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Application Note

C OM P UT I NG
T E L E C OM
Testing the UMTS
Iu Interface

V I DE O

Protocol Testing in the 3G Wireless Network

This application note describes protocol tests for the UMTS Iu interface between the Radio Network Controller

(RNC) and the Core Network (CN). It is the first in a series of documents on third-generation (3G) wireless

networks. Each note addresses one of the new network interfaces and provides guidelines for equipment

designers, manufacturers, operators and maintenance personnel to meet the measurement challenges with

testing solutions. Examples are given in this document for testing:

• Messaging and procedures on the Radio Access Network (RANAP)

• Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 (CC/MM/GPRS MM/GPRS SM)

• Traffic channel signaling (AAL2 layer3)

• Tunneling (GTP-U).

Due to space limitations, only brief descriptions are presented here. Complete detailed information needed to

perform these and other tests can be found in the user handbooks for the K1297 and K1205 Protocol Testers

and in other training materials. Please contact Tektronix sales support to obtain the most recent information.

..........................3.............................................. Defining Protocol Stacks .......................5 datagrams.................................12 CC/MM/GPRS MM/GPRS SM TAF AMR Codec consisting of several interim nodes.................................. For this reason.......... Emulation of AAL2 layer 3 ................ TESTING RANAP AND DMTAP .................................................................... these connections could also be incumbent networks 2...................2.......................... However................................2................................ enabling both connectionless and 2.........................2.................1.........................................1............................................ Setting the Operating Parameters .......com/commtest www........................410-419. Transport Protocols for the Control Plane 1.......................................................................... transport protocols for the user plane use both AAL5 and AAL2 (AAL5 for packet data...............................2..................................9 SCCP routes messages beyond the board of an operator......................................................................3 asynchronously.........................................................................................................2. SELECTING THE APPROACH – MONITORING ......5 connection-oriented communications............ TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS FOR THE CONTROL PLANE ............................................1.................................................... mobility management layer protocols..........20 Radio Network Transport Network User Plane Control Plane Control Plane CC/MM/GPRS MM/GPRS SM IP 1.................. APPENDIX II – UMTS – Entering the Third Generation of Mobile Networks ........................ regardless of the data source.................... It delivers messages to the destination point and 2...............................13 SCCP STC MTP3-b 3...................7 • transport protocols for user plane MTP3b handles the routing and traffic management function for upper 2...................................................................4..............3 by 3GPP at the end of 1999 (UMTS Rel................................................ so it is possible that there will be revisions in more 2...................... Figures 1 and 2 show the protocol 2......................................................................................... CONFIGURING THE TEST EQUIPMENT ............................................................... INTRODUCTION – THE Iu INTERFACE AND PROTOCOLS .............................................................................. Monitoring . APPENDIX I . TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS FOR THE USER PLANE .........................................................2................................... Change requests have been 1...... 2.....................14 SSCF-UNI The most logical approach for Iu-PS would be to use the IP protocol stack SSCOP AAL5 AAL2 to transport the control signaling information.....2...... While the 2................... Defining Emulation Parameters ...1................1.com/commtest 3 ..................................4.......................................................... SIMULATION............4 The Iu interface is defined in the 3GPP document series TS25.............. CONFORMANCE ............................................ ▲ Figure 2: Iu-PS protocol stacks 2 www..5 retransmitted................................................................. AAL2 for circuit-switched transmission).............................3...........tektronix......................7 • control protocols for call...........15 with M3UA and SCTP protocols on top of UDP/IP.. Simulation of AAL2 layer 3 ...................................15 ATM Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed to replace SSCS and MTP3b 4................................................................1...........8 manages the load sharing mechanism for the operation........................ SCCP is used to setup specific connections for the stacks for each of the Iu interfaces...11 Control Plane Control Plane Data Services Voice Services as point-to-point.........1......................................................................4.............................................................................................................................................3 data will be segmented into 53-byte ATM-cells and transported 1..............3..6 The protocols can be grouped according to their usage into: oriented mode........................................................................................................................................................1......2........................................................ Introduction – The Iu Interface and All traffic over the Iu interface uses the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as Protocols the physical transport technology................................................................... MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS ................................................... Simulation ............................................................. ........ Transport protocols for the control plane consist of the SSCS signaling 2............... RECOMMENDED DOCUMENTS AND STANDARDS ............... MTP3b is • protocols for user traffic responsible for routing messages within a network with one operator.............................4 recent releases of the standard...5.......................... ‘99)................................................................................4........4 protocols (SSCOP and SSCF) as they are used in broadband networks to 2........................4 that definition was adopted. RANAP AAL2L3 RLP Iu UP 2....................................1...........................................1..4 introduced and new features have been proposed every three months since 1.......3... Loss of signaling messages can be detected and and Iu-PS for the packet switched domain...................................................................................................... Transport Protocols for the User Plane RANAP Iu UP SCCP MTP3-b M3UA GTP-U SSCF-NNI SCTP UDP SSCOP IP/UDP IP All signaling traffic for the control plane at the Iu interface is based on AAL5 AAL5 ATM AAL type 5............................... SESSION AND MOBILITY MANAGEMENT............tektronix.............................................................................................................................................................. Emulation . Iu normally uses the connection- 2.......... Conformance Testing...........................................................2................... As a result.............. Hardware Connection Issues .. the Internet 4................................................ CONCLUSION .... This document describes test applications for the Iu interface as it was defined 1..............................................................................Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note Table of Contents 1.............6 • transport protocols for control plane 2...1........... Iu is ensure the signaling links between network nodes with numbered subdivided into two different interfaces: Iu-CS for the circuit switched domain 2...............................3....... GLOSSARY ... Since this protocol stack 4... different control signaling protocols................................ 2.......... there are no application tests for it in this ▲ Figure 1: Iu-CS protocol stack release of the note........................ CONTROL PROTOCOLS FOR CALL CONTROL...... 5.........3.... Signaling messages are packet data with variable lengths..................... EMULATION............................ TESTING OF THE GTP-U PROTOCOL ............................................................ session................................................................. all 1....2............................................2................. TESTING AAL2 LAYER 3 ....................................................................9 connections between the RNC and Core Network nodes are shown here Radio Transport User User Network Network Plane Plane 2..............................16 is still under development....................... PROTOCOLS FOR USER TRAFFIC ....................................................

