a2) gx
67'/,95 5n,'793 5,
lr 9I8 2),838
L,O7I 625,68 538,485 20,eAs
3AA,A3 257,9'.75 ta,o25 55,

ffi 19,647
t.,\39 L52, 1,
5 '4
L59, 5,623 626,84I
\4,,75t+ "7'/9 Ð,21+1 43'
1o' 2, L',l1+ 6t o,968
62- 21,2a 42,

)ffi 627
ro,9 t+2
rr,831 r23

1-6 )G
5,6n 5
u-20 9,a60 1o,739
6,29 "71,t+

/+'I'73 ffi
r,553 3,4A8 I,592
2, Lul /"3oI 2,908
I,56L 2,393 2,35'1

11 491 ffi
2,278 33,rO5 3e,956
r,538 38,835 6r,1+65
22_, ¿,63

irã 1*' 31*3 8r2
r7,976 9,3r9 708
1O,85i I,O)
2¿,'6oe 6,2/t-t+

0 ffi
1-6 2' /*59 :E ffi
L,702 /+2' t.25
U-20 2,948 1*9 68e 90,294
, í$t
21 percent are in additions to existing elernentary schools, Chart 6 has been derived frorn table E, shorving the distri-
rnaking a total of 52 percent of all prograrned classroorns in bution of classroorns in prograrned new schools according to
elernentary schools. Tv'enty-one percent of all of the size groups. This chart is exclusiye of additions to existing ril
prograrned classroorns are in new secondary schools while 12 plants. It reveals that only 9 percent of the elernentary, I l:l
percent are in additions to existing secondary schools, rnak- percent of the secondary, and I percent of the cornbined ì.1ì

ing a total of 33 percent of all prograrned alassroorns in elernentary-secondary classroorns are prograrned for pro- i.i
secon<Iary schools. Four percent of all the prograrned jects with 1-6 classroorns. In the secondary schools, 78 iri
classroorns are in new cornbined elernentary-secondary percent of all of the proposed classroorns are in projects with It]

schools while 1l percent are in additions to existing corn- rnore than 20 roorns, and 64 percent of the cornbined ele-
bined schools, rnaking a total of 15 percent of all prograrned rnentary-secondary classroorns are irì projects rvith rnore
class roorn s i n cornt¡ined elernentary-secondary s chools. than 20 roorns. il
' .l'l

[Derived from table E] ,.:t'

Average cost perl Average gross ârea per
Groups by nurnber Average ,i
Type of school nurnber
of rooms Pupil Room of roorns I ',1

(Sq. ft.) (Sq. ft.) t,r'



Elementary $850 $25,950 & r,962 4 i.,ri

959 28,t07 3. 68 70 2,055 l0 i¡r
990 29,t77 4.42 69 2,024 t7
1, 016 30, 135 2.51 B1 2,408 29 lllli


13. 55 2,t24 ..'ì:

Secondary 37,2L4 Lt2

Over 20
36, 79r
12. 34
13. 53
13. 95
16.28 lll
t, 584 4t,057 2.670 iii

Cornbined elemen tary-secondary t, 231 35, 063 t3. 19 93 2,659 4 r¡
?-13. Bl3 I II. IB {ö 2,020 t0 :ll
fì01 i 2L,238 10. 73 /) 1,982 t7
ÕJf I 22,498 tl. 04 ro 2,039 31 i
B3l I1. 02 2, 031
All schools All groups r, 169 2 !' 1a' L4.28 2,294 ì:

¡ Exclueivc of sitca. -from irl
¡egr¡lte two factore: (1) the CMP data dirl not include Iow-cost projecte requir-
2 I'hie cstiña¡e(l cost pcr claesroom is lcec tl¡an tl¡e CMlt cl¿rssroom cost rnported ing leec than 25 tonc of ste(1, and (2) conse¡vative currcnt Slate ectimates of capital rl
in Scction II. cvcn tlrough conetruction prices havc inc¡eaeccl. Thie diff;rencc or¡tlây costa. t\
2l ,l



. ;¡r
Estirnoted Cost of All Progromed Projects Distributed According tr
Purpose 0nd Type of Schsol

