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16d

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Intuitive Approach

Nayan Gaywala 1

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Overview

• OFDM

• OFDM in Wireless Environment

• Preamble

• Impairments

• MAC processes

• SDU to Constellation points

Nayan Gaywala 2

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Frame Based Protocol

Nayan Gaywala 3

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Wimax by numbers

• 256 point FFT, i.e. 256 sub-carriers

– 192 data carriers + 8 pilot + 56 unused at both ends

• Maximum supported bandwidth = 20Mhz

• Carrier spacing = 144/125*20Mhz/256 = 90KHz

• Symbol period = 11.11µs

• Total symbol period = 0.34µs(Guard interval) + 11.11µs =

11.46µs

• With QAM ¾, 192 carriers x 6 bits/carrier x 3/4 coding

rate x 87.26KHz symbol rate = 75.4Mbps

Nayan Gaywala 4

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

FDM vs. OFDM

No restriction on

Spectrum shape as far as

within its allocated band

frequency

f1 f2 f3

Symbol rate = 1/T Carrier frequencies don’t have to

be related as far as adjoining

spectrums don’t overlap

**• Intercarrier interference(ICI) where spectrum from
**

adjoining band spills over if carriers moved any closer or

less than perfect carrier recovery.

Nayan Gaywala 5

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

FDM vs. OFDM

Symbol rate 1/T

**• In PAM we avoid ISI in time domain by keying next
**

symbol at zero crossing.

Nayan Gaywala 6

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

FDM vs. OFDM

Carrier spacing=1/T and

each carrier at multiple

of 1/T

Corresponding time-

domain pulses are

orthogonal

**• OFDM applies a trick similar to that in PAM, but in
**

frequency domain. It uses Sinc like spectrums and places

them at zero crossings to avoid ICI. Now adjoining

spectrums can move closer than in FDM case without ICI.

Nayan Gaywala 7

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Orthogonal Modulation

k

j2 t

T

k (t ) e for k ... - 2,-1,0,1,2

T

is a orthogonal set over period T i.e i (t) *j (t) 0 if i j

0

**In discrete domain
**

k kn

j2 nT j2

T s

- N ....0.... N since need two samples/cy cle and T

N

k ( n) e e k N

2 2 T

s

N -1

*

forms a orthogonal set i.e. i (n) j (n) 0 if i j

n 0

j j2

k

n

N

Since e for k - 1,-2... - N/2

π 0 j2

1

n j2

k

N

n

N

e is same as e for k (N - 1)...N/2

j2

( N 1)

n

we can use IFFT operation

N

e

Nayan Gaywala 8

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Orthogonal Modulation(cont)

0

j2 n

e

N Q

I

1

j2 n

N

e

2

j2 n

N

e

1

j2 n

N

e F

2

j2 n

N

e

Orthogonal

time limited

pulse set

Nayan Gaywala 9

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Fixed Wireless Environment

• Multi-path creates two phenomenon – Fading and Time

dispersion

d

d1 j 2 fc 1

j2 c j 2 fc 1

u(t 1) e e e

u (t 2 ) j2 f

c 2 different carrier phase

e

different path delays

Nayan Gaywala 11

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Fixed Wireless Environment

• Fading – Constructive/destructive addition because of

carrier phase changes.

• Time dispersion - because of differential delays on the

multi-path - translates to frequency selectivity.

• In fixed wireless environment, both fading and time

dispersion(frequency selectivity) are present but don’t

change much with time.

Nayan Gaywala 12

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Longer Symbol time

•Flat for each sub-carrier, but still

Multi-path channel

experiences fading

Delay spread

•Overall signal still experiences

frequency selectivity.

• Not all the sub-carrier get affected by

deep fades.

F

**As compared to a wideband signal
**

smaller percentage of symbol time–

ISI is reduced

Nayan Gaywala 13

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Guard Band

Some ISI

Multi-path

OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2 OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2

Channel

Guard band No ISI

**OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2
**

Multi-path OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2

Channel

**Corrupted by Only this part
**

Cyclic Prefix

previous symbol fed to DFT

and thrown away

OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2

Multi-path OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2

Channel

Nayan Gaywala 14

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Cyclic Prefix to make

Convolution Circular

Symbol

Identical

Channel

**Adding cyclic prefix Effect of channel can be modeled as
**

circular convolution after chopping

Nayan Gaywala off cyclic prefix 15

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Simplifies Equalizer

Using the Cyclic Prefix the Rx symbol can be interpreted as

a Circular convolution of Tx symbol and Multi-path channel

i.e. yn hn xn

DFT of the Circular convolution reduces to product of DFT’s

i.e. Yn Hn Xn Tx constellation

Effect of Multi-path channel

Rx constellation

**Receiver Equalizer implementation is simplified since it
**

needs to scale each sub-carrier by 1/Hn to compensate.

