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Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System

HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7.......................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 Concepts of SS7 ................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.1.1 Common Channel Signaling System ...................................................................... 1-1
1.1.2 SS7 Signaling Network ........................................................................................... 1-2
1.1.3 Signaling Transfer Mode ......................................................................................... 1-5
1.2 Architecture and Functions of SS7 .................................................................................... 1-5
1.2.1 Layered Architecture ............................................................................................... 1-6
1.2.2 Introduction to Functional Layers ............................................................................ 1-6

Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part ................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1 Introduction to MTP ........................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 MTP Functions................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2.1 Signaling Data Link Functions................................................................................. 2-2
2.2.2 Signaling Link Functions ......................................................................................... 2-2
2.2.3 Signaling Network Functions................................................................................... 2-4
2.3 MTP Messages .................................................................................................................. 2-7
2.3.1 Format of Signal Units............................................................................................. 2-7
2.3.2 Functions and Codes of Signal Unit Fields ............................................................. 2-8

Chapter 3 Telephone User Part.................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 Introduction to TUP............................................................................................................ 3-1
3.2 TUP Functions ................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.3 TUP Messages .................................................................................................................. 3-1
3.3.1 Format of TUP Messages ....................................................................................... 3-1
3.3.2 Encoding of TUP Messages.................................................................................... 3-2
3.3.3 Example of TUP Messages..................................................................................... 3-4

Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part............................................................................ 4-1
4.1 Introduction to SCCP ......................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1 TUP Signaling Transfer Based on MTP.................................................................. 4-1
4.1.2 SCCP Signaling Transfer Based on MTP ............................................................... 4-2
4.2 Services Provided by SCCP .............................................................................................. 4-3
4.2.1 SCCP Service Classes ........................................................................................... 4-4
4.2.2 Connectionless Services......................................................................................... 4-4
4.2.3 Connection-Oriented Services ................................................................................ 4-5
4.2.4 SCCP Service Procedure........................................................................................ 4-6
4.3 SCCP Addressing and Routing ......................................................................................... 4-8
4.4 SCCP Primitives ................................................................................................................ 4-9
4.4.1 Definition ................................................................................................................. 4-9
4.4.2 Structure................................................................................................................ 4-11

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Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System
HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Table of Contents

4.4.3 SCCP User Primitives ........................................................................................... 4-11
4.4.4 MTP Service Primitives ......................................................................................... 4-13
4.5 SCCP Messages.............................................................................................................. 4-14
4.5.1 Format of SCCP Messages .................................................................................. 4-14
4.5.2 Encoding of SCCP Messages............................................................................... 4-17
4.5.3 Example of SCCP Messages................................................................................ 4-25

Chapter 5 ISDN User Part ............................................................................................................. 5-1
5.1 Introduction to ISUP........................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 ISUP Functions .................................................................................................................. 5-2
5.2.1 Bearer Services....................................................................................................... 5-2
5.2.2 User Terminal Services........................................................................................... 5-2
5.2.3 Supplementary Services ......................................................................................... 5-2
5.3 ISUP Messages ................................................................................................................. 5-3
5.3.1 Format of ISUP Messages ...................................................................................... 5-3
5.3.2 Encoding of ISUP Messages .................................................................................. 5-4
5.3.3 Example of ISUP Messages ................................................................................... 5-8

Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part ................................................................ 6-1
6.1 Introduction to TCAP ......................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 TCAP Structure.................................................................................................................. 6-2
6.2.1 Transaction Sublayer .............................................................................................. 6-3
6.2.2 Component Sublayer .............................................................................................. 6-3
6.3 TCAP Messages ................................................................................................................ 6-4
6.3.1 Encoding of TCAP Messages ................................................................................. 6-4
6.3.2 Format of TCAP Messages..................................................................................... 6-7
6.3.3 Transaction Portion ................................................................................................. 6-7
6.3.4 Dialog Portion........................................................................................................ 6-11
6.3.5 Component Portion ............................................................................................... 6-11
6.3.6 Example of TCAP Messages ................................................................................ 6-13

Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part............................................................................................... 7-1
7.1 Introduction to MAP ........................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 MAP Functions................................................................................................................... 7-2
7.2.1 MAP Management Functions.................................................................................. 7-2
7.2.2 MAP Operations ...................................................................................................... 7-4
7.3 MAP Messages.................................................................................................................. 7-7
7.3.1 Format of MAP Messages....................................................................................... 7-7
7.3.2 Encoding of MAP Messages ................................................................................... 7-7
7.3.3 Example of MAP Messages .................................................................................... 7-7
7.4 Common MAP Procedures .............................................................................................. 7-10
7.4.1 Location Registration ............................................................................................ 7-10
7.4.2 Inter-Office Call ..................................................................................................... 7-11
7.4.3 Handoff Forward.................................................................................................... 7-11

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Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System
HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Table of Contents

Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part .................................................................................... 8-1
8.1 Introduction to BSAP ......................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1 About the A Interface .............................................................................................. 8-1
8.1.2 BSAP Functions ...................................................................................................... 8-1
8.2 BSAP Messages ................................................................................................................ 8-2
8.2.1 Format of BSAP Messages..................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.2 Encoding of BSAP Messages ................................................................................. 8-3
8.2.3 Example of BSAP Messages .................................................................................. 8-6
8.3 BSAP Procedures ............................................................................................................ 8-15
8.3.1 Location Update .................................................................................................... 8-15
8.3.2 Mobile Origination ................................................................................................. 8-16
8.3.3 Mobile Termination................................................................................................ 8-17
8.3.4 Call Clearing.......................................................................................................... 8-18
8.3.5 Circuit Block/Unblock ............................................................................................ 8-19
8.3.6 Circuit Reset.......................................................................................................... 8-21

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.......................................... 4-4 Figure 4-3 Connection-oriented transfer with a middle node........ 1-1 Figure 1-2 A 3-layer signaling network..................................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-4 Connectionless service in GT addressing ......................................... 3-8 Figure 3-6 IAM format ....... 4-25 Huawei Technologies Proprietary iv ................................................................................................................................................................ 2-5 Figure 2-4 Message routing ... 4-11 Figure 4-8 Structure of SCCP messages...................... 4-7 Figure 4-6 Primitives and messages of MTP and SCCP........... 2-10 Figure 3-1 Position of TUP in SS7 .. 1-5 Figure 1-6 Layered architecture of SS7 ..... 1-5 Figure 1-5 Functional blocks of SS7 .................................................................................................................................................................. 2-6 Figure 2-5 Structure of FISU ....................................................................................................................................... 1-5 Figure 1-4 Quasi-associated transfer of signaling messages................................................................................................... 2-8 Figure 2-8 SIO structure ................................................................................................................................................... 2-8 Figure 2-7 Structure of MSU .......................................................... 2-7 Figure 2-6 Structure of LSSU...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-9 Figure 2-9 Structure of SIF...................................................................... 4-15 Figure 4-9 SCCP message ....................................................................... 3-2 Figure 3-3 TUP label structure ............... 4-10 Figure 4-7 Structure of a primitive...................................................................................................................... 4-6 Figure 4-5 Connection-oriented service signaling flow ......................................................................................... 3-1 Figure 3-2 TUP message structure .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-2 Figure 2-3 Signaling message handling.................. 3-2 Figure 3-4 IAI format ............................................................... 3-9 Figure 4-1 The SCCP in the SS7In the signaling network......Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center List of Figures List of Figures Figure 1-1 Architecture of a CCS system...................... 3-4 Figure 3-5 Calling line identity field .............................................................. 1-3 Figure 1-3 Associated transfer of signaling messages .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-3 Figure 4-2 Connectionless transfer of signaling messages ................................................................................ 1-6 Figure 2-1 Position of the MTP in SS7........... 2-1 Figure 2-2 Function levels of the MTP .............

.............................. 5-5 Figure 5-5 IAM message...................................Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center List of Figures Figure 5-1 ISUP position in SS7 ............. 6-6 Figure 6-8 TCAP message structure ........ 6-5 Figure 6-5 The format of a tag containing more than one octets......................................................... 8-21 Figure 8-11 MSC-initiated circuit reset............................... 7-10 Figure 7-5 Inter-office call procedure ............................................................the short form .................................................................... 8-17 Figure 8-7 Call clearing initiated by BSC ............................................................................................ 7-7 Figure 7-4 Location registration procedure................................................................................................... 7-12 Figure 8-1 Reference model of A interface protocol stack ............... 8-20 Figure 8-10 BSC-initiated circuit reset .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-16 Figure 8-5 Mobile origination procedure ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-16 Figure 8-6 Mobile termination procedure ..... 8-20 Figure 8-9 Circuit unblock procedure.... 5-5 Figure 5-4 Format of the CIC in a ISUP message ................... 6-13 Figure 7-1 CDMA network architecture............ 8-19 Figure 8-8 Circuit block procedure........................................................................................................................................ 8-22 Figure 8-12 MSC-initiated circuit reset failure........................................................................................................................... 6-2 Figure 6-2 Structure of TCAP..................... 6-4 Figure 6-4 The format of a tag containing one octet ............................. 7-11 Figure 7-6 Handoff forward procedure................................................................................. 8-8 Figure 8-4 Location update procedure................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-1 Figure 7-2 Structural relation between MAP and MTP messages .......................... 5-4 Figure 5-3 Format of routing label in the ISUP message.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-12 Figure 6-1 Position of TCAP in the SS7 network ... 5-1 Figure 5-2 ISUP message structure...................................................................................................... 6-2 Figure 6-3 Structure of TCAP IE ..................................................................................... 7-7 Figure 7-3 Registration Notification message traced on a SS7 link ............................................................. 6-6 Figure 6-7 Length of contents – the long form ........................................ 6-5 Figure 6-6 Length of contents -............................................. 6-7 Figure 6-9 RUIDIR message.............................................................................................................................. 8-22 Huawei Technologies Proprietary v ....... 8-3 Figure 8-3 Example of CM service request ............................ 8-2 Figure 8-2 BSAP message structure ....................................................................................................

.................................................. 4-17 Table 4-5 Structure of address indicator....................................................................... 3-9 Table 4-1 SCCP user primitives ............................... 2-10 Table 3-1 Coding format of H0 . 5-8 Table 5-3 Code of the nature of connection indicators......................................................................... 5-10 Table 5-5 Codes of the calling party category ........................................................................................... 4-19 Table 4-7 Allocation of SCCP SSNs ....................................................................................................................................... 5-5 Table 5-2 Parameters of IAM .................................................................................... 4-20 Table 4-9 Type 2 GT....................................................................................................................... 4-21 Table 4-12 Protocol classes ............................. 3-4 Table 3-3 Message indicators .................................................................................. 4-20 Table 4-10 Type 3 GT..................................................................................................................................... 4-24 Table 5-1 Encoding of ISUP messages. 4-16 Table 4-4 SCCP message parameters..................................................... 4-13 Table 4-3 SCCP message type and code ................................................................................................................................................. 4-11 Table 4-2 MTP service primitive .................................................................................................... 4-22 Table 4-13 Handling of messages in case of transfer failure .................................................................................................................. 3-7 Table 3-5 Encoding of the first indicator octet .......... 2-9 Table 2-2 SSF codes allocation............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-9 Table 5-4 Codes of forward call indicator ......................................................... 4-20 Table 4-11 Type 4 GT ......................................................... 3-8 Table 3-7 Calling line identity codes............................................................Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center List of Tables List of Tables Table 2-1 SI codes allocation ................................................................................... 4-18 Table 4-6 Correspondence between GT type codes and GT types ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-3 Table 3-2 Calling party category................ 4-22 Table 4-14 Coding of release causes..................................................................................... 4-19 Table 4-8 Type 1 GT........................................................................................................................... 3-7 Table 3-6 Address indicators .................................... 5-11 Table 6-1 Structure of TCAP message tag .... 3-6 Table 3-4 Encoding of the address signals .................................................. 6-4 Huawei Technologies Proprietary vi ...................................... 4-23 Table 4-15 Coding of return causes ..........

....................................................... 6-10 Table 6-5 IEs contained in the dialog portion ........................................................................... 8-4 Table 8-2 Type 2 IE structure ............... 8-7 Table 8-8 CM service request message............................................................................................ 6-9 Table 6-4 P-Abort causes ............................................ 8-14 Table 8-13 Assignment complete messages........................................................................................................................ 8-4 Table 8-3 Type 3 IE structure of type 3 (example 1) ............................ 8-6 Table 8-7 Complete layer 3 message.... 8-13 Table 8-11 Connect message.................. 8-5 Table 8-4 Type 3 IE structure (example 2) .................................................. 8-15 Huawei Technologies Proprietary vii ....................................Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center List of Tables Table 6-2 TCAP package type identifier ......................... 6-11 Table 6-7 Correspondence between component types and IEs . 7-5 Table 8-1 Type 1 IE structure .................................................................................................................... 8-14 Table 8-12 Assignment request message ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-14 Table 8-14 SCCP messages used by BSAP....................................................................................................... 8-7 Table 8-9 Paging request message................................................... 8-6 Table 8-6 Type 4 IE structure o (example 2) ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-5 Table 8-5 Type 4 IE structure (example 1) ......................................................................................................................... 6-8 Table 6-3 Correspondence between TCAP package type and cell........................................ 6-11 Table 6-6 Correspondence between component types and component type identifiers .................................................................................................................................................. 6-12 Table 7-1 MAP operations .......... 8-12 Table 8-10 Paging request message.

and functions of signaling system No. Definition of CCS System In a CCS system.1 Common Channel Signaling System The signaling system helps network entities to cooperate with each other to implement particular tasks. Switch A Traffic channel Switch B Switching Switching network network Public Signaling Data link Signaling Public control equipment equipment control Figure 1-1 Architecture of a CCS system Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-1 . Signaling is transferred on common data links (signaling channels in this case) in the form of messages.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 This chapter describes the concepts. Before introducing the major concepts. There are two types of signaling systems: z Common channel signaling (CCS) system z Channel associated signaling (CAS) system SS7 is a common channel signaling system.7 (SS7) for the CDMA system. I. Figure 1-1 shows the architecture of a CCS system. architecture. this section explains the following basic terms: z Information: the content carried in a message z Message: carrier of information z Signal unit: entity made up of a message and some signaling information fields necessary for applications and transferred on signaling links z Signaling: information set used to interconnect different entities in communication networks 1.1.1 Concepts of SS7 This section introduces some important concepts related to SS7. 1. signaling channels and traffic channels are separate.

Because channel associated signaling messages are transmitted together with traffic data. 1. the SS7 messages are sent by using a modulator-demodulator (Modem). a speech channel transmitting voice information is also a traffic channel.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 II. z Possess the function of speech channel continuity check (to ensure high performance of speech channels). For example. Transfer of SS7 Signaling Messages SS7 messages are data packets exchanged between processors of various nodes (such as exchanges) in a telecommunication network.8 kbit/s.2 SS7 Signaling Network A signaling network is dedicated to the transmission of signaling messages. the CCS system has the following advantages: z High channel utilization z High signaling transmission speed z Large signaling capacity z Wide applications in the integrated services digital network (ISDN) . mobile communications network and intelligent network z Easy maintenance and management due to the separation of signaling network and communication network z Adaptive to new signaling protocols for new service provisioning To realize the above features. The transmission rate of a signaling link is 64 kbit/s. Advantages of CCS System Compared with the CAS system. III. also called the signaling link. Most of the timeslots are used as traffic channels. z Adopt advanced signaling network functions and security measures. In this case.1. They are transmitted in packet switching mode on signaling links. Typical transmission rates are 2. One timeslot (excluding TS 0) of each digital trunk line in a 2-Mbit/s primary group is used as the signaling channel. the CCS system must: z Maintain high reliability of signaling links. SS7 messages can also be transferred on analog transmission lines. the SS7 network is essentially a data communication network (a special packet switching network) independent of the service switching system.4 kbit/s and 4. A signaling network consists of z Signaling points (SPs) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-2 . It is logically independent of the communication network. Therefore. the concept of signaling network applies only to the common channel signaling system.

Generally.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 z Signaling transfer points (STPs) z Signaling links The SS7 signaling network is a support network. An STP is identified by the SPC. Usually. two logically separate signaling points are configured for one physical node. Signaling Transfer Point An STP transfers the signaling messages it receives from one signaling link to another. an SP corresponds to one physical node. an SP can be an exchange. or a network database. It is presented by a " " in a network topology diagram. an international incoming and outgoing office is an SP of the national signaling network and an SP of the international signaling network. It is physically integrated with the communication network. An SP is identified by a signaling point code (SPC). z An originating SP (OSP) is identified with an originating point code (OPC). HSTP LSTP SP SP: Signaling point LSTP: High-level signaling transfer point LSTP: Low level signaling transfer point Figure 1-2 A 3-layer signaling network I. There are two types of SPCs: z 14-bit SPC z 24-bit SPC II. an operation and maintenance center. z A destination SP (DSP) is identified with a destination point code (DPC). for example. Figure 1-2 is an example of a 3-layer signaling network. This often happens on gateway offices. In some cases. It is represented by the symbol "O" in a network topology diagram. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-3 . however. Signaling Point An SP is where the signaling messages are processed or exchanged. It functions as either the origination or the destination in signaling message transmission.

an alternative route is taken. Signaling Link Signaling links are the physical channels that connect SPs and STPs and transmit signaling messages. VII. The links to the same office may belong to one link or several link sets. Signaling Link Set A collection of signaling links with the same attributes is called a link set. The links between two adjacent SPs. must be configured in one link set. VI. Signaling Route Set All signaling routes that correspond to a signaling relation form a route set. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-4 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 There are two types of STPs: z Independent STP z Integrated STP An independent STP only functions to transfer signaling. Signaling Link Code Each signaling link is uniquely identified within an office with a signaling link code (SLC) . The selection of signaling route depends on the signaling relations and the transfer mode. IV. Signaling Route A signaling route is a path along which signaling messages are transmitted from an OSP to a DSP. the SLCs may be identical. All signaling links between two adjacent SPs are uniquely numbered in the same way. When this route becomes faulty. An integrated STP not only to transfers signaling but also serves as an SP where signaling is originated or terminated. however. STPs are classified into two types: z Low-level signaling transfer point (LSTP) z High-level signaling transfer point (HSTP) III. A given signaling message is transmitted along a specific route in normal cases. V. The SLCs of these links must be consistent at the two SPs. It is not regarded as an SP. in a 3-level signaling network. As shown in Figure 1-2. For signaling links to different offices.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-5 . Figure 1-4 shows the quasi-associated transfer of signaling messages. User Part MTP User Part Figure 1-5 Functional blocks of SS7 MTP is responsible for signaling message transfer. as shown in Figure 1-5.1. Quasi-Associated Transfer In quasi-associated transfer. the signaling messages between two SPs are transmitted on direct signaling links. including a message transfer part (MTP) and a number of user parts (UPs). Traffic channel SP SP Signaling link Figure 1-3 Associated transfer of signaling messages II. Figure 1-3 shows the associated transfer of signaling messages. These signaling links are designated by data configuration for signaling transmission. In this case.3 Signaling Transfer Mode There are two signaling transfer modes: z Associated transfer z Quasi-associated transfer I. STP Designated Signaling links Signaling link Traffic channel SP SP Figure 1-4 Quasi-associated transfer of signaling messages 1.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 1. signaling messages between two SPs are transmitted on indirect signaling links.2 Architecture and Functions of SS7 SS7 consists of several functional blocks. Associated Transfer In associated transfer. the traffic channels and signaling links are parallel.

grammar checking. It is divided into the three levels: z MTP-1: Signaling data link function z MTP-2: Signaling link function z MTP-3: Signaling network function Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-6 . I. 1.2.2 Introduction to Functional Layers The functional layers of SS7 follow the hierarchy of data transfer strictly. Signaling messages are transferred between the corresponding functional levels at both sides. This section gives a brief introduction to the functions of each functional layer of the SS7. In the layered architecture. All UPs function with the support of MTP. an upper layer is the user of its lower layer.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 UPs are responsible for the generating. semantic analysis and processing control of signaling messages. Message Transfer Part MTP serves as a transport system providing reliable transfer of the signaling messages.2. and is served by the lower layer. Signaling messages in SS7 are transferred transparently in a layer that is not responsible for the processing of the messages. HLR VLR INAP OMAP MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP L4-L6 ISP SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 1-6 Layered architecture of SS7 There is a correspondence between the SS7 and the open system interconnection (OSI) network model (seven layers). 1.1 Layered Architecture Figure 1-6 shows the architecture of SS7.

