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LARGE SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS

7
Syllabus
 Power Amplifier
 Introduction , classification – class A , Class B , Class AB , Class C ,
efficiency of each
 Single stage class A power amplifier
 Circuit operation, input & output waveforms, graphical Analysis,
 Efficiency of
o Transformer couple
o Resistive load single stage power amplifier
o Class A push pull amplifier
o Class B push pull amplifier
o Class AB push pull amplifier
 Concept of cross over distortion
 Collector power dissipation requirement
 Specifications of power transistor
 Need of heat sink.

Introduction
It is rare that an electronic system will be able to operate with a single
amplifier. But in general more than amplifier is used. This amplifier are so
connected that output of one stage is connected as input to next stage. In such
system small signal is applied to first (input b ) of amplifier , this amplified
output is applied as input to next stage and so on. This process is continued
until the output signal from the final amplifier is of sufficient amplitude as per
the requirement is available.
We generally require that a weak signal (i.e. voice) should be heard
loudly, it may be signal applied to picture tube , or a signal which may be
applied antenna for transmission. This becomes possible only if the voltage and
power level of the weak signal is raised and supplied to the load. Hence
practical amplifier always consists of a number of stages that amplify a weak
signal until sufficient power is available to operate a loudspeaker or other
output device or circuit. The first few stages in this multi stage amplifier have
the function of only voltage amplifier. However, the last stage is designed to
provide maximum power. This final stage is known as power stage or driver
stage.Fig.7.1 shows block diagram of such power amplifier.
Practically before final stage, their is driver stage, which is also one type
of power amplifier. Driver stage supplies the necessary power to the output
stage.
A transistor amplifier which raises the power level of the signals that have
audio frequency range is known as transistor audio power amplifier.

Block Diagram of Practical Audio Amplifier
Weak
Signal Speaker

Voltage Voltage Driver Power
Amplifier Amplifier Stage Stage

Microphon
e Amplified
Signal
RC Coupling Transformer
Coupling
Fig 7.1 Block Diagram of Audio Amplifier

Classification Of Power Amplifier
Power Amplifiers are classified as per their position of d.c operating point.
Each class has its own merits and demerits. As per our requirement, we can
select any one of them.
They are classified as:
(i) Class A
(ii) Class B
(iii) Class AB
(iv) Class C
(i) Class A Power Amplifier

Fig.7.2. Class A power Amplifier

If the collector current flows at all times during the entire cycle of input
signal, such amplifier is known as class A power amplifier. DC load lines and
operating point of class A is shown in Fig.7.2 Transistor is not allowed to enter
saturation and cutoff region. Variation of collector is for completer3600 of input.
Hence output will contain the entire input signal.

In this amplifier operating point is located at the centre of the load line
and in this distortion is minimum and collector efficiency is approximately equal
to 35%.Class A amps are often used for "signal" level circuits (where power
requirements are small)

(ii) Class B Power Amplifier

Fig.7.3 Class B Power Amplifier
If the collector current flows only during positive half cycle of input signal,
it is called class B power amplifier. In this operating point is located on the X-
axis of DC load line as shown in Fig.7.3. ie in cutoff region.
In this amplifier distortion is maximum but collector efficiency is
approximately equal to 60%.Transistor is biased at cutoff so that when there is
no input there is not conduction. Hence the conduction during exactly 50% of
the time that the AC input is applied.
class B amplifiers were common in clock radio circuits, pocket transistor
radios, or other applications where quality of sound is not that critical

(iii) Class AB power Amplifier

Fig.7.4.Class AB Power Amplifier
In this amplifier collector current flows for more than half cycle of input
signal. In this amplifier operating point lies between class A and class B as
shown in Fig.7.4.
For such amplifier the Operating(Q) point is selected near the cut off
region of the load line , such that collector current flow for more half cycle but
less than full of the applied signal.

An amplifier biased in AB mode it will conduct more than 50% and less
than 100% of the time that an input signal is present. In this case distortion is
more but less than class B and collector efficiency is approximately equal to
55%
Class AB is probably the most common amplifier class currently used in
home stereo and similar amplifiers.

(iv) Class C power Amplifier

Fig.7.5.Class C Power Amplifier
In this amplifier collector current flows for half of the half cycle of the
input signal. In this amplifier operating point lies below the X-axis of DC-load
line. As shown in figure 7.5.