Nayan Gaywala 16

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

What is Preamble used for?

A known nature of the signal and the periodicity in it are used

for:

• Frame synchronization - Start of frame/Symbol boundary

• AGC to increase dynamic range

• Carrier and Timing recovery – are one process because

Wimax requires that carrier & sampling be derived from

the same reference.

• Channel estimate to tackle ISI

Nayan Gaywala 17

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Preamble Periodicity

64 pt

IFFT

Insert 3

zeros for

every 1

sample

256 pt

IFFT

Nayan Gaywala 18

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

802.16d Long Preamble Structure

CP P64 P64 P64 P64 CP P128 P128

Nayan Gaywala 19

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Up Conversion

baseband

FT

s (t ) S(F )

**After frequency shift
**

s (t ) e j 2 Fct FT

S (F Fc )

**Bandpass real valued signal
**

2 Re s(t )e j 2 Fc t FT

S*( F Fc ) S ( F Fc )

complex real

waveform waveform

s(t ) 2 Re{.}

exp(j2 Fct)

Nayan Gaywala 20

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Why I & Q

Re s(t )e j 2 Fc t

Re s (t )(cos(2 Fc t ) j sin( 2 Fc t ))

Re{s (t )} cos 2 Fc t Im{s(t )}sin 2 Fc t

Re{ s(t ) e j (t )

} cos 2 Fc t Im{ s(t ) e j (t )

} sin 2 Fc t It is difficult to precisely

s (t ) cos( (t )) cos 2 Fc t s(t ) sin( (t )) sin 2 Fc t vary the phase of a high

frequency carrier

s (t ) cos 2 Fc t (t )

cos(2 Fct)

QAM We know

I (t )

Re I (t ) jQ(t )e j 2 Fct RF

Q (t )

I (t ) cos 2 Fct Q(t ) sin 2 Fc t

I (t ) cos 2 Fct Q(t ) cos 2 Fc t 90 -sin(2 Fct)

Nayan Gaywala 21

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Impairments

• Noise

• Channel distortion

• Carrier frequency offset

• Sampling clock mismatch

• Frame Time offset

• I/Q imbalance

• Non-linear distortion

Nayan Gaywala 22

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Noise - SER, BER & PER

4 M 1 3 N

SER Q SNR

M M 1 N u

Nayan Gaywala 23

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Noise - SER, BER & PER

A symbol error translates to at least one bit error or at most

log2M bit errors.

# of symbol error # of bit errors # of symbol error log2 M

If # of bits transmitted is N

# of symbol errors # of bit errors # of symbol errors log 2 M

N N N

# of symbol errors # of symbol errors log 2 M

BER(p b )

# of symbols log2 M # of symbols log2 M

SER

BER(Pb ) SER

log2 M

Nayan Gaywala 24

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Noise - SER, BER & PER

In practice the lower bound is very tight when BER is low.

Therefore Pre-FEC BER can be taken as

SER

BER(Pb )

log2 M

**The inner(CC) and outer(RS) FEC scheme gives a coding
**

gain of 6dB.

Nayan Gaywala 25

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Noise - SER, BER & PER

For BSC with uncorrelated noise, the probability that n bits

go across the channel without error = 1 pb n

The probability of getting a n bit packet with one or more

n

errors is PER np 1 1 p b

**If we transmit N packets the probability to get k packets in
**

error is binomially distributed N pn k 1 pn N k

k

**Probability that out of the total N packets transmitted M or
**

less are in error is k M N p k 1 p N k

n n

k 1 k

Nayan Gaywala 28

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Synchronization

• Wimax requires that the carrier center frequency and

symbol/sample clock frequency be derived from the same

reference. This ties the topics of the frequency offset and

the sampling clock offset together.