ISUP has all functions of the TUP. such as mobile services and intelligent services. TCAP provides the dialog capabilities to support information request and response for the applications of network services. III. The intelligent application part (INAP) implements the service control point (SCP) database registration and data query with the support of the TCAP. The specific applications implement the message transfer on the interfaces provided by the TCAP. Telephone User Part Telephone user part (TUP) handles call-related signaling messages.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 II. ISDN User Part ISDN user part (ISUP) provides signaling functions to support ISDN basic services and supplementary services. The connectionless network service means that UP transfers signaling messages without establishing signal connection in advance. call monitoring messages. V. Therefore. and account inquiry in intelligent networks are all transferred by this means. it can also function as the TUP. circuit and circuit group monitoring messages and network management messages. The connection-oriented network service means that a message transport channel between the two nodes (UPs) is established after exchange of requests and responses between the UPs prior to data transfer. It provides connectionless and connection-oriented network services. For example. Transaction Capabilities Application Part Transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) provides interfaces for various communication network services. authentication of subscribers in mobile networks. TUP messages are transferred in signal units on signaling links. Signaling Connection Control Part Signaling connection control part (SCCP) is based on MTP and provides additional functions to MTP. IV. such as those related to the setup. TUP messages are classified into several message groups. the data of one UP can be transferred to another UP on the signaling network. For example. monitoring and release of calls. With connectionless network service. such as forward and backward call setup messages. the MAP implements the location of roaming subscribers with the support of the TCAP. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-7 . TCAP is a public protocol and does not involve specific applications.

VIII. Mobile Application Part Mobile application part (MAP) is a functional unit used for interconnection within the public land mobile network (PLMN) and between the PLMN and other networks. Together with the TCAP.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 1 Introduction to CDMA SS7 VI. Base Station Application Part Base station application part (BSAP) BSAP is an application part based on A interface protocols. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 1-8 . Intermediate Service Part Intermediate service part (ISP) corresponds to layer 4 to layer 6 of the OSI model. It fulfills the functions of A1 interface between MSC and BSC. VII. It is not defined yet. it is referred to as the transaction capabilities (TC).

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-1 . 2. MTP also provides signaling route management and signaling network management functions.1 Introduction to MTP MTP constitutes the bottom layers (LI. providing physical links for signaling transmission to ensure reliable message transfer. HLR VLR INAP OMAP P A M O MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP ISP L4-L6 SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 2-1 Position of the MTP in SS7 2. as well as its functions and position in the SS7. Figure 2-1 shows the position of the MTP in SS7. L2 and L3) of SS7. MTP-2.2 MTP Functions MTP functions are classified to three levels: z Signaling data link functions z Signaling link functions z Signaling network functions These three levels correspond to the MTP-1.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to message transfer part (MTP). and MTP-3 shown in Figure 2-2.

a signaling point (SP) receives signaling from and delivers signaling to another SP. or A/u law converters attached to the transmission link must be disabled. Therefore.8 kbit/s. An analogue signaling data link with modems may also be adopted with a bit rate typically at 2. As signaling transmission is bi-directional. Together with a signaling data link as a bearer. the signaling link functions can ensure the reliable transmission of signaling messages. bit integrity of the transmitted data stream must be ensured. digital pads. A signaling link is transparent. the signaling link functions provide a signaling link for reliable transfer of signaling messages between two directly connected SPs. Equipment such as echo suppressors. The operational signaling data link shall be exclusively dedicated to the use of an SS7 signaling link.4 kbit/s or 4.2.2. defining the physical and electrical features and the connection mode of signaling data links. Errors may occur to the data link between directly connected SPs after long distance transmission. The signaling link functions comprise: z Signal unit delimitation z Signal unit alignment z Error detection Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-2 . which are not allowed in SS7. It assumes a timeslot of the pulse code modulation (PCM) system with a bit rate of 64 kbit/s. A signaling data link is a bi-directional transmission path for signaling.1 Signaling Data Link Functions Signaling data link functions are performed by the MTP at Level 1.2 Signaling Link Functions The signaling link functions are performed by the MTP at Level 2. In the case of data link errors. full duplex operation over a 4-wire transmission link is adopted.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part User Part Signaling Network Fuctions MTP-3 Signaling Link functions MTP-2 Signaling Data Link MTP-1 Figure 2-2 Function levels of the MTP 2. that is. 2.

Two forms of error correction are provided. III. Signal Unit Alignment The alignment here does not refer to initial alignment. z The basic method applies for signaling links where the one-way propagation delay is less than 15 ms. IV. Signal Unit Delimitation The beginning and end of a signal unit are indicated by a unique 8-bit pattern "01111110". Normally. the basic method and the preventive cyclic retransmission method. The end flag of one signal unit is usually the start flag of the following signal unit. called flag. There are five phases of alignment procedure. In such cases. Initial Alignment The initial alignment procedure is appropriate to both first time initialization and alignment in association with restoration after a link failure.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part z Initial alignment z Signaling link error monitoring z Flow control z Processor error control I. The transmitting signaling link terminal inserts a 0 after every sequence of five consecutive 1s before attaching the flags. At the receiving signaling link terminal. Error Detection The error detection function is performed by means of 16 check bits provided at the end of each signal unit. They are: z Idle z Not aligned Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-3 . the 0s that directly follow a sequence of five consecutive 1s will be deleted. the received signal unit is discarded and the signal unit error rate monitor or alignment error rate monitor is incremented. Loss of alignment occurs when a bit pattern disallowed by the delimitation procedure (more than six consecutive 1s) is received. II. It refers to the alignment of signaling link in the delimitation procedure. the length of a signal unit is a multiple of eight bits. Measures are taken to ensure that the pattern cannot be imitated elsewhere in the unit. z The preventive cyclic retransmission method applies for signaling links where the one-way propagation delay is greater than or equal to 15 ms. or when a certain maximum length of signal unit is exceeded.

Process Error Control This function marks the faulty state of a processor. VI. Flow Control Flow control is initiated when congestion is detected at the receiving end of the signaling link. 2. The alignment error rate monitor is employed while a link is in the proving state of the initial alignment procedure (first time initialization and alignment in association with restoration after a link failure). The congested receiving end of the link notifies the remote transmitting end of the condition by means of an appropriate link status signal unit. Signaling Link Error Monitoring Two signaling link error rate monitors are provided: z Signal unit error rate monitor z Alignment error rate monitor The signal unit error rate monitor is employed while a signaling link is in service.3 Signaling Network Functions The signaling network functions are performed by the MTP at Level 3 to ensure reliable transmission of signaling messages through control of signaling network route and performance. The remote transmitting end indicates the link as failed if the congestion continues too long. VII.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part z Aligned z Proving period z Aligned ready The initial alignment involves the following four link statuses: z Status indication out of service (SIOS) z Status indication out of alignment (SIO) z Status indication normal (SIN) z Status indication emergency (SIE) V.2. The signaling network functions can be divided into two basic categories: z Signaling message handling z Signaling network management Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-4 .

Otherwise. signaling message handling functions are classified into: z Message discrimination z Message distribution z Message routing Message Message distribution discrimination To/From L2 To/From L4 Message routing Figure 2-3 Signaling message handling Message Discrimination The message discrimination function is used at an SP to determine whether or not a received message is destined to the point itself.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part I. Signaling Message Handling Signaling message handling is to ensure that signaling messages originated by a particular UP at an SP (originating SP) are delivered to the same UP at the destination SP indicated by the sending UP. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-5 . Figure 2-4 illustrates the message routing function. Message Routing The message routing function is used at each SP to determine the outgoing signaling link on which a message (originated or transferred from the message discrimination) is sent towards its destination SP. A message destined to the SP itself is transferred to the message distribution function. As illustrated in Figure 2-3. Message Distribution The message distribution function is used at each SP to deliver the received messages (destined to the SP itself) to the appropriate UP. the message is transferred to the message routing function.

The signaling network management functions are divided into three categories: z Signaling traffic management z Signaling link management z Signaling route management Signaling Traffic Management When message security and correct transmission can be assured. Signaling Link Management In the case of a signaling link failure. Signaling Route Management When an SP or link fails to transmit messages as a result of fault.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part Signaling Signaling link network function function Link 1 SP 1 Link 2 SP 2 Message ﹕ routing ﹕ ﹕ Link N SP N Figure 2-4 Message routing II. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-6 . Signaling Network Management Signaling network management is to provide reconfiguration of the signaling network in case of failures and to control traffic in case of congestion. the signaling traffic management may need to slow down signaling traffic on certain routes. In the case of congestion at SPs. the signaling traffic management modifies signaling routing to transfer messages from unavailable signaling links to available links. the signaling route management function notifies the SP of the condition and allocates another route for the messages to ensure reliable transmission. the signaling link management function tests the link and restores it.

FISU An FISU contains no information. Figure 2-6 shows the structure of an LSSU. The length of signal units is described in octets.3 MTP Messages Signaling messages are transferred in the SS7 in different lengths. 2. It is a null signal transferred between network nodes when the link is idle. An octet consists of eight bits.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part 2. F F B B F CK LI I S I S F B N B N 8 16 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 First bit transmitted Figure 2-5 Structure of FISU II. The length of a signal unit is a multiple of eight bits. some signaling information fields are attached to each message to constitute the single unit (SU) actually transmitted in the signaling link. LSSU An LSSU carries the information of network link status that is indicated by an SF field. The purpose of transferring FISUs is to ensure that the signaling link is available and the local end can receive messages from the peer. Some signaling network management and test maintenance messages can be defined by Level 3 functions of the MTP.1 Format of Signal Units In SS7.3. there are three types of signal units: z Fill-in signal unit (FISU) z Link status signal unit (LSSU) z Message signal unit (MSU) I. For the sake of reliable transmission. A signaling message is a set of information defined by the UP of the MTP. Figure 2-5 shows the structure of an FISU. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-7 .

namely: z Signal unit delimitation flag (F) z Check bit (CK) z Length indicator (LI) z Service information octet (SIO) z Signaling information field (SIF) z Sequence numbering and indicator bits I. The information is encapsulated in a signaling information field (SIF) and a service information octet (SIO) . The opening F of one signal unit is normally the closing F of the preceding signal unit. Other fields in the middle can be inserted randomly to lower system processing load in case of overload.2 Functions and Codes of Signal Unit Fields A signal unit comprises a number of fields. Signal Unit Delimitation Flag The bit pattern for the signal unit delimitation flag is 01111110. F F B B F CK SIF SIO LI I S I S F B N B N 8 16 8n.3. For example. in Figure 2-5. MSU An MSU conveys the real information to be transmitted. the opening F is on the right. Figure 2-7 shows the structure of an MSU. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-8 . n>2 8 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 First bit trasmitted Figure 2-7 Structure of MSU 2.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part F F B B F CK SF LI I S I S F B N B N 8 16 8/16 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 First bit transmitted Figure 2-6 Structure of LSSU III. and the closing F is on the left.

D C B A D C B A SSF SI Transmit direction Figure 2-8 SIO structure The codes of SI and SSF are allocated as described in Table 2-1 and Table 2-2. Service Information Octet The SIO is present only in MSUs to indicate the type of messages. The service information octet is divided into the service indicator (SI) and the sub-service field (SSF). Cyclic redundancy codes (CRC) are assumed for check bits. Check Bit Every signal unit has 16 check bits for error detection. III. Table 2-1 SI codes allocation DCBA Meaning 0 0 0 0 Signaling network management messages 0 0 0 1 Signaling network testing and maintenance messages 0 0 1 0 Spare 0 0 1 1 Signaling connection control part (SCCP) 0 1 0 0 Telephone user part (TUP) 0 1 0 1 ISDN user part (ISUP) 0 1 1 0 Data user part (DUP) (call and circuit-related messages) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-9 . The length indicator differentiates between the three types of signal units as follows: z LI = 0: FISU z LI = 1 or 2: LSSU z LI > 2: MSU IV.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part II. each taking four bits as shown in Figure 2-8. MTP Level 3 functions distribute messages to corresponding function modules according to their SIO and indicate whether the message is from an international network or a national network. The unit of LI is octet. Bits A and B are spare bits. Length Indicator The length indicator (LI) is used to indicate the number of octets following the length indicator octet and preceding the check bits.

consists of an integral number of octets. and 63 octets plus SIO. As the processing capacity of processors is elevated. With the development of ISDN services. spanning from 0 to 63. larger capacity of signaling messages is demanded. signal information (SI) and label. The label contains three fields: z Originating point code (OPC) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-10 . Signaling Information Field The SIF. the maximum length of SIF used to be 62 octets. the LI code is not changed. To maintain the former signal unit format. the maximum length of SIF can ascend and has been increased to 272 octets.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part DCBA Meaning Data user part (DUP) (facility registration and cancellation 0 1 1 1 messages) 1 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 Spare Table 2-2 SSF codes allocation D C Network indicator 00 International network 01 Spare (for international use only) 10 National network 11 Reserved for national use V. An SIF is composed of two parts. the message intended to be delivered. The LI value of the signal unit with SIF of 63 or more octets is set to 63. greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to 272. as shown in Figure 2-9. Label SI CIC DPC OPC Figure 2-9 Structure of SIF SI is encoded depending on user part and its message types. The LI value was set to 6 bits. In view of shortening signaling transmission delay. MTP Level 3 functions select a signaling route according to the label.

The backward (retransmission) indicator bit (BIB) indicates the acknowledgements of the received signal unit. The value is "0" or "1". Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-11 . The forward (retransmission) indictor bit (FIB) indicates the current transmitted signal unit. When the BIB is inverted.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 2 Message Transfer Part z Destination point code (DPC) z Circuit identification code (CIC) The least sign four bits in the CIC form the signaling link selection (SLS) code. The backward sequence number (BSN) is the sequence number of a signal unit being acknowledged. the signaling receiving terminal will notify the transmitting terminal to retransmit messages from the BSN +1. When the value of FIB is inverted. VI. the signaling message will be retransmitted. Sequence Numbering and Indicator Bits The forward sequence number (FSN) is the sequence number of the signal unit in which it is carried.

3. as well as its functions and position in the SS7. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-1 . Huawei CDMA system employs the TUP compliant with the ITU-T Recommendation of Blue Book Fascicle V1. 3. 3.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part Chapter 3 Telephone User Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to telephone user part (TUP). TUP messages are carried on the signaling data link by means of MSUs.1 Introduction to TUP The TUP is at layer 4 of the SS7.3.8 (1988).2 TUP Functions The TUP defines the circuit signaling function necessary in the call control signaling of SS7 (signaling messages transmitted between MSCs).L6 SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 3-1 Position of TUP in SS7 3. HLR VLR INAP OMAP MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP ISP L 4 . It is one part of the user part. Figure 3-1 shows the position of TUP in the SS7.3 TUP Messages This section introduces the format and encoding of TUP messages and provides some TUP message examples.1 Format of TUP Messages In SS7.

2 Encoding of TUP Messages TUP messages are encoded by means of label and heading code. F CK SIF SIO LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F 8 16 8n 8 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 n>=2 First bit transmitted 8n 4 4 64 Signaling Information (SI) H1 H2 Label F: Delimitation flag BSN: Backward sequence number BIB: Backward indicator bit FSN: Forward sequence number FIB: Forward indicator bit LI: Length indicator SIO: Service information octet SIF: Signaling information field CK: Check bit Figure 3-2 TUP message structure 3. The UP identifies the particular transaction (e. The length of a label must be a multiple of 8 bits. It basically contains z The label z The heading code (H0. It is used by the message routing function at MTP Level 3 to select the appropriate signaling route. CIC OPC DPC 4 12 24 24 First bit transmitted Figure 3-3 TUP label structure Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-2 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part The signaling information of each message constitutes the SIF of the corresponding signal unit. H1) z One or more signals and/or indications The length of the message is changeable.3. the call) to which the message pertains.g. Figure 3-2 shows the structure of TUP messages. I. Label The label is an item of information that forms part of every signaling message. Figure 3-3 shows the label structure.