4 a a r a\'-'-
a a ) a I r t ¡l r":1.1' Combined aaa
aa t"\
,/t . a a r a a ¡.ü:ì:1¡j
taaallal¡t..i:-1:: aaa
- a t a r r r l r a\ji.l-
t a a a r I ¡ r r r r ì:-,
Elementary- ¡¡À.
aa ¡oo\
t a a a ¡ ¡ a I I ¡ r !t.',; aa ¡ooi\
ta r a l ¡ r a r ¡ r r r\:i!
ta ). a l r a ¡ t I a ¡ lj,.
ta a a a I I a ¡ r I r r ¡! *Ù. iiî.I
Secondar toa o¡o\
aa ooor\
, -¡¡rtat¡¡¡l¡r¡È
¡ r ¡ ¡ a l t ¡ ¡ ¡ a ! I tl
.tI:'i::il aa( o a a a!
,a a a ¡ r r I I I ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ I ¡ .'.tiii:liJ oa aaaaa
ta I a a ¡ r I a I ¡ I a ¡ t rI t¡i..:- I ao. aaaa
/l r t a ¡ r ¡ tl I I ¡ I I t t È.:. r: aa aaaao
, ¡ r I ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ tt a l ¡ ¡ ¡ tr It t'''t"' aar aaaa
,a a a l t ¡ I I I ¡ a t I ¡ ¡ ¡ rt:!l
! r l!-;.
¡¡l I I t:.1
aa aaa.a
¡lr¡¡rlrr aor ûaaa
ta a a ¡ l ¡ r a a t a l I ¡ ¡ Ir rt:,
,r r r ¡ a a a ¡ r ] l I a I ¡ ¡lraj ¡ I aa aaaaa
t a t ¡ tl I l a ¡ ¡ r r a t I lllt I I aar oaaa
,¡ ¡ a I r I t ¡ ¡ I I r ¡ r r ¡f rt r rì
r rat¡¡¡t
t¡¡l aa aaaaa
lr a !¡¡a¡ I ¡
r¡l¡ aor oaaa
f ¡ r ¡ ¡ a l ¡ I ¡ I r r l a ! I t¡¡¡
l a l ¡ r r ¡ ¡l
a a ¡ a a i r ¡ lt
t a r r r l t at¡¡
I ¡ I ¡ ¡ I ¡t¡¡
¡ I
¡ I
aa aaoaa
aa, aaaa
!¡l I t ¡ ¡ I ¡ ¡l t a ¡ ¡ ¡ Ellt Et
lall¡ l¡¡talt a t a¡¡t i¡la¡ ¡r aa
l a ¡¡
¡ ¡ ¡l
I I ¡ a l al
¡ I t a ¡ I ¡ ¡ r ! I I rrtl¡
¡ I r r I ¡aa¡ ¡a
¡¡t ¡trt
! ent¿ tary'.'.
;l¡l¡l¡l¡l;l; Additions il;l¡l
¡tl¡ aa
t¡¡la al
t¡¡lr tl
¡ 17%la.
.t.tat.t.t.t, 2o,ol '.t.tatlll I aa
)710¡¡¡ ¡t aa oaaa
Ltatatatatata ¡ l ¡ a a a a a'atataatl¡
rlttt .ar/ Secondary 'aa
la I ¡ ¡ r ¡ ¡ ¡ I I a I r I t ¡tt-tt
a ¡ ¡ r r ¡ I I I ¡ ! r I f a¡ta a a
I .'1, raa aaaat
l¡llarrralta¡rlrl ¡l¡¡t aa aaao
l¡ r r ¡ ¡ ¡ r a I I r ¡ ¡ I tr ¡l¡¡
l¡ ¡ r I ll a ¡ ¡ ¡ I ¡ I I ¡t¡!tt
¡ I
4L% ,aa aaaaa
!¡ al¡l¡a ¡¡r¡¡¡l¡ tl ao ,aaaa
It ¡ ¡ ¡ I a t I a a ¡ I ¡ I It a ¡ a aJ roa aaaaa
la ¡ r t ¡ a r r ¡ a l a ¡ f a.)a ¡ t
!a ¡ rlaa¡¡ a all¡¡ ¡ aa |aaaa
\¡ a ¡ r r I I ¡ a t ¡ ¡ a ! t)aJ, 'at
ut at/ raa aaaaa
I I I ¡ I r ll I ¡ ¡ a ¡ Et a aa raaao
!r r r ¡ ¡ r l a ¡ t¡ I ¡t tt.t.tU a rca aaaa.
\a ¡ r r a a a t a a ¡ ¡s t ¡ aa
\r a r. ¡ a a I ¡ a r ! ! I a
\r a ! t ¡ ¡ I I I t I ü ¡ I
r t a a ¡ ¡ ! a a a ¡ ¡ )aa ¡ooo/
lr aa s¡ocJ
)aa ooo{
\t r ¡ ¡ a a a I r r r rI aa ¡ooJ
\atr!ataaûaI/ aa ,tatÍ
t. t t. tro// oa
\ aa.,

\-.. ¡ " .. t /


rI ( FrFÞÀprÀ,tÊNtr r'ìtr t{FÄl rH Fnilf ÄND wFl FARE Office of Educofïon School Housinq 5
Type of Sehool and by New Plsr¡ts 0nd'AddiTtons

ffnt.n.o.t, ¡¡ ¡l
Eait¡l! !l
ñaat .IE¡¡¡¡t ll
zfftaat ltra!l¡ ¡t
r!¡tttt !r¡atl¡l la
a¡atrl tat¡¡¡l ta
II¡'¡I ¡t¡¡l¡lt lr
td ¡

;l; litions l:l
Addi ¡a

a ll
r t
l:i al
a l!rlt
l6r¡¡¡ ¡r¡.ti¡ ¡a
Ìa¡¡ll taal¡l¡l ral
b¡rra! !atta¡l t¡
E¡la¡lll tll
i:., t¡¡¡¡l! !¡
/ É1.
l¡¡¡aa¡ lll
'l.N. aat¡¡la t¡

t¡¡¡t¡¡ t!
' r¡tatl¡¡ ¡t
f.t.t.t.trt"t.l[ a¡rt¡¡¡ ¡t
A. t.. r i r a r r¡ ¡ I t I l a aa

tr ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ a a ¡ ¡ lrrrrr¡ ¡t
¡lr¡r¡tttr¡ t".Y^¿ trrr¡¡r
Ia t a a a a a a I r¡¡IL.,
¡¡ tl

f r ¡ a ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ t ttrt!
tt t t.
r ¡ ¡ t r a ¡l¡!l
/Ært.trt.' ¡¡r¡ ll¡¡r.t
¡¡¡ lt
Ni;: tr ¡ r ¡
A1': Ë.:.:.:.: A00lilo)ns .:.
¡¡¡ aúI ¡a

