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Module C5 – Reading strategies 1

Module C5 – Reading strategies

Introduction
Many first year courses at university are based around textbooks specially written for
students by academics. Lecturers often set a chapter a week as course reading. In this module
we will look at using textbook chapters and suggest some strategies which may assist you to
read more effectively. We will continue our work on the importance of acknowledging the
use of other writers’ ideas by looking at end-text referencing.

You will find the first section of module C5 is for WELFARE REFORM (C5.1–C5.5), and
the second section (C5.6–C5.10) of module C5 is for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.
We hope this is not confusing but we know how irritating it can be having to go backwards
and forwards between topics. The reading for welfare reform in this module is an article
from a journal, not a textbook. The reading for sustainable development textbook is from a
textbook. Students studying welfare reform should not feel disadvantaged in any way.

Remember you have to read only the pages that refer to the topic area you have chosen. That
is, if you have chosen ‘Welfare reform’ as your focus, do only C5.1–C5.5 in this module. If
you chose ‘Sustainable development’, do only C5.6–C5.10.

Objectives
Please refer to the course introduction for the overall objectives for this course.

Learning resources

Selected readings (for Welfare reform)
C5.1: Saunders, P 2006, ‘A perennial problem: employment, joblessness and poverty’, SPRC
discussion paper no 146 January 2006, The Social Policy Research Centre, University of
NSW, Sydney.
This reading has not been included for copyright reasons. Use the reference details to
search either online or through your local library.

Selected readings (for Sustainable development)
C5.2: Beder, S 2006, Environmental principles and policies: an interdisciplinary approach,
UNSW Press, Sydney.
This reading has not been included for copyright reasons. Use the reference details to
search either online or through your local library.

We suggest that you use textbooks in a more targeted way to: ● follow up and clarify ideas or concepts you have come across in course notes or activities. ● provide material for assignments. Turn to reading C5.1 Reading textbooks – welfare reform Textbook chapters are often long and time consuming to read if you start at the beginning and read to the end. Activity C5. Throughout the study book we have said that it is important to read using an active rather than a passive approach. lecture notes. ● use the article to clarify or extend any ideas you did not fully understand in the lecture. They argue that one of the main causes of unemployment is economic restructuring. . C5. Here are some suggestions of activities which you can often do as part of reading for follow up: ● compare what is written in this article with your lecture notes and think about any similarities or differences. If you can match the topic you want to follow up with a heading then you can simply read the relevant section and decide if you want to take notes to add to your lecture notes.2 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed USQ Library Harvard Referencing Guide. If the topic is not mentioned turn to the index and check for an entry there. We also learned about economic restructuring through module C4’s readings. If you are reading a textbook that you have found independently begin by checking the contents page to see if there is a chapter or major section on the lecture or tutorial topic you are following up. tutorials or other more advanced readings. Read the Introduction.1. The reading for this module is only one third of its entire chapter and as you will see. lectures. Suppose we want to follow up or check our understanding of economic restructuring. it is quite long. Guide to referencing: the Harvard style. Write down what Saunders considers to be one of the causes of people not being able to find a job.1 ‘A perennial problem: employment. joblessness and poverty’.1 Reading as follow up If your course has a set textbook the lecturer will probably indicate to you which chapter matches each week’s topic. C5. Textbook chapters are usually divided into sections or sub-sections under headings.1 In the lecture we learned that the opponents of the governments’ welfare reforms argue that many Australians want to work rather than take unemployment benefits but they cannot find jobs suited to their skills and experience.

4 Turn to your referencing guide and go to page 1 where you will see a heading ‘List of references’.3 Turn again to reading C4. you have to acknowledge the person’s work by providing a reference. Pages 1 to 2 of the referencing guide show you how to reference each of the different types of academic material. the third reference is a book with three authors. Activity C5. Your lecturer did not go into this issue in detail. Notice that the article focuses on the link between unemployment and poverty. Notice how each one is referenced. In the Harvard system you also have to provide end-text references in the form of a reference list at the end of your assignments. The fifth reference is a chapter from an edited book.6 by Curran. Activity C5.2 End-text referencing Before we move on to using textbooks for assignment writing we need to learn about end- text referencing.2 Compare your lecture notes on economic restructuring with what is written in the reading C5. Do not try to remember how to reference. The purpose of the reference list is to allow the reader to follow up any of your sources. The eighth reference is an article from a journal. . whether you copy the exact words or put the idea in your own words.1. Module C5 – Reading strategies 3 ● write a list of questions you that you still need to answer after having read the textbook. Turn to the end of the reading and you will see the reference list. Look through the list and try to identify what type of readings the items are. Always have the guide by you when you are writing a reference and make sure you follow it exactly (USQ Library Harvard Referencing Guide). Do the lecture notes and the article agree on where the focus of change should be in order to best assist those on welfare? Is there anything that is new that you want to add to your existing notes? C5. Read the paragraph under the heading. Activity C5. For example. So far we have learned about in- text referencing. You have already learned that at university if you use someone else’s ideas.