A message group identified by an H0 contains a maximum of 16 messages. reserved for international use 1010 Circuit network management messages (CNM) 1011 Reserved for international and basic national use 1100 Successful national backward set-up information messages (NSB) 1101 National call supervision messages (NCB) Unsuccessful national backward set-up information messages (NAM) (out 1110 of service now) Heading Code H1 The heading code H1 occupies 4 bits. identifies the format of these messages. reserved for national use 0001 Forward address messages (FAM) 0010 Forward set-up messages (FSM) 0011 Backward set-up request messages (BSM) 0100 Successful backward set-up information messages (SBM) 0101 Unsuccessful backward set-up information messages (UBM) 0110 Call supervision messages (CSM) 0111 Circuit supervision messages (CCM) 1000 Circuit group supervision messages (GRM) 1001 Spare. when several signal codes and message indicators are contained. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-3 . heading code H0 and heading code H1 that identify each telephone signal. It either contains a signal code or in case of more complex messages. Table 3-1 Coding format of H0 DCBA Meaning 0000 Spare.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part The label contains the following fields: z DPC z OPC z CIC II. Heading Code H0 The heading code H0 occupies 4-bit field following the label to identify up to 16 message groups. Heading Code All telephone signal messages contain a heading consisting of two parts. It is coded as in Table 3-1.

3. Figure 3-4 IAI format The following codes are used in IAI in the MSC: Heading Code H0 Coded 0001. indicating the FAM Heading Code H1 Coded 0010 Calling Party Category The calling party category occupies 6 bits containing 64 kinds of calling party categories. IAI Message In a mobile network. Each kind of message has its own function and format. It is coded as described in Table 3-2. used between the mobile office and 001010 the local office (transit exchange) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-4 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part 3. I. Table 3-2 Calling party category EFDCBA 000000 - Spare 001000 001001 Operator (no interrupting function) Ordinary calling subscriber. an MSC connects with another MSC or a transit exchange using IAIs and forwards initial address messages (IAM) to the local office. The following cites the initial address message with additional information (IAI) as an example to describe the format and encoding of TUP messages.3 Example of TUP Messages There are 65 kinds of TUP messages in SS7. The IAM message comes before the first indicator octet. Figure 3-4 shows the basic format of the initial address message with additional information.

used 010100 between the mobile office and the remote office Calling subscriber with priority. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-5 . for inter-office use (including 010001 international offices) Ordinary calling subscriber. free of charge. printer. user table. periodic. free following charge. periodic. used between the 010000 mobile office and the remote office Ordinary calling subscriber. used between mobile offices 001100 Data call 001101 Test call 001110 Spare 001111 Spare Ordinary calling subscriber. for inter-office use 010101 (including international offices) 010110 Spare 010111 Spare 011000 Ordinary calling subscriber. immediate (received from 010010 the local office only) 010011 Ordinary calling subscriber.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part EFDCBA 001011 Calling subscriber with priority . received from the local office only 011001 - Spare 111111 Message Indicators Table 3-3 lists the message indicators. immediate (receiving only) Calling subscriber with priority.

Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part Table 3-3 Message indicators BA Nature of address indicator 00 Local subscriber number 01 spare 10 national (significant) number 11 international number DC Nature-of-circuit indicator 00 No satellite circuit in the connection 01 One satellite circuit in the connection 10 Spare 11 Spare FE Continuity-check indicator 00 Continuity-check not required 01 Continuity-check required on this circuit 10 Continuity-check performed on a previous circuit 11 Spare G Outgoing echo-suppressor indicator 0 Outgoing half echo suppressor not included 1 Outgoing half echo suppressor included H Incoming international call indicator 0 Call other than international incoming 1 Incoming international call I Redirected call indicator (related to call forwarding) 0 Not a redirected call 1 Redirected call J All-digital-path-required indicator (related to ISDN services) 0 Ordinary call 1 Digital path required k Signaling path indicator 0 Any path 1 All SS7 path L Spare Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-6 .

used in international network connection 1111 ST Filler In case of an odd number of address signals. Table 3-4 Encoding of the address signals 0000–001 Digits 0–9 1010 Spare 1101 Spare 1110 Spare 1011 Code 11 (*). First Indicator Octet (related to additional information) The encoding of the first indicator octet various according to whether or not additional information is attached. used in international network connection 1100 Code 12 (#). Table 3-5 Encoding of the first indicator octet Network capability or user facility information indicator (not in current use. the filler code 0000 is inserted after the last address signal.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part Number of Address Signals A code expressing in pure binary representation the number of address signals contained in the IAM. Table 3-5 describes the encoding of the first indicator octet. set as 0) A Network capability or user facility information not 0 included 1 Network capability or user facility information included Closed user group information indicator B 0 Closed user group information not included 1 Closed user group information included Additional calling party information indicator (unavailable) C 0 Additional calling party information included 1 Additional calling party information not included Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-7 . This ensures that the variable-length field that contains the address signals consists of an integral number of octets. Address Signals Table 3-4 describes the encoding of the address signals.

reserved for national use 10 National significant number 11 International number C Calling line identity presentation indicator Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-8 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part Additional routing information indicator (unavailable) D 0 Additional routing information not included 1 Additional routing information included Calling line identity indicator E 0 Calling line identity not included 1 Calling line identity included Original called address indicator F 0 Original called address not included 1 Original called address included Charging information indicator (unavailable) G 0 Charging information not included 1 Charging information included H Spare Calling Line Identity As shown in Figure 3-5. Table 3-6 Address indicators Nature of address indicator 00 Local subscriber number BA 01 Spare. and calling line identity. DCBA DCBA Number of Calling line Address address identity indicator signals 8n 4 4 First bit transmitted Figure 3-5 Calling line identity field z Address indicators Table 3-6 lists the address indicators. the calling line identity consists of three parts: 4-bit address indicator. 4-bit number of address signals.

used in international network connection 1101 Spare 1110 Spare 1111 ST Original Called Address The original called address is the same as the calling line identity except that the bits D and C of the address indicator are spare. IAM Message Figure 3-6 gives an example of IAM message. Figure 3-6 IAM format The meaning of the values in the message is as follows: 84 Service Indication Octet 10-----.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part 0 Calling line identity presentation not restricted 1 Calling line identity presentation restricted Incomplete calling line identity indicator D 0 No indication 1 Incomplete calling line identity z Number of address signals A code expressing in pure binary representation the number of address signals. Table 3-7 Calling line identity codes 0000-1001 Digits 0-9 1010 Spare 1011 Code 11 (*). z Calling line identity Table 3-7 lists the calling line identity codes. II. used in international network connection 1100 Code 12 (#). Spare bit: Reserved Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-9 . Network Indication: National network --00---.

Spare: 00 010001 DPC: 11 E3 00 00 Maintenance station reserve 2 bytes: 00 00 TUP message 0F Calling party category 00-----.7 path ------0. Spare: 00 --110110 OPC: 36 66 11 E3 00-----. Address signal number: 0B ----0--. Filler: 0 ----0010 2 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-10 . International incoming call indicator: Call other than international incoming -0-----.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part ----0100 Service Indication: TUP 21 Initial address message with additional information (IAI) 00 12 Circuit identity code: 00 12 00 Signaling link selection: 00 36 66 00-----. Continuity-check indicator: Continuity check not required ----00— Circuit nature indicator: No satellite circuit in the connection ------00 Address nature indicator: Subscriber number B4 1011---. Spare: Reserved --001111 Calling party category: Payphone Message indicator 00 0------. Collect call indicator: Not collect call -----1— Signal path indicator: All signaling system No. All-digital-path-required indicator: Ordinary call -------0 Redirected call indicator: Not a redirected call 97 20 69 11 03 02 Address signal: 79029611302 02 of it 0000---. Echo suppressor indicator: Outgoing half echo suppressor not included --00---.

Spare: Reserved -0-----. Original called address indicator: Original called address not included ---1---.Number of address signal: 07 Address indicator ----0--. Incomplete calling line identity indicator: No indication -----0— calling line identity presentation indicator: Calling line identity presentation not restricted ------10 Nature of address indicator: National number 55 05 00 F1 Address signal: 5550001 F1 of it 1111---.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 3 Telephone User Part 10 First indicator octet 0------. Additional routing information indicator: Additional routing information not included -----0-. Additional calling party information indicator: Additional calling party information not included ------0. Closed user group information indicator: Closed user group information not included -------0 Network capability or user facility information indicator: Network capability or user facility information not included Calling party subscriber line identity 72 Calling party subscriber line identity head 0111---. Calling party subscriber line indicator: Calling line identity included ----0--. Charging information indicator: Charging information not included --0----. Filler: F ----0001 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 3-11 .

1 TUP Signaling Transfer Based on MTP There are two types of signaling messages on the telecommunication networks: z Circuit-related message z Non-circuit-related message The following details the advantage and disadvantage of TUP when transferring these two types of signaling messages based on MTP. 4. It is ideal for telephone network. Non-circuit-related messages feature large-capacity transfer with certain time delay. That means all signaling messages are related to call circuits. and the paths for these messages are usually in one-to-one correspondence with call connection paths. Circuit-related messages feature real-time but small-capacity transfer.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to signaling connection control part (SCCP) . Circuit-Related Messages The signaling messages transferred on telephone networks are circuit-related messages. I. III.1. Disadvantages of TUP Signaling Transfer Based on MTP The following describes the disadvantages of TUP signaling transfer of call-related and non-call-related messages. especially digital switching telephone network. II. They are irrelevant to calls or call circuits.1 Introduction to SCCP This section introduces the features of: z TUP signaling transfer based on MTP z SCCP signaling transfer based on MTP 4. Transfer of Call-Related Messages Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-1 . The 4-layer signaling architecture with TUP on MTP enables efficient transfer of various call control and connection control messages. Non-Circuit-Related Messages Non-circuit-related messages are also called node-to-node messages. as well as its functions and position in the SS7.

a SPC is composed of 14 bits. It does not support non-real-time connection-oriented transfer of large amount of messages between network nodes. resulting in inter-network addressing failure.384 due to code limitation. Figure 4-1 shows the relation between SCCP and other functional elements in a signaling network. Transfer of Non-Call-Related Messages MTP selects a route and determines the terminal user according to the DPC and SI.1.2 SCCP Signaling Transfer Based on MTP SCCP and MTP together realize the functions of an OSI network. z According to CCITT specifications. They allow transparent transfer of signaling messages directly between any two SPs. z An SI is composed of four bits. MTP can allocate messages to a maximum of 16 user parts. Therefore. As a result. That is. It transfers messages along the established call connection paths segment by segment. This addressing method has the following disadvantages: z SPC is defined by the network to which the SP belongs. This increases resources waste and transfer delay. the maximum number of SPs on a signaling network is only 16. This capacity is being challenged by ever-increasing service demands. SCCP provides connectionless and connection-oriented network services between exchanges and network centers to transfer signaling messages and other types of information. 4. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-2 . The SCCP and the MTP in this case are referred to as the network service part (NSP). z MTP allows connectionless transfer only.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part TUP is used to set up call connection paths between two exchanges. the code format may be different.

When there is signaling interaction between two of these subsystems. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-3 . However. and so on. z Performs enhanced addressing and routing to realize direct signaling transfer between different SS7 networks worldwide. ISUP and TCAP are the users of SCCP. TCAP utilizes the complete network-layer services provided by SCCP and MTP to provide the following functions: z Realizes long-distance transfer of non-circuit-related messages.L6 SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 4-1 The SCCP in the SS7In the signaling network In SS7 hierarchical architecture. home location register (HLR) . z Provides connectionless and connection-oriented network services. with the help of SCCP. SCCP performs management on these subsystems with the support of the TCAP. telecom administration networks. the signaling messages transferred between two subsystems of the same SP will not go through MTP. These two subsystems can be of the same SP or of different SPs. mobile application part (MAP). the signaling messages to be transferred are encoded for routing in the SCCP before they are transferred to the peer subsystem. realizes end-to-end message transfer and supports related ISDN supplementary services. 4. Operation and maintenance application part (OMAP) . The SCCP provides the following functions: z Transfers non-circuit-related signaling messages.2 Services Provided by SCCP SCCP provides various connectionless and connection-oriented network services to meet different demands for data transfer quality.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part HLR VLR INAP OMAP MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP ISP L 4 . z Supports new services and functions of wireless networks. and visitor location register (VLR) are all referred to as SCCP subsystems. ISUP. intelligent networks.

Data packets with the same SLS are transferred on the same signaling link. z Class 1: In-sequence delivery connectionless service The data from the same information flow are attached with a signaling link selection code (SLS) . z Class 0: Basic connectionless service Signaling messages are transferred independent of one another. Therefore. No message transfer channel needs to be set up before message transfer. Signaling data are transferred on the signaling network.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-4 . Figure 4-2 shows the transfer procedure of UDT. it is guaranteed that messages can be delivered to the destination signaling point in accordance with the transfer sequence. In signaling message transfer. Node 1 Node 2 Node 1 Node 3 Node 4 Node 2 SCCP1 SCCP2 SCCP1 SCCP3 SCCP4 SCCP2 UDT UDT UDT MTP1 MTP3 MTP4 MTP2 (a) Logical transfer path (b) Actual transfer path Figure 4-2 Connectionless transfer of signaling messages Class 0 and Class 1 are connectionless services.2 Connectionless Services Connectionless services are performed similar to the transfer of datagram in packet switching. In connection services. Therefore.2. Therefore.1 SCCP Service Classes The SCCP provides four classes of service: z Class 0: Basic connectionless class z Class 1: In-sequence delivery connectionless class z Class 2: Basic connection-oriented class z Class 3: Flow control connection-oriented class 4. routing function is provided by the SCCP. SCCP converts a called address into a signaling point code that can be recognized by MTP. there is no guaranteed in-sequence delivery of signaling messages to the destination signaling point.2. messages are transferred as a whole (as unit data UDT) instead of being segmented.

data transfer. They are established0 and controlled by the operation Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-5 . and detection of message loss or mis-sequencing. and release). Therefore. Permanent signaling connections are similar to permanent virtual circuits in packet data switching. Temporary signaling connections are always under control (for example. z Class 3: Flow control connection-oriented class The features of class 2 are complemented by the inclusion of flow control. a message transfer channel (logical connection or virtual connection) is established between the originating node and the destination node.3 Connection-Oriented Services Connection-oriented services are performed similar to the packet switching over virtual circuits. during establishment. and reassembled after it is received.2. They are released after the transfer is finished. Connection-oriented services are classified into temporary signaling connections and permanent signaling connections. z Class 2: Basic connection-oriented class This type of service can guarantee that signaling messages are sent in the same sequence as they are received. Before signaling message transmission. expedited data transfer.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4. Node 1 Middle node Node 2 SCCP1 SCCP1 SCCP1 CR CR CC CC DATA DATA DATA DATA RLSD RLSD RLC RLC CR: Connection request CC: Release confirm RLSD: Released RLC: Release complete Figure 4-3 Connection-oriented transfer with a middle node Class 2 and Class 3 are connection-oriented services. The connection-oriented service is suitable for transferring a large amount of data. a long message can be transferred in segments. It is similar to a call connection.

it transfers the UDT to SCCPC. it analyzes the called address. 3) After SCCPC receives the UDT. SSN=USERA z In-sequence control: Sequence z Return selection: Error return z User data 2) After SCCPA receives the primitive. SCCPC transfers the UDT message to the destination SCCPB. The N-UNITDATA Request primitive contains: z Called address: GT (implicit DPC=B.4 SCCP Service Procedure This section describes the signaling procedures of connectionless and connection-oriented services provided by the SCCP. The signaling transfer procedures of temporary and permanent signaling connections are the same.2. I. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-6 . 4. After it determines that the called address is a GT. Mobile subscribers cannot control these connections. Connectionless Services Figure 4-4 shows the transfer of connectionless service messages in GT addressing.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part and maintenance system of the local or a remote MSC or managed by connected nodes. SSN=USERB) z Calling address: DPC=A. SCCP translates the GT of the called address into the following parameters: z DPC=B z SSN=USERB Then It performs addressing according to the DPC and the SSN. If SCCPC finds that the DPC and SSN of the destination SCCP are available. USERA SCCPA SCCPC SCCPB USERB N-UNITDATA Request UDT UDT N-UNITDATA Indication Figure 4-4 Connectionless service in GT addressing The following explains the procedure: 1) USERA sends an N-UNITDATA Request to SCCPA to request for connectionless service data transfer.

II. the SCCP requires setting up a connection section. and transfers user data to USERB. it checks whether resources are available. SCCPA allocates a source local reference and a SLS for the connection section. In actual networks. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-7 . If yes. SCCPC checks whether the resource is available.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4) After SCCPB receives the UDT. it checks whether the called address is a local SCCP user through the routing and diagnosis function. Then it establishes a correspondence between the input connection section and output connection section and determines the protocol class and credit. In this example. 2) After SCCPA receives the N-CONNECT Request. GT translation is completed by SCCPC. and determines protocol class and credit. or centralized in one node. USERA SCCPA SCCPC SCCPB USERB N-CONNECT Request CR CR N-CONNECT Indication N-CONNECT Response CC CC N-CONNECT Confirmation Figure 4-5 Connection-oriented service signaling flow The following explains the procedure: 1) USERA (calling party) sends an N-CONNECT Request to SCCPA to request the signaling connection with USERB (called party). Then SCCPA establishes a correspondence between the called address and the connection section. If the SCCP user is not a local SCCP user. 3) When SCCPC receives the CR message. GT translation may be done by different nodes on the network. it sends an N-UNITDATA Indication to USERB. If yes. Finally it selects the route for the CR message and transfers it to SCCPC. Connection-Oriented Services Figure 4-5 shows the signaling procedure of connection-oriented service provided by the SCCP. SCCPA allocates the received source local reference and SLS for the connection section.