AAL2 layer 3 also handles the layer management either the K1205. a pure monitoring device. Simulators are used: 1. equipment? development. modifies and releases RAB. the Iu User Plane (Iu-UP) protocol is used to domain (Fax) in order to ensure compatibility with the existing network. IP is used to address the GTP-U entity. Circuit switched data are usually real time transmissions subsequent review and analysis. The amount of data is an implementation is declared conformant when its capabilities and such as voice or video streams.com/commtest www. (such as abnormal call termination).4. a simulator can be used in GTP-U tunnel. and the NE’s ability to cope with the simulated Control protocols for circuit-switched transmission are AAL2 layer 3. Measurement Challenges and Solutions normally reduced through the filtering of specified events external behavior meet those defined in the referenced standards. operators.com/commtest 5 . and determines Handover.4. Selecting the Approach – Monitoring. control of the real physical connection is done by AAL2 layer 3. Only four GTP in protocol testing should always be to determine the characteristics of place of a network element or a part of the network to produce messages are used to ensure data traffic. Session and Mobility ➔Do you have a living network that you should not. The mobile ➔Do you have a ‘dead’ node or system that needs to be externally will perform in the field. IP Interface monitoring can collect data and present results in 2.tektronix.3.1. Simulation GTP-U channels – each GTP-U tunnel refers to a single mobile user manufacturers. or the K1297. the • to discover the differences between specified/ predicted simulation of the Iu RANAP is based on an emulation of the User traffic protocols are embedded in Codec for voice (AMR) and IP for characteristics corresponding lower layers.3. the Iu-UP Simulation. The strong and be seen as a logical connection over the Iu interface related to a specific weak points of an item can be discovered in the development mobile user. The major objectives for 2. For instance. when testing an RNC. RANAP initiates. which can Use the Conformance approach • To save development and installation costs. Protocols for User Traffic selected layers of communication protocols are simulated • to determine a possible need for an improvement automatically and in conformance with standards. While the lower layers are defined to packet data. For instance. The QoS parameter can be assigned to the more approaches could be applied to the same interface. UDP and IP protocols in the methods or the selection of specific conditions (tracing data at whether a system or an implementation is conformant. packet switched domain of the network.2. Location Update.xxx).tektronix. Time Alignment and incorporates hundreds protocols used in the Internet and computer world.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note For circuit switched data. conformance tests of the remaining UTRAN protocol is responsible for the data transmission. the test equipment can simulate the Core Network behavior. Normal and abnormal situations are specified Use the non-intrusive Monitoring approach and simulated. 2. Conformance Testing initialize and control the connection Rate Control. which function. can also perform simulation and emulation. Monitoring process. tracing a call set-up. the following way: Standards allow different manufacturers to develop systems which Handling of Error Events in accordance with the requested QoS • data review for evaluation: The storage of measured data for can interoperate and exchange and handle information. the 2. While 2. It stimulated? conformance testing where standardized conditions are handles the communication between core network and mobile handsets Use the Simulation/Emulation approach. Control Protocols for Call.1. Simulations are also used for radio interface layer 3 represents the highest layer control function. However. the first steps by another device. which takes care of the transport layer itself.1. keeping the RNC independent of the network. Authentication and Call Handling. environment allows the operator to predict how well the NE mobile radio interface layer 3 (CC/MM/GPRS MM/GPRS SM).). the system under test and the test objectives. and measurement suppliers. RANAP controls the interfaces are still dependent upon mutual agreement between Nearly all measurement situations can be considered in three categories 2. Simulation creates ➔Do you need to verify compatibility with standards or with other a realistic operating environment for the item under RANAP carries out transmission activities based on the control decisions. which is used to setup.1. the simulated layer can be used to deliberately RLP are used to support data applications within the circuit switched add faults to test an element’s ability to handle them.1. Emulation. maintain and release user channels for the circuit Monitoring is the process of collecting data from the interface using switched domain. In a test environment. For example. Emulation monitoring are: Emulation is a higher form of simulation where the behaviors of • to get an overall view of the actual performance level 1. In this domain. the use of statistical Conformance testing is the verification process that determines Packet data are transported using GTP-U. RANAP manages the Radio Access Bearer (RAB). Even though there are situations where two or Simulation is the representation or imitation of a process or system identified by the tunneling ID. etc. specific conformance tests are defined in UMTS for the air interface protocol is in transparent mode and the GTP-U portion of the GTP (see 3G TS 34. Management • To get information about the dependability of a network allowed to influence? element (NE). with related approaches. before introducing it to an operating network. • To substitute missing network elements or parts of a network during the development process. Codec is usually not addressed in protocol testing.1. A system or parameters. applied to the NE. desired conditions. Conformance a defined address. or are not. 4 www. TAF and • to improve predictions of behavior and potential problems act as specified.