It simply requires discipline and patience. It is a discussion paper with one author. joblessness and poverty’.6 Turn again to reading C5. Now follow the example in the referencing guide to complete the reference by adding the name of the article and the name. volume and month of the journal.4 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed Activity C5. Note. Referencing is tedious (or a pain or a bother) but it is only a matter of copying correctly and it is not a difficult task. Write down the author’s surname followed by a comma. .2). look down to the third example on page 2 which shows how to reference a journal article with one author. The first step in referencing is to decide what type of source you are dealing with. Now turn to the reading by Eardley (C4. When you are reading for an assignment use the task or question to make a list of keywords that will help you decide which part or parts of a long chapter to read. which is a journal article. You will find this at the bottom right hand corner of the page. Activity C5. followed by the page numbers.5 In the referencing guide. We will use this as an example to help reference a journal article. Leave a space and add the initial. Then you must follow the referencing guide exactly. Once you have your list of keywords you can look through the headings in the chapter to find the section or sections which are relevant to your assignment. We will use the essay task about the reform of the welfare state to guide us in reading the textbook. Now write down the year the article was published. Write down a reference for it.1 ‘A perennial problem: employment. when you are handwriting. C5.3 Reading textbooks for assignments The most common purpose for reading at university is reading to gather material for writing an assignment. It may turn out that the keywords indicate you should read the whole chapter but this is rarely the case. underline the name of the journal instead of using italics. Use exactly the same setting out and punctuation as in the example. Write down the first author’s surname followed by a comma and then the initial followed by a comma.

We can use the words welfare.1. Using the first Amended Henderson line in Table 1. This should confirm and clarify Saunder’s main criticisms of the government’s approach to the welfare system and those people caught up in it. This then is the basis of his criticism of the government’s handling of the welfare issue. In the lecture we learned that the welfare system is often referred to as the welfare state.1 to find the section or sections that deal with any of the keywords.1 entitled ‘Unemployment. You will find a section of C5. . Compare this to the percentage rate of poverty when there is at least one full-time employed person.7 Based on research. This section has two tables. we can look back at the essay task (assignment 4) and decide which parts may be useful. Now read the Conclusions section. joblessness and poverty’. Activity C5.9 Now that we have read some of this article. read the section ‘Unemployment. Activity C5. Look at the major headings in reading C5. joblessness and poverty’ C5. formulate a thesis statement about the Howard government’s proposals for reform of the Australian welfare system. you can use the headings and their different levels to form an outline of the material before you start to read. Module C5 – Reading strategies 5 Activity C5. welfare system and welfare state as keywords to help us search for material that is relevant to the essay task. Once you have an outline you can decide if you need to read all the section or only part of it. note the percentage of households in poverty where there is no full-time employed person. the goals of the reform and the criticisms which have been directed at the reform proposals.1 Making an outline If you have find a section in a textbook or an article which is divided up by headings into sub-sections.8 In reading C5. The essay task asks us to look at criticisms of the government’s reforms of the welfare state.3. We can check our understanding of what Saunders believes is the main cause of unemployment and welfare dependency by reading the Abstract. Include in your essay the reasons why the government considers reform of the system necessary.

Read in an active way by using some or all of the following strategies: ● comparing and contrasting concepts or ideas using columns ● summing up paragraphs using concepts you have already learned ● writing main ideas that you could use in your essay and organising the material from the reading under the main idea ● writing the main idea of relevant paragraphs in your own words. In the first column below. In the second column note at least three problems caused by poverty. list at least three reasons that unemployment needs to be reduced. Problems caused by unemployment Problems caused by poverty Activity C5. Decide which parts of the section you will need to read.2 Summary of strategies for reading textbooks for assignments Use the essay question to help you decide which sections of the chapter to read. What criticisms were made of the research into poverty and its findings? Write one sentence about why Saunders believes there was such criticism of the research.11 Read section 2 ‘Measuring poverty: into a statistical cul de sac’ in reading C5.10 Re-read the Introduction. If you need to read a whole chapter take it a section at a time. .1. C5.3.6 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed Activity C5. Write down the headings and sub headings to get an outline of the section.