The MTP designated by SPC identifies a destination SP with the received DPC and performs routing to the destination SP. it allocates the protocol class and credit. Then it sends a CC message to the source SCCPC of the connection section by using SCCP routing function. The connection is released after data transfer is finished. through an N-CONNECT Indication. and. After that. If the results are positive. 8) After SCCPA receives the CC message. notifies USERB to establish a connection. It is valid in a SS7 network only.3 SCCP Addressing and Routing There are three types of SCCP address: z Signaling point code (SPC) z Subsystem number (SSN) z Global title (GT) SPC refers to the address of MTP. Then SCCPB determines protocol class and credit. SCCPB allocates the received source local reference and SLS to the input connection section (between the middle node and the destination). In addition. Finally it transfers the CC message to the source SCCPA corresponding to the input connection section by using the SCCP routing function. it allocates the source local reference of the CC to the output connection section. Finally it sends an N-CONNNECT Confirmation to USERA.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part SCCPC forwards the CR message to SCCPB through the routing function without changing the addressing contents of CR message. USERB sends an N-CONNECT Response to the SCCPB. 4) After SCCPB receives the CR message. 5) If the connection is approved. the user can transfer data through the signaling connection. SSN is the local addressing information used by SCCP to identify SCCP users in the same node. it allocates a protocol class and credit. 7) After SCCPC receives the CC message. and allocates the source local reference in the received CC to the connection section. and determines the local reference of input connection section. it checks whether the called address is a local user through the routing and diagnosis function. 4. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-8 . notifying that USERA signaling connection is successful. Then SCCPC determines the protocol class and credit and the local reference for the corresponding output connection section. 6) After SCCPB receives N-CONNECT Response. and whether the destination monitoring has available resources to establish the connection section. it identifies the user of the destination SP according to Service Indicator (SI).

It serves as a supplement to MTP messages in defining subscriber address. GT applies when the destination network address is unknown to the originating node.1 Definition In SS7 layered architecture. cannot perform routing according to GT. SCCP can perform addressing and routing according to the following two types of addresses: z DPC+SSN z GT If SCCP sends GT+DPC+SSN to MAP.4. it must specify whether the routing for message transfer is performed in accordance with GT or DPC+SSN. Layer N+1 is the user of Layer N. SSN. when SCCP sends the DPC or DPC+SSN to MTP. followed by a detailed description of SCCP user and service primitives 4. The calling address and called address in a SCCP message may be any or the combination of SPC. 4. In this process. it needs to specify the numbering plan of the GT. SSNs can be used to represent TCAP. Services are provided by Layer N-1 to Layer N and by Layer N to Layer N+1. When Layer N+1 requests services from Layer N or Layer N provides services to Layer N+1. With the SSN. and GT. and Layer N is in turn the user of Layer N-1. MTP. The SCCP must first translate the GT of the called party into DPC or DPC+SSN. the local addressing range of SI is extended and thus an SS7 network can meet the requirements for future new services development. To realize the information exchange between Layer N+1 and its peer end. The signaling data transferred between these two layers in this process are referred to as primitives. MAP. GT can be used to identify any signaling point and subsystem worldwide. Layer N provides services to Layer N+1. however. any layer can be regarded as Layer N except for the top and the bottom layers.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part For example. the service user shall interact with the service provider. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-9 . Layer N+1 requests that Layer N communicates with the peer Layer N on the basis of the connection provided by Layer N-1 with peer Layer N-1. The upper layer and the lower layer next to layer N is referred to as Layer N+1 and Layer N-1. ISUP. and so on. In addition.4 SCCP Primitives This section gives the definition and structure of SCCP primitives.

USER USER Request Confirmation Response Indication SCCP Message SCCP SCCP Request Confirmation Response Indication MTP MTP Message MTP Figure 4-6 Primitives and messages of MTP and SCCP Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-10 . z Confirmation: A primitive issued by a service provider acknowledge the reception of the response. The lower layer of SCCP is MTP.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Four types of primitives are available: z Request: A primitive issued by a service user to invoke a service element. Indication. The upper layer is SCCP user. and the corresponding primitive is the MTP-primitives. with the MTP messages. and inter-MTP communication. the primitive between the SCCP and its user is N-primitives (also called SCCP user primitives). Inter-SCCP communication is performed with SCCP messages. It is subject to specific service protocol procedure. Note: Not every primitive has all of the four types (Request. Response and Confirmation). z Response: A primitive issued by the peer service user in response to the request. Figure 4-6 shows the primitives and messages of the SCCP and MTP. z Indication: A primitive issued by a service provider to indicate that a service element has been invoked by the service user. Service interfaces from SCCP to upper layer and MTP are defined by primitives and parameters.

and UD" are the primitive parameters. z "UNIDATA" is the generic name. z Generic name: Primitive name.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4. Generic × Specific name Parameters name Figure 4-7 Structure of a primitive z %: Stands for the functional block providing the services (M represents MTP. representing the called address. a signaling message is transferred to the destination in the form of UDT. and N represents SCCP). CGA. When the destination SCCP transfers this data to its user. For example. indicating the direction of primitive flow. calling address and subscriber data.3 SCCP User Primitives Table 4-1 lists the name. z Parameter: Data needed for implementing this service. as shown in Figure 4-7. z "CDA. indicating the service provided and the task shall be completed in addressing layer. and parameters. z Specific name: Primitive type. CGA and UD) Where: z "N" represents the network layer (the SCCP primitive).2 Structure A complete primitive consists of three parts: generic name. specific name.4. protocol type. the indication primitive of the UDT is: N-UNITDATA indication (CDA.4. and parameters of SCCP user primitives. 4. Table 4-1 SCCP user primitives Protocol Generic Specific type Parameters name name 0 1 2 3 Calling address Called address Request N-UNITDATA ª ª Sequence control Indication Return option User data Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-11 .

used to transfer the UDT in connectionless service.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Protocol Generic Specific type Parameters name name 0 1 2 3 Called address Calling address N-NOTICE Indication ª ª Reason for return User data Calling address Called address Request Responding address Indication Receiving response selection N-CONNECT ª ª Response Expedited data selection Confirm Quality of service parameter set User data Connection identification Originator User data N-DISCONNE Request ª ª Responding address CT Indication Connection identification Reason Response request Request N-DATA ª ª User data Indication Connection identification N-EXPEDITE Request User data ª D DATA Indication Connection identification Request Originator Indication N-RESET ª Reason Response Connection identification Confirmation Reason Request N-INFORM ª ª Connection identification Indication QOS parameter set The following describes these SCCP user primitives: z N-UNITDATA: UDT primitive. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-12 .

used to transfer relevant network or user information during data transfer phase in connection-oriented service. destination or transfer point that the SCCP cannot transfer the message in case of the connectionless service. used for Class 3 to transfer expedited data. 4.4. z N-RESET: Reset primitive. This primitive is also used to notify the user of the cause of peer user available or unavailable. z N-DATA: Data primitive. used for disconnection. z MTP-RESUME Indication: Sent by MTP to notify the user that MTP is capable of providing MTP service to the designated destination. used to transfer data in connection-oriented service. z MTP-TRANSFER Indication: MTP message handling function.4 MTP Service Primitives SCCP layer communicates with MTP by exchanging MTP service primitives. z N-INFORM: Inform primitive. z N-DISCONNECT: Disconnection primitive. z MTP-PAUSE Indication: Sent by MTP to indicate that it fails to transfer messages to the designated destination. z MTP-STATUS Indication: Sent by MTP to notify the user that MTP is partially capable of providing MTP service to the designated destination. Table 4-2 lists the MTP service primitives. Table 4-2 MTP service primitive Generic name Specific name Parameters Request MTP-TRANSFER SCCP message Indication MTP-RESUME Indication Affected signaling point MTP-PAUSE Indication Affected signaling point MTP-STATUS Indication Affected signaling point MTP-UPU Indication Affected signaling point The following describes these MTP service primitives: z MTP-TRANSFER Request: Used by SCCP to access MTP signaling message handling function. transferring signaling messages to SCCP. used to establish a connection.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part z N-NOTICE: Notice primitive. used to transfer reset messages in Class 3 protocol and to restart the flow control procedure from initial state. z N-EXPEDITED DATA: Expedited data primitive. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-13 . used to notify the originating end. z N-CONNECT: Connection primitive.

4.1 Format of SCCP Messages SCCP messages encapsulated in the MSUs in MTP before transfer.5 SCCP Messages On receiving the primitive request or response from a user. SCCP encapsulates user data and necessary control and routing information into SCCP messages.5. For a MSU.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4. I. SCCP message is its signaling information field (SIF). Message Structure Figure 4-8 shows the structure of SCCP messages. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-14 .

It provides routing information for the transfer of SCCP messages. z Message type: It identifies different SCCP messages. It is a mandatory byte for all messages. z Mandatory variable part (V): It includes all mandatory parameters with variable length in this message. and determines the function and format of a message.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part F CK SIF SIO LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F Mandatory parameter A Routing label ¡-¡- Message type Mandatory parameter I Mandatory fixed part Parameter M pointer (F) ¡-¡- Mandatory variable Parameter P pointer part (V) Start pointer of optional part Parameter M length Parameter M Optional part (O) ¡-¡- Parameter P length Parameter P Parameter name X Parameter X length Parameter A ¡-¡- Paraemter name Z Paraemter Z length Paraemter Z End of optional parameter Figure 4-8 Structure of SCCP messages The following describes the components of SCCP messages: z Routing label: The structure is DPC+OPC+SLS. z Mandatory fixed part (F): It includes all mandatory parameters with fixed length in this message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-15 .

DT2 and ED are messages used to transfer data after successful connection. z DT1. z IT is used to detect whether the two ends of the connection can work normally.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part z Optional part (O): It includes all optional parameters in this message. UDTS and XUDTS are sent to the originating point to specify the cause if UDT or XUDT fails to reach the destination. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-16 . z CREF is sent to the originating node when the middle node or the destination node lacks sufficient resources. UDTS. XUDT. Table 4-3 SCCP message type and code Protocol class Message type Message type 0 1 2 3 code Connection request (CR) √ √ 0000 0001 Connection confirm (CC) √ √ 0000 0010 Connection refused (CREF) √ √ 0000 0011 Released (RLSD) √ √ 0000 0100 Release complete (RLC) √ √ 0000 0101 Data form 1 (1DT1) √ 0000 0110 Data form 2 (2DT2) √ 0000 0111 Data acknowledgement (AK) √ 0000 1000 Unit data (UDT) √ √ 0000 1001 Unit data service (UDTS) √ √ 0000 1010 Protocol data unit error (ERR) √ √ 0000 1111 Inactivity test (IT) √ √ 0001 0000 Functions of SCCP message types are as follows: z CR and CC are used to establish a connection. and XUDTS are connectionless service messages. z ERR is sent when protocol error is detected. z RLSD and RLC are release signals after data transfer. UDT and XUDT are used to transfer connectionless service data and segmented data of over-length messages. z UDT. Message Type Table 4-3 shows the message types and their codes of various messages. II.

Table 4-4 SCCP message parameters Field Message Code U C R U R D D R R E D C C R L A E E I D L T T S S R T R C E S K D A T T C 1 2 R C R S F D Message type M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Destination M M M M M M M M M M M M M 00000001 local reference Source local M M M M M M M 00000010 reference Called party M M M O O 00000011 address Calling party M M O 00000100 address Protocol class M M M M 00000101 Segmenting/re M 00000110 assembling Receive sequence M 00000111 number Sequencing/se M M 00001000 gmenting Credit O O M M 00001001 Release cause M 00001010 Return cause M O O O 00001011 Reset cause M 00001100 Error cause M 00001101 Data M M O O O O M M M 00001111 Refusal cause M 00001110 End of optional O O O O O O 00000000 parameters Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-17 . Table 4-4 lists all parameter names and their codes.2 Encoding of SCCP Messages A SCCP message contains 17 parameters in total. In the table.5. M stands for "mandatory" and O stands for "optional".Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 4.

The calling and called addresses in a connectionless service message represent the origination and destination of the SCCP message. Calling/called address codes consist of the following units in order: z Address indicator z Signaling code z SSN z GT The following details address indicator. Table 4-5 shows the structure of an address indicator.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part The following describes these parameters: I. Those in a connection-oriented service message represent the source and destination of a signaling connection (not signaling connection section) and are used for connection setup and connection acknowledgement messages. The address consists of one or the combination of signaling point code. Calling Address and Called Address Calling address and called address identify the originating and destination signaling point and the user part. They are allocated by SCCP at both ends of a connection when the connection is set up. and SSN. The parameter is a three-octet field. The "all 1s" codes are reserved for future use. Destination Local Reference and Source Local Reference Destination local reference and source local reference apply to connection-oriented services. and GT. These two references identify the path for later data transfer. SSN. 1: Signaling point code included. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-18 . GT. They are the internal numbers used by the destination of a signaling connection section and the source SCCP to identify this connection section. Table 4-5 Structure of address indicator 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Reserved Routing SSN Signaling point for national GT indicator indicator indicator code indicator use z Signaling point code indicator 0: Signaling point code not included. Address Indicator Address indicator indicates the type of address information contained in the address field. II.

numbering plan and encoding 0011 scheme GT includes translation type.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part z Subsystem indicator 0: SSN not included. 1: Select the route according to the DPC and the SSN in the called address. Table 4-7 Allocation of SCCP SSNs SSN SCCP user 0000 0001 SCCP management 0000 0101 Reserved for compatibility 0000 0110 Home Location Register (HLR) 0000 0111 Visitor Location Register (VLR) 0000 1000 Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 0000 1010 Authentication Center (AC) 1110 1110 Message Center (MC) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-19 . encoding 0100 scheme and nature of address indicator 0101~1110 Spare international 1110~1111 Reserved for extension z Routing indicator 0: Select the route according to the GT in the address. z GT indicator There are four types of GT. It identifies an SCCP user function. numbering plan. Table 4-6 Correspondence between GT type codes and GT types GT type code GT type 0000 GT not included. Table 4-6 shows the correspondence between GT indicator codes (bits) and GT types. 0001 GT includes nature of address indicator only 0010 GT includes translation type only GT includes translation type. 1: SSN included. SSN SSN is a one-octet code. Table 4-7 explains the meanings of SSNs.

Table 4-8. Table 4-10.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part SSN SCCP user 1110 1111 SCP 1111 1100 BSMAP GT There are four types of GT. and Table 4-11 show the structures of these GTs. Table 4-9. Table 4-8 Type 1 GT 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 O/E Nature of address indicator nd st The 2 address signal The 1 address signal … th Filler (if necessary) The N address signal Table 4-9 Type 2 GT 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Translation type nd st The 2 address signal The 1 address signal … th Filler (if necessary) The N address signal Table 4-10 Type 3 GT 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Translation type Numbering plan Encoding scheme nd st The 2 address signal The 1 address signal … th Filler (if necessary) The N address signal Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-20 .

E.69) 0 1 0 1 — Maritime mobile numbering plan (Recommendations E. odd number of digits 0 0 1 0 — BCD.214) Encoding scheme is as follows 0 0 0 0 — Unknown 0 0 0 1 — Binary-Coded Data (BCD). In present CDMA systems. the address information generally does not contain the GT. all-zero codes are used.164) 0 0 1 0 — Generic numbering plan 0 0 1 1 — Data numbering plan (Recommendation X.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Table 4-11 Type 4 GT 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Translation type Numbering plan Encoding scheme Nature of address Spare indicator nd st The 2 address signal The 1 address signal … th Filler (if necessary) The N address signal The following describes the fields in a GT: Nature of address indicator: Nature of the GT 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 — Subscriber number 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 — Reserved for national use 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 — National significant number 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 — International number Numbering plan is as follows: 0 0 0 0 — Unknown 0 0 0 1 — ISDN/telephony numbering plan (Recommendations E. The coding of internal interface in the network subsystem (NSS) uses type 4 GT.121) 0 1 0 0 — Telex numbering plan (Recommendation F.212) 0 1 1 1 — ISDN/mobile numbering plan (Recommendation E. In the A interface SCCP message.163 and E. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-21 . even number of digits Translation type: Coding and definition is to be specified.210.211) 0 1 1 0 — Land mobile numbering plan (Recommendation E.

Protocol Class Table 4-12 lists the protocol classes defined by bits 1–4. bits 5–8 are used to specify message handling as described in Table 4-13: Table 4-13 Handling of messages in case of transfer failure Bits Return message in case Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 of transfer failure 0 0 0 0 No 1 0 0 0 Yes IV.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part III. bits 5-8 are spare. Bit 1 indicates whether more data is followed. Table 4-12 Protocol classes Bits Protocol Class Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 0 0 0 0 Class 0 0 0 0 1 Class 1 0 0 1 0 Class 2 0 0 1 1 Class 3 When bits 1–4 are coded to indicate a connection-oriented-protocol class (class 2. Receive Sequence Number and Credit These two parameters are used in data acknowledgement. They apply to protocol class 3 only. Segmenting/Reassembling The parameter Segmenting/Reassembling determines whether data in the DT1 is to be transferred in several segments and reassembled at the destination. class 3). When bits 1–4 are coded to indicate a connectionless protocol class (class 0. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-22 . It is coded as follows: z M=0: no more data z M=1: more data V. Bits 2–8 are spare. This parameter is a one-octet field. class 1). Receive sequence number indicates the sequence number of the next expected message. It is called M bit.

It contains a window size value coded in pure binary.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Credit is used for flow control function. VII. It is used for DT2. VI. This parameter has two functions: z Indicates the sequence number of a sent message and the number of next expected message to receive for flow control function. Sequencing/Segmenting This parameter consists of two octets. Table 4-14 shows the coding of this field. z Indicates whether the message is segmented. Release Cause The Release Cause parameter is a one-octet field containing the cause for the release of a connection. Table 4-14 Coding of release causes Bits Release Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 cause End user 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 originated End user 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 congestion End user 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 failure SCCP user 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 originated Remote 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 procedure error Inconsistent 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 connection data Access 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 failure Access 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 congestion Subsystem 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 failure Subsystem 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 congestion Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-23 .

used in connectionless protocol UDTS. Return Cause The Return Cause parameter.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Bits Release Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 cause 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 MTP failure Network 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 congestion Expiration of 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 reset timer Expiration of receive 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 inactivity timer 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 Reserved 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Unqualified 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 SCCP failure 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 … … … … … … … … Spare 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VIII. is a one-octet field containing the cause for message return. The coding of the Return Cause field is as shown in Table 4-15 Table 4-15 Coding of return causes Bits Return Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 cause No translation for 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 an address of such nature No translation for 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 this specific address Subsystem 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 congestion Subsystem 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 failure Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-24 .

Reset Cause. User Data This is a variable-length field containing SCCP user data to be transferred transparently between SCCP user functions. X. 4.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part Bits Return Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 cause Unequipped 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 user 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 … … … … … … … … Spare 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IX. Figure 4-9 shows the SCCP message traced on an SS7 link. Refusal Cause. refusal cause and error cause respectively.5.3 Example of SCCP Messages The following is an example of SCCP messages. and Error Cause These three parameters indicate reset cause. Figure 4-9 SCCP message The following explains the message: 83 Service indicator octet field 10⎯⎯ Network indicator: National ⎯00⎯⎯ Spare ⎯⎯0011 Service indicator: SCCP 00 Invalid 00 Circuit identifier: 00 00 00 0A Signaling link selection code: 0A 60 60 60 source code: 60 60 60 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-25 .