• Because the BS and SS oscillators are not identical

– Carrier Frequency & Phase

– Symbol/Sampling clock

on both ends are also not identical.

• This less than perfect synchronization introduces its own

set of impairments.

Nayan Gaywala 30

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Carrier Synchronization

Frequency offset

j ( 2 ( Fc f )t ( t ))

e j (2 Fct (t ))

e

Phase noise

BS LO SS LO

Phase offset

**Freq & phase offset
**

• Need to track the BS drift and not the jitter on BS.

• SS needs to track BS within 2% of subcarrier spacing

i.e. 312.5Hz for 3.5Mhz

Phase noise

Nayan Gaywala 31

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Frequency Offset in 802.16d

**• Sub-carrier spacing decreases with bandwidth. Hence tighter
**

margin at lower bandwidth.

• For 3.5Mhz BW, sub-carrier spacing = 4Mhz/256=15.625Khz. That

means normalized offset of 0.0039 kills the orthogonality.

Nayan Gaywala 32

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Frequency Offset(cont)

• BS tells the SS by how much to adjust the frequency offset

in RNG-RSP during initial ranging.

• BS continues to tell SS by how much to adjust the

frequency offset using periodic ranging(RNG-RSP).

• SS might need frequency adjustment during scanning and

sync to the DL.

Nayan Gaywala 33

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Carrier Phase offset

• Carrier phase offset is not a problem in OFDM since it

appears as a multiplier of e j in both the time and

frequency domain. It is taken care off by the channel

equalization process.

• Even worse than the constant phase offset is the residual

frequency offset.

Nayan Gaywala 34

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Symbol/Sampling clock

mismatch

• There will be some sampling clock offset because of

residual frequency offset and latency in the application of

the frequency correction.

• Sampling clock offset shows up as both sub-carrier and

symbol indexed phase rotation in frequency domain.

Nayan Gaywala 35

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Frame/Symbol Time Offset

• Frame/Symbol timing error is caused by assuming the

wrong starting position of the OFDM symbol or start of the

frame.

• Noisy preamble can make the receiver assume wrong

symbol boundary

• This time offset shows up as phase rotation which linearly

changes with carrier’s order.

Nayan Gaywala 36

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Frame/Symbol Time Offset(cont)

In time domain Rx symbol y(n) will be time shifted version of

Tx symbol x(n). Therefore

N 1 k

1 j2

N

(n )

y ( n) x(n ) X (k )e

N k 0

**Recovered symbol Y(k) is the DFT of y(n) therefore
**

N 1 N 1 l k k

1 j2

N

(n ) j2

N

n j2

N

Y k X (l )e e X ( k )e

n 0 N l 0

**As expected time shift shows up as a linear(sub-carrier
**

indexed) phase rotation on the Rx spectrum.

Nayan Gaywala 37

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

I/Q Imbalance

Happens in I-Q Mixer during Up or Down conversion

Four I-Q related impairments: cos(2 Fct)

•Gain Imbalance

•Phase imbalance I (t ) dc

•D.C offset RF

•Differential Delay Q(t )

Compensation on I/Q path

-(1+ )sin(2 Fct+ )

Re ( I (t ) j (1 1 ) Q(t )e j

)e j 2 Fc t

I/Q Phase offset

1

I (t ) cos 2 Fct (1 ) Q(t ) sin 2 Fc t different than 90

Nayan Gaywala 38

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

I/Q Imbalance(cont)

Nayan Gaywala 39

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Why I/Q Imbalance a Problem

for Multiple Carrier System

**Carrier at +5 creates an error image at –5
**

Carrier at –5 affects the one at +5

Nayan Gaywala 40

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Non-linear Distortion

For large signals, the transfer characteristics of a amplifier

looks like y G1x G2 x 2 G3 x3 .....

instead of a straight line with a constant slope i.e. y G1x.