Remember that the basic unit of sense in academic reading is the paragraph. We will practise this skill in the next module. Highlighting blocks of text. Follow the example exactly. In text (textual) referencing Begin by revising the different ways an in-text reference can be incorporated by looking at the examples under the heading ‘Textual references’ in your USQ Library Harvard Referencing Guide.1 Welfare reform Criticisms of the welfare state Activity C5. Try to read at the level of paragraph main ideas NOT individual sentences or groups of sentences. Summarising whole sections of chapters without a clear purpose.4 Reading strategies to avoid Reading without a clear purpose. Then find the correct example on pages 5–6 of your referencing guide. When you paraphrase you will need to give an in-text reference.12 In one paragraph outline the two contrasting opinions about the problem with the welfare state in Australia. The paragraph must have a clear main idea and follow the structure which we learned in module C3. Always use the referencing guide. End text referencing / List of references Identify what type of reading you are using.1 from this module and the Abbott reading (reading C2. When you explain. Module C5 – Reading strategies 7 C5. Use reading C5. analyse or elaborate on the main idea you will need to paraphrase material you have found in the readings. You should not need to reference the idea in this main idea sentence because it should always be your own idea. The main idea should reflect your individual response and be written in your own words. Please do not attempt to remember how to reference. In this module the ideas you use will probably come from specific parts of the readings so you will need to include page numbers in your in-text references.1). Aim to write about 120–40 words. C5. Provide end-text references to both readings after your paragraph under the heading ‘References’. For this activity we are asking you NOT to use direct quotes.5 Reading C5. .5.

Think about the limitations of footprint analysis and list them. If you are reading a textbook that you have found independently then begin by checking the contents page to see if there is a chapter or major section on the lecture or tutorial topic you are following up.2 by Beder and use the headings in the text to locate material which deals with the ecological footprint and read through it. Look at reading C5. Suppose we want to follow up or check our understanding of what is meant by ‘limits to growth’. C5. We suggest that you use textbooks in a more targeted way to: ● follow up and clarify ideas or concepts you have come across in course notes or activities.11 and activity C5. lecture notes.6 Reading textbooks – sustainable development Textbook chapters are often long and time consuming to read if you start at the beginning and read to the end.1 Reading as follow up If your course has a set textbook the lecturer will probably indicate to you which chapter matches each week’s topic. lectures. If the topic is not mentioned turn to the index and check for an entry there. If you can match the topic you want to follow up with a heading then you can simply read the relevant section and decide if you want to take notes to add to your lecture notes. Activity C5. tutorials or other more advanced readings.8 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed Feedback Feedback for activity C5.6. read through the section entitled ‘Partial measure’. Here are some suggestions of activities which you can often do as part of reading for follow up: ● compare what is written in the textbook with your lecture notes and think about any similarities or differences ● use the textbook to clarify any ideas you did not fully understand in the lecture ● draw a diagram that shows the relationship between the concepts covered in . C5. We have said that it is important to read using an active rather than a passive approach. ● provide material for assignments. Textbook chapters are usually divided into sections or sub-sections under headings. In the reading.12 can be found at the end of this module.13 In the lecture we learned that the concept of sustainable development emerged from the limits to growth debate in the 1970s.