For such amplifier the Operating(Q) point is selected below cut off region
of the load line , such that collector current flow for less than half cycle of the
applied signal. An amplifier is biased below cutoff and that conducts less than
50% of the time during which an AC signal is applied.

In this case distortion is maximum but collector efficiency is
approximately equal to 75%.

Class C amps are never used for audio circuits. They are commonly used
in RF circuits
Single Stage Class A Power Amplifier – Resistive Load

Fig.7.6 Single stage Class A Power amplifier Fig.7.7 Input and Output
Waveform with resistive load
Above it is already explained what is meant by Class A amplifier.
The output current flows during the entire cycle of the ac. input signal.
The operation of the amplifier is limited to smaller central region of the load
line, so that it can operate in the linear region of the load line. The large-signals
may shift the Q-point into non-linear regions near saturation or cut-off and
hence produce amplitude distortion.Fig.7.6 and 7.7 shows circuit diagram and
respective waveform.
Since the transistor operates over the linear region of the load line,
therefore the output waveform is almost similar to the input waveform. The ac.
power output per active device (or transistor) is smaller than that of class-B or
class-C amplifier.
The overall efficiency or circuit efficiency of the amplifier circuit is an
important parameter. It is defined as the ratio of ac. power delivered to the load
to the total power supplied by the d.c. source. Mathematically, the overall
efficiency,

η o = A.C. power delivered to the load
.
Total power supplied by the d.c.
source

= Average ac. output power
The maximum possible overall efficiency of a class-A amplifier with series
fed resistive load is 25%.
The collector efficiency of the amplifier circuit is another important
parameter. It is de fined as the ratio of a.c. power delivered to the load, to the
power supplied by the d.c. source to the transistor. Mathematically, collector
circuit efficiency,

η C = AC. power delivered the load
.
Power supplied by the d.c. source to the
transistor

= Average a.c. output power .
The maximum possible value of collector efficiency for a series fed
resistive load is 50%. If a transformer coupled load instead of a direct coupled
resistive load, the maximum possible overall efficiency increases to 50%.

Single Stage Class A Power Amplifier – Transformer Coupled
Fig.7.8 shows the Circuit of single stage class A power amplifier. It is also called
as driver stage or driver amplifier.

Fig.7.8. Single Stage Class A Transformer Coupled Amplifier.

The output from the last voltage amplification stage is fed to the driver
stage. It supplies the necessary power to the final stage. The driver stage
generally employs class A transformer coupled power amplifier. Here,
concentrated effort is made to obtain maximum power gain.

Fig.7.8 shows the transformer coupled Class A power amplifier. Designing
is done in such a way that its operating point lie exactly at the centre of DC load
line. In this amplifier output of driver stage is given to the input of it, for further
power amplification and output of it is given to the speaker. Since it is Class A
power amplifier, distortion will be minimum, but collector efficiency is less.
Function of Components
1. R1, R2 resistors: They are used for proper biasing. The biasing circuit
must establish a proper operating point.

2. RE, resistor: It establishes the operating point from temperature.

3. Input Capacitor (Cin): It is used for coupling the signal to the base
emitter junction if this capacitor is not used R 2 will come in parallel with
the internal resistance of source and hence change the biasing, also the
operating point.

4. By pass capacitor (CE): It is used to provide a low resistance path to
amplified a.c signal, if it is not used, there will be more voltage drop
across RE because a.c and d.c both will pass through RE and hence change
the biasing and reduces the gain.

5. Centre tapped Step down transformer (T1): It is used for impedance
matching so that maximum power should be transferred from driver stage
to the final power stage.

6. Transistor (Q1): Its basic function is to amplify the weak input signal.

Working
Driver stage is a class A power Amplifier. The output of final voltage
amplifier is the input of driver stage through Cin. The driver stage provides the
drive for push pull stage. (i.e. Power stage)

During the positive half cycle of input, the base emitter junction becomes
more forward biased this will increase collector current. Hence for positive cycle
of input, we are getting amplified +ve half cycle at the primary. Due to the
transformer action negative (-ve) cycle is induced across secondary.