To be on the safe side.2.1. Detailed descriptions of the parameters are included in the user manual.” and connected.2.3. the first step is to create a ▲ Figure 5: LDS settings for the ATM link simulation pipeline. Defining Protocol Stacks For Simulation/Emulation applications. the SUT. NNISSCS emulates the K-1297 virtual channel id. and “VCI. Adapters for STM1 optical interfaces are provided with the K1297 Figure 3 shows two diagrams that illustrate how to connect the K1297 to overcome the problem for those connections. so it is critical to know the VPI/VCI Rx in order to configure the correct logical links between the test Active Monitoring instrument and the lower layer. Another issue is the mode of operation (single. Even though the K1297 interface boards can handle both modes.2.” virtual path id.2. The emulation protocols are stacked together by logically Once the equipment is physically connected.2). This window also allows the assignment of a protocol stack to each of the logical links. represent the protocol instances for each communication Monitoring Ports Figure 4 shows an example of the parameter windows where values connection. There are many different connectors and cables that it is nearly impossible to predict what you will need in advance.2.tektronix. and options are selected. with the system under test (SUT). you should assume that none of the standard cables 2.tektronix. Setting the Operating Parameters 6).2. A protocol emulation stack can be defined for K-1297 each of the pipelines using the “Emulation Scenario Editor” (Figure 2. select “Cards K-1297 Overview” in the main dialog box of the K1297. To view this window. Configuring the Test Equipment delivered with the test equipment is the proper one and check to see that you have the necessary adapters to suit each SUT. and Monitoring applications can be started. SUT SUT The hardware configuration is now completed.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note 2. The “Browse” Tx = Transceivers Tx Tx Rx = Receiver function enables the selection of predefined protocol stacks for this Rx Rx purpose. Hardware Connection Issues Note: For Monitoring applications. “Logical Data Source” (LDS) represents the configured physical links which can be connected to the upper layer protocols. you may proceed to capturing and analyzing data after you have completed the hardware portion of the Securing the proper cables is often a major issue for connecting to tester configuration (Step 2. 6 www. parameters for the connecting the upper-layer and lower-layer service access points to fiber or electrical connections must be set to conform to the SUT.com/commtest www.or multi-mode). Simulation/Emulation the receiver of the system under test could be overpowered if it ▲ ▲ Figure 4: Dialog box for physical interface Figure 6: Simulation pipeline and Emulations Scenario Editor were operated in multi-mode. Thousands of virtual connections can exist in a Tx single ATM physical connection. In the example shown in Figure 6 two protocol emulations are selected The most important settings are the “VPI.com/commtest 7 . NNISSCS and NNIMTP3b. Power reduction should be inserted to K-1297 ensure a stable multi-mode connection. Figure 5 shows the window for SUT K-1297 configuring the VPI and VCI. which are used to address the connections for ▲ Figure 3: Connecting the K1297 with the system under test (SUT). the digital data. K-1297 Passive Monitoring 2.

so an SIO SAP SAP This Recommendation value must be defined for each SAP depending on the expected (Note 1) Primitives Primitives Layer management Layer management upper layer protocols (Figure 8). AAL type 2 served user (Note 2) (Note 2) AAL type 2 served user configures MTP3b and provides the signaling information to destinations in the network.tektronix. A destination point code (DPC) SAP SAP must be named for each of the MTP3b links.2150. except in North America where 24 signaling messages Primitives Primitives bits are defined. specify the quality of the SSCOP service that is provided to the upper layers.4. correct and incorrect messages and a “Message Sequence Chart” to describe test sequences graphically. Figure 11 shows the logical structure of AAL2 The K1297 provides a “Message Building System” to compose layer 3 protocol.3.com/commtest 9 . emulations completely and accurately. we need to set the subsystem number (SSN) to 142 delivered with pre-configured emulation (Figure 9). This protocol layer is responsible for signaling traffic channels on behalf 2. The length of the DPC AAL type 2 signaling AAL type 2 AAL type 2 signaling and OPC is defined with 14 bits. AAL type 2 Signaling. The following sections provide guidelines for 2. (Figure 7). the K1297 provides either Simulation or Emulation for AAL2 layer 3. parameters for supported Parameters for configuring the protocol emulations are listed in the subsystems and users must be defined. STC converts the AAL2 layer3 messages or primitives an environment for back-to-back testing. Once these protocols are configured for use.2150. and Signaling Transport “c:\k1297\umtsaal2l3. Defining Emulation Parameters Signaling transport Signaling transport Before SCCP can be put into operation.tektronix. especially for messages accessing the database beyond the board of an operator (for global title Signaling transport converter Signaling transport converter Service Specific Convergence Sublayer for the Network-Node- translation). Most protocol test functions are example.s. Simulation of AAL2 layer 3 of users such as RANAP.2. This can be the MTP3b for the Iu and directory c:\K1297\hlp. into specific primitives according to the signaling transport in use. A predefined configuration ▲ Figure 9: Parameters of the SSCOP emulation The Access Link Control Application Part (ALCAP) consists of three parts: set for AAL2 layer 3 Simulation can be loaded by selecting ▲ Figure 7: Parameters of the SSCP emulation Layer Management.3. the timer for keeping the connection alive addresses a critical issue when configuring SSCS for Proving. SAP SAP Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) ensures the connection Generic Primitives Generic Primitives ▲ Figure 8: Parameters of the MTP3b for signaling protocol. Specific Primitives Specific Primitives 2. SAP SAP and users. For example. Please refer to these files to configure the Iur interfaces. for Primitives Primitives “Parameter View” for each protocol.2. Defining routing information.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note and tested. OPC and link set. In order to test RANAP. such as DPC. These connectionless services and operates on a database of subsystems emulations contain the AAL2 layer 3 protocol information. SCCP emulation provides both connection-oriented and Interface.com/commtest www. Mobile Network control protocols can be put on top of this protocol stack ▲ Figure 10: Protocol structure of AAL2 layer 3 8 www. This section describes guidelines for AAL2 layer 3 Simulation/Emulation. while NNIMTP3b is the broadband MTP layer 3.1.” This configuration is designed to provide Timers need to be defined for SSCS (SSCOP/SSCF) in order to Converter (STC). as Detailed descriptions of each of the emulations can be found in the defined in Q. SIO values are needed to forward the messages to the upper service access points (SAPs). or the SSCS for the Iub interface. Depending on test objectives. Testing AAL2 layer 3 each approach.1 and Q.