¿.iìir I
¡l;l;l;l¡ L2% I¡
¡¡¡ ta Lt.
¡ l¡ ¡¡
l-iL a¡ t¡
g;ì.1 túaa¡¡llã¡l ra¡t¡
ar¡¡¡¡lll¡ ¡¡tr¡ ¡l
i{l ¡tr¡¡¡¡!t!¡¡ ¡¡tal
trllr tl
¡ T3
iíl:ii, t¡¡r¡tl!¡¡
¡¡!r¡alll¡l ttat-
¡tllra¡all r¡!!l
li¡i, . n','ùLbfrd2¡ l[-1i1'
7f a t t a '.'H1
a a t ./
è:ì:r ã¡
Àtl¡t¡¡ t.t.t.t.rl{l
¡ r ¡ t a I
r ¡ ¡ r rtraala¡ r
r ¡ I ¡ t ¡ r t-r
þj., ft¡r¡¡¡r
'f r r ¡ r ! ¡trf¡ll rrltru,
t r r ¡ ¡ ¡Fà¡


r ¡ I I It¡tal¡l
r r ¡ ¡ tt¡tll¡¡
r ¡ ¡ ! rra¡¡tal ¡
¡ ! ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡l
' Él¡tt¡tt tt¡¡ll t¡l¡ll¡ ttrt.trlFlÉ{
¡! Ê r ¡ r rtl¡t!ll I It3¡llll l¡t!!¡l¡l
il': t¡r¡¡¡tt¡ Ltftal¡ ¡-T ¡ ¡ ¡ I ¡¡¡t¡t¡ll
i:: ¡r¡!rt¡¡ ¡¡r¡!ll !¡i¡!¡¡l ¡t¡!¡¡¡l¡
,:);. Ir r ¡ I I I r¡rtlll ¡ | t¡laa¡l It¡¡!lla
ltat¡tl¡ l¡!¡¡¡l ¡r!atlgl
llr lr E r r ¡. r ¡ r¡t¡!¡a
f1:, ¡atr¡¡ !¡El Ir¡r¡!!¡r¡
rr¡¡! t
r a r r t I lll
r I r ¡ r 0ns ':':':.1
, lr
r r r i r ! ! It
¡I¡¡rI rr¡!rr¡ú
¡¡trl ¡¡ll
¡t¡ ¡!r!!3rt,
ai', ¡atil! t'ñ ¡¡!¡
Ittttl 2L% v t¡t
r a t ¡ r ¡-t
t t â | t tt
a¡¡¡¡ . t a a at I
i; ¡a¡r¡¡l¡
tt¡r¡ll¡ tuf,.tt t
ttaat t
:":'iy ,/
lir tta¡tr¡a ¡at¡¡r r¡¡t¡ll
¡¡rtr¡l ¡tl¡¡lt ¡r¡tt¡¡!
îtt,, ¡tt!¡¡ll rt¡¡!¡ ¡¡¡¡¡l!
¡trr¡l¡ ¡¡¡t¡lt IttE¡¡l¡
¡¡t¡¡¡l¡ r¡¡r¡¡ ¡tr¡l¡¡
t¡¡¡r¡¡ ¡¡¡r¡¡¡ rrt¡¡¡l!
¡¡¡rtl¡t ¡l!l¡¡ rr¡r¡¡U
¡!rr¡lE tE¡tr¡¡ rr!r¡rg
¡ttr¡t¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡l ttata.ttr
¡t¡llt¡ ¡¡t¡¡lr
¡¡tr¡t¡r ¡r¡l¡l '.t tn rt rþ/
¡¡ttl¡¡ ¡¡¡!¡a¡
¡r¡¡tr¡t ¡¡r!¡¡
¡ ¡ ¡ r r l.L

lis. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH' EDIJCATION, AND WELFARE Offìce of Edrrotion - School Housing Section
ilit CHART 6.

Size of New Schools ond Fercent of
tlossrooms in Eoch Size Group




U.S. DEPARTMENT O[F HEALTH, EDIJCATION, AND WELFARE Offìce of Educotion - School Housing 5
SECTION lV-Effects of the Projected Program

Classrooms by types of schools that would be available in the fall of
1959, if this prograrn should be carried out. Colurnn 6,
In the Report of the Status Phase oJ the School Facilíties
for each type of school, is colurnn 2, rninus colurnn 3, plus
Suruey, detailed inforrnatiou .was given on the nurnber,
or rninus colurnn 4, plus colurnn 5.
type, and capacity of regular classroorns, special instrrction
V/-hen the foregoing inforrnation is projected for the
roorns, and general-use roorns of school plants in l\{arch
1951. In the long-range prograrning of school facilities, entire United States, it indicates that there were approxi-
rnately 995,000 classroorns in school plants in use at the tirne
State and local planning cornrnittees devoted rnuch atten-
tion to the specific types of facilities best suited for the of the Survey. Of this nurnber about -tr91,000 should be
abandoned by 1959-60. Colurnn 5 (d) of table H indi-
educational prograrn of the cornrnunity. These details
cates that 5121000 classroorns were prograrned for construc-
r{ere necessary in order to report prograrned projects, but
they were too volurninous to be included in the State-to-
tion by Septernber 1959, including approxirnately 35,000
whictr were reported as under construction at the tirne of
Federal reports.
the Survey. This is based upon the assurnption that the
Although this publication does not list the various types long-range prograÍrs in the States which did not ¡nake re-
of facilities other than classroorns, it is obvious frorn gross ports to the Office of Education are in the sarne proportion
areas reported that new schools are being planned to include as the 38 States which reported. If this prograûr should
the necessary special-purpose and general-use roorns. In be carried out, the projection indicates that there would
rnany cases additions to school plants also contain general- be 1,315,000 classroorns available in the United States by
use facilities as well as classroorns. the fall of 1959.
Table H provides a State-by-State sumûìary of the effect
of the projected prograrr for rneeting school plant needs by School Centers and Administrative [Jnits
1959-60. Colurnn 2 show-s the total nurnber of classroorns Table I shol's the effeet of the projected long-range
by types of schools in use at the tirne of the Survey. prograrn upon the nurnber of school centers by types of
Colurnn 3 reports the nurnber of existing roorns which schools in each of the 38 States.
should be abandoned, while colurnn 4 gives the net change If the proposed program should be carried out, the nurrr-
in the nurnber of classroorns resulting from proposed re- ber of school centers by type of school is derived by taking
rnodeling or conversion frorn one type of school or use to the nulnber of school centers at the tirne of the Survey in
another. Colurnn 5 shows the total nurnber of instruction colurnn 2 of tal¡le I, sutrtracting the nurnber of cente¡s in
rooÍrs in the projected construction prograûr including the coìurnn 3 that should be abandoned, adding or subtracting
nu¡nber of class¡oorns under construction at the tirne of th_e net change in the nurnber of eenters due to conversion
the Survey, Colurnn 6 gives the total nurnber of classroorns frorn one type of school to another as shown in colurnn 4,
317238 c) .56*-5