During negative half cycle of input forward bias between base and emitter
junction decreases, this will decrease collector current, hence we get amplified
-ve half cycle across primary, but at secondary, we get amplified +ve half cycle
in the output. Thus their is phase reversal but input and output.

Transformer Impedance Matching
The Function of a transformer is to match the low impedance load (Such
as speaker) to that of the output impedance of the amplifier. The impedance
matching property follows from the relation
Let V1 , I1 and N1 be primary Voltage , current and number of turns on
Primary Winding
Let V2 , I2 and N2 be secondary Voltage , current and number of turns on
secondary Winding

V1 = N1 * V2 and I1 = N2 * I1
N2 N1

The ratio of two equation
V1 = 1 * V2
I1 n2 I2
It may be noted that if the value of secondary turns (N2) is less than
primary turns (N1) then the above equation shows that the transformer reduces
the voltage in proportion to turns ratio (N2/N1) equal to n and step up the
current in the same ratio.

R’L = 1 * RL
n2

R’L = V1 and RL =
V2
I1 I2

Here V1/I1 is called as effective load resistance or the resistance from the
primary of the transformer and is designated as R’L. N1/N2 is called as step
down ratio.
V2/I2 is the resistance of the load connected across the transformer
secondary. Hence this transformation of load resistance offer an opportunity to
match the actual load resistance RL to the desired value R’ L by proper choice of
n.

Frequency response
Fig. shows the frequency response of driver stage.

Explanation of Frequency Response

F
or power
Amplifie
r gain is
more as
compare
d to
voltage
amplifier
but
frequenc
y
respons
e is poor
i.e. gain
falls for
both low
and high
frequenc
y as
explaine
d.

Fig.7.9. Frequency response of Class A Amplifier

We know that output voltage is equal to collector current multiplied by
reactance of primary. At low frequencies, the reactance is very less hence
output voltage is also very less. But for higher frequencies the capacitance
between turns of winding act as by pass capacitor, due to this output voltage
decreases, for higher- frequencies also. The above curve shows that gain
changes for almost all
frequencies.
Fig.7.9 shows frequency response of single ended class A power Amplifier.
It is clear from frequency response that is poor i.e. gain falls for both low
and high frequency as explained.
We know that output voltage is equal to collector current multiplied by
reactance of primary
At low frequencies the reactance is very less (XL = 2π FL) hence output
voltage is also very less. But for higher frequencies the capacitance between
turns of winding act as by pass capacitor, due to this output voltage decreases,
for higher frequencies also. The above curve shows that gain changes for
almost all frequencies.

Advantages
The advantages of Class-A amplifier are:
1. It has least amplitude distortion.
2. It has no hum.

Disadvantages
The disadvantages of Class A amplifier are:
1. It has poor efficiency
2. It provides low a.c. power output.
Applications
The important applications of Class A amplifier are:
1. It is used where distortion less output is required e.g. audio power
amplifier.
2. It is used as voltage amplifier for audio, radio and video frequencies.
Class A Push Pull Amplifier
Fig.7.10. shows the Circuit of Class A Push Pull Amplifier.

Fig 7.10 Class A Push Pull Amplifier
Function of Components
(i) T1 and T2 transformers: They are step down transformers for impedance
matching and for maximum power transfer from driver stage to speaker.

(ii) Q1, Q2 transistors: They are power transistors. The main function of these
transistor to amplify current.

(iii) VCC is used so that DC power should be converted to AC power.

(iv) R1, R2 resistors: They are used for biasing, values are selected in such a
way that base-emitter junctions of Q1 and Q2 are always forward biased
irrespective of the polarity of the signal. Designing of R1 and R2 are done in such
a way so that both the transistors should work in class A mode.
Fig 7.11.Waveform for class A Amplfier

Working
Fig.7.10 shows the circuit of class A push-pull amplifier. In this circuit two NPN
transistors Q1 and Q2 are used, The inputs of two transistors are
1800 out of phase.
This is achieved through centre-tapped transformer T1. The signal VS is
broken into VS1 and VS2. They are applied at the bases of Q1 and Q2. The name is
push pull because when one
transistor is ON it will push other transistor to get off and vice versa.