com/commtest www.tektronix. ▲ Figure 12: Messages and primitives .Block Request responds with UPU message (Figure 15). after the program Messages for layer management are: sends one of the messages. . K1297) and IUT means implementation under test.pdc ▲ Figure 13: Parameter definition for an ESTABLISH REQUEST message This emulation will be described in greater detail in the next release When the previous steps are completed.Release Confirm “umtsaal2l3. 10 www.Reset Confirm umts_iu_cs-pool1. The script includes messages that can be sent very easily. which allows the During the creation of a new message pool one appropriate protocol . layer 3 emulations for setting up or releasing an AAL2 connection.Unblock Confirm development of Simulation test sequences.Establish Confirm A Forth language script is provided with the AAL2 layer 3 Software . the MTP emulation of the opposite side . . In this example the IUT only contains the MTP emulation without user (AAL2 layer 3). This script is loaded when the system configuration . such as RANAP. messages for AAL2 layer 3 Now. The first message shown in Figure 14 is the Establish Request message Messages for served users are: enclosed in an MTP3_UserData_Req primitive. layer protocol should be created for each of the receiving and Release Complete and Iu Bearer Reconfiguration will trigger AAL2 transmission messages.pdc”. For emulation must be connected to the protocol by defining the Once the necessary messages are defined.Establish Request . TC represents the test tool (in this case.Reset Request illustrates the protocols created in a message pool labeled “ STK- .tektronix.s” is opened. An MSC can be created as can be created and modified.Unblock Request In addition to the Forth programming environment. we are ready to develop test scenarios with the K1297 of this application note.3. .Block Confirm You can either open an existing message pool or create a new one. Figure 13 displays the window for shown in Figure 14.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note ▲ Figure 15: An example of Simulation of AAL2 layer 3 ▲ Figure 14: Message Sequence Chart ▲ Figure 11: Protocols in STK-umts_iu_cs-pool1. Emulation of AAL2 layer 3 The Emulation of AAL2 layer 3 is set up to act and react In order to create new messages and new primitives. . Figure 11 C-API interface for the programming of test scripts for AAL2 layer 3.2.Release Request Product. the K1297 provides the stack must be selected and linked with the pool. services for protocols. and for layer management “Message Sequence Chart” (MSC). Iu- property of the protocol (Figure 12). the parameter definition of an ESTABLISH REQUEST message. primitives to the lower example.com/commtest 11 . the underlying automatically to either Layer Management or protocols. Therefore. RANAP procedures such as RAB Assignment Request.Confusion 2.

Call Control.3.060). Figure 17 shows protocol stacks and Echo-Messages check the availability of a link. Location Reporting Control Location Reporting Control Location Report Location Report Initial UE Message Initial UE Message The K1297 supports two GTP-U test objectives – you can test the GTP-U Direct Transfer Direct Transfer protocol elements themselves or test the data services that GTP-U Overload Control Overload provides.s) loads this software for the user (Figure encoding rules.tektronix. ▲ Figure 18: Result of Packet Generation 12 www.T-PDU application supporting the following protocols: GTP-U (TS 29. Reset Resource Rest Resource Reset Resource Acknowledge GPRS Tunneling Protocol for User Plane (GTP-U) consists of four messages: UMTSPGEN sets the necessary header information for the different Elementary Procedure Message protocol layers such as IP. the header information must be set in accordance with .Version Not Supported SRNS Data Forwarding Initiation The Packet Generator is an emulation with extended features like an SRNS Data Forward Command SRNS Context Forwarding from Source RNC to CN Forward SRNS Context . GPRS Mobility Management and (C:\K1297\config\umts_pgen. Some parameters are defined by other signaling Relocation Detect Relocation Detect . Testing RANAP RANAP is much more complex than AAL2 layer 3 and therefore requires more sophisticated testing.4th.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Application Note 2.4th and UMTSPCOM. UDP Paging Paging (RFC 769). In addition to the message pool and the necessary protocol stack. For the first purpose. Testing of the GTP-U Protocol two Forth programs.5. Supported RANAP messages and elementary procedures are shown in the following tables.com/commtest www.1 packed Mobility Management. 16). Successful Outcome Unsuccessful Outcome Elementary Procedure Initiating Message Response Message Response Message Iu Release Iu Release Command Iu Release Complete Relocation Preparation Relocation Required Relocation Command Relocation Preparation Failure Relocation Resource Allocation Relocation Request Relocation Request Acknowledge Relocation Failure Relocation Cancel Relocation Cancel Relocation Cancel Acknowledge SRNS Context Transfer SRNS Context Request SRNS Context Response Security Mode Control Security Mode Command Security Mode Complete Security Mode Reject ▲ Figure 16: Packet Generation ▲ Figure 17: Protocol stacks and parameter views Data Volume Report Data Volume Report Request Data Volume Report CN Information Broadcast CN Information Broadcast Request CN Information Broadcast Confirm CN Information Broadcast Reject 2.tektronix. information elements. For a switch to accept the RAB Release Request RAB Release Request generated packet. UDP and GTP-U. 2225). UMTSPGEN. are included Reset Reset Reset Acknowledge for both the transmission and receiving sides. A predefined configuration To keep messages as short as possible. IP (RFC 791. 1483. GTP-U MBS and MSC can be used to Error Indication Error Indication simulate the protocol by inserting correct or incorrect messages and timers.Echo Request Iu Release Request Iu Release Request the switch settings.com/commtest 13 .Echo Response protocols in RANAP such as TEID (Tunneling Endpoint ID). These tests follow the same test sequences as the other protocols (see Section 2. T-PDU’s carry user data CN Invoke Trace CN Invoke Trace CN Deactivate Trace CN Deactivate Trace between GTP-U Tunnel Endpoints. A byte board is used to separate the message and GPRS Session Management are provided on top of the RANAP. Elementary Procedure Initiating Message Response Message RAB Assignment RAB Assignment Request RAB Assignment Response x N (N>=1) The software tools “Packet Generator” and “Comparator” are provided to test the GTP-U data services. RANAP uses the ASN.4. above). Data packets can be generated for Common ID Common ID each of these protocol layers. Relocation Complete Relocation Complete .