**Nonlinear Transfer Function of Amplifier Input and Output of Non-Linear Amplifier
**

4 2

3.5 1.5

3 1

2.5 0.5

2 0

1.5 -0.5

1-dB Compression Point

1 -1

0.5 -1.5

0 -2

0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 10

Nayan Gaywala 41

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Non-linear Distortion(cont)

Spectrum of Two Input Sinusoids

10

If the input consists of two frequencies f1 & 0

f2 around the carrier frequency fc. -10

-20

-30

The output contains inter-modulation terms -40

-50

**k1f1±k2f2. where k1 and k2 are arbitrary -60
**

-0.5 0 0.5

Normalized Frequency

integers. Some of the terms 2f1-f2, 3f2-2f1 10

Spectrum of Two Output Sinusoids

fall in-band. 0

-10

-20

This creates both in-band and out-band -30

-40

distortion. -50

-60

-0.5 0 0.5

Normalized Frequency

Nayan Gaywala 42

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Non-linear Distortion in 802.16d

• Wimax signal is susceptible to Tx & Rx chain non-

linearity because of high peak to average power

ratio(PAPR).

• In-band distortion affects the BER performance.

• Out-band harmonics and inter-modulation terms are

filtered out but deteriorate the Adjacent Channel Power

Ratio(ACPR).

• PAPR increases with higher modulation format, relative

phase between sub-carriers(data dependent).

Nayan Gaywala 43

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SS Critical Times

• FCH & DL-MAP needs to be decoded within a certain

time limit to receive the rest of the DL sub-frame.

• UL-MAP needs to be decoded and the UL traffic needs to

lined up before the transmission opportunity.

• Worst case happens when bandwidth=20Mhz, frame

length=5ms, CP=8 and DL/UL traffic QAM ¾.

Nayan Gaywala 44

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Channel Delay

**DL sub-frame TX TTG UL sub-frame RX BS
**

Delay on DL path Delay on UL path

DL sub-frame Rx TTG UL sub-frame TX SS

T UL TX ahead by RTD SS

Time at BS

Nayan Gaywala 45

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Channel Delay(cont)

• Timing adjust in RNG-RSP moves SS UL transmission

ahead by round trip delay.

• TTG gap has to account for both the SS Rx-Tx switch and

round trip delay.

• The time period scheduled for initial ranging is the size of

RNG-REQ message plus the round-trip propagation delay.

For a 50Km cell radius, round-trip delay turns out to be

333µS.

Nayan Gaywala 46

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Carrier

Power Control

Ref Interference+Noise

RSSI BS SS#3

SS#1

SS#2

SS#3

Adjust Tx power

Ref

RSSI

SS#1

SS#2

SS#3

Carrier

Interference+Noise

Nayan Gaywala 47

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Authentication

BS SS

X.509 Certificate

contains SS’s Public key and

signed with CA’s Private key

**BS authenticates with
**

CA’s Public Key Authorization Key(AK)

RSA encrypted with SS’s Public key

**Only the SS can
**

decrypt with its

Private key

**Both BS and SS use Authorization key to generate Key Encryption
**

keys (KEK) and HMAC Key

Nayan Gaywala 48

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Key exchange

BS SS

TEK request authenticated

with HMAC

**TEK key encrypted with KEK using
**

3-DES, AES or RSA and

authenticated with HMAC

**TEK used for both TEK used for both
**

DL Tx and UL Rx Data encrypted with DES-CBC or AES-CCM UL Tx and DL Rx

Nayan Gaywala 49

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

Tx Power Requirements

• Max Tx power depends on the transmit power class

profile(table-399) Wimax equipment is trying to certify.

Typical value=+20dBm.

• SS Tx power control range supporting sub-

channelization=50db. Typical range is +20dBm to –

40dBm.

• Minimum resolution=1dB.

• Power level adjust in RNG-RSP provides for adjustments

of ±32dB with resolution of 0.25dB.

Nayan Gaywala 50

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

RSSI and CINR

**• On UL, RSSI is used to adjust power so that all SS’s come
**

in at the same power level.

• On DL, RSSI is used for reporting in REP-RSP.

Determines Tx power during initial ranging.

• On UL, CINR used by BS to decide which UIUC to use.

• On DL, the SS uses CINR to request change in

DIUC(DBPC-REQ) and reporting to BS through REP-

RSP.

Nayan Gaywala 51

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation pts

Fragmentation & Packing – TO is not exactly equal to the

SDU size.