When +ve half cycle arrives at the base of Q1 at that instant -ve half cycle
arrives at the base of Q2 due to this Q1 will become more forward biased and on
other hand Q2 will become less forward biased, hence iC1 increases for Q1 and iC2
decreases for Q2. The voltage across speaker i.e. RL will be proportional, to (iC1 -
iC2).
When -ve half cycle arrives at the base of Q1, at that instant +ve half
cycle arrives at the base of Q2. Due to this iC2 will increase and iC1 will decrease,
again voltage across speaker will be proportional to (iC1 - iC2) as shown in wave
forms of Fig.7.11
In this amplifier cross over distortion is not present because base- emitter
junctions of Q1 and Q2 are always forward biased. There is no d.c component in
final output because it gets cancelled, only we get amplified a.c across speaker.
Input and output wave forms are shown in Fig.7.11

Class B Amplifier
Already discussed above what is class B amplifier. The output current
flows only for one-half of the cycle (i.e180°) of the input signal. Shown in
fig.7.12
The transistor dissipates no power with zero input signal. However, it
increases with the increase in the amplitude of input signal. It is contrary to
class-A amplifier operation, where the transistor dissipation is maximum with no
input signal and minimum with the largest input signal.
Fig.7.12 Q-point Waveform for Class B Power Amplifier
The average current drawn by the circuit in class-B operation is smaller
than that in class A. Fig.7.12 shows the load line and q point look of the
characteristic. As a result of this, the amount of power dissipated by the
transistor is less in class-B. Thus the overall efficiency of the circuit is higher
than that of class-A. Its maxi mum value has been found to be equal to 78.5%.

Class B Push Pull Power Amplifier
Fig.7.13 shows the circuit of Class B push pull Amplifier. It is used when
high power at high collector efficiency is required but in this some distortion is
present in the final output which is known as cross over distortion. This
distortion can be easily eliminated by class AB or class A push pull amplifier.

In this circuit two transistors Q1 and Q2 are connected back to back. Both
transistors are operated in class B operation i.e. collector current is nearly Zero
in the absence of the signal. The centre-tapped secondary of driver transformer
T1 supplies equal and opposite voltage to the base circuits of two transistors.

The output transformer T2 has the centre-tapped primary winding. The
supply voltage VCC is connected between the bases and its centre-tap. Emitters
of both the transistors are shorted and connected to the negative end of V CC.
The speaker is connected across the Secondary of transformer T2.
Fig7.13.Class B Power Amplifier
Working
VS1 and VS2 are the source input voltage from driver stage of transformer
T1 but both these voltages are out of phase due to centre-tap property of
transformer. When +ve half cycle of VS1 arrives at the base of the transistor Q1,
at that instant -ve half cycle arrives at the base of Q2 transistor.
Due to this Q1 is forward-biased and Q2 is reverse biased, hence iC1 flows
as shown in the circuit diagram. When -ve half-cycle of V S1 arrives at the base of
Q1 transistor, at that moment +ve half cycle arrives at the base of Q2 transistor.
So now Q2 transistor is forward biased and Q1 transistor is reverse biased, now
iC2 flows through the circuit but in opposite direction.
But the actual current through the transformer T2 is (iC1 - iC2) because iC1
is in anti-clock wise direction and iC2 is in the clockwise direction. Since it is
class B amplifier. Some distortion is present in the final output. This distortion is
known as crossover distortions as shown in the output wave forms of Fig.7.14
This distortion can be overcome in class AB push pull by providing little forward
biasing to the base emitter junction of transistors which are used in them.
Input and output wave forms of Class B push amplifier is shown in
Fig.7.14
Advantages
A push pull amplifier possesses many advantages over a single ended
power amplifier. For this reason, to get a given output power, we prefer using
two transistors in push pull connection rather than using a single large power
transistor in a single ended circuit. These advantages are given below:
1. The circuit efficiency of a class-B push-pull amplifier is 78.5%, which is
much higher than that of class-A whose value is 25%. It is mainly due to
the reason that no power is drawn from the d.c. supply under no signal
condition.
2. The use of push-pull system in the class-B amplifier eliminates even order
harmonics in the a.c. output signal.
3. Because of the absence of even harmonics, the circuit gives more output,
per device, for a given amount of distortion.
4. There is no d.c. component in the output signal. It is because of the fact,
that d.c. components of two collector currents, through the two-halves of
the primary of the Transformer flow in opposite directions. As a result of
this, there is no possibility of the core saturation of the T even at the peak
value of the signals. Thus we can use smaller sized cores in the
transformers, without affecting the circuit performance.
5. It has comparatively larger a.c. power output than Class A.
6. For the same collector dissipation , an output that is larger than a single-
ended amplifier can be obtained per transistor.
7. It give more output per transistor for a given amount of distortion.
8. As each transistor amplifies only half of cycle, the system can be operated
in Class B. This is not possible in single-ended amplifier.
9. We can use Class-AB/Class B operation to get high efficiency without
producing much distortion. However, if a single-ended amplifier used in
Class AB/Class B, a larger distortion results.
10. An output transformer and even the driver transformer can be
eliminated. This brings a considerable saving in the cost.