401 UTRAN Overall Description ITU-T Q. Service (GPRS).2). English ITU-T Q.413 UTRAN Iu Interface: RANAP Signaling ITU-T Q. Q. All bundles include: This first release of the application note presents guidelines for the test conformance testing (Especially OSI standards and ITU-T Q. UMTS and cdma2000. collects statistical information and 3G TS 25. ETSI ETR 021 Advanced Testing Methods (ATM).363. STM 4.Service • node simulations. IETF SCTP R. B-ICI 2. Version 6 (IPv6) Specification.323 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) protocol ITU-T Q.Service Specific Co- For additional information please also access our web site at www. the K1205.433 UTRAN Iub interface NBAP Signaling ITU-T Q. Forth scripts are used to configure and to start • Executable Test Suites (SSCOP(SSCF).2150.2150.: GTP-U (TS29.430 UTRAN Iub Interface: General Aspects and Principles Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP).0) IETF RFC 768 User Datagram Protocol • Monitor and simulation software for NNI (Q. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) across ITU-T Q. RANAP(TS25. As mobile networks continue to evolve through GPRS.” 4. PKTGEN can be configured and run for • Monitor and emulation software for 8xSSCOP 4.: simulation of GTP-U (TS29.1. Sidebottom et al.2130 B-ISDN Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer . emulation stacks networks. Conclusion and IP as well as underlying protocols UDP/IP and IP over ATM. Appendix I IETF RFC 2225 Classical IP and ARP over ATM up to 16 data links by using the configuration tool within the “Parameter • TTCN Compiler for Conformance Test Suites IETF RFC 2460 “Internet Protocol. ATM 25.413) and Mobile Radio Layer 3 (TS24. STM 1 optical/electrical/TP. “SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer ITU-T Q. Specific Coordination Function for Support of Signaling including the user plane. Stewart et al. and methods.714 Signaling connection control part procedures 3G TS 25.tektronix.411 UTRAN Iu interface Layer 1 ITU-T Q. including: 3G TS 25.com).410 UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and Principles The K1297 Protocol Tester is a powerful tool for the design. and emulation of IP packet generator and comparator. ITU-T Q. English documentation.1 AAL type 2 Signaling Transport Converter on Broadband engineer who is interested in solutions for the UMTS Iu interface as it was • Monitoring profiles) (ETR/ATM-1002) MTP defined by 3GPP in 1999.715 Signaling connection control part user guide deployment of new 3G networks. Tutorial on protocol protocol testing applications. IETF.txt (Work In Progress). and your ideas for developing other tools to help you meet the measurement September 1999 To address the new ATM features in the UMTS.2931 CS2.1 Recommended Documents and Standards: View. using the services of ITU-T Recommendation Q.060 3rd Generation Partnership Project.2630.0 (7KK1220-0SCxx) and ATM-HW 3G TS 25.324 Radio Interface for Broadcast/Multicast Services • UMTS Monitor SW (G20) for Iu-PS user plane interface.txt (Work In Progress).1. English documentation. 3G TS 25. ATMF UNI3. AAL 5. E1/DS1.1. MTP3B. “Simple Control Transmission Protocol.110 UMTS Access Stratum Services and Functions • Support for AAL 3/4. IETF M3UA G. General Packet Radio • node tests.1.423 UTRAN Iur interface RNSAP Signaling ITU-T Q. along with updates and related documents.322 Radio Link Control (RLC) Protocol Specification The following software packages are available: control part 3G TS 25. 10 March 2000 ITU-T Q.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ ▲ Application Note Appendix I corresponding parameter views. Q. 3G TS 25.2931. development and ITU-T Q. K1297/ATM Software includes: challenges of new wireless systems.420 UTRAN Iur Interface: General Aspects and Principles overview description.301 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture E3/DS3.tektronix.04 Digital cellular telecommunication system (Phase 2).060) 3G TS 25.060) part messages 3G TS 25. the Gn and Gp Interface ordination Function for Signaling at the Network Node The K1297 features programming flexibility and a common platform for all Interface (SSCF AT NNI).2 AAL Type 2 Signaling Transport Converter on SSCOP interfaces will follow in the near future.321 Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol Specification calculates delays.Q. packet generation for a single data link. where the entire protocol stack is emulated/simulated. message pools and predefined Tektronix is committed to the most advanced test solutions for mobile (M3UA draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-02.2100 B-ISDN Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) - interface to the extensive monitoring functions of its predecessor. Updates and solutions for the new Iub and Iur • Protocol simulation ETSI GSM 12. Message Building System (MBS).2761 . IETF RFC 791 Internet Protocol • Monitor and simulation software for UNI (Q.2110 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer . 3G TS 23.331 Radio Resource Control (RRC) Protocol Specification 3. UNI3.2630. Figure 18 shows the results of a typical test.: Emulations of SSCOP. ATMF UNI4.361 B-ISDN ATM layer specification.com/commtest www. ITU-T Q.713 Signaling connection control part formats and codes documentation.716 Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) performance adding simulation and emulation capabilities and an enhanced graphical user SCCP emulation and simulation of AAL2L3(Q.0 and ATM-HW 3G TS 29. ITU-T I.tektronix. incl.1 AAL type 2 Signaling Protocol (Capability Set 1) • Simulation Base software with Emulation Scenario Editor (ESE).5 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5 UMTSCOMP receives the data. This document is also available at our Performance data measurements (Draft) • Emulation web site (www. Technical at the User Network Interface (SSCF at UNI) Specification Group Core Network.712 Definition and function of Signaling connection control 3G TS 25. where all messages belonging to a message group can be collected.2210 Message transfer part level 3 functions and messages • Sample scripts for message sequences.Service Specific measurement challenges with ease.711 Functional description of the Signaling connection 3G TS 25. incl.2140 B-ISDN ATM adaptation layer . Requirements (7KK1220-0SCxx) >= V1. incl.2 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 3G TS 25.363. we will keep you in the forefront with the latest testing products IETF.com/commtest 15 .com/commtest.tektronix. MTPL3b) ITU-T I.” In the example.6 interfaces. Required basic package >=V1. Q. 3G TS 25. ITU-T I. • UMTS Test SW (G20) for Iu control-plane.2764 CS2.1.008). Message Sequence Chart (MSC).2140.2763.2150. • protocol functional tests • UMTS Test SW (G20) for Iu-PS user plane.0 (7KK1220-0SCxx) and ATM-HW 3G TS 25.1) IETF RFC 1483 Multi Protocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 14 www.” PFE-Forth based interpreted scripting language We welcome your comments and suggestions for improving these documents draft-ieft-sigtran-sctp-v0. The K1297 is a comprehensive solution. The K1297 is compact and configurable to help you meet a variety of Required basic package >= V1.