Bl 1959-60

3,567 I,392 14,'7gL Lg,.tst) 2'69t 2L1* 891 +I,3].7
31993 rrL25 51118 1,85 I42
6, 9,'196
-r,8r7 -586 3, L7O '168 9,602 L3,A+A 5'663 1,860 L5,685 23,2æ
-5 2,91+6 1r 021 6,/,t 9
3,9r'7 2,328 '7,763 r4,OO8 r,L93 3O3 2r2\O lr6.tL
3,96'7 2rØ1, a ).<1

1.rOÕ5 2,869
L1,585 2J,,O69 23 65,677 Ô ooô 6, ¿Ll I t6j 418
-\tv)) -))+ 3,870 8'/*t3 5,7r2 ¿r 001 8,368 18,081
5,960 2,4n r,979 32,5o'7 25,O4r l_6 57 ,56r, 64,u)3 42,699 )L Lo6,82':
:10,356 L,226 132 126 I,1,81+ 2'/*92 Ì ô2À 4,'.76A 7,226 /*'23o 21186 L3r6tt
8,084 2,302 7,L26 11,812 679 1 ak óL^ +2/, +¿,8 +6'7 2'835 L|LA9
1+r12g 5rra2 I,/+7I 5,7r5 LO,261. 3,58o 21888 r6r'l3t
9r',785 L7rg26 2'1+o7 )69 r,r49 3,925 +615 -L,r75 -L59 6,974 4,191+ L,75O 12,9LB l.4,167 t,,538
lorl52 31061 7r)lg 201532 3,25a 25O 2r2\O 5,710 +L18 +181 +52O 6,r89 2,396
8,O55 26,76(
L!r927 5rOO2 D,044 27,973 r,941,, 25O r,825 3,9W
18,113 26,698 13,5@ 23rlo3 1.2r01r(
51354 3rg3j 10, o?8 a96 3,658 5,4'.78 r,1+61* 10r 6oc 131 681 ror23o 10,683 3¿+,591
191166 482 1,104 +5L +?1*2 +35L 1?O 3,r2C 3,56e 5,261, ? a<o L2r958 22r!8)
KæsaB,. .. , .. . r1r 613 't,563 2rl4t, 618 286 /*,381,
2Jr32O 3'/*8o 6,292 2,811 652 g,isa 2r5ro 26169)
5,9"tO L8,947
9r3O2 r7rg7o
1,100 8,061
867 ),Lt9
;J'36 J1r' Ï¿ 7,I+O3 7,435 )-,762
9, 755
rO, 60c
L2r9t+1+ 3ra4t 1,,687 2rrl+',11
ì1al¡e......... 3,9)6 Lr'138 191 5,865 r,659 1,57 21 2,137
+131 -L5O _75 1,393 \)u 4,710 10, o51 9,91*9 2,259 12,625 %,83':
ilkyled...... 6,7'7.7 /"26I 1,560 )-2,598 22 -,] 2r5',78 I,2)l 1?O 3, 9',?9 1-'.9I2 2,4l+8 31rO 7,'lg.
1,1*O 38 5OO -I0 +8 1,'3'79 ),/*oo L49 .t,
928 ro,693 7,66a, tr6'17 2oro3t
Ìlæsæhusettô. l1r 9'!54 6,1*18 21]A3 rr297
fiichiga¡...... 21,851
11,089 8r007 tor953
5,615 +335 -229 -70 6,436 /*,r94 /+@ tt, o39 ur264, l-.I,8'.75 6,598 32,73'
4,r89 53'.7 5, ¿,2/, +296 -210 tt ?ac 51582 2rIB4 19, r61, 29,362 l-5r88'.7 9,44 5/,,69,
9,662 ),8',7/+ 7,868 2I,1,O1+ t"I83 r'75 833 5,L9r +358 2,779 3,038
Hieslsslppl-. .. 7r188 11 807 8,2J9 t7,2W 3,5U 1*0 833 1+,387 -2,1+30 -483 4,ra'l