Disadvantages
The main disadvantages of Class B amplifier
1. It produces more amplitude distortion. It gives more distortion.
2. In class B push pull amplifier operation here is Harmonic Distortion.
described in the next section.
3. Two transistors have to be used.
4. It requires the use of driver stage to furnish two equal and opposite
voltages at the input.
5. The parameters of the two transistor should be equal, otherwise it causes
unequal amplification of two halves of the input signal.
6. It requires a bulky and expensive transformer.

Applications
1. It is used as tuned power amplifiers for RF signals.
2. It is mostly used for power amplification in push pull arrangement.
3. It is used as a power output stage of audio amplifier system in radio
receivers, public address system etc.

Cross Over Distortion
In Class B push pull Amplifiers, some distortion is there because the
transistors do not get ON at 0V of Input but at 0.3V for Ge and 0.7V for Si
transistors, hence there is distortion at corners of output as shown in Fig.7.14
This distortion can be overcome by forward biasing the base emitter
junctions of transistors by cut in voltages of them.

Fig 7.14 Cross Over Distortion
The transistors in a class-B push-pull amplifier are biased at cut-off. It
means that when the d.c. bias voltage is zero, the input signal voltage must
exceed the barrier voltage before a transistor conducts.

The transistor does not conduct, until the input signal voltage exceeds
0.7 V for silicon and 0.3 V for germanium transistors. Because of this, there is a
time interval between the positive and negative alternations of the input signal
when neither transistor is conducting as shown in Figure 7.14 The resulting
distortion in the output signal is quite common and is called crossover
distortion.

The crossover distortion may be avoided by applying a slight- forward
bias (equal to 0.7 V for silicon and 0.3 V for germanium transistors) to the base-
emitter junction of both the transistors of the amplifier circuit. It causes the
transistor to conduct immediately, when the a.c. input signal is applied. The
application of slight forward bias shifts the Q-point slightly above the cut-off. In
that case, each transistor operates for more than one half cycle. The resulting
operation of the transistor is called class-AB operation.

Complementary Symmetry Class B Amplifier.
Fig.7.15 shows the circuit of complementary symmetry class B Amplifier.
The name is complementary because one transistor is NPN and other is PNP.
Fig.71.6 shows the waveform.

Operation
In this type of amplifier NPN and PNP transistors are used, hence the
name is complementary. In this same signal voltage but without phase reversal
is applied to the bases of two transistors. On the positive half cycle the NPN
transistor is forward biased but PNP is reverse biased.

Fig 7.15.Complementary Symmetry Class B Amplifier
This shows that Q1 transistor amplify half positive cycle. But when -ve half
cycle arrives Q1 is reversed biased while Q2 is forward biased, so Q2 transistor
amplifies negative half cycle. In this circuit there is complete balance so no D.C
current flows through the load i.e. speaker. This shows that across load we get
amplified a.c. signal. Since it is a class B symmetry amplifier cross over
distortion will be present. To avoid this distortion each transistor should be
slightly forward biased i.e. it should be operated in class AB mode.

Fig 7.16 Input and output wave forms
Advantages
The advantages of complementary symmetry Class B push pull amplifier are:
1. It has a unity gain because of the emitter follower configuration .
2. There is no phase inversion of the input signal.
3. It eliminates the bulky and expensive transformers.
4. It has less distortion due to the absence of transformers.
5. Due to elimination of transformer both the high and low frequency
responses of the circuit are extended.
6. It requires less space.
7. It is light in weight.
8. It is comparatively cheap.