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 4-26 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 4 Signaling Connection Control Part 00 0B 11 destination code: 00 0B 11 0A Message type: Connection confirm ******Length fixed mandatory parameter part****** 9A 0E 05 destination local reference number: 9A 0E 05 02 5E 0F source local reference number: 02 5E 0F ******Protocol class part****** 02 ⎯⎯0010 Protocol class: Class 2 0000⎯⎯ Spare 01 Start pointer of optional part: 01 ******Optional part****** Data part 0F Data 0E SCCP user data part length indicator: 14 00 BSSMAP message indication: 00 0C Data length: 0C For the analysis of BSAP messages. see Chapter 8 "Base Station Application Part".

L6 SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 5-1 ISUP position in SS7 As shown in Figure 5-1.1 Introduction to ISUP ISUP is in the 4th functional block of SS7 architecture. z Simple signaling program. as well as its functions and position in the SS7. ISUP supports basic bearer services and supplementary services of ISDN users. 5. non-speech. Figure 5-1 shows the ISUP in the SS7 architecture. ISUP has more functions than TUP.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Chapter 5 ISDN User Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to ISDN user part (ISUP). and supplementary services. ISUP is added with non-speech bearer service protocol and supplementary service protocol based on the TUP. but fewer message types. The features of ISUP are as follows: z Complete message types: Information carried in the message is abundant. corresponding to layers 4–7 function in OSI reference model. z Variable message length: Multiple parameters can be carried. ISUP needs the support of MTP and SCCP. and realizes the functions of TUP and data user part (DUP). HLR VLR INAP OMAP MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP ISP L 4 . z Powerful functions: Supports various speech. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-1 .

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-2 . Low-layer property indicates the necessary bearer capability of a network. The properties of a user terminal service include low-layer. and is irrelevant to the type of terminals. and so on. high-layer.920 kbit/s unrestricted 5. 5.2 ISUP Functions ISUP provides bearer services.2 User Terminal Services User terminal service is application oriented. General property indicates available supplementary service. different terminals can use the same bearer capability.2. user terminal services.2. It only indicates ISDN communication capability. It includes the communication capability provided by a network and that of a terminal. and supplementary services. a videophone terminal requires that the minimum bearer capability is 2 x 64 kbit/s unrestricted. QoS.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part 5. Therefore.1 Bearer Services Bearer service is a low-layer message transfer capability provided by a network. ISUP supports the following user terminal services: z Telephone z Intelligent user telegraph z G2 and G3 facsimile z G4 facsimile z Hybrid mode z Videotext z Videophone 5. For example.2.1 kHz audio z 2 x 64 kbit/s z 384 kbit/s unrestricted z 1. and general properties. ISUP supports the following bearer services: z 64 kbit/s circuit switching unrestricted z Speech z 3. High-layer property indicates the fixed capability of a terminal such as G4 facsimile machine and telephone.3 Supplementary Services Supplementary services are the extra functions provided by a network to complement bearer services and user terminal services. and the property value may be identical with that of the bearer service.

3 ISUP Messages ISUP messages are transferred in the form of MSU. The following details the structure and coding of ISUP messages. The SIF of ISUP messages is in an octet field stack.1 Format of ISUP Messages ISUP messages are transferred in a signaling link through MTP layer.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Supplementary services must be provided together with a bearer service or user terminal service. as shown in Figure 5-2. ISUP provides the following supplementary services: z Call forwarding–unconditional (CFU) z Call forwarding–busy (CFB) z Call forwarding–no answer (CFNA) z Call forwarding–default (CFD) z Calling number identification presentation (CNIP) z Calling number identification restriction (CNIR) z Calling number identification restriction over (CNIR-Over) z Call waiting (CW) z Call transfer (CT) z Three-way calling (3WC) z Conference calling (CC) z Remote feature control (RFC) z Subscriber PIN access (SPINA) z Subscriber PIN intercept (SPINI) z Do not disturb (DND) z Preferred language (PL) z Call forwarding to voice mailbox z Voice message retrieval (VMR) z Message waiting notification (MWN) z Subscriber lock z Feature code service 5. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-3 . The structure of ISUP messages is similar to that of SCCP messages.3. 5.

Routing Label Figure 5-3 shows the format of the routing label in an ISUP message. Each parameter is allocated a name and is encoded according to bytes.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Bit sending sequence 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Common part Routinglabel Circuit Identification Code (CIC) Octet sending sequence Message type code Mandatory fixed part (F) Mandatory fixed part Fn Pointer (Location of parameter V1) Pointer (Location of parameter Vn) Pointer (Start location of optional parameter group) Mandatory variable part V1 Parameter length indicator Parameter content Special part Parameter length indicator Mandatory variable part Vn Parameter content Parameter name Optional parameter O1 Parameter length indicator Parameter content Parameter name Optional parameter On Parameter length indicator Parameter content End of optional parameter field (00) Figure 5-2 ISUP message structure A ISUP message consists of the following parts: z Routing label z Circuit identification code (CIC) z Message type code z Mandatory fixed part z Mandatory variable part z Optional parameters In message transmission.3. The length of a parameter can be fixed or variable.2 Encoding of ISUP Messages Each ISUP message consists of a number of parameters. I. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-4 . and then the optional part. Each variable parameter contains a length indicator indicating the number of bytes in the parameter. the system first transfers the routing label. A length indicator occupies a byte. 5. Each byte is transmitted starting from the least signification bit.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CIC (Least significant bit) 1 Spare CIC (Most significant bit) 2 Figure 5-4 Format of the CIC in a ISUP message III. and the remained 4 bits are spare (0000).Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part SLS OPC DPC 4 4 24 24 Bits sent first Figure 5-3 Format of routing label in the ISUP message DPC: Destination signaling point code. SLS: Signaling link selection code used for load sharing. only the least significant four bits are used. CIC CIC is used for the connection between originating and destination signaling points. the least significant 12 bits are used. Message Type Code Table 5-1 describes the encoding of ISUP messages. OPC: Originating signaling point code. Table 5-1 Encoding of ISUP messages Message type Abbreviation Code Address Complete ACM B00000110 Answer ANM B00001001 Blocking BLO B00010011 Blocking Acknowledgement BLA B00010101 Call Progress CPG B00101100 Circuit Group Blocking CGB B00011000 Circuit Group Blocking Acknowledgement CGBA B00011010 Circuit Group Query CQM B00101010 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-5 . A message code defines the function and format for an ISUP message. II. At present. Figure 5-4 shows the structure of CIC. At present.

Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Message type Abbreviation Code Circuit Group Query Acknowledgement CQA B00101011 Circuit Group Reset GRS B00010111 Circuit Group Reset Acknowledgement GRA B00101001 Circuit Group Unblocking CGU B00011001 Circuit Group Unblocking Acknowledgement CGUA B00011011 Charge Information CRG* B00110001 Confusion CFN B00101111 Connect CON B00000111 Continuity COT B00000101 Continuity Check Request CCR B00010001 Facility FAC B00110011 Facility Accepted FAA B00100000 Facility Reject FRJ B00100001 Facility Request FAR B00011111 Forward Transfer FOT B00001000 Identification Request IDR B00110110 Identification Response IRS B00110111 Information INF B00000100 Information Request INR B00000011 Initial Address IAM B00000001 Loop Back Acknowledgement LPA B00100100 Network Resource Management NRM B00110010 Overload OLM B00110000 Pass Along PAM B00101000 Release REL B00001100 Release Complete RLC B00010000 Reset Circuit RSC B00010010 Resume RES B00001110 Segmentation SGM B00111000 Subsequent Address SAM B00000010 Suspend SUS B00001101 Unblocking UBL B00010100 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-6 .

VI. Mandatory Fixed Part (F) This part contains those parameters that are mandatory and of fixed length. The code Bxxxxxxxx indicates binary Xxxxxxxx. V. the message type define both the number of parameters and the number of pointers. Each optional parameter includes the parameter name and a length indicator followed by parameter contents. thus.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Message type Abbreviation Code Unblocking Acknowledgement UBA B00010110 Unequipped Circuit Identification Code UCIC B00101110 User Part Available UPA B00110101 User Part Test UPT B00110100 User-to-User Information USR B00101101 Operator Information OPR B11111110 Metering Pulse Message MPM B11111101 Calling Party Clear Information CCL B11111100 Note: The item marked with "*" is not used at present. the names of parameters and the length indicators are not included in the message. IV. Optional Part (O) The optional part consists of parameters that may or may not occur in a message. Pointers are used to indicate the beginning of a parameter. "End of optional parameters" octet contains all zeros. The position. length and order of the parameters are uniquely defined by the message type. The name of a parameter and the order in which the pointers are sent is implicit in the message type. Mandatory Variable Part (V) This part contains mandatory parameters of variable length in a message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-7 . Therefore. This part may include fixed length and variable length parameters.

3 Example of ISUP Messages Below is the description of ISUP messages by using the example of the Initial Address (IAM) . I. Table 5-2 Parameters of IAM Parameter name Type Length Remarks Message Type F 1 B00000001 Mandatory Nature of connection indicators F 1 fixed Mandatory Forward call indicator F 2 fixed Mandatory Calling party category F 1 fixed Mandatory Transmission medium request F 1 fixed Mandatory Called party number V 4-11 optional Transit network selection O 4-? Optional Calling party number O 4-12 Optional Optional forward call indicator O 3 Optional Redirecting number O 4-12 Optional Redirection information O 3-4 Optional Closed user group interlock code O 6 Optional Original called number O 4-12 Optional User-to-user information O 3-131 Optional Access transport O 3-? Optional User service information O 4-13 Optional User-to-user indicators O 3 Optional Generic number O 5-13 Optional Propagation delay counter O 4 Optional Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-8 . Table 5-2 describes the parameters of the IAM. including 5 mandatory fixed parameters. and other information related to call connection control.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part 5. 1 mandatory variable parameter. and 29 optional parameters. The IAM contains called party address information.3. Introduction to IAM The IAM can contain at most 35 parameters.

Table 5-3 gives the codes of the parameter.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Parameter name Type Length Remarks User service information O 4-13 Optional Network dedicated performance O 4-? Optional Generic digits O ? Optional Originating International Switching O 4 Optional Center (ISC) point code Future terminal service information O 7 Optional Parameter compatibility information O 4-? Optional Generic notification O 3 Repeated Transmission medium requirement O 3 Optional Location number O 5-12 Optional End of optional parameters O 1 Optional II. Table 5-3 Code of the nature of connection indicators Satellite indicator 00 No satellite circuit in the connection One section of satellite circuit in the 01 BA connection Two sections of satellite circuit in the 10 connection 11 Spare Continuity check indicator 00 Continuity check not required 01 Continuity check required in the circuit DC Continuity check completed in the previous 10 circuit. 11 Spare Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-9 . Encoding of IAM Parameters Message Code 00000001 Nature of Connection Indicators This is a mandatory fixed parameter with one octet field (A–F).

1 Outgoing half echo control device included. Table 5-4 gives the codes of the parameter. Table 5-4 Codes of forward call indicator National/international call indicator A 0 Call to be treated as a national call 1 Call to be treated as an international call End-to-end indicator None (only section by section forward method CB 00 available) 01 Transfer method available End-to-end method indicator CB 10 SCCP method available 11 Transfer mode and the SCCP method available Interworking indicator Interworking not encountered (SS7 signal in all D 0 directions) 1 Interworking encountered End-to-end information indicator E 0 No end-to-end information available 1 End-to-end information available ISDN User Part indicator F 0 ISDN user part not used in all directions 1 ISDN user part used in all directions Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-10 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Echo control device indicator : Outgoing half echo control device not E 0 included. F–H Spare Forward Call Indicator This is a mandatory fixed parameter with the length of two octets (A–M).

Calling Party Category This is a mandatory fixed parameter. used between mobile offices Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-11 . Table 5-5 gives the codes of the parameter. the calling party category is a one-octet field (H–A). Table 5-5 Codes of the calling party category HGFEDCBA Description 00000000 Calling party category unknown (receive only) 00000001–00001000 Spare 00001001 Operator (no insertion function) Ordinary subscriber. Different from the ISUP message of a fixed network. used between a mobile office and 00001010 local office.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part ISDN user part preference indicator: 00 ISDN user part preferred in all directions HG 01 ISDN user part not required in all directions 10 ISDN user part not required in all directions 11 Spare ISDN access indicator I 0 Initial accessing non-ISDN 1 Initial accessing ISDN SCCP method indicator 00 No indicator 01 Connectionless method available KJ 10 Connection-oriented method available Connectionless and connection-oriented methods 11 available L Spare P–M Reserved for national use Note: Bits B–F and J–K constitute a protocol control indicator. and between a mobile office and tandem office 00001011 Preference subscriber.

Example of IAM Figure 5-5 shows an IAM message traced. Figure 5-5 IAM message The following explains the message: 85 Service indicator octet (SIO) 10-----. III. periodic. used between a mobile office and toll 11110100 office (including international office) Preference. Optional parameters are selected in accordance with the basic services and supplementary services supported by the IAM. Network indicator: National network (NAT) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-12 . For example. used between a mobile office and toll 11110101 office (including international office) 11110110–11111111 Spare Other than the above mandatory parameters (including the mandatory variable parameter Called Party Number). immediate (receive only from 11110010 the local office or tandem office) Ordinary. immediate (receive only from local office 11110011 or tandem office) Preference. used between a mobile office and toll 1110001 office (including international office) Ordinary. printer. the IAM also includes 29 optional parameters. Free. if the call transfer service exists. periodic. and generic notification. subscriber table. used between a mobile office and toll office 11110000 (including international office) Ordinary. the IAM parameters shall include redirecting number. free.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part HGFEDCBA Description 00001100 Data call 00001101 Test call 00001110–11101111 Spare Ordinary. redirection information. original called number.

ISDN user part indicator: ISDN user part used in all directions ---0---. End-to-end information indicator: no end. Echo control device indicator: outgoing half echo control device not included ----00. Interworking indicator: no interworking encountered -----00. SCCP method indicator: no indicator Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-13 . Spare: 00 ---0---.end information available ----0--. Continuity check indicator: continuity check not required ------00 Satellite indicator: no satellite circuit in the connection Forward call indicators 20 00-----. Spare --110110 DPC: 36 66 00 00 Maintenance station reserve 2 bytes: 00 00 00 Nature of connection indicators 000----.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part --00---. collect call indicator: not collect call ----0--. End-to-end method indicator: no end. Spare ----0101 Service indicator: ISUP 01 Message type: Initial Address (IAM) 00 01 Circuit identification code: 00 01 01 Signaling Link Selection: 01 11 00-----.end method available -------0 National/international call indicator: call to be treated as a national call 01 000----.to.to.Reserved for national use: 00 ---0---. Spare --010001 OPC: 11 E3 E3 36 66 00-----. spare -----00.ISDN user part preference indicator: ISDN user part preferred in all directions --1----.

address complete 23 32F 0F 0000---. Odd/even indicator: odd number of address signals -0000001Nature of address indicator: subscriber number 90 1------.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part -------1 ISDN access indicator 0A Calling party’s category: ordinary calling subscriber 00 Transmission medium requirement: speech 02 Pointer to mandatory variable part: 02 06 Pointer to start of optional part: 06 ******Mandatory Variable part****** Called party number 04 Length indicator of Called party number: 04 81 1------.164) ----0000 Spare Address signal. Filler: 0 ----1111 F ******Optional part****** 08 Optional forward call indicator 01 Length indicator of Optional forward call indicators: 01 00 Optional forward call indicators 0------. F indicates ST.Numbering plan indicator: ISDN (Telephony) numbering plan (Recommendation E. Simple segmentation indicator: no additional information will be sent ------00 Closed user group call indicator: non−CUG call 0A Calling party number 07 Length indicator of calling party number: 07 03 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-14 . Internal network number indicator (INN ind): routing to internal network number not allowed -001---. Connected line identity request indicator: not request -0000--.spare: 00 -----0-.

Extension indicator: last octet -00----.Numbering plan indicator: ISDN numbering plan ----00. ------11 Screening indicator: network provided Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-15 .Numbering plan indicator: ISDN numbering plan ----01. address complete 09 92 16 31 50 Calling party number 0929611305 1D User service information 03 Length indicator of User service information: 03 80 1------. Odd/even indicator: odd number of address signals -0000011 Nature of address indicator: national number 97 1-------. Address presentation restricted indicator: presentation restricted. Transfer mode: circuit mode ---10000 Information transfer rate: 64kibit/s A3 Other information: A3 31 Propagation delay counter 02 Length indicator of Propagation delay counter: 02 00 00 Propagation delay counter: 00 00 3F Location number 03 Length indicator of Location number: 03 83 1------. F indicates ST. Odd/even indicator: even number of address signals -0000011 Nature of address indicator: national number 13 0------. Calling party number incomplete indicator (NI): complete -001---. Extension indicator: last octet -00----.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part 0------. as described below ---00000 Information transfer capability: speech 90 1------. Address presentation restricted indicator: presentation allowed ------11 Screening indicator: network provided Address signal. Coding standard: ITU-T standardized coding. Internal network number indicator: routing to internal number not allowed -001---.

address complete 0F 0000---.Filler: 0 ----1111 F 00 End of optional parameter Huawei Technologies Proprietary 5-16 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 5 ISDN User Part Address signal. F indicates ST.

TCAP is directly involved in data transfer. That is. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-1 . the transaction capability (TC) protocol is applied. as well as its functions and position in the SS7. The former corresponds to Layer 7 of the OSI model.1 Introduction to TCAP With the development of telecommunication networks. The TC protocol provides general standards for the applications as a whole instead of for a particular application. 6. Layers 4–6.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to transaction capabilities application part (TCAP). administration. message transfer functions are separated from call control functions. Figure 6-1 shows the position of TCAP in the SS7 network. In the CDMA system only TCAP is involved. The TC consists of transaction capability application part (TCAP) and intermediate service part (ISP). Such services include the intelligent services like freephone (FPH) and virtual private network (VPN) . They serve as the interface between several applications and one particular service. These services and applications are irrelevant to call control. maintenance and provision (OAM&P) and mobile application part (MAP). That is. as well as the operation. and the latter. They are provided on the basis of the correlation between: z Exchanges z Exchanges and network service centers z Subscribers and network service centers To address these demands. Transaction capabilities are functions that control non-circuit-related information transfer between two or more signaling nodes through the SS7. more services are demanded.

