You are on page 1of 45

Actinopterygii

1
Palaeoniscoidea : Cheirolepis

2
major dorsal and palatal deratocranial bones

3
Kardong: fig. 7-20
dermatocranium

Facial series - encircles the external nares and collectively form the snout
- the maxilla and premaxilla define the margins of the snout and usually bear teeth
- the nasal lies medially to the naris
- the septomaxilla a small dermal bone which, when present, sinks below the surface bones and aids in forming the nasal
cavity

Orbital series - encircles the eye and superficially defines the orbit
- the lacrimal is associated with the nasolacrimal duct
- the prefrontals, postfrontals, and postorbital ring above and behind the orbit
- the jugal complete the lower margin

Temporal series - lies behind the orbit and completes the posterior wall of the braincase
- the otic (temporal) notch suspends the tympanic membrane
- intertemporal, supratemporal, and tabular make up the medial part of the series - usually lost in advanced species
- squamosal and quadratojugal complete the lateral margins

Vault series - the roofing bones that run across the top of the skull and cover the brain beneath
- include the postrostal, frontal, parietal, and postparietal or interparietal

Palatal series
- pterygoid, ectopterygoid, palatine, and vomer
- teeth may be present on any or all of these bones

Mandibular series
- Meckel’s cartilage is usually encased in dermal bones of this series
- laterally, the wall includes the tooth-bearing dentary and one or two splenials, angular, and surangular
- many wrap around to the medial side of the mandible and meet the prearticular and coronoids
- left and right mandibles usually meet anteriorly at the midline in a mandibular symphasis

4
Osteichthyan skull - openings

opercular hinge

orbit

external
nares

5
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Facial series: rostral, premaxilla, maxilla, nasal, septomaxilla
rostral
nasal

nasal
rostral

premaxilla

maxilla
maxilla

6
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Orbital series: lacrimal, prefrontal, postfrontal, postorbial, jugal, sclerotic ring

jugal postorbital sclerotic ring

prefrontal

lacrimal

7
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Temporal series: intratemporal, supratemporal, tabular, squamosal, quadratojugal

supratemporal
intratemporal
intratemporal
quadratojugal supratemporal

8
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Vault series: postrostral, frontal, parietal, postparietal, interparietal
postrostral
postparietal?
parietal frontal
frontal

parietal

postparietal?

9
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Mandibular series: dentary, articular, angular, surangular, prearticular, splenial

dentary

10
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

Opercular series: cleithrum, supracleithrum, clavicle, branchiostegal rays,
opercular, accessory opercular, subopercular

supracleithrum
accessory opercular
opercular

subopercular

accessory
opercular

opercular
branchiostegal rays supracleithrum

clavicle
cleithrum
cleithrum

11
Osteichthyan dermatocranium

12
Palaeoniscoidea : dermatocranium

13
Palaeoniscoidea : dermatocranium

14
palaeoniscoid and basal
actinopterygian skull kinesis

15
fig. 7-23
Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii

Palaeoniscoidea

? Osteichthyes
no fin spines
lepidotrichia
Acanthodii pulmonary diverticulum

Chondrichthyes
Teleostomi
operculum
scales without pulp cavity
anteriorly located eyes
multipartite neurocranial ossifications

Neognathostomata
16
Teleostei (>24,000 sp.)
homocercal tail
Amiidae m separate from infrorbital bones
Paddlefish Sturgeon small, flexible laminar bone scales
true swim bladder
Lepisosteidae
Chondrostei
loss of most dermal bone Neopterygii
opercular absent/reduced
m-pm separate
m free from operculars
Polypteriformes

Sarcopterygii Actinopterygi
dorsal swim bladder, no aerial respiration
(lobe-finned fishes)
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Palaeoniscoidea lepidotrichia dominate fins

Osteichthyes
no fin spines
lepidotrichia
pulmonary diverticulum
complex osteichthyan dermatocranium
17
suction feeding
fish scales

18
fig. 6-11
Polypteriformes

19
Polypteriformes

20
swim bladder evolution

21
fig. 11-5
swim bladders

22
fig. 11-22
Chondrostei : sturgeon

23
www.riverpirate.com & www.anglingbc.com
Chondrostei : paddlefish

24
www.smm.org
Neopterygii : Lepisosteidae (gars)

25
26
www.uaex.edu
Neopterygii : Amiidae : Amia (Bowfin)

27
Neopterygii : Amia

28
evolution of actinopterygian skull kinesis

29
Westneat 2004
maxillary rotation

30
fig. 11-25
Palaeoniscoid vs. Neopterygian skulls

31
teleost skulls

32
Westneat 2004
teleost skulls

33
fig. 7-24
Amia

34
Teleostei

35
Osteoglossomorpha

36
animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu
Elopomorpha

37
animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu
Moray eel feeding

38
Mehta & Wainwright 2007
maxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion

39
Westneat 2004
maxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion

40
Westneat 2004
cod? skull

41
frog fish

                               

   

42
www.buddydive.com
Teleostei : slingjaw wrasse

43
Xiphactinus

44
big extinct marine animals

45