Disadvantages
The main disadvantage of the circuit is that it requires twp power
supplies. This increases the cost. If cells are used, thus this also increases the
weight.

Class AB Push Pull Power Amplifier.
Fig.7.17 shows the circuit of class AB Push Pull Amplifier.
Working and wave forms are similar to the Class A push pull power
Amplifier.

Fig 7.17 Class AB Push Pull Power Amplifier
In this circuit R1 and R2 are chosen to bias the transistor in Class AB mode. R E is
used to stabilize the operating point from temperature. If it is not used and if
temperature changes, our operating point may shift to class B hence again
problem of cross over distortion.

Class C amplifier
The class-C amplifier is the most efficient power amplifier, which can
produce more load power than that of either class-A or class-B amplifier. To
amplify a sinusoidal signal, a class-C amplifier has to be tuned to the sinusoidal
frequency. Because of this fact, the class-C amplifier is called a tuned amplifier
or a narrow band circuit.
It means that it can amplifier only the resonant frequency and those
frequencies which are closer to it. In order to avoid the need for large. inductors
and capacitors, in the resonant circuit, the class-C amplifiers are used to amplify
the signals at radio frequencies (i.e., frequencies above 20 kHz). Thus class-C
amplifier is basically a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier and not an audio
power amplifier like class-A and class-B amplifier.

Following are some of the important characteristics of class-C amplifier
1. The output current flows only during a part of the positive (or negative)
half cycle of the input signal. This condition is achieved by biasing the
transistor below cut-off.
2. The output signal does not resemble the input signal because it consists
of narrow pulses.
3. The class-C amplifier is the most efficient power amplifier and ts overall
efficiency, under certain conditions, may approach even 100%.

Advantages
The advantages of Class-C amplifier are
1. The overall efficiency, under certain conditions, may approach even
100%.
2. The collector efficiency ranges between 60 to 80%.
3. The ac power output is very large.

Disadvantages
The disadvantages of Class C amplifier is that it produces maximum amplitude
distortion.

Applications
The important applications of Class A amplifier are:
1. It is used as tuned amplifier to amplify narrow band frequencies near the
resonant frequency
2. It is used as RF power amplifier is transmitter or some industrial circuits.

Heat Sink
If the temperature of the collector and base junction increases , the
collector leakage current ICO increases. Due to this collector current increases.
The increase in collector current produce an increase in power dissipated at the
collector junction. This in turn further increases the temperature and process is
cumulative. Hence it may lead to self destruction called as thermal runaway.
For the transistors handling small signals, the power dissipated at the
collector is small. Such transistors have little chances of thermal runaway. How
ever in power transistors, the power dissipated at the collector junction is
larger. This may cause the junction temperature to rise to a dangerous level.
We can increase the power handling capacity of a transistor if we make a
suitable provision for rapid conduction of heat away from the junction. This is
achieved by using a sheet of metal called heat As the power dissipation a sheet
within a transistor is predominantly the power dissipated at its collector metallic
junction, sometimes the collector of the power transistor is connected Is. its
metallic case. The case of the transistor is then bolted on to a sheet
A perfect black body radiates maximum amount of heat. Therefore, a dull
black heat sink is nearest approximation to a perfect black body. Hence, a heat
sink is painted with a black color to radiate maximum amount of heat from
power transistor.
A heat sink is made of aluminum with beryllium oxide washer beryllium,
aluminum and copper are used for a heat sink.
The power that can be safely handled by a power transistor can be
increased by decreasing the difference in temperature between the case and
the air. By increasing the effective area of the case, the thermal resistance (θ JA)
can be decreased. For this reason, a heat sink with large finned black metallic
cover is used.

Heat sink - construction
The metal sheet that serves to dissipate the additional heat from the
power transistor is called heat sink.Fig.7.17 shows same type of heat sink.
As power transistors handle large currents, they always get heated during
operation. Since transistor is a temperature dependent device, the heat
produced at the collector junction must be dissipated to the surroundings in
order to keep the temperature within the permissible units. It becomes
necessary to cool them.
Generally, the case of a power transistor is electrically and thermally
connected to the collector internally and emitter and base terminals come out
through separate leads. This case is fixed on a metal sheet so that the heat
produced at the collector is transferred to the metal sheet. This metal sheet is
usually of aluminum and is called heat sink.
The heat sink increases the surface area and allows heat to escape from
the collector junction easily by conduction, convention and radiation. The result
is that the temperature of a transistor is sufficiently lowered. As a matter of
fact, modern power transistors are generally mounted in thermal contact with
the chassis. Now the entire chassis becomes the heat sink.