L6 SCCP L3 MTP-3 L2 MTP-2 L1 MTP-1 Figure 6-1 Position of TCAP in the SS7 network Currently there are two TCAP standards: z TCAP defined by International Telecommunication Union .2 TCAP Structure TCAP is divided into z Component sublayer (CSL) : responsible for operation administration z Transaction sublayer (TSL) : responsible for transaction administration The CSL communicates with TC user over TC primitive interface and with the TSL over TR primitive interface. TC User A TC User B TC-Primitive TC-Primitive CSL CSL T T C TR.Primitive SS7 NetWorks Figure 6-2 Structure of TCAP Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-2 . 6.Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) z TCAP defined by American National Standard Institute (ANSI) CDMA system uses the latter standard.Primitive A A P P TSL TSL N.Primitive N.Primitive C TR.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part HLR VLR INAP OMAP MAP BSAP ISUP TUP L7 TCAP ISP L 4 . Figure 6-2 shows the structure of TCAP.

6. A user at this layer is referred to as a TR user. Therefore. and each of these sessions is marked with a unique ID. respectively responsible for the control of sessions and the processing of components. two sorts of sessions are defined: layered and non-layered sessions. Communication between the CSL of the same level (also the TC users of the same level) is referred to as a session. There is no division of initialization. in ANSI TCAP.2. as well as the detection of errors and subsequent troubleshooting during sessions. TSL is responsible for the management on the initialization.2 Component Sublayer CSL consists of the dialog portion and component portion. That is. A session is the process of TCAP message exchange between two TC users performed in the signaling exchange to realize the provisioning of a particular service. More than one session can proceed between two TC users. transactions). and termination phases for a session of this type.2. Layered Session A layered session contains three phases: initialization. transaction and session are regarded as equivalent concepts. In ANSI TCAP. and termination. each of which reflects the request for the execution or results of a particular operation. In Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-3 . proceeding and termination of sessions. proceeding (also TCAP message exchange).1 Transaction Sublayer TSL is responsible for the signaling exchange between TC users and the transaction management in this process. II. Similar to connection-oriented data transfer. This definition is made from the point of view of session management. these three phases are initiated by TC users. The initiation and termination of message exchange and the sequence of messages exchanged are controlled and explained by TC users. proceeding. no TCAP transaction is established. A TCAP message exchanged in a session contains one or several components. Non-Layered Session A non-layered session is similar to a connectionless transfer of SCCP.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part 6. Currently the only TR user defined is the CSL. The protocol applied is also applicable to all application service related sessions (that is. I. It contains only a unidirectional TCAP message sent by the local end and no reply is expected. and does not involve actual applications.

3. and tag code. the Invoke ID of a component must be perceived differently from an operation code that is defined by a TC user. A tag may contain one or several octets.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part some cases such a message may contain no component and this type of messages are responsible for the control of the session only.1). and will not be analyzed or processed by TCAP. That is. Tag IE Length Contents Figure 6-3 Structure of TCAP IE I. Table 6-1 Structure of TCAP message tag BIT7 BIT6 BIT5 BIT4 BIT3 BIT2 BIT1 BIT0 Class Form Tag Code Class 00: Universal Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-4 . and is invoked by this ID with other components. Tag The tag identifies an IE and describes the contents of the IE. See Table 6-1 for the structure of a tag.3 TCAP Messages The encoding of TCAP message complies with the specifications in abstract syntax notation one (ASN.1 Encoding of TCAP Messages All information elements (IE) are formed in the designated “Tag + Length + Contents” format. form. A tag is composed of class. The indication of an Invoke ID is determined by the actual application. as shown in Figure 6-3. 6. 6. Each component is marked with a unique Invoke ID. The Invoke ID is defined only for CSL to recognize different components and perform monitoring and management on the components.

That is. this octet is “0X81”). Tag Code Class Form 11111 Ext MSB 1 Ext LSB 0 Figure 6-5 The format of a tag containing more than one octets II. the range for the tag code is 00000–11110.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part 01: Application wide 10: Context specific 11: Private use Form 0: Primitive 1: Constructor Tag Code A tag code is formed by taking out the bits 0–4 in the tag when the tag contains only one octet. z If the first bit (bit 0) in the second octet is “1” (for example. Short Form Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-5 . When the tag has extension octets. suppose bits 0–4 in the first 8 bits are “11111” (binary). it indicates that this is the last octet of the tag. as shown in Figure 6-4. it does not include the tag field or the length field itself. the tag code is formed by taking out bits 0–4 from the first octet and adding it to the extension octets. “0X9F” (hexadecimal).11110) Figure 6-4 The format of a tag containing one octet In a tag that contains more than one octets. this octet is “0X02”). z If the first bit (bit 0) in the second octet is “0” (for example. that is. Length The length field is coded to indicate the number of octets in the contents of an IE. Tag Code Class Form (00000 . In a tag that contains only one octet. it indicates that there is another octet that follows.

the length contains two octets. the length contains one octet.1 MSB LSB MSB Length of contents LSB Figure 6-7 Length of contents – the long form Indefinite Form The indefinite form is one octet long. that is. Examples If the contents of the TCAP message are within 0x00 (hexadecimal) to 0x7F (hexadecimal) octets long. See Figure 6-7. The maximum length of an IE is determined by the maximum length of SCCP messages. with bit 7 set to “0”. the long form is used. Indefinite form is applicable to IEs of any length. If the contents of a TCAP message are 0x90 (hexadecimal) octets long. The length of the contents is encoded from the second octet on. the length contains two octets.the short form Long Form When the contents are longer than 127 octets. serving as the tag of the indefinite code instead of indicating its length. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-6 . with the MSB as the bit 7 of the second octet and the LSB as the bit 0 of the last octet. It has the fixed value 10000000. 0x81 0x90. that is. Bits 0 to 6 of this octet encode a number less than the size of the length whose most significant bit (MSB) and least significant bit (LSB) are bits 0 and 6 respectively. 1 Size of length . the short form is then used. 0 Length of contents MSB LSB Figure 6-6 Length of contents -. The length contains one octet. 0x81 0x80.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part When the contents in an IE are shorter than 128 octets. Indefinite form can be used to replace long or short form when the IE is a combination. See Figure 6-6. Bit 7 of the first octet is coded “1”. If the contents of a TCAP message are 0x80 (hexadecimal) octets long.

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If the length is 0x82 0x01 0x00, the contents of the TCAP message is 0x01 00
(hexadecimal) octets long, that is, 256 (decimal) octets long.

Note:
In ANSI standards, an IE with the length “0” does not have any contents. While in
ITU-T standards, an IE with the length “0” is one that does not actually exist.

III. Contents

Contents are the substance of an IE, containing the primary information the element is
intended to convey.
IEs are classified into atomic IE and constructor IE.
The contents in an atomic IE are inseparable.
The contents in a constructor IE contain other IE who has a similar structure. The
length of a constructor IE is the integer multiple of octet.

6.3.2 Format of TCAP Messages

A TCAP message includes three portions: transaction portion, dialog portion, and
component portion, as shown in Figure 6-8.

Transaction Portion

Dialog Portion

Component Portion

Figure 6-8 TCAP message structure

The transaction portion is mandatory, and the dialog portion and component portion
are optional. However, either the dialog portion or the component portion (or both)
must be present in a TCAP message.

6.3.3 Transaction Portion

The following introduces the elements of transaction portion.

I. Package Type Identifier

The package type identifier is used to differentiate the TCAP package type in a TCAP
message. One byte is used to indicate the package type identifier.

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Table 6-2 lists the TCAP package types and codes.

Table 6-2 TCAP package type identifier

Package Type Code Description
This transaction package type sends information in
Unidirectional 0xE1 one only direction without reply. No TCAP transaction
is established.
This transaction package type initiates a TCAP
Query with transaction and informs the destination node (that is,
0xE2
permission the node that receives the message) that it may end
the TCAP transaction.
This transaction package type initiates a TCAP
Query without
0xE3 transaction and it informs the destination node that it
permission
may not end the TCAP transaction.

This transaction package type ends the TCAP
Response 0xE4
transaction.

This transaction package type is the continuation of
Conversation with
0xE5 the TCAP transaction and it informs the destination
permission
node that it may end the TCAP transaction.

Conversation This transaction package type is the continuation of
without 0xE6 the TCAP transaction and it informs the destination
permission node that it may not end the TCAP transaction.
This transaction package type informs the destination
node that the source node has terminated the
Abort (P-Abort) 0xF6 established TCAP transaction without sending any
pending components that may be expected due to a
prior message.
This transaction package type informs the destination
node that the source node has terminated the
Abort (User-Abort) 0xF6 established TCAP transaction without sending any
pending components that may be expected due to a
prior message.

The Unidirectional is adopted only by T-ANSWER and O-ANSWER in the
provisioning of CDMA IN services.
Table 6-3 shows the correspondence between TCAP package type and IE.

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Table 6-3 Correspondence between TCAP package type and cell

Unidirectiona

Conversation

Conversation

(user-abort)
Package type

permission

permission

permission

permission
Query with

Response

(p-abort)
without

without
Query

Abort

Abort
IE

with
l
IE
Type Tag
name
0xE1
/0xE
2/0x
E3/0
Transac Constru x
M M M M M M M M
tion ID ctor E4/0
xE5/
0xE6
/0xF
6

P-Abort Primitiv 0XD Non No Non
None None None None M
Cause e 7 e ne e

User-Ab
Primitiv 0XD Non No Non
ort None None None None M
e 8 e ne e
Cause
Dialog Constru Non
0XF9 O O O O O O O
Portion ctor e
Compo
nent Constru 0XE Non Non
M O O O O O
Sequen ctor 8 e e
ce

Note:
The dialog portion and component portion do not belong to the transaction portion.
This table only describes the IEs contained by each TCAP package type.

II. Total TCAP Message Length

This length field indicates total message length.

III. Transaction ID

The transaction ID includes the originating transaction ID and responding transaction
ID. They are used to realize simultaneous interaction of several transactions between
two entities. If they two appear together, the responding transaction ID is always
presented after the originating transaction ID.

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IV. P-Abort Cause

This ID indicates the cause of a P-Abort message, as described in Table 6-4.

Table 6-4 P-Abort causes

Cause Cause description Code
Unrecognized Package The package type tag is not included in
0x01
Type Table 6-2.

Incorrect (Mistyped) The transaction portion is incorrectly
0x02
Transaction Portion tagged.
Basic errors such as length error
Badly Structured
occurred to the codes of the transaction 0x03
Transaction Portion
portion.
The transaction ID received is
Unassigned Responding
mismatched with the ongoing 0x04
Transaction ID
transaction.

Permission to Release
P-abort cause is not clear currently. 0x05
Problem

The resources at the TSL are insufficient
Resource Unavailable 0x06
for establishing transactions.
Unrecognized Dialog
The ID for the dialog portion is incorrect. 0x07
Portion ID

Badly Structured Dialog Some codes are lost for the dialog
0x08
Portion portion.

Missing Dialog Portion The mandatory dialog portion is lost. 0x09
The contents of the dialog portion are
Inconsistent Dialog Portion mismatched with the status of the 0x0A
transaction.

V. User-Abort Cause

This IE indicates the cause of TC user aborting transaction.

VI. Dialog Portion

The dialog portion does not belong to the transaction portion and it is a part of
component sublayer. For details, refer to section 6.3.4 "Dialog Portion".

VII. Component Sequence

Actually the component sequence is not a part of the transaction portion. It is a part of
the component portion used to indicate the sequence of one or several components.
The components are processed in the sequence that they are received. ANSI-41
standard requires that each transaction correspond to an individual component only.

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I.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part 6. Used to report the invocation failure Return Error 0xEB of particular application.4 Dialog Portion Table 6-5 lists the IEs contained in the dialog portion. Component Sequence Identifier This filed identifies the component sequence and is coded “E8”.5 Component Portion The following introduces the elements of component portion. Component Type Identifier This field encodes the type of the component.3. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-11 . Component Sequence Length This filed encodes the total length in octet of the component sequence. Used to report the status of a Reject 0xEC Component or Transaction of being accepted or rejected. III. Table 6-5 IEs contained in the dialog portion Dialog Portion Optional/Mandatory Protocol Version Optional Integer Application Context Optional User Information Identifier Optional Integer Security Context Optional Confidentiality Identifier Optional 6.3. Used to request for the return of Return Result (Last) 0xEA results for particular application. Table 6-6 gives the correspondence between component types and component type identifiers. Table 6-6 Correspondence between component types and component type identifiers Component Type Component Types Remarks Identifier Used to request for the invocation of Invoke (Last) 0xE9 remote application process. II.

Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part Component Type Component Types Remarks Identifier Used to request for the initiation of a Invoke (Not Last) 0xED remote application. Return Result (Not Used to return the results for 0xEE Last) particular application. Table 6-7 Correspondence between component types and IEs Component Type IE Invoke Return Result Return Error Reject IE name IE type Tag Component Primitive 0XCF M M M M ID Operation 0XD0/0XD Primitive M None None None Code 1 0XD3/0XD Error Code Primitive None None M None 4 Problem Primitive 0XD5 None None None M Code Construct Parameter 0XF2 M M M M or IV. Table 6-7 lists the IEs contained in various types of components. Component Length This IE indicates the length of the component (excluding the fields of component type identifier and component length). It correlates the Invoke of an operation and the Response. z Correlation ID: Received from the Invoke ID in the response to the initiation of an operation. V. Component ID The component ID identifies a particular component. It is mandatory only if an invoke ID is present in the corresponding invoke. z Invoke ID: Assigned by the initiator of an operation. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-12 .

Operation Code The operation code indicates the operation to be initiated by a TC user. Problem Code This field indicates the reason the component or transaction portion was rejected. Parameter It indicates a particular parameter.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part VI. It is application specific and is unexamined by the TCAP.114. Network Indicator: National --00---. IX.114. For more information. VIII. VII. refer to ANSI-T1. Figure 6-9 RUIDIR message The following describes the values in this message: 83 Network Indicator 10-----. For more information. It is application specific and is unexamined by the TCAP.6 Example of TCAP Messages Figure 6-9 gives an example of a TCAP message: the remote user interactive directive (RUIDIR) message. It is application specific and is unexamined by the TCAP. Spare ----0011 Service Indicator: SCCP 00 Invalid Bit 00 00 Circuit Identification Code 01 Signaling Link Selection Code 77 77 77 Originating Signaling Point Code Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-13 .3. It can be National or Private. 6. Error Code The error code provides the reason why a specific operation could not be completed. refer to ANSI-T1.

The rest of the parameters are MAP related.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 6 Transaction Capabilities Application Part FE 55 55 Destination Signaling Point Code 09 Unit Data (UDT) Message Type 00 Return upon Absence of Class 0 Protocol (Non-Sequential Connectionless Service) Setting 03 Mandatory Variable Pointer 1 10 Mandatory Variable Pointer 2 1D Mandatory Variable Pointer 3 0D 12 08 00 61 04 64 00 03 59 5515 00 F0 Called Address 460030955551000 0D 12 06 00 60 04 64 00 03 19 11 01 00 F0 Calling Address 460030911110000 3A SCCP User Data Length Indicator (Length: 58 bytes). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 6-14 . Refer to Chapter 7 "Mobile Application Part" for details. E6 TCAP Message Package Type: CONVERSATION WITHOUT PERMISSION 38 TCAP Message Length C7 Transaction ID 08 Transaction ID Length 59 05 01 38 9A 00 01 5C Transaction ID Contents E8 Component Sequence Identifier 2C Component Sequence Length E9 Component Type Identifier (Invoke Last) 2A Component Type Identifier Length CF Component Type Identifier 01 Component Identifier Length 4D Contents D1 Operation Code Identifier 02 Operation Code Length 09 0D Operation Code Contents: Remote User Interactive Directive (compliant with ANSI-41 protocol).

mobility management. The following describes these interfaces. z A interface The A interface is between the network subsystem and base station subsystem.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part This chapter introduces the concepts related to mobile application part (MAP). These network entities include: z Mobile switching center (MSC) z Visitor location register (VLR) z Home location register (HLR) z Authentication center (AC) z Message center (MC) z Service control point (SCP) Figure 7-1 presents the interfaces between these entities. BTS management. all interfaces in the CDMA network can transmit MAP messages.1 Introduction to MAP MAP is a specialized functional entity for a public land mobile network (PLMN) to achieve intra-network and inter-network connections. as well as its functions and position in the SS7. z B interface Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-1 . and so on. MAP specifies intersystem data transfer between the network entities in a CDMA network to support mobile roaming. This interface carries messages related to MS management. call processing. SCP HLR C/D T1 E A MSC/ MS BSS MSC/ VLR Q VLR MC MS: Mobile station BSS: Base station subsystem Figure 7-1 CDMA network architecture Except for the A interface. 7.

In a mobile terminated short message service. z Provides user data for other services. This interface also carries supplementary services operation messages. E interface carries messages between the MSCs to initiate and implement handoff operations. the MC obtains. VLR and HLR exchange MS location and subscriber management information to ensure that the subscribers in the serving area can make and receive calls normally. This section describes the MAP functions.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part B interface is VLR to MSC interface. z E interface E interface is between two MSCs. z D interface D interface is VLR to HLR interface. MAP enables intersystem information transfer in the following procedures in a CDMA network.1 MAP Management Functions MAP location and data management are the basic functions of CDMA network. over this interface.2. z Protects network resources from being accessed by illegal users. 7.2 MAP Functions MAP implements intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN interworking functions and operations. 7. C interface and D interface may share physical links. the number of serving MSC from HLR through GMSC. z Maintains data consistency between VLR and HLR. the MSC requests location information from the VLR and notifies the VLR to update the location information of a MS. Through this interface. Note: In actual implementation. The functions include: z Realizes automatic roaming and roaming restrictions. the B interface becomes an internal interface. the GMSC obtains roaming number from the HLR through the C interface. In a mobile terminated call. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-2 . Over this interface. z C interface C interface is MSC to HLR interface. As a result. MSC and VLR are usually integrated into one physical entity. controlling the handoff of MSs between to neighbor MSCs.