9, 9U 9,9L/* I,067 'l'62,J 25r65t
Hontua....,.. 427 t,622 5,519 2.O
+188 -186 2,379 3,539 6, 6,2/J 2t1'28 70,739 19,1-0{
3rO',?O 800 52O rr51*O 360 1,65 r72 2,6Jo L,072 L,271+ L,9'il
Neeada.....,.. oot 23I 21r
3Ð' Ir51+4 )11 52 +22 +1+ +26 535 r57 tr)25 265
New Hmpshlre. 1r 820 l-,038 /*33 3,ær 2u1
70 1,089 +97 -5r 8'./2 6r) r1,9 Ì, 63r'
Nex Jereey. ... I8rO22 6,52O r,836 26,378 11 7r8 I72 I'7 r.907 +2
+109 -r2f -10 '7'2L1', 5,267 T47 12, 628
]-,rt'l L,81'5
NeF lJÐdco.r . . -3r86r 698 Lr3€/+ 5191,3 190 126 1OO 4].6 +5O +15 +33 -i98 3,075 650 935 L, 6@
6,,796 21252
10, ooo 2, OOO 19,OOO 3tr 0Oo 21 0oo 2OO 800 3ro00 +400 +100 -600 loo 1*1200 11 500 6rooo 11, ?oo 121 600 3'/'æ 23,600 39,69
Oklahona....,. 8r55r 5,332 5,O79 r8,962 962 I,1*73 +1
Oregon....,... 3'5a æ8 12,612 4,l!62 +97 -t22 -U 3r1,8O 2162) 2rL24 8r 225 r0r 305 7r 088 51608 23ræ:,
arBS 98 38 /*'73 +\73 -71 -74 +2/+ 2r5O3 r,/+9I 6/+ /t, o58 1o,731+ 636 t6,22:.
Pemsylvæ1a.. 37,2O8 12,208 76,857 I,n7 r,Ð-6 301 9,794 +2,551 -r,3A6 -11108 +!)7 71846 Lrrz5] 6@ 19r '7q 39,328 r1,408
RhodeIsled.. 2,U*9 rr3o3 89 3,75l- 1+r2 16 u ¿,1,2 +93 +17 -101 +g 78r 63r /¿+7 2,67i-
r,935 2J9
IÐssaee..... 13,809 2131+1 6,805 22,955 5rr'73 180 92/+ 6,27'l +382 +4 -328 +58 '1r6't5 I,2a9 2,394 rL, 35e 16,69? 3 7,94'.7 24,@'
Texæ 20, OOO 7,593 I8,97'-7 t+6,5'.7j Lrr3l+7 I,9U tr,327 ]-7,588 26,505 71066 2?r 35,158 1/*871
l, 568 456 663 2,68'7 585 1+2 178 805 +I3I -67 -l-10 -/*6 625 8o5 oot
33' 792
1,59 r,'739
r,L5Z '/*o/+ 62,n.
Dr065 ?, II6 18,181 6'7 296 3,/*t8 3,066 I4r25/,
9,5r9 I,'269 2r32'.7 16rIL5 \e5t vJ7 t'79 2121,) +216 +8 -lzzz 1" 3,110 r,594
987 10r 988
5,664 2,2@
L2r76t 4,976 3,8'.75 2r,552 q?? r8 19 981 +285 -L62 -189 -66 2,64t r,r55 592 1', )88 14,854 5,'.7AO 4,259 ,89.
706 1+l' 3W r,056 èJ 1, 2A 95 22r 96 111 86t+ I)3 )92 r,3s
2ræg l, ol? 792 3,818 283 48 104 /-35 +o -¿ +6 r,r91+ 648 111+ 1, 956 2,928 116)-5 ao2
3,r83 1r 518 2,622 7,323 2) 15 18 5/+ r,909 r,168 r,r94 1,, 5,O7r 2r67L 3,'798
1f ,51,