Now turn to reading C4. the third reference is a book with three authors. So far we have learned about in- text referencing. Activity C5.16 In the referencing guide look down to the third example on page 2 which shows how to reference a journal article with one author. Module C5 – Reading strategies 9 the textbook ● write a list of questions that you still need to answer after having read the textbook. Write down the author’s surname followed by a comma.15 Turn to your referencing guide of these notes and go to page 1 where you will see a heading ‘List of references’. We will use this as an example to help reference a journal article. Pages 1–2 of the guide show you how to reference each of the different types of academic material. Turn to the end of the reading and you will see the reference list. which is a journal article. Now read the paragraph under this heading. followed by the page numbers.3 by Curran. Do not try to remember how to reference. C5. You now need to add the name.14 Turn to reading C4. You will also find these in the .7 End-text referencing Before we move on to using textbooks for assignment writing we need to learn about end- text referencing. Always have the referencing guide by you when you are writing a reference and make sure you follow it exactly. In the Harvard system you also have to provide end-text references in the form of a reference list at the end of your assignments. Now write down the year the article was published. The purpose of the reference list is to allow the reader to follow up any of your sources. Look through the list and try to identify what type of readings the items are. Activity C5. You have already learned that at university if you use someone else’s ideas. The fifth reference is a chapter from an edited book.1 by Salih. volume and issue of the journal. Now follow the example in the referencing guide to complete the reference by adding the name of the article. For example. ‘References’. Activity C5. whether you copy the exact words or put the idea in your own words. The eighth reference is an article from a journal. Notice how each one is referenced. you have to acknowledge the person’s work by providing a reference. You will find this in the small print in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Leave a space and add the initial.

Referencing is tedious (or a pain or a bother) but it is only a matter of copying correctly and is not a difficult task. We will use the essay task about sustainable development to guide us in reading the textbook. it has a corporate author. It may turn out that the keywords indicate you should read the whole chapter but this is rarely the case. underline the name of the journal instead of using italics. When you are reading for an assignment use the task or question to make a list of keywords that will help you decide which part or parts of a long chapter to read. Then you must follow the referencing guide exactly. We can use the words sustainable development. It simply requires discipline and patience. economic growth.e. It has a body of researchers as its author i. C5. Assess how successful Australian governments have been in implementing sustainable development.8 Reading textbooks for assignments The most common purpose for reading at university is reading to gather material for writing an assignment.17 Turn again to the reading C4. Then discuss whether you think economic growth and environmental protection can go together. environmental protection and ecologically sustainable development in Australia . Read the essay task on sustainable development: Based on research. The first step in referencing is to decide what type of source you are dealing with. Once you have your list of keywords you can look through the headings in the chapter to find the section or sections which are relevant to your assignment.18 Go back to the introductory materials and find assignment C4. Activity C5.10 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed small print at the bottom right hand corner of the page. when you are handwriting. Look this up in the referencing guide. Include in your essay a paragraph which sets out your understanding of the concept of sustainable development. Activity C5. It is a research paper which is like a conference paper.5 ‘Sustaining Australia: sustainable development issues facing Australia to 2025’. Note. Use exactly the same setting out and punctuation as in the example. formulate a thesis statement about the need for sustainable development in Australia.

1 Making an outline If you have found a section in a textbook which is divided up by headings into sub-sections. However we have provided an activity using the headings which you can apply to longer chapters or chapters which do use headings more extensively. It presents a definite view about the relationship between economic growth and environmental protection. Once you have an outline you can decide if you need to read all the section or only part of it. Activity C5.2. Look at the major headings and the subheadings in reading C5. Read the section ‘Continuing debate’ with your essay task in mind. Module C5 – Reading strategies 11 as keywords to help us search for information to use in the assignment. you can use the headings and their different levels to form an outline of the material before you start to read. Examine them to see if you think the sections will deal with any of the keywords in the assignment. Unlike many textbooks. . outline the view that it is possible for economic growth and environmental protection can go together. In your own words. list the chapter title and headings and subheadings used in the chapter.8. Activity C5. We know from the lecture and our earlier reading that in the 1980s the concept of sustainable development replaced the idea of limits to growth. The essay topic is about sustainable development so we know that the whole of this reading will be useful for the assignment.20 Now we have an outline of the section we can look back at the essay task (assignment C4) and decide which parts we need to read.19 In reading C5. C5. Note what is required for this to happen. the Beder reading does not use extensive headings and subheadings.21 One of the tasks you have to do as part of your essay (assignment C4) is to discuss whether economic growth and environmental protection can go together. Activity C5.2.

12 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed Activity C5. Use the grid below to take notes on the positive and negative aspects of the method. ● Summarising whole sections of chapters without a clear purpose. Read in an active way by using some or all of the following strategies: ● comparing and contrasting concepts or ideas using columns ● summing up paragraphs using concepts you have already learned ● writing main ideas that you could use in your essay and organising the material from the reading under the main idea ● writing the main idea of relevant paragraphs in your own words.2 reading discusses the ecological footprint method of measuring economic impact on the environment. We will practise this skill in the next module. It is often helpful to use tables or diagrams to analyse the material you have read as part of the note taking process once you have identified the parts of a text that are pertinent to your assignment. If you need to read a whole chapter take it a section at a time. Remember that the basic unit of sense in academic reading is the paragraph.22 Note taking takes many forms.9 Reading strategies to avoid ● Reading without a clear purpose. . Try to read at the level of paragraph main ideas NOT individual sentences or groups of sentences. The C5. Decide which parts of the section you will need to read. ● Highlighting blocks of text.8. Advantages Limitations C5. Write down the headings and sub headings to get an outline of the section. C5.2 Summary of strategies for reading textbooks for assignments Use the essay question to help you decide which sections of the chapter to read.