III. This includes the authentication for location registration. z Bulk deregistration z Unreliable roaming II. z Forwarding request: Obtains the forwarding number. handoff forward. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-3 . Authentication Management The purpose of MAP authentication management is to prevent illegal subscribers from accessing the system. Handoff management function includes: z Basic handoffs. handoff backward. Handoff Management Handoff management function enables subscribers to move freely without affecting the connection quality. MAP handoff management complies with protocols. Call Functions MAP call functions include: z Origination request: Obtains calling subscriber data from the HLR or SCP. It also includes the subscriber authentication and periodic authentication performed by the authentication center (AC) using its algorithms. Location Management MAP involves in the following operations: z Power-up registration: Used in user location registration. qualification authentication. namely. mobile originated calls. and handoff to a third party. and user data access z Power-down registration z Default registration: Used in the registration in the case of no user data available when a call is originated z Location cancellation z Qualification request: Obtains the subscriber service list and qualification period z Qualification directive: Maintains consistency of subscriber service list between HLR and MSC. ensuring the interconnection between equipment of different suppliers and roaming in different MSCs.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part I. z Location request: Obtains location information of the called party from the HLR. z Transparent signaling transmission after handoff z MAP circuit management IV. and mobile terminated calls.

Each operation is defined by a set of elements including: z Operation name. z Intelligent announcement playback MAP supports the intelligent peripherals module (IPM) in the MSC and a standalone intelligent peripheral (IP) . Intelligent Services MAP supports the following intelligent services: z Intelligent control MAP applies for processing related to intelligent services and obtains related data such as Trig Type. VI. 7. code.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part V. and type z Invoke parameter z Success parameter z Failure code and parameter z Linked operations allowed Table 7-1 lists the MAP operations. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-4 . MAP can identify and support feature operations intended to the service control point (SCP) . When the MSC is recovered. The data is then forwarded by the MAP to the SCP. Supplementary Service Support MAP supports various call-related and non-call-related supplementary services. The processing result is passed to MAP and forwarded to SCP. TOD and TDO. MAP can also receive call control instructions initiated by the SCP and forward the instructions to the related call module.2. Upon receiving instructions from the call module. The processing result is transmitted from the SCP to the MAP and forwarded to the related call module. z SCP-based forwarding services Intelligent subscribers can subscribe to forwarding service at the SCP. the MAP sends a TBUSY or TNOANS message to the SCP to obtain the forwarding number and forwards the information to the call module to continue the forwarding operation.2 MAP Operations Implementation of each MAP function contains several operations. the MAP initiates a recovery operation on the related SCP. It also transmits call records after the SCP sends an abnormality recovery request. z Pre-paid charging (PPC) In a PPC service. MAP restores the MSC or SCP in case of abnormality. such as conference calling.

Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part Table 7-1 MAP operations Operation code Abbreviation Label Handoff Measurement HANDMREQ 01 Facilities Directive FACDIR 02 Mobile On Channel MSONCH 03 Facilities Release FACREL 05 Qualification Request QUALREQ 06 Qualification Directive QUALDIR 07 Blocking BLOCKING 08 Unblocking UNBLOCKING 09 Reset Circuit RESETCKT 0A Trunk Test TTEST 0B Trunk Test Disconnect TTESTDISC 0C Registration Notification REGNOT 0D Registration Cancellation REGCANC 0E Location Request LOCREQ 0F Routing Request ROUTREQ 10 Feature Request FEATREQ 11 Unreliable Roamer Data Directive UNRELDIR 14 MS Inactive MSINACT 16 Transfer To Number Request TRANUMREQ 17 Redirection Request REDREQ 18 Flash Request FLASHREQ 1A Authentication Directive AUTHDIR 1B Authentication Request AUTHREQ 1C Base Station Challenge BSCHALL 1D Authentication Failure Report AFREPORT 1E Count Request COUNTREG 1F Bulk Deregistration BULKDEREG 22 Handoff Measurement Request HANDMREQ 23 Handoff Back HANDBACK 25 Handoff To Third HANDTHIRD 26 Authentication Directive Forward AUTHDIRFWD 27 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-5 .

z Category 3 operations: Report is required only in the case of operation success. z Category 4 operations: Report is not required. Note: The above operation codes do not cover the newly added intelligent service operations. it is considered success. category 4 only contains OANSWER and TANSWER operations. it is considered operation failure z For categories 2 and 4. For the sake of security. the operation time limit must be specified. Other operations are all classified to category 1.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part Operation code Abbreviation Label Authentication Status Report ASREPORT 28 Information Directive INFODIR 2A Information Forward INFOFWD 2B Inter System Answer ISANSWER 2C Origination Request ORREQ 2F Random Variable Request RANDREQ 30 Remote User Interaction Directive RUIDIR 32 SMS Delivery Backward SMDBACK 33 SMS Delivery Forward SMDFWD 34 SMS Delivery Point To Point SMDPP 35 SMS Notification SMSNOT 36 SMS Request SMSREQ 37 MAP operations are classified into four categories: z Category 1 operations: Report is required regardless of the operation result. processing is as follows: z For categories 1 and 3. In the case of a successful operation. the error is reported. the result is reported. in the case of an unsuccessful operation. Currently. If no report is received in the time limit. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-6 . when MAP originates a remote operation. z Category 2 operations: Report is required only in the case of operation failure.

Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part 7.3. a TCAP component can be translated to a MAP message based on the invoke ID. For detailed information.3.3. Thus. MTP SCCP TCAP message MAP message message message Figure 7-2 Structural relation between MAP and MTP messages MAP messages are coded in ASN. and TCAP.3 MAP Messages MAP messages are transferred based on the services provided by MTP. The invoke ID is the unique identifier of a MAP message. 7.2 Encoding of MAP Messages MAP messages are encoded in the same way as TCAP messages. 7.3 Example of MAP Messages Take the Registration Notification message as an example.3 "TCAP Message".1 Format of MAP Messages In the SS7.1 format. 7. Figure 7-3 Registration Notification message traced on a SS7 link Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-7 . Figure 7-2 shows the structural relation between MAP and MTP messages. The message type is in one to one correspondence with the operation code in the TCAP component. refer to section 6. MAP messages are transmitted as part of TCAP messages. In message transmission. SCCP. Figure 7-3 shows the message traced on a SS7 link of the MSC. one MAP message corresponds to one invoke ID.

report required. 116 bits E2 TCAP Package Type: QUERY WITH PERMISSION 72 Total TCAP Message length C7 Transaction ID identifier 04 Transaction ID length 98 00 01 5C Transaction IDs E8 Component Sequence identifier 6A Component Sequence length E9 Component Type identifier (Invoke Last) 68 Component length CF Component ID identifier 01 Component ID length 4C Component IDs D1 Operation Code 02 Operation Code length 09 0D Operation Code: Registration Notification (employing ANSI-41 standard) F2 Parameter Set Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-8 . Spare ----0011 Service indicator: SCCP 00 Invalid bits resulting from signaling link tracing 00 00 Circuit identification 05 Signaling link selection FE 55 55 Originating signaling point code (OPC) 77 77 77 Destination point code (DPC) 09 Unit data message type (UDT) 80 Class 0 protocol (Non-sequential connectionless service).Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part The following explains the message: 83 10-----. Network indicator: national network --00---. 03 Mandatory variable pointer 1 10 Mandatory variable pointer 2 1D Mandatory variable pointer 3 0D 52 06 00 61 04 64 00 03 59 53 03 00 01 Called address 460030953530001 0D 12 07 00 61 04 64 00 03 59 5515 00 00 Calling address 460030955551000 74 SCCP user data part length indication.

96 System My Type 01 System My Type length 00 System My Type content 9F 20 PC_SSN 05 PC_SSN Length 05 55 55 FE 07 9F PC_SSN Content 67 Sender Identification Number 0C Sender Identification Number length 00 31 61 0F 64 00 03 59 55 15 10 00 00 Sender Identification Number content 9F 22 System Access Type 01 System Access Type length 03 System Access Type content 9F 31 System Capacity 01 System Capacity length 0F System Capacity content 9F 2F Terminal Type 01 Terminal Type length 20 Terminal Type content 9F 7B Transmission Capacity 02 Transmission Capacity length Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-9 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part 5F Parameter Set length 89 ESN 04 ESN Length 53 53 00 01 ESN content 88 MIN 05 MIN length 90 35 35 00 10 MIN content 95 MSCID 03 MSCID length 64 05 01 MSCID content 91 Qualification Information Code 01 Qualification Information Code length 03 Qualification Information Code content: Require approval from the roaming subscriber and service list.

4 Common MAP Procedures This section details the flow of MAP messages in various procedures. z REGNOT: The originating MSC (MSC/VLR A in the figure) sends a location registration request to the HLR through interfaces C and D. BSS MSC/VLR A HLR/AC MSC/VLR B LA_UPDATE_REQ a CC b REGNOT c REGCANC d regcanc e regnot f LA_UPDATE_ACC g CLEAR COMMAND h CLEAR COMPLETE i Figure 7-4 Location registration procedure The following describes the MAP messages only.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part 1F 30 Transmission Capacity content 9F 68 Message Address 0C Message Address length 00 31 61 0F 64 00 03 59 55 15 00 00: Message Address content BF 82 18 WIN Capabilities 0C WIN Capabilities length 9F 82 15 Trigger Capability 03 Trigger Capability length FF FF 1F Trigger Capability content 9F 82 19 WIN Operation Capability 01 WIN Operation Capability length 03 WIN Operation Capability content 7.1 Location Registration Figure 7-4 shows the transfer of MAP messages in location registration procedure. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-10 . 7.4.

3 Handoff Forward Figure 7-5 shows the transfer of MAP messages in handoff forward procedure. z regcanc: The original VLR sends response to the HLR after registration cancellation.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 7 Mobile Application Part z REGCANC: The HLR sends a registration cancellation message to the original VLR (VLR B). z LOCREQ: The originating MSC sends a called party location request to the HLR. z routreq: The serving MSC returns a routing response containing the temporary mobile directory number (TLDN). 7. z locreq: The HLR sends a location response to the originating MSC. z ROUTREQ: The HLR sends a routing request to the serving MSC. BSS MSC HLR MSC BSS CM SERV REQ a CC b LOCREQ c ROUTREQ d ASSIGNMENT e routreq(TLDN) f ASSIGN COMP g locreq h IAI (TLDN) i PAGING REQ j PAGING RSP k CC l ASSIGNMENT m ASSIGN COMP n ACM o CONNECT p ANC q Figure 7-5 Inter-office call procedure The following describes the MAP messages only.4.2 Inter-Office Call Figure 7-5 shows the transfer of MAP messages in an inter-office call. 7. z regnot: The HLR notifies the VLR A of the registration success. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 7-11 .4.

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Anchor&Serving
Target MSC BSC
MSC
Call in progress
a
HANDMREQ
b
handmreq
c
FACREQ
d
facreq e
Handoff Order f
MS arrives on new channel
g
MSONCH h
Handoff Complete
i

Figure 7-6 Handoff forward procedure

The following describes the MAP messages only.
z HANDMREQ: The serving MSC determines whether handoff to an adjacent
MSC is required using the internal algorithm. It sends a Handoff Measurement
Request (HANDMREQ) to adjacent MSCs to request a signal quality
measurement.
z handmreq: The adjacent MSC measures signal quality and reports the result to
the serving MSC.
z FACREQ: The serving MSC determines that handoff to the adjacent MSC (the
target MSC) is required. It sends a FACREQ message to the target MSC to
initiate the handoff forward.
z facreq: If a free traffic channel is available in the designated cell, the target MSC
adds "1" to the segment counter of the BillingID. The new BillingID will be
employed for later billing. Notification that the request was accepted is reported
to the serving MSC to start the handoff forward.
z MSONCH: The target MSC sets up a traffic channel and the connection of trunk
circuit to the serving MSC. It then notifies the serving MSC the arrival of the MS
on the new channel and the completion of related processes. The serving MSC
then connects the call to the inter-MSC trunk circuit to complete the handoff.

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Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part

This chapter introduces the concepts related to base station application part (BSAP) ,
as well as its functions and position in the SS7.

8.1 Introduction to BSAP
BSAP is an application part based on A interface protocols. It fulfills the functions of
A1 interface between MSC and BSC.

8.1.1 About the A Interface

The A interface, between an MSC and a BSC, consists of:
z Signaling channel A1 interface: Transfers common channel signaling.
z User traffic channel A2 interface: Transfers voice, data, or unrestricted digital
information processed with pulse code modulation (PCM) .
z Duplex data channel A5 interface between the interworking function (IWF) and
selection/distribution unit (SDU): Transfers fax service and asynchronous data
service traffic.
In the signaling system, the A interface generally refers to A1 interface. Established
on the basis of SS7, the A interface is divided into three layers:
z L1: Physical interface between neighboring nodes
z L2: Transmission layer. It consists of the MTP and SCCP, and ensures effective
transmission of data at application layer.
z L3: BSAP above the SCCP.

8.1.2 BSAP Functions

BSAP accomplishes the functions of the MSC to BSC interface. It consists of two
parts:
z BS management application part (BSMAP)
z Direct transfer application part (DTAP)

I. BSMAP

BSMAP supports all radio resource management and facility management
procedures between the MSC and BSC.
BSMAP messages are not passed to a MS. They are used only to perform functions
at the MSC or the BSC. Only one type of BSMAP messages (called complete L3
information) is used together with a DTAP message to establish a connection

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between a MS, BSC, and MSC. For detailed description of the complete L3
information, refer to 3GPP2 specifications.

II. DTAP

DTAP messages are used to transfer call processing and mobility management
messages between the BSC and MSC. BSC does not use DTAP messages, but
converts the messages into appropriate messages to be transmitted on air interface.
Figure 8-1 shows the A interface protocol model.

BS side A Interface MSC side

BSAP BSAP
DTAP BSMAP DTAP BSMAP

Transport Transport
Protocol(s) Protocol(s)

Physical Layer

BS Base station BSAP Base station application part
Base station management
BSMAP DTAP Direct transfer application part
application part
MSC Mobile switching center
Figure 8-1 Reference model of A interface protocol stack

8.2 BSAP Messages
This section introduces the format and encoding of BSAP messages. An example is
given to explain BSAM messages.

8.2.1 Format of BSAP Messages

One or two bytes in the message head (call message discrimination flag) is used to
distinguish between DTAP messages and BSMAP messages. The subsequent bytes
contain the length indicator and complete L3 information.
Figure 8-2 shows the structure of BSMAP and DTAP messages.

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The DLCI is set to 0 for A1 interface. Bytes (or octets) are identified with numbers. If the message discrimination parameter is set to 0. indicating the length of subsequent data. The length indicator is of one byte. 8.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part DTAP Message Header BSMAP Message Header BSAP Message Discrimination octet 1 Message Discrimination octet 1 Message Header DLCI (Always set to 0) octet 2 Layer 3 Length Indicator octet 3 Length Indicator octet 2 Message Length APPLICATION APPLICATION Layer 3 octets 4 to Message octets 3 to k k+1 MESSAGE MESSAGE Figure 8-2 BSAP message structure z BSMAP message The message discrimination flag of a BSMAP message contains only the message discrimination parameter that is coded with one byte. and so on. R denotes required IEs and C denotes conditional IEs. the nature of IEs are indicated as follows: z M: mandatory IEs z O: optional IEs Among optional IEs. it is conventional to adopt the following sequence to denote the bits and bytes. Bit 7 is the most significant bit (MSB). In the following description. indicating the length of subsequent data. The bits in one byte are denoted with 0-7. Byte 1 is sent first. A variable-length IE contains one length indicator byte. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-3 . indicating the length of subsequent IEs. The DLCI indicates the type and treatment of messages transmitted between the BSC and MSC.2. byte3. z DTAP message The message discrimination flag of a DTAP message is of two bytes: message discrimination parameter and the data link connection identifier (DLCI) . The length indicator is of one byte. In the following description. Bit 0 is the least significant bit (LSB) and is transmitted first. the message is a BSMAP message. followed by byte 2. the message is a DTAP message. If the message discrimination parameter is set to 1.2 Encoding of BSAP Messages Each A interface message consists of a series of IES.

and 3 (that is. Bits 4. except that 010 is used for type 2 IE. Table 8-2 Type 2 IE structure 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet 1 0 1 0 IEI 1 Bits 0. ½ byte) are content of information element (CIE). Table 8-1 shows the structure of a type 1 IE. If the IE indicator is omitted (for mandatory IEs it can be omitted). 1. Bit 7 is coded 1. Bits 4. 5. a length indicator follows the IE indicator. the length byte is the first byte of the variable-length IE. and 6 are coded 010. II. and the length varies with the IE. The bytes contained in a fixed-length IE are predefined. 2. Type 2 Type 2 IE is a fixed-length IE. 1. Four IE types are defined: z IEs with 1/2 octets of content (Type 1) z IEs with 0 octets of content (Type 2) z IEs with fixed length and at least one octet of content (Type 3) z IEs with variable length (Type 4) I. 5. Type 1 IE can be the optional or a mandatory IE in a BSMAP or DTAP message. Table 8-1 Type 1 IE structure 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet 1 IEI CIE 1 Bits 0. indicating that the IE is of type 2. Type 2 IE cannot be the mandatory IE in a DTAP message. Type 1 Type 1 IE is a fixed-length IE with one byte. 2. It is of one byte without the CIE.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part The IE includes two types: fixed-length IE and variable-length IE. and 3 are the IEI. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-4 . For variable-length IEs. and 6 are the information element identification (IEI). Bit 7 is coded 1. Table 8-2 shows the structure of a type 2 IE.

CIE n IV.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part III.. Bit 7 in the first byte is 0.. Table 8-5 shows the IE structure. Table 8-3 shows the IE structure. CIE n Bits 0–6 in the first byte are the IEI. Table 8-4 Type 3 IE structure (example 2) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet CIE 1 CIE 2 .. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-5 . Table 8-4 shows the IE structure. Optional IE When the type 3 IE is optional. Type 3 Type 3 IE contains the content of fixed length. .. the IEI is omitted. followed by the CIE. All bytes denote the CIE. Bytes 2–n denote are the CIE. the IE contains the IEI. Mandatory IE When the type 3 IE is mandatory.. Table 8-3 Type 3 IE structure of type 3 (example 1) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet 0 IEI 1 LI 2 CIE 3 . It can be used as the mandatory IE in a DTAP message.. Optional IE When type 4 IE is optional. .. the IEI is contained. Type 3 mandatory IE is used in a DTAP message.. Type 4 Type 4 IE contains the variable-length CIE.