t9t-r71*'.7 035 TIt or9 173'L37
ï 3'72, 262,928 2r4,953
SLate sV 236,(Ðt) 259,qn 995,0æ 26/+ræo L5O, 000 000 ooo )62,000 3O2,OOO 1,315,0O

1/ ProSætea on the basls of mrll¡ents i¡ aII states ed terri"ories, roøded to tho$æds, fron data reported îron 38 s¿ates enrolling?2.629651 oî tte pupils in the Tall of 1954.
and adding the nurnber of centers in the proposed long- the projected prograrns. Colurnn 7 shows the total deficits
range prograrrr including centers under constrrction at the of all the adrninistrative units in each State having inade-
tirne of the Survey as shown in colurnn 5. quate applicable capital outlay resources.
Table I also shows the effect of the long-range prograûr. The total cost of $11,630,883,000 for capital outlay in 38
upon the nurnber of local school adrninistrative units. States, shown in colurnn 3 of table J, includes $125r533t000
Colurnn 7 gives the nurnber of existing units at the tirne of for necessary additional school brrses, exclusive of replace-
the Survey. There were 251699 adrninistrative units in the rrrents. In the adrninistrative units with inadequate capital
38 States operating elernentary sehools only, 807 units outlay resources, $82,090'000 of the total capital outlay of
operating secondary schools only, while 91521 units operated fi1 ,94L,267,000, shown in colurnn 5 of table J, is for additional
bottr elernentary and secondary sctrools. There were 61482 buses. In sorne cases buses are purchased with bond funds,
units which did not operate schools. Colurnn B shows that while in other cases thev are financed with cr.rrrent expense
a total of L7,417 loeal adrninistrative units will be in opera- funds. Wherever costs for additional buses were included,
tion in 1959-60 according to the projected prograûr. the resou¡ces for financing buses were also included.
When the foregoing inforrnation is projected for the The applicable capital outlay resorrrcest totaling $2r9l8'-
061,000 in colurnn 6 of table J, were estirnated on the basis of
entire United States, it indicates that there were 120t08g
existing laws in each State at the tirne of the Survey in each
school centers in use at the tirne of the Survey. Of this
nurnber +2,804 should be a̡andoned by 1959-60' and 19'501 State. The applicable capital outlay resources do not in'
prograrned for constnrction try Septernber 1959' ineluding clude funds whictr will becorne available as a result of State
Iaws passed since the Survey was rnade. Reports frorn sorne
echool centers under construction at the tirne ofthe Survey.
If this prograrrì. should be carried out, it is indicated that States indicate that legislation has been enacted or pro-
posed, based on conditions revealed by the Survey, which
there would be 961335 school centers in the entire United
States in the Fall of 1959, or 23,753 fewer than at the tirne
will increase the applicable capital outlay resources.
The terrn t'applicable capital outlay resotlr cestt as used in
Survey data were collected.
this report neans the capital outlay resources esti¡nated to
beco¡ne available to the respective local school adrninistra'
Capital Outlay and Applicable Resources
tive units by June 30r 1959. Any excess of resources in one
Table J surnrnarizes the total estirnated capital outlay by fiscal unit over the cost of the projected prograrn in that
States and shows the nurnber of adrninistrative units in unit is not an applicable resource for another frscal gnit.
each State with inadequate capital outlay resources for Applicable resources include: (1) unobligated capital outlay
financing the long-range projected prograrn. Colurnn 2 funds on hand; (2) additional bonding capaeity, that is,
gives the total nurnber of adrninistrative units in the States, total bonding capacity within the lirnitations of law and
while colurnn 4 shows the nurntrer of units with inadequate custornary practice, less bonded debt which cannot be
applicable capital outlay resources to finance the projected retired by debt-service funds on hand; (3) local capital out-
program. Colurnn 3 gives the total capital outlay for each lay revenues, such as received frorn special building fund
State, while colurnn 5 shows the total capital outlay for the levies; and (4) other funds which are expected to be rnade
adrninistrative units in each State with inadequate appli- availat¡le for construction, eqr.riprnent, school buseso and
cable capital outlay resources. Colurnn 6 gives the total other expenditures properly chargeable to capital outlay.
applicable eapital outlay resources of all the adrninistrative . Of the 38 States reporting, l1 reportetl on the basis of
units in each State with inadequate resources for financing local school adrninistrative units only; 4 reported on the

School cente¡s
lÆca1 school" edni¡istrative uits

Sbou].d be abadoned wbe¡ oI ca-,ers N@ber oi eEisting local ti¡eted nEber of loca1
¡{-ei ch4ge due lo repo¡ted u iable Lhat would be available school administrative uits
schooL wit¡

Jx É
EO oc F
oÉ t
rl ..1
>i, oõ
A Lx
É c!
õç t
d ô! d
c bõ
L-! Ê
fx É

ãi Éo
3 q

9t ¡ É ! cct ç É
E O ¡EO 6 e ç caÉ o c +oc É

ñ 3 3ÉB .la o o¡ o o Êoo
'EO J Eoo s3 ã k Eo
3 @ oeø o o ¡
o o¡o
o oo g

ø !
Alabea....... L,2Ã 827 I 535 +2t9 -2
911'l 50 2r2A8
,J. 323*)5
r,37o -2L'1 | \55 u 67 Ð6l] 521- 5t L96 1, U71+ 108 lo8
775 r,633 11.5 1+ a64 5I3 +98 +n
- -1- I t6o
1B0l 396
2o3! 628 L9o
62 ñ 3' I <Þ
'9121 * *
... 3,'-t7r
/.,465 698 37
/*59 10
6 '74I _ |I i,019
3'.7'.7 2 r,3981 L,@2 1,018
r22 rr 680
I 1,t5
7 423 1 ,",
2A,4+ *
1,50r. 2t* L93 +I2 * -I2 _l Il.2 /,/. 12 1681 868 \59 u9
2,018 23
1, 524 186 1.A6 1,151 ¿JO \74 *
?01 70 59 830 11 2 5 t8 +'7 -5 +6 23O 55 /*3 328 118 r03 1, l1*B Ê5 1a/
195 602
334 \2
\,7O1 35
U 31a
196 L,ÐA -34o
+89 +9
108 71,. 38r
91 337 8'/a
933 21,9 ìoì 1, 373
1, q?9
: 67 67
6 92*
\t 1+82 I 2,2æ 578 18 'tr 2a'7 \84
896 261, 2OO 2ß) 194 *
667 33 -
¿,92 170 1,344 4a62269 -= -ll :TI 77 38 U
504 Lrlgt
t29 522
2, 105
l, 429 2,
5 679 TL r,).oL
836 r,671 1,,55e
r, 800
6T9 1r

r,/*3o 62
3,47r 13
6'73 62
t+B r.5Lo
52 3',536
25 '63'ì
+11' +1
+tJ -36
; -t5t -l-l

/*6 890 216L7
1.5 77
85 \4
406 1r 030
32r 898
), 256
l-, iðo
I 520
,,: 260 256 3rr,2o
67 67
250 260 *

'7l-3 )t*6 Q{l 150 3 * I53 +1 -1 3O4
r7',ì 26 1,67
868 2'/9 118
66 )., 092
1, 265
30r r?o
22 49'l = f28 *
1 )aa

1+' 1+8o
L55 61 109 625
a,89"t 25 19 r,9/l
3,2/+6 6
3,ú8 2rO3O
't 3,259
.t,t 2,!o7
+7 -lA
+18 -8
+3I +A3
+20 *