The metal sheet that serves to dissipate the additional heat from power
transistor is known as heat sink.
PD = TJ - TA/θ JA
Where
PD - Power dissipation capability of power transistor
TJ - Temperature of junction (i.e. collector)
TA - Temperature of atmosphere
θ JA - Thermal resistance from .junction to atmosphere
To stabilize the operating point in power transistor from thermal runaway,
we have to use heat sink. Heat sink conducts heat away from collector junction.
Mostly dull black body is used as heat sink because perfect black body radiates
maximum heat which it has absorbed. Beryllium, aluminum and copper are
used for heat sink.
PD = TJ-TA/ (θ JH || θ HA)
After using heat sink, the total thermal resistance is decreasing because
θ JH|θ HA hence power dissipation of transistor is increasing.

Definition of Thermal resistance: The resistance offered by heat sink in
dissipating power from collector junction to atmosphere is known as thermal
resistance. (θ JA). Fig. shows one type of heat sink which is commonly used.

Fig 7.17 Types of Heat Sink

Comparison Between Voltage And Power Amplifier

Particular Voltage Amplifier Power Amplifier
β High ( > 100) Low ( 20 to 50)
RC High (2-10KΩ ) Low (5 to 20Ω )
Coupling RC-Coupling Transformer coupling
Power Output Low High
Output Impedance High (≅ 12KΩ ) Low (200Ω )
Impedance Poor Excellent
Matching
Input Voltage Low (few mv) High (2 to 4V)
Collector Current Low (≅ 1 mA) High (> 100mA)
Harmonic Distortion
Fig.7.18 shows different waveform showing harmonic distortion.If the
dynamic curve is non-linear over the operating range, the waveform of the
output voltage differs from that of the input signal. Distortion of this type is
called non-linear or amplitude distortion

Fig 7.18 Harmonic Distortions

Whenever non-linear distortion is taking place, the waveform of the
output voltage on analysis is found to certain components of frequencies which
are harmonics of the frequency of the input signal. Thus we may get second
harmonic, third harmonic & higher harmonic components. If we assume that the
input wave is a simple cosine function of time then the instantaneous total
output current may be expressed as,
ic= Ic + ic = Ic + B0 + B1coswt+B2cos2wt + B2cos3wt + …………
Where the B’s are constants. The second harmonic distortion is defined as
D2 = | B2| / |B1|
Similarly the third and forth harmonic distortions are the ratio of the amplitudes
of the fundamental components of the output current.
Specifications Of Power Amplifiers
The main purpose for a power amplifier is to obtain maximum output ac
power. Since a transistor like any other electronic device namely has voltage
current and power dissipation limit using which performance of power amplifier
can be defined. There are three characteristic those are
1. Collector Efficiency
2. Distortion
3. Power Dissipation Capability
(i) Collector Efficiency(η )

Collector efficiency describes, the ability of a power amplifier to convert
d.c power from supply into a.c output power , It is a measure of its
effectiveness. It is also called as overall efficiency or circuit efficiency.
Collector efficiency defined as the ratio of a.c output power to the Zero
signal power (i.e. d.c power) supplied by the battery of a power amplifier.

Collector Efficiency η = Maximum AC output
Power
DC input Power
The maximum theoretical values for circuit efficiency depend upon the
way in which the load is coupled to the transistor and the class of operation of
the amplifier. Its value may lie, anywhere, from 25% to 90%.