..3 Example of BSAP Messages The following gives examples of various types BSAP messages. Type 4 mandatory IE is used in DTAP messages. Generally. CIE n Bits 0–6 in the first byte denotes the IEI. mandatory IEs are placed before optional IEs.2. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-6 . and different IEs are aligned according to predefined sequence in different messages.. . Bit 7 in the first byte is coded 0. indicating the length of CIE (byte number).. Table 8-6 Type 4 IE structure o (example 2) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet LI 1 CIE 2 .. Bytes 3–n denote the CIE.. Table 8-6 shows the IE structure. 8. Mandatory IE When type 4 IE is mandatory. . CIE n The first byte is the length indicator. Bytes 2–n denote the CIE. The second byte is the length indicator. the IEI is omitted. indicating the length of CIE (byte number)...Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Table 8-5 Type 4 IE structure (example 1) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet 0 IEI 1 2 CIE 3 . The A interface messages are constructed by the four types of IE described above according to a certain sequence.

Table 8-8 lists the IEs in the message Table 8-8 CM service request message Element IE Type direction Protocol discriminator BS -> MSC M Reserved (octet) BS -> MSC M Message type BS -> MSC M CM service type BS -> MSC M Classmark information type 2 BS -> MSC M Mobile identity (IMSI) BS -> MSC M Called party BCD number BS -> MSC O Mobile identity (ESN) BS -> MSC O Slot cycle index BS -> MSC O Authentication response parameter (AUTHR) BS -> MSC O Authentication confirmation parameter (RandC) BS -> MSC O Authentication parameter COUNT BS -> MSC O Authentication challenge parameter (RAND) MSC -> BS O Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-7 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part I. subscriber ID. called number. as described in Table 8-7. A complete layer 3 message contains message category. cell identity. Table 8-7 Complete layer 3 message IE Direction Type Message category BS -> MSC M Cell identity BS -> MSC M Layer 3 information BS -> MSC M II. a Paging Response. or a Location Updating Request message. MS location. This message contains a CM Service Request. This message contains such information as radio channel information. Complete L3 Information Complete layer 3 information is sent from the BSC to the MSC upon receipt of the first message from a MS. and authentication parameters. and layer 3 message. CM Service Request CM service request is sent from the BSC to the MSC to request for connection-oriented services (such as voice calls). requested service type.

Figure 8-3 Example of CM service request The following describes the traced message.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Element IE Type direction Service option BS -> MSC O Voice privacy request (unnecessary in phase 1) BS -> MSC O Called party ASCII number BS -> MSC O Authentication event (the RAND and RANDC are BS -> MSC O mismatched at the BTS side) Authentication data BS -> MSC O Figure 8-3 gives a CM service request traced on a SS7 link.Signaling link code: (0) ----0000 Spare2: (0) 01 SCCP connection request Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-8 .Network indicator: national network (2) --00---. they are: 1) MTP message header 2) SCCP message header 3) BSAP message header 4) BSAP message content For the definition of bits in each IE. refer to 3GPP2 specifications.Spare1: (0) ----0011 Service indicator: SCCP (3) 00 00 00 Destination point code: (0) 00 00 00 Originating point code: (0) 00 0000---. The following IEs are aligned in indent format. From the top down. and not all IEs are contained. 83 10-----.

Spare: (0) ----0010 Protocol class: Class 2 (2) 02 Offset 1 : 2 07 Offset 2 : 7 05 Called party address 43 0------.National/International Indicator: no (0) -1-----. CM service type ----0001 Mobile originating call establishment (1) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-9 .Global Title Indicator: no Global Title included (0) ------1.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 00 00 00 Source local references: (0) 02 0000---. Reserved4: 0 ----0011 Protocol discriminator: call processing call related SS (3) 00 Reserved8: (0) 24 CM service request 91 1001---.Routing Indicator: yes (1) --0000-.Subsystem Number Indicator: yes (1) -------1 Point Code Indicator: yes (1) 00 00 00 Signaling Point Code: (0) 00 Subsystem Number: Not known (0) 0F Data 41 Data length 00 BSMAP 3F BSMAP length 57 Complete L3 Information 05 Cell Identifier 03 Cell Identifier length 02 Cell Identifier discriminator: CI (2) 00 00 Cell: (0) 17 Layer 3 message 37 Layer 3 message length 03 0000---.

mobile p rev: (0) ---0---. mobile term2: (0) -------0 psi: (0) 00 SCM length: (0) 00 Station class mark: (0) 01 Count of band class entries: (1) 03 Band class entry length: (3) 00 000----. reserved3b: 0 ---00000 band class n air interfaces supported: 0 00 Band class n MS protocol level: 0 01 Mobile identity IMSI 0E Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-10 . nar a cap: (0) -1-----. slotted: (0) ---00--. reserved2: (0) -----0-. reserved1a: (0) ----0--. mobile term1: (0) -------0 reserved1b: (0) 00 Reserved8b: (0) 00 000000-. dtx: (0) ------0. reserved6: (0) ------0. is 95: (1) --0----.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 0C Classmark information type 2 (length) 00 000----. see list of entries: (0) -----000 RF power capability: class 1 vehicle and portable (0) 00 Reserved8a: 0 40 0------. reserved3a: (0) ---00000 band class n: (0) 00 000----.

Type of number: unknown (0) ----0000 Numbering plan identification: unknown (0) F0 Digit: 0F 0D Mobile identity ESN 05 Mobile identity ESN length 05 0000---.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 00001--. identity digit1: 0 ----0--. Ext:1 -000---. reserved4: 0 ----0001 auth signature type: AUTHR (1) 00 000000-. reserved6: 00 ------00 00 00 Authentication signature value: 0 28 Authentication confirmation parameter RANDC 00 00 40 Authentication parameter count 00 00-----. odd even indicator: 0 -----101 type of identity: ESN (5) 00 00 00 00 ESN value: 0 42 Authentication response parameter AUTHR 04 Authentication response parameter AUTHR length 01 0000---. identity digit: 0 -----110 type of identity: IMSI (6) 5E Called party BCD number 02 Called party BCD number length 80 1------. reserved2:0 --000000 count: 00 41 Authentication challenge parameter 05 Authentication challenge parameter length Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-11 .

Table 8-9 describes the IEs in a paging request. and so on. Table 8-9 Paging request message IE Element direction Type Message type MSC -> BS M Mobile identity (IMSI/ESN) MSC -> BS M Tag MSC -> BS O Cell identifier list MSC -> BS O Slot cycle index MSC -> BS O Service option MSC -> BS O Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-12 . reserved4:0 ----0001 random number type: RAND (1) 00 00 00 00 Random value: (0) 03 Service option 80 00 Speech 13k (32768) 1D Radio environment and resources 00 0------. service type. This message contains the location area identity (LAI) . include priority: 0 --00---. alloc: resources are not allocated (0) -------0 avail: resources are not available (0) 4A T 01 Authentication event 01 Parameters not received (1) 00 EOP:00 III. It contains sufficient information to locate the cell serving the MS. forward: not reported (0) ----00-. reverse: not reported (0) ------0. slot cycle index.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 01 0000---. Paging Request Paging request is sent from the MSC to the BSC. Mobile identity. reserved1: 0) -0-----.

authentication parameter. Connect This Connect message is sent by the BSC to the MSC to indicate that the called mobile subscriber has accepted the call. The message contains the mobile identity. service type. slot cycle index. radio channel information. and so on. Table 8-10 Paging request message IE Element direction Type Protocol discriminator BS -> MSC M Reserved (octet) BS -> MSC M Message type BS -> MSC M Classmark information type 2 BS -> MSC M Mobile identity (IMSI) BS -> MSC M Tag BS -> MSC O Mobile identity (ESN) BS -> MSC O Slot cycle index BS -> MSC O Authentication response parameter BS -> MSC O (AUTHR) Authentication confirmation parameter BS -> MSC O (RANDC) Authentication parameter COUNT BS -> MSC O Authentication challenge parameter MSC -> BS O (RAND) Service option BS -> MSC O Voice privacy request (unnecessary in BS -> MSC O phase 1) Authentication event (when the RAND and BS -> MSC O RANDC are mismatched at the BTS side) V.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part IV. Table 8-10 describes the IEs in a paging response. Table 8-11 lists the IEs of the message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-13 . Paging Response Paging response is sent from the BSC to the MSC when the BSC receives a page response from the MS.

Assignment Complete This BSMAP message is sent from the BSC to the MSC. possible calling number. Table 8-12 lists the IEs of the message. The message contains the circuit identification code. Assignment Request Assignment request is sent from the MSC to the BSC to request the later to assign radio resources. and so on. indicating that the requested assignment is completed. Table 8-13 lists the contents in the message.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Table 8-11 Connect message IE Element direction Type Protocol discriminator BS <-> MSC M Reserved (octet) BS <-> MSC M Message type BS <-> MSC M VI. service option. Table 8-12 Assignment request message IE Element direction Type Message type MSC -> BS M Channel type MSC -> BS M Circuit identification code MSC -> BS O Encryption information (unnecessary in phase 1) MSC -> BS O Service option MSC -> BS O Signal MSC->BS O Calling party ASCII number MSC->BS O VII. Table 8-13 Assignment complete messages IE Element direction Type Message type BS -> MSC M Channel number BS -> MSC M Encryption information (unnecessary in phase 1) BS -> MSC O Service option BS -> MSC O Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-14 . The message may include the terrestrial circuit to be used if one is needed for the call. emergency call identifier.

1 Location Update A MS informs the MSC of current location (or parameter) change through the location update procedure as shown in Figure 8-4. Table 8-14 lists the SCCP messages used by BSAP. refer to Technical Manual – System Function. Major A interface procedures include: z Mobile origination z Mobile termination z Call clearing z Circuit management This section introduces these procedures. For handoff procedure. In the protocol stack. BSAP messages are carried by SCCP messages.3 BSAP Procedures BSAP protocol specifies the message format and procedures to support the wireless service functions between the BSC and MSC. BSAP uses two types of service provided by SCCP: connection-oriented service and connectionless service. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-15 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 8. Table 8-14 SCCP messages used by BSAP User data field Service SCCP frame (BSMAP/DTAP) SCCP Connection Request (CR) Optional SCCP Connection Confirm (CC) Optional Connection Oriented SCCP Connection Refused (CREF) Optional (CO) Protocol Class 2 SCCP Released (RLSD) Optional SCCP Release Complete (RLC) Not applicable SCCP Data Transfer 1 (DT1) Mandatory Connectionless (CL) SCCP Unit Data (UDT) Mandatory Protocol Class 0 For detailed description of the SCCP messages used by BSAP. refer to 3GPP2 specifications. 8.3. Therefore. BSAP is above SCCP layer.

places it in the Complete Layer 3 Information.3. Upon receipt of the message. places it in the complete layer 3 information. The BSC then starts timer T3210. the BSC constructs a Location Updating Request. 2) The MSC sends a Location Updating Accept message to the BSC to indicate that the request has been processed. At the same time it starts timer Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-16 . and sends the message to the MSC.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Figure 8-4 Location update procedure The procedure is as follows: 1) On receiving the update message from a MS. and sends it to the MSC. 8. the BSC stops timer T3210.2 Mobile Origination When a MS sends a mobile origination service request. the BSC initiates the mobile origination procedure shown in Figure 8-5. Figure 8-5 Mobile origination procedure The procedure is as follows: 1) The BSC constructs a CM Service Request.

This message includes information of terrestrial circuit. it may clear the call). Figure 8-6 Mobile termination procedure Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-17 . 2) If global challenge is used. the BSC may request the MSC to allocate a preferred terrestrial circuit. if a terrestrial circuit is to be used between the MSC and BSC. This indicates that the calling party is in conversational state and hears the ringback tone or other prompt tones. For circuit switched calls. The MSC stops timer T10 upon receipt of the Assignment Complete message.3. Upon receipt of the Assignment Request message from the MSC.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part T303. the BSC sends an Assignment Complete message to the MSC. 3) After the radio channel and terrestrial circuit are set up. The MSC sends an Assignment Request to the BSC to request assignment of radio resources. If the BSC requests a preferred terrestrial circuit in the CM Service Request and the MSC supports that terrestrial circuit. 8.3 Mobile Termination Figure 8-6 shows the mobile termination procedure. the BSC stops timer T303. The MSC then starts timer T10. the MSC will continue the call setup process while waiting for an authentication confirmation (If an authentication failure indication is received at the MSC. the MSC will use the same terrestrial circuit.

The BSC may request the MSC to allocate a preferred terrestrial circuit in this message. 4) After the radio traffic channel and terrestrial circuit are established. The MSC then starts timer T3113. This message also includes the information of a terrestrial circuit. and sends the message to the MSC. the BSC initiates a clearing procedure (the procedure may also result from other events). If the BSC requested a preferred terrestrial circuit in the Service Request. 5) The BSC sends a Connect message to the MSC to indicate that the call has been answered by the MS. The MSC stops timer T10 upon receipt of the message. The MSC sends an Assignment Request to the BSC to request assignment of radio resources. After that. places it in the Complete L3 Information message. 8. Figure 8-7 shows the call clearing procedure initiated by BSC. The MSC then starts timer T10.4 Call Clearing When a mobile subscriber stops conversation and hooks on the phone. and starts timer T301 to wait for the response of the MS. Upon receipt of the Assignment Request from the MSC.3. Now the call is considered established and is in conversational state. The MSC may also assign a different terrestrial circuit. 2) The BSC constructs a Paging Response message. it starts timer T303. 3) The MSC stops timer T3113 upon receipt of the Paging Response from the BSC. the BSC sends an Assignment Complete message to the MSC.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part The procedure is as follows: 1) The MSC finds that an incoming call terminates to a MS in its serving area and sends a Paging Request to the BSC to initiate a mobile terminated call setup scenario. the BSC stops timer T303. the MSC will use the same terrestrial circuit. The MSC stops timer T301 upon receipt of the Connect message from the BSC. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-18 .

due to MS power failure or hook-on) between the MS and the BSC.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Figure 8-7 Call clearing initiated by BSC The procedure is as follows: 1) In case of a radio channel failure (for example. This procedure can be initiated by BSC only. 8. Figure 8-8 shows the circuit block procedure initiated by the BSC. The BSC stops timer T300. the BSC sends a Block message to the MSC to inform the later that the circuit is not available any longer. In this case. the BSC sends a Clear Request to the MSC. during circuit reset initiated by the MSC). Because circuit assignment is controlled by the MSC. The BSC then starts timer T300 and waits for the Clear Command from the MSC.5 Circuit Block/Unblock The A interface circuit between the BSC and MSC are maintained through circuit management messages. the BSC must inform the MSC of the circuit status at BSC side. The MSC stops timer T315 upon receipt of the message and releases the resources at MSC side. The flowchart is omitted here.3. 3) The BSC returns a Clear Complete message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-19 . The call clearing procedure initiated by the MSC contains only Clear Command and Clear Complete messages (without Clear Request message). Circuit Block The MSC must be informed if any circuit at BSC side is out of service (for example. 2) The MSC starts timer T315 and sends a Clear Command to instruct the BSC to release associated dedicated resources (such as the terrestrial circuit). I.

BSC stops timer T1. Figure 8-9 shows the circuit unblock procedure initiated by the BSC. indicating that the involved circuit is blocked. 2) The MSC returns an Unblock Acknowledge message to the BSC. Circuit Unblock When a blocked circuit becomes available again. Then it starts timer T1. On receipt of the message. 2) The MSC returns a Block Acknowledge message. Figure 8-9 Circuit unblock procedure The procedure is as follows: 1) The BSC sends an Unblock message to the MSC. This procedure can be initiated by BSC only. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-20 . requesting the later to unblock the circuit.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Figure 8-8 Circuit block procedure The procedure is as follows: 1) The BSC sends a Block message to the MSC. containing the information of the circuit to be blocked. Then it starts timer T1. On receipt of the message. BSC stops timer T1. indicating that the circuit is unblocked. II. the BSC sends an Unblock message to the MSC to inform the status change.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-21 . such as: z Abnormal release of SCCP connections z Inaccessible signaling point becoming available z Intermittent trunk line failures z Manual maintenance operations Circuit reset can be initiated either by BSC or by MSC.3.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 8. On receipt of the message. MSC-Initiated Circuit Reset Figure 8-11 shows the circuit reset procedure initiated by MSC.6 Circuit Reset The MSC initiates circuit reset when some circuits are abnormal. Figure 8-10 BSC-initiated circuit reset The procedure is as follows: 1) Once the BSC detects that one or more circuits become idle. I. II. BSC-Initiated Circuit Reset Figure 8-10 shows the circuit reset procedure initiated by BSC. the MSC returns a Reset Circuit Acknowledge message to indicate that the circuits are reset. it sends a Reset Circuit message to the MSC. Then it starts timer T12. 2) Upon receipt of the Reset Circuit message. BSC stops timer T12.

it sends a Reset Circuit message to the BSC.Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part Figure 8-11 MSC-initiated circuit reset The procedure is as follows: 1) Once the MSC detects that one or more circuits become idle. MSC-Initiated Circuit Reset Failure Figure 8-12 shows the procedure when the BSC fails to reset the circuit as requested by MSC. it sends a Reset Circuit message to the BSC. III. 2) Upon receipt of the Reset Circuit message. it sends a Block message to the MSC and starts timer T1. On receipt of the message. Then it starts timer T12. the BSC returns a Reset Circuit Acknowledge message to indicate that the circuits are reset. The MSC stops Timer T12 on receipt of the Block message. 2) If the BSC fails to set the circuits to idle. Then it starts timer T12. Figure 8-12 MSC-initiated circuit reset failure The procedure is as follows: 1) Once the MSC detects that one or more circuits become idle. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-22 . MSC stops timer T12.

The BSC stops timer T1 on receipt of the message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 8-23 .Technical Manual – Signaling System SS7 Signaling System HUAWEI M800 CDMA Mobile Switching Center Chapter 8 Base Station Application Part 3) The MSC returns a Block Acknowledge message. indicating the involved circuits are blocked.