3L9 r,552 |
| 3,125
19 330 2
53t+ 872 1+,532
4t+3 L,8L2 5,44
351 96
92, j 21!.1+ /.
tt+6 -
r, 169 r38 lr8 12 59 389 : 25 L7 1+
'7Ð- I,/,56 |
83 11012 I
5 51+9 9 r,4r7
I',7',1 239 I,274 700
25O *-
Nevada........ \69 T7 351117 *l
New HajEpshi¡ e. 4a'7 59 æ2 19 I +8 -6 _2 *l
11 1
1 131 rlj vl 19 181 12þ l-t 2 12 r7L 96 I 23-
Nefl Jersey..,. fr4o) 230 11
3O9 L6 6 671 189 1+9 30 268 uL, Â? n t1, 64*
New l'lexico.. . .
r97 t,.7æ 2 21_) +/+ -3 +1 | 3o3 loc I 1-O4l r,578 290 63 1, B9t 6 \83 23
621 69 823 2210638 188 5/*6 37 L82
-3o +5 -3 -28 L8 2661 'ì60 it-2 151 It
.t +aU +16 _r¿o * I| rr)23 2
North Ca¡oli¡a 30 9t ro4
Lr1a6 5t+5 -
't8 552 r6j 7o 41 n6l L,t62 L64 '74/* 2,O',70 \'74 r71+ : L7/+ *
L,68r+ 2J.5 2t 1+o3 1+8 18 I +2 +6 -8 _l I
81 51_ r.5ó | 1, n9
oreg@..... -.. 11 0lo r85 r,z7I t*3 3 1
+13 -6 _,ì .-.-l 137
2a 257 5W 2,1.85 ì 1,18r 66t* !181,5 66t-
/*7 t3 r8o i 1,13? 2f9 1+8 L,/*O/" I '/3 130 23 766 130 -
5'6t*2 æ5 6,855 21657 90 1+O 21787 +242 -L3O -151 +1 I 565 )A/, 8961 3,832 769
51$ 5LO
nhode Isled.. 1+7 , +12 -3
21 36/, t-,965 | t,759 658 7A 2,505 -
-9 *l 3 52'.7
Temeaæe..... 78
,*e 56 20 z ?8 I 2BB 61 10 I 1l 28
) t'37 3,9trl 2,3'7/+ 5 9 2,388 +/+5 -15 Ð7 32 3e5l t,u5
359 39 11 -
- -l
26 156 31.7 r,948 I 22 I28 150 22 128
/+'272 506 11 084 I'77 1,68 I,729 __: __-: _ I Br,9 2Ð 16 -
652 23
lrlo2 38L
'.t 35 400 +a +3 _j _ I 101 3L I 1,o9sl
_399 562
6L5 5,2A.1. |
Ð- L'13 I
1' o97 90

3,3',t5 2a9 916 9 I j? | 255 los 361|t r,)2j tïj 1,814 I 252 6 25r 15 252 25r t5
5ræ5 198 695
933 :7 _u -r2 -_*L | 3oB 57 I
_L9 3,Dl 2',i7tr 2:/6 71.6 3,196
2 2 699 +Þu
I 2O2 Lt* 3 2L9l /tr'.t72 ?29 235 5,236 |
1+,1,81- 80 3t.8 866 5,7'.18 2 : 3W-
2LIrl +3 -L -11 26 ? ro 3sl r¡56 j 28 189 t:
UU - I 23 10 33i \36 3/* 30
2f 3I 27-
6118 _
- I 23't 27 't 27rl r;28 116
23I 116'75
1'.t 7'.| '7',7
68,1+20 6,1+85 t2,3\5 A'7,220 28,3CÐ '73't 2,Ar- 3r,AAA r,o39 -34 -i,)?2 4n ra,osr 2,98'.t t,r25 7r*,]63 5I,2ù) 8,?01 10,058 69,968li 25,699 80? 9,525- 6,1+82 42,5q9 8,053 55r 8,'.t23- 90 I
United - ,
StatesV 9/+,203 8,929 l-6,95ó l2Or.O88 38,965 \,Or5 2rA2.4 421804 +I,43r -L7 -\,83t+ -1+5O \3,839 4,tr3 7,519 t9,5o7 '74,5o7 r,,98O 13,8/,8 96,335 No projec'"ions nade for r@ber of local school ad4i¡ist¡atlve @lt
y hojected on the basis of eEoll¡ents i¡ al-l States ad territories, roqded '@ thoìßads- f¡oû data reported f¡on 3g States en¡ol1ing 72.629651 ol the pupils
in the Fa11 af I95¿,,
r { r{uF Fu}-ô.õ öõõüjX ñäbìËS gtsàgS Ng$Sf SBFSd gSiSã ll ll

. ÍFin¡ncinl data in thouøun<Iøl

F-or adrninistrative units with inadequat<r ¡¡pptiç¿þl¿ 4¡
For entire State ital outlay resources (within the lirnit¿rtir¡Ïs of law ar
custolrary prâctice)
Stste Äpplicable
Number of Number of capital outlny
arlministra- I

Costs Costs Computed
rive units such units resources Deficits
(See p. 27)