(ii) Distortion
A good amplifier should produce an output, which does not differ from the
input in any respect, except amplitude. In other words, the amplifier output is
expected to be enlarged but faithful reproduction of the input. However, in
actual practice, it is not possible to construct such an ideal amplifier, whose
output is exact reproduction of the input. The output is always found to be
different from the input either in its waveform or frequency content. This
difference between the output and input of an amplifier is called distortion.
Two types of distortions namely
1. Amplitude (or harmonic) distortion and
2. Crossover distortion
are considered to be important in power amplifiers.
The amplitude distortion results from the non-linearity of the transistor.
It occurs because of the fact that transistor output may not increase, equally,
for all portions of the input signal during positive and negative half cycles.
The crossover distortion (which usually exists in class B amplifiers) occurs
when transistors do not operate in the correct phase with each other.

(iii) Power Dissipation Capability
Power transistor are used in power amplifiers and they handles large
currents and heats up during operation, this heat should be totally dissipated in
the atmosphere otherwise it will burn the transistor. So while selecting the
power transistor we should consider its power dissipation specification.
Power dissipation is defined as the ability of a power transistor to
dissipate heat. It is also called as power rating
For complete dissipation of heat, generally a heat sink (a metal case) is
attached to a power transistor case. The increased surface areas allows heat to
escape easily and keeps the case temperature of the transistor within limits.

Comparison Between Different Power Amplifiers
Sr. Particular Class A Class B Class AB Class C
i) Collector Flows for Flows for Flows for Flows for
Current entire cycle half cycle of more than half of the
of input input half cycle half cycle
of input of input
ii) Location of At centre of On X-axis Between Below X-
operating load line Ie in Cutoff centre and axis
point on DC region X-axis
load line
iii) Distortion Minimum More but Moderate Maximum
less than
class C
iv) Collector ≅ 35% ≅ 60% ≅ 55% ≅ 75%
efficiency(η
)

Question Bank For students.
1. Define Transistor Audio Power Amplifier.
2. Compare voltage and power Amplifier.
3. State and explain specifications of Power Amplifier.
4. Draw Block diagram of practical Audio Amplifier.
5. Classify and define different Power Amplifier.
6. Compare different classes of power Amplifier.
7. Draw and explain working of Driver stage also explain its frequency
response.
8. Draw and explain working of single ended or class A power Amplifier. Also
explain its frequency response.
9. Draw and explain working of class B push pull power Amplifier. Also draw
its input and output wave forms.
10. Draw and explain working of class A push pull power Amplifier. Also draw
its input and output waveforms.
11. Draw and explain working of class AB push pull power Amplifier. Also
draw its input and output waveforms.
12.Draw and explain working of complementary symmetry class B power
Amplifier. Also draw its input and output waveforms.
13.Write short note on heat sink and draw any one type of it.
14.Compare voltage and power amplifier.
15.Compare the performance of class A, class B and class C amplifiers.
16. Draw the circuit diagram of a single ended transformer coupled class A
power amplifier and explain its operating principle.
17.Name the different class of operations in power amplifier.
18.Draw circuit for class B push pull Amplifier.
19. What is crossover distortion? How it is removed.
20.Draw circuit for complementary symmetry power Amplifier.
21. Define percentage efficiency for power Amplifier.[Define collector-
efficiency]
22.Give two differences between voltage amplifier and power amplifier.
23.Draw and explain with waveforms working of class A push pull Amplifier.
24.What is thermal runaway? How it can be avoided in power amplifier?
25.Draw and explain complementary symmetry Power Amplifier.
26.Draw and explain the working of class B push-pull amplifier.
27. Why heat sink is required in power amplifier?
28.Draw circuit of single ended power amplifier.
29. Classify power amplifiers on the basis of operating point.
30.Draw and explain Class A push-pull amplifier.
31.What is cross over distortion?
32. List the applications of power amplifier.
33.Draw and explain working of push pull power amplifier.
34. State the function of heat sink.
35. List the advantages and disadvantages of push pull power amplifier.
36.Give the functions of heat sink.
37.Draw the circuit of complementary symmetry push pull amplifier and
explain.
38.Compare class A, class B, class AB, class C amplifiers. Give their
applications.
39.Draw complementary symmetry push pull amplifier and writs its
working. What are its advantages?
40.How efficiency in class B amplifier is more than class A amplifier?
41.List the applications of power amplifier.
42.What is cross over distortion?
43.What is heat sink?
44.What are class A, class B, class AB and class C amplifiers?
45.Define efficiency of a power amplifier.
46.State the function of heat sink.
47.Draw and explain working of push pull power amplifier.

The End