10.10 Reading C5. You should not need to reference the idea in this main idea sentence because it should always be your own idea. Follow the example exactly. together with the first part of the Beder chapter (reading C3.3) and the Brown reading (reading C2. In text (textual) referencing Begin by revising the different ways an in-text reference can be incorporated by looking at the examples under the heading ‘Textual References’ in your USQ Library Harvard Referencing Guide.2). Feedback Feedback for activity C5. When you explain.23 can be found at the end of this module. Please do not attempt to remember how to reference.2). Always use the referencing guide.23 Write a paragraph about economic growth in high income countries. The paragraph must have a clear main idea and follow the structure which we learned in module 3. Use this module’s reading. When you paraphrase you will need to give an in-text reference. analyse or elaborate on the main idea you will need to paraphrase material you have found in the readings. .22 and activity C5. Then find the correct row in the table on page 4 of your referencing guide. The ideas you use will probably come from specific parts of the readings so you will need to include page numbers in your in-text references. End text referencing / List of references Identify what type of reading you are using.1 Sustainable development Activity C5. Module C5 – Reading strategies 13 C5. Aim to write about 120–40 words. For this activity we are asking you NOT to use direct quotes. The main idea should reflect your individual response and be written in your own words. Beder (reading C5. Provide end-text references to both readings after your paragraph under the heading ‘References’. You can indicate both sides of the debate OR write from your own position.

even though there are jobs available. pp.22 Advantages Limitations ● highlights human dependency on ● It is a conservative measure environments ● It does not include toxic pollutants ● it quantifies the amount of nature needed ● It cannot distinguish sustainable to produce the resources people want practices ● the concept is easy for people to ● Is based on current not future understand technologies ● Reduces land to just its productive capacity . 16. ‘A perennial problem: employment. Activity C5.12.22 and activity C5. activity C5. P 2006. T 2000.23 is given below. no. Critics of the government’s management of welfare however.11 The neoliberal (new right) criticisms of the welfare state assume that it encourages people to live on social security payments rather than find a job and work to support themselves. Sydney. Activity C5.14 TPP7120 – Studying to succeed Feedback for activities Feedback for activity C5. Saunders. They believe the government should be focusing on job creation schemes (Saunders 2006). SPRC discussion paper no 146 January 2006. Policy. University of NSW. The Social Policy Research Centre. They think that welfare recipients should have to meet more stringent work tests before they are eligible for unemployment benefits (Abbott 2000). vol. 38–42. ‘Renewing the social fabric’.12 Some people believe that the welfare system encourages dependency and is too costly. References Abbott. activity C5. moral failure which threatens to undermine the social fabric. Some see the need to access welfare as a symptom of personal. argue that the main issue underlying the problem is that there are insufficient full-time jobs.11. for example. suggests that generous welfare payments discourage some Australians from supporting themselves through paid work. 3. Abbott (2000). Activity C5. joblessness and poverty’.

Economist Robert Ayres (cited in Beder 2006) argues that economic growth today is benefiting only the wealthiest people to the detriment of the poor and the powerless and the environment. Environmental principles and policies: an interdisciplinary approach. S 2006. References Beder. it was argued that economic growth could provide the conditions needed for environmental protection. UNSW Press. March-April. Brown (2002) thinks that current levels of economic growth in high income countries maximise profit regardless of the consequences for the environment. environmentalists and some economists today disagree. The Futurist. Sydney. Brown. L 2002. . In the 1980s it was believed by some that technological innovation and human resourcefulness could locate new resources or create alternatives. However. In the same vein. Economists argued that there was so much to gain from economic growth and it could even provide the solution to poverty in poorer countries (Beder 2006). 23–6. ‘The eco-economic revolution’. Module C5 – Reading strategies 15 Activity C5.23 There has been vigorous debate about continued economic growth in high-income countries. pp.