1 2 á 4 D (t I

ÄIabama. t0B $350,4rl TOB $350,4ll $16, 337 $334,074
¡\rizona. ,..,,..: r5{l 117, 004 62 ó3, ó5r 39,222 2,[,429
¡lrkansas. 423 tgfl, :i9t 375 185, 233 56, 3t9 tz8,9I4
C¡rlifornia. 2, OtB 2,tt6,924 t46 r,26,1,665 645,7L7 6rB,948
Color¡do. I, tst 171, 6tB 5t 44,636 30,972 13,664
Connecticut, t74 26L,449 B3 170,484 77 ,5Bl 92,903
F-lorida. 67 326,937 3B 131.422 71, 1il0 ó0, tr2
Georgia. 200 ,*92,550 lu7 426,338 244.,',t96 181, 542
Indi¿rna t, t04 439, t50 424 3tB, 100 I27, 000 r91, 100
Iowh. . 4,snB t13, 980 l98 82,665 42, t54. 40, 511

Kansas. 3,420 292,460 r95 292,,160 tB0, 455 rl2,005
Kentucky. 359, 091 I27 305, 565 t0fl, 514, 197,051
Louisian¿r, 67 2:15,591 l9 49,974 35, 2:J4 L4,740
Maine. ,[97 {}4, Û0:l 343 77,t76 19, 690 57,486
Marylantl, 24 280, 130 24 2tÌ0, 130 67, l:ìft 2L2,992
Massachusetts......... 351 558, ?08 146 2r3,741t t3l, 36ft B2,3û0
Michigan. 4,532 526,287 lB0 239,038 L62,476 76,562
Minncsota 5,441 'rlg,453 l5B t72, sßg tOB, 354 64,235
Mississippi t,4t7 ru,608 63 61, 832 4L,68<) 20,L43
Montana. t,274 33, 610 35 7,000 4,500 2, 500

Nevada. r7t 2r,346 22 3,031 r, 9{16 l, 045
Ncw Hampshire 1.. .... 234 45,326 26 3t,946 19,62:l 12,'¿23
New Jersey. 5,[6 506,659 395 440,I20 2 (,1
New Mexico r04 123,073 lT5,72L I,442 tI4,279
North Carolina. ....... 174 303, 693 r55 259,ttg 100, 002 r59, rt7
Oklahoma. r,845 ztL,t42 l, 014 205,L37 60,752 I44,385
Oregon. 7(t6 t04,233 7l 23,930 12, BBI n,049
Pennsylvania 2,505 B7t,t25 1,989 798,963 165, 33fr 633,621
Rhode Island 39 64,334 3t ß,u4 6,920 56,r94
Tennessee. 150 337 ,476 139 310,9ró 104. 380 206,536
Texas.. 2,030 862,059 t26 543, 158 BB,67I 454,487
Vermont, 263 36, 568 70 2r, 55r t*,9fi7 6,564
Washington. 524 242,240 t04 tB4, 502 48,94t r35, 554
l7est Yirginia.., ..,... . b5 106,608 42 90,299 32,L61 58, r38
Visconsin. 5,778 L,Jg,O'14 289 70,09t 33,2r5 36, BB0

Alaska, 31 20,876 0 0 (, 0
Hawaii, J 42,548 5 42,148 ls,929 26,619
Puerto Rico... 46,348 (') (3) (3) (')
38 States. 42,509 Il, 630, BB: 7,5r 7,941,267 2, 9lB,061 5,023,206
United States a. , . I6, 013, r0,933, 866 4, 0L7 ,7011 6,916, r5B

I Dota ba¡ed on Iæal planning a¡eae insteud of læal sohml ad- 3 Tho territory ie a eingle fiecal unit fo¡ ech@l conat¡uction, with
miniatratiyc unit6. applicablo rcÐurco8 of 921,953,0OO and û .lel¡cit..rf 824,415,O00.
2 All of the 395 doficit unitô havo exhauated their .trtûto¡y { Projected on the l¡aeia of en¡ollmeute ir¡ qll Statos ¡nd tor-
1\? bonding capacity, ritoricr, ¡ounded to thoussnde, from dûta ¡orcrted from 98
\O Statoø enrolling 72.62965 ¡rcrcent of thc pupilr lt'the fall of 1954.
basis of planning areas only; and 23 reported both rvays. penditures in sorne areas and woulcl greatly
Of the 23 States reporting both ways, l0 indicated no dif_ recluce the
cornputed deficits in other areas.
ferences in their deficits 'rvhen c¿rrculated by ad.,-- inisLrative
When the foregoing inforrnat_ion in table is
units or planning areas. Ifort-ever, 13 of the 23 States re_ .J ¡rrojectcd fnr
porting both rvays did shorr' differences. These 13 states the entire unired States, it indicates that the rolal esti_
are : Arkansas, California, nlaine, ì\Iassachusetts, I,Iichigan, rnated capital outlay for rneeting school plant
nee<Is pro_
l{evada, Nelr Jersey, Oklahorna. Oregon, pennsylnÃia, grarned by 1959-60 for all States would be S16,0l3,ggZ,O0O.
'within the
Verrnont, \Yashington, and Wisconsin. The aggregoa" lirnitations of raw and custornary practice in Lhe
¡ruted deficit of these 13 States, calculatetl on the basis "or.,_ respective States at the tirne of the Survey, the total
of cost of
adrni'istrative units is g2,3?3,510,000; but if calculated on this prograrn in adrninistrative units with inadequate
the basis of planning areas, the aggregate cornputed deficit cable capital outlay resorlrcesr when projected for
of these 13 States would be reduced to gI,949.242,000. So¡ne .United States, would be S10,933,866.000; while the"nti."
of the States made special studies w-hich indicated that total
applicable capital outlay resources in these units rry-ould
logical administrative units and rogicar attendance areas be
84,017,708,000, leaving total cornputed deficits
rvould solve the problerns of financing capital outlay ex_ of s6r9r6,-


30 i