2.com/commtest 17 .2140 ANSI T1 Standards Committee T1 Telecommunication of the DRNC Drift Radio Network Controller IPv4 IP version 4 NAS Non Access Stratum American National Standards Institute NBAP Node B Application Protocol DRNS Drift Radio Network Subsystem IPv6 IP version 6 ARIB/TTC Association of Radio Industries and NE Network Elements DTE Data Terminal Equipment IS-95 Interim Standard ´95 Business/Telecommunication Technology Committee EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone ASN.tektronix.Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ Appendix I Appendix I 4.com/commtest www.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One EFR Enhanced Full Rate (speech codec) ISP Internet Service Provider NNI Network-Node Interface ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode EIR Equipment Identity Register ISUP ISDN User Part Node B UMTS Base Station AuC Authentication Center ESE Emulation Scenario Editor ITU International Telecommunication Union NRT Non-Real Time BEC Backward Error Correction ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute Iu UTRAN interface between RNC and CN NSS Network Switching Subsystem BMC Broadcast/Multicast Control FDD Frequency Division Duplex Iub UTRAN interface between Node B and RNC O&M Operation and Maintenance BSC Base Station Controller FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access Iu-CS UTRAN interface between RNC and the circuit switched OSA Open Service Architecture BSS Base Station Subsystem FEC Forward Error Correction domain of the CN OSS Operation Subsystem BTS Base Transceiver Station FER Frame Error Rate Iu-PS UTRAN interface between RNC and the packet switched PDC Personal Digital Communication CAMEL Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic domain of the CN GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol CAP CAMEL Application Part Iur UTRAN interface between two RNCs GMM GPRS Mobility Management (protocols) PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy CATT China Academy of Telecommunication Technology IUT Implementation Under Test GMSC Gateway MSC PDN Packet Data Network CBR Constant Bit Rate (data stream) IWF Interworking Function GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying PDU Protocol Data Unit CC Call Control kbps kilobits per second GPRS General Packet Radio Service PLMN Public Land Mobile Network CCITT Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et LLC Relay Logical Link Control . Glossary CDMA2000 3rd generation Code Division Multiple Access GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol Mbps Megabits per second 1G First Generation CC Call Management protocols GTP-C GTP Control MBS Message Building System 2G Second Generation CN Core Network GTP-U GTP User MC Multi-Carrier 3G Third Generation CRNC Controlling RNC (Radio Network Controller) HLR Home Location Register MC-CDMA Multi-Carrier CDMA 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project (of ETSI) CS Circuit Switched HO/HoV Handover MCE Multi-protocol Encapsulation 8PSK Eight phase Shift Keying CS-CN Circuit Switched Core Network HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data ME Mobile Equipment AAL ATM Adaptation Layer CSE CAMEL Service Environment ICO Intermediate Circular Orbits MM Mobility Management (protocols) AAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 CT Conformance Test IETF Internet Engineering Task Force MSC Mobile Services Switching Center.Relay GSM Global System for Mobile Communication PMR Private Mobile Radio Telecommunication M3UA MTP3 User Adaptation PS Packet Switched GSM-R GSM Railway CCS7 Common Control Signaling System No 7 MAC Medium Access Control PS-CN Public Switched Core Network gsmSCF GSM Service Control Function CDMA Code Division Multiple Access MAP Mobile Application Part PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network gsmSSF GSM Service Switching Function 16 www.tektronix. Message Sequence AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5 D-AMPS Digital AMPS IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identification Chart AC Authentication Center DCH Dedicated Channel IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 MSS Mobile Satellite System ALCAP Access Link Control Application Part DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone IMUN International Mobile User Number MT Mobile Telephone AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service DL Downlink IN Intelligent Network MTP Message Transfer Part AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate (speech codec) DPC Destination Point Code IP Internet Protocol MTP3b Message Transfer Part level 3 (broadband) for Q.

Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ Testing the UMTS Iu Interface ▲ Appendix I Appendix I QoS Quality of Service (ATM network channels) TACS Total Access Communication System VBR Variable Bit Rate (data stream) QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (or.level 1 UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network SUT System Under Test Uu UMTS Air interface SW Software UWC-136 Universal Wireless Communication 18 www.com/commtest 19 .Synchronous CDMA RLP Radio Link Protocol TEID Tunneling Endpoint ID RNC Radio Network Controller TETRA TErrestrial Trunked Radio Access RNS Radio Network Subsystem TIA Telecommunications Industry Association RNSAP Radio Network Subsystem Application Part TN-CP Transport Network-Control Plane RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identity TPC Transmission Power Control RR Radio Resource TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit RRC Radio Resource Control TS Technical Specification RRM Radio Resource Management TTA Telecommunications Technology Association RTT Radio Transmission Technology U MSC U MSC Mobile Switching Center (the integration of the SAAL Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer MSC and the SGSN in one physical entity (UMTS+MSC = SCCP Signaling Connection Control Part UMSC) SCTP Simple Control Transmission Protocol U MSC-CS U MSC Circuit Switched SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy U MSC-PS U MSC Packed Switched SDO Standard Development Organization U SSD Unstructured Supplementary Service Data SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node UDP User Datagram Protocol SIM Subscriber Identity Module UE User Equipment SM Session Management protocols UICC UMTS IC Card SRNC Serving Radio Network Controller UL Uplink SRNS Serving Radio Network Subsystem Um GSM Air Interface SS7 = CCS7 (Common Control Signaling System No.tektronix.tektronix. Quaternary Phase TAF Terminal Adaptation Functions VHE Virtual Home Environment Shift Keying) TC Transcoder VLR Visitor Location Register RAB Radio Access Bearer TD-CDMA Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access VMSC Visited MSC RAN Radio Access Network TDD Time Division Duplex WCDMA Wide band Code Division Multiple Access RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part TDMA Time Division Multiple Access WLL Wireless Local Loop RLC Radio Link Control TD-SCDMA Time Division . 7) UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System SSCF Service Specific Coordination Function UNI User-Network Interface SSCOP Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol UP User Plane SSF Service Switching Function USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module STC Signaling Transport Converter UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access STM1 Synchronous Transport Module .com/commtest www.

The new network also addresses existing network nodes are being extensively modified. To UMTS (Rel. can be extended to Enhanced Logic). UMTS increases transmission speed hardware modules that will then be manufactured. where each RNS is controlled by a Radio Network Controller (RNC). RNC will become the replacement for BSC and Node landscape. SGSN and HLR.Multi Carrier (MC) . Standardization and the Authentication Center (AC). The BSS consists of the Base Station Controller (BSC). It measures the quality and strength of the connection and (UTRA). the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and the Operation the growing demand of mobile and Internet applications for new capacity in the developments require the creation and integration of new software and based. Iur. with the UE via the W-CDMA Uu radio interface and with the RNC via the Iub MSC E MSC Gs Iu-PS Gb ATM based interface. The user's circuit-switched Subsystem (OSS). establish compatibility between UMTS and cdma2000. and it can be Gr their 2G investments and reducing the risks of G EIR Gp contains both existing interfaces such as A. ANSI T1 (USA). deployed.New Network Elements and • GSM Phase 1/2 core network elements: MSC.is expected to The Iu. Serving joint venture of several Standards Development Organizations . Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to and from the User Equipment (UE). Iu-CS for circuit switched data is also responsible for the FDD Softer Handover. The OSS consists of network elements are introduced in UTRAN. Congestion ARIB/TTC (Japan). but several introduced to a worldwide base of users and provides a vital link between • UMTS specific modifications and enhancements. 3GPP is introducing UMTS in Phases and Annual platform. it is declared a Drift RNC (DRNC). Two new switching. Node B connects Gf implementation. • Iur: RNC to RNC interface. Home Location Register (HLR). The first release (UMTS Rel. Base overcrowded mobile communications sky. Appendix II – Introduction to UMTS defines enhancements and transitions for existing GSM networks. while responsible for centralized Operation & Maintenance for the total RNS with The GSM Phase 1/2 PLMN consists of 3 subsystems: the Base Station all mobile telecommunications (IMT-2000). which are used for remote and and Node B. i. RRC connection to the UE. VLR VLR F SGSN include Iu. UMTS allows many more applications to be (CSE) UMTS standardization and development is moving very quickly. Another newly defined UTRA mode . (General Packet Radio Services) and CAMEL RNC Soft Handover. A single Node B can support both FDD and TDD modes. The RNC is control functions such as Admission. The Node B also participates in Power Control as it enables the UE to adjust its 20 www. Node B is the ATM termination point. a W-CDMA radio interface for land based BTS BTS Node B Node B Node B Node B BTS BTS determines the Frame Error Rate (FER). Gb. The term Controlling RNC Existing network elements. The MSC provides functions such as The UMTS standard can be seen as an extension of existing networks. AC and EIR Interfaces Station Controller (BSC). HLR. eliminating the need for additional Mobile Mobile Phones Devices cells and unlicensed cordless applications. and Inter-MSC Handover. New network elements are being developed and adopted. Iub. Iu-CS A Iu-CS Iu-PS The most significant change in Rel. multiplexed together for multimedia transmission via Iur. significant advances in the evolution of telecommunications into the 3rd Generation of Mobile Networks. and Uu interfaces NSS consists of Mobile Services switching Center (MSC). not comparable to any interface in GSM public Macro & Micro cells. Management (RRM). particularly UTRAN steps must be taken before we can enjoy global mobility at the remarkable new The RNC handles protocol exchanges between Iu.VLR. Abis and new interfaces that co-located with GSM BTS to reduce implementation costs. This Micro Diversity Handheld The TDD mode is optimized for public Micro & Pico Iu-PS for packet switched data. All of these access to the Operation SubSystem (OSS). '99). providing central control for the Radio Network System The Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) is one of the most • GSM Phase 2+ enhancements: GPRS (SGSN and GGSN) and CAMEL (RNS) elements (RNC and Node Bs).ETSI (Europe).com/commtest 21 . and Iub interfaces and is today's multiple GSM systems and the ultimate single worldwide standard for speeds.tektronix. If another RNC is involved in the active connection through an Inter- Releases.The Node B Uu Duplex (TDD) and Frequency Division Duplex (FDD). a Operation & Maintenance Centers (OMC). combining is carried out independently. '99 is the new UMTS defines four new open interfaces: RNS Iur RNS BSC RNC RNC BSC UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) • Uu: User Equipment(UE) to Node B (UTRA. such as MSC. commissioned and packet switched data coming from Iu-CS and Iu-PS interfaces are Transceiver Station (BTS) and Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU). Iub and Iur interfaces are based on ATM transmission principles. '99) incorporates enhanced GSM Phase 2+ Core Networks as a connected to a set of Node B elements. • Iub: RNC to Node B interface FDD mode is optimized for wide area coverage. Node B and the handsets must be Gi GMSC GGSN INTERNET installed as islands within the GSM Phase 1/2 PSTN H completely new designs. centralized Operation. Both modes offer ▲ Figure 1: Overview of a UMTS network flexible and dynamic data rates up to 2 Mbit/s. (SRNC).e. UTRA supports Time Division • Iu: RNC to GSM Phase 2+ Core Network interface (MSC/VLR or SGSN) Measurement Report for Handover and Macro Diversity Combining.tektronix. Administration and Maintenance tasks. TTA (South Korea) and CWTS (China). Because the interfaces are ATM- Subsystem (BSS). It performs the same functions as the GSM Base Implementation . The transmission capacity in the Iub. UTRAN is subdivided into single Radio Network Systems (RNS). each of which can serve one or several and Handover/Macro Diversity are managed entirely by a single Serving RNC reach global acceptance. and operated. ´99 The Radio Network Controller (RNC) enables autonomous Radio Resource incorporates three major categories of network elements: Management by UTRAN. UMTS – Entering the Third Generation of Mobile Networks The Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) described in UMTS Rel. The DRNC is only (Customized Applications for Mobile network responsible for the allocation of Code resources. AUC adopt the UMTS requirement. Radio Network Controller (RNC) The RNC uses the Iur to autonomously handle 100% of the Radio Resource UMTS is being developed by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project). enabling network operators to enjoy the C Gc B fulfills nearly the same functionality as a BTS. signaling.UMTS – Entering the Third Generation of UMTS – Entering the Third Generation of Mobile Networks Mobile Networks ▲ ▲ Appendix II Appendix II 5. Visitor Location Register (VLR). eliminating that burden from the Core Network. creating an entirely new network and protocol architecture with GPRS cells. Paging. the UMTS W-CDMA air The main task of Node B is the conversion of data to/from the Uu radio that includes the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Abis Iub Iub Abis interface) interface. the RNC switches ATM cells between them. Iub and Iur. The new networks will be (CRNC) is used to define the RNC that controls Node Bs.com/commtest www. transmitting these data to the RNC as a communications. The to 2 Megabits/s per mobile user and establishes a global roaming standard. introduced in December of 1999. GSM and GPRS networks will Node B is the physical unit for radio transmission/reception with one or more HLR E Gn improved cost efficiency of UMTS while protecting D other PLMN be extended and new services will be integrated into an overall network that cells. but RNC.