**SDU#1 Last fragment SDU#2 SDU#3 First fragment SDU#4
**

SDU traffic of SDU#1 of SDU#4

for same CID

MPDU

Nayan Gaywala 52

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation pts

Concatenation - Multiple MPDUs in a single PHY burst

MPDU(CID#A) MPDU(CID#B) MPDU(CID#C)

Different CIDs Management PDU User PDU User PDU

but same SS

**FEC Block#1 FEC Block#2 FEC Block#3 FEC Block#4
**

DL/UL Burst

to/from same SS

Nayan Gaywala 53

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

Plain text

00402200000EPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

**DES-CBC Encryption – GMH not encrypted(30 bytes in hex)
**

00402200000ECCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

**Insert CRC if enabled(34 bytes in hex)
**

00402200000ECCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCF91B273B

Nayan Gaywala 54

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

Uncoded

Block Size Coded Block Overall Coding CC Code

Modulation (bytes) Size (bytes) Rate RS Code Rate

QPSK 36 48 (384bits) 3/4 (40, 36, 2) 5/6

**Example of a RS-CC encoded QPSK ¾ Burst(34 bytes in hex)
**

00402200000E010203040506070801020304050607080102030405060708F91B273B

**Pad 0xFF to make it multiple of FEC block(35 bytes in hex)
**

00402200000E010203040506070801020304050607080102030405060708F91B273BFF

Note: For RS-CC number of padding bytes one less than the amount of data allocated.

Nayan Gaywala 55

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

Randomize(280 bits). Starting seed determined by

DIUC/UIUC, BSID & Frame number.

01110011111100110000101110101010111101011111000000111101

0000011010001011000111110011010101011100101001101101011

1110001011100001010011001100001110101101000001101110001

0100110000100011011001000100101000011011101111111001111

0000001110000001100101000110000001011111011011011110011

0110

**Append Tail byte(36 bytes in decimal)
**

115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40, 110, 254,

120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0

Note: applicable only for RS-CC

Nayan Gaywala 56

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

RS Encoding– When block shortened prefix (239-36) zeros (239 bytes in

decimal).

203zeros, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40,

110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0

**Reed Solomon Encoding - 239 bytes followed by 16 parity bytes (255
**

bytes in decimal)

203zeros, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40,

110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0, 239, 3, 217, 163, 158, 161, 209, 109, 117, 232, 30, 171, 35, 95, 201, 111

**Parity bytes before coded data and throw away the (239-36) zero bytes
**

(40 bytes in decimal)

239, 3, 217, 163, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145,

40, 110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0

Nayan Gaywala

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

Convolutional ½ rate encoding(640bits)

11011010111100110101011010111101100110100011101100110001100100001011

10110011011100100100001010111111110101010010101100001011110011110100

01101110000100101110011010111101100110101101011101000101110110010011

11100101001011010101111010111100010111110011110111110100101011011000

00100001100100010010111001010011101011111010010100011101100011000011

11110101101010110010001010101001110100010111101100111001001101110110

00111101010111111100101110001011110100111100001001101110111010011110

11000011001110001100101011001010010110101111011010001010101111010100

00111010111000001000110110111110001010001011010011010100010111110101

1011110010001000011011000000

**Puncturing to allow the same CC implementation for variable
**

rates(384bits). Rate 5/6

11110111011001011101000100111011000000011111011100000010011111101010010010110111101111001010111110111101011001100001 dfree 4

10000011000101100111011110101110110111101001110001001010101011100011011101100011110010011110111001010001010110000111

10110001011000111010111101110001111011000111110101011110001011001001110100010111010101100110010011101100100111111101

X 10101

100110001010011110010110100100101000 Y 11010

XY X1Y1Y2X3Y4X5

Nayan Gaywala 58

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)

Interleaving – raise immunity to burst errors(384bits)

100001111000111001000111010011011100010101011000010111110111001010100110111110111101111010000010111

100101011010110110101011011110111010110001110110100101001111011010010100111011110011110111000101111

110001001101011100001110011111001011111001001111010100101000000011010110101010100110011101100111011

010111101000011011110101001101110111011000010110110011001011011000000001101011011001000

**Mapping – Convert bits to constellation points(192 pts)
**

-1+1i 1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-

1i -1+1i 1+1i 1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i

-1-1i -1+1i -1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -

1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i 2 0

-1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1-1i 1+1i -

1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i

1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -

1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -

1+1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1- 3 1

1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i 1+1i

Nayan Gaywala 59

Email:nayan@pacbell.net

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