The predefined values for Inner services must be managed by signaling protocols along with the UMTS specific Loop Power Control are achieved from the RNC via Outer Loop Power Control.tektronix. testing UMTS interfaces presents a new set of During the life cycle of UMTS. From the testing point of view. services. ATM brings "unlimited" bandwidth and QoS development time. Another issue for testing is that AAL2 and AAL5 connections can occur simultaneously in the same physical link. IP routes the carried information to each destination independently. one of the most important aspects is quality challenges. ATM Adaptive Layers AAL2 and AAL5 protocols are the assembly and reassembly mechanisms used within UMTS networks. Moreover. In addition. cross network of UL Transmit Power Control TPC information. The challenges of testing IP are the large amount of data and the variety of application protocols that it carries. or even require hundreds or thousands of virtual channels with smaller bandwidths. AAL5 is primarily used for packet data connections and signaling traffic. IP and management. regardless of where it is in the world. the tester compares the digital data streams that appear at these speeds at specified quality of service (QoS) levels for traffic with the interfaces with those defined in the standard. Therefore. while AAL2 with its sub- channels is used for voice and real time applications. limits. IP distributes almost all applications over the network using hundreds of different application protocols. In both "Monitoring" and "Simulation & Megabits/s) is defined for UMTS.New Testing Challenges call control. whether a single network node or a sub- Almost every ATM transmission speed from two Megabits/s up to STM4 (622 network. Constant bit rate (CBR) and variable bit rate (VBR) data streams are assigned to VPI/VCI virtual channels to achieve the required bandwidth. Protocol interactions across the networks and inter-system handover are challenging tasks in the testing of mobility and New Technology . introducing different signaling procedures and different control signal levels than those found in GSM and GPRS networks. ATM has been designed to support Emulation" modes. guaranteed delays. While ATM provides virtual channels with QoS using either AAL2 or AAL5 protocols. For example. UMTS networks are based on the integration of ATM. It is possible for a single connection to occupy the entire physical bandwidth of a virtual channel.UMTS – Entering the Third Generation of Mobile Networks ▲ Appendix II power using DL TPC commands via the Inner Loop Power Control on the basis landscape to full coverage during the next 10 years. The UMTS enabled network is being grown from islands within the GSM 22 www. IP (at least IPv4) doesn't care about bandwidth or transmission quality. and Mobile Network brings "unlimited" These instruments are essential partners for manufacturers and operators who mobility. as if it were a black box. Protocol Testers such as the K1297 help to shorten the Mobile Network technologies. losses and error rates. The K1297 Protocol Tester always refers to standardized UMTS interfaces. From the technology standpoint. increase product quality and maintain the UMTS network. are phasing into 3G mobile networks.com/commtest . It treats the System Under Test (SUT). signaling must handle UMTS originated and GSM terminated calls without interrupts. UMTS will use CDMA as the air interface technology. IP brings "unlimited" coverage.

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