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Objectives

1. To determine the coefficient of discharge of Venturi tube.
2. To determine the coefficient of discharge of Orifice plate.

Theoretical Background

1. Tubular steel frame with suction pads 6. Adjustable measurement system

2. Back wall 7. Measurement object – flow measurement

3. Ball cocks for shutting of part sections 8. Measurement object – shut-off devices

4. Annular chambers with pressure tapping nipple 9. Inlet (concealed)

5. Double pressure gauge 10. Drain

1 to 6 measurement system

Bernoulli's equation (with no loss assumption) : + + = + + = (continuity equation) = (pressure head at 1) = (pressure head at 2) = (horizontal flow) = .

The actual discharge is obtained by measuring directly the quantity of flowing water per second. 3. Valve on left side of Orifice plate was adjusted to a certain position. Orifice plate :  inlet diameter. d2 = 14. d1 = 28. Actual volume flow rate(Qactual) was measured and recorded. Venturi tube :  inlet diameter.0 mm 2. 2. 7. Steps 6-8 was repeated for 5 values of Qactual. Steps 6-8 was repeated for 5 values of Qactual. Part B 1. The inlet and throat diameters of the Orifice plate was recorded. Orifice plate was fixed into section 6 as shown in Figure 1. 3.4 mm  throat diameter. Value of h1 and h2 was measured and recorded. Manometer hoses connected to the pressure tapping point. Pump was switched on. 5. 9.4 mm  throat diameter. Venturi tube was fixed into section 6 as shown in Figure 1. Value of h1 and h2 was measured and recorded. 7. 2. 6. 5. Experimental Procedures 1. 8. 4.Theoretical Discharge Qtheoritical = = Equation 1 shows that the theoretical discharge(volume flow rate) through Venturi Tube or Orifice Plate can be determined if we know the inlet and the throat area and the difference of manometer level between the inlet and the throat of the Venturi Tube or Orifice Plate. Air bubble was removed. Actual volume flow rate(Qactual) was measured and recorded. Manometer hoses connected to the pressure tapping point. Pump was switched on. 8. d2 = 14. 6. All valves were closed except that let water flow fro and to tank. Actual Discharge Qactual=Cd Qtheoretical where Cd is coefficient of discharge. 4. d1 = 18. Valve on left side of Venturi tube was adjusted to a certain position. All valves were closed except that let water flow fro and to tank. 9. Air bubble was removed.0 mm Part A 1. . The inlet and throat diameters of the Venturi tube was recorded.

Qactual. Qactual = volume measured (litres) ÷ time observed (s) For volume measured = 4 litre.Sample Calculation For Venturi Tube : For inlet cross-sectional area. = = 4.02m.09.12 litres/s ÷ 1000 Qactual = 0. gradient = coefficient of discharge.81m/s2.0284 ÷ 2 )2 A1 = 6.12 × 10-3 m3/s The other values for Qactual is calculated and tabulated.09 Qactual = 0. . time observed = 33. Qtheoretical = A1v1 = A1 For volume measured = 4 litre.116 For discharge.539 x 10-4 m2 For area ratio. (h1 – h2) = 0. For gradient of the graph.014 ÷ 2 )2 A2 = 1. Qtheoretical = 0. Qtheoretical. Cd.3347 x 10-4 m2 For throat cross-sectional area. A2 A2 = A2 = ( 0. A1 : A1 = A1 = ( 0. time observed = 33. For discharge. Qactual = 4 ÷ 33.09. g = 9.03 × 10-3 m3/s The other values for Qtheoretical is calculated and tabulated.

Qtheoretical = A1v1 = A1 For volume measured = 5 litre. For gradient of the graph.2688 × 10-3 For throat cross-sectional area.65s.747 For discharge. = = 1. A2 A2 = A2 = ( 0.305 × 10-3 m3/s The other values for Qactual is calculated and tabulated.Cd = Cd = 0.31s.016 m. gradient = coefficient of discharge. g = 9.38 litres/s ÷ 1000 Qactual = 1. time observed = 38.1539 x 10-3 For area ratio. Qactual. For discharge. time observed = 10. A1. Cd = Cd = 4 . A1 = A1 = ( 0.11 × 10-3 m3/s The other values for Qtheoretical is calculated and tabulated. Qtheoretical = 0.65 Qactual = 0. (h1 – h2) = 0.014 ÷ 2 )2 A2 = 0. Qactual = volume measured (litres) ÷ time observed (s) For volume measured = 4 litre.09 For Orifice Plate : For inlet cross-sectional area. Cd.81m/s2. Qactual = 4 ÷ 10. Qtheoretical.0185 ÷ 2 )2 A1 = 0.

1 0 0.11 0.5 Q(actual) x10-3 0.13 0.4 0.3 Series1 0.14 0.15 0.03 0.19 Q(theoritical) x10-3 .Curves Flow Through Venturi Tube 0.6 0.19 Q(theoritical) x10-3 Flow Throuh Orifice Plate 0.18 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0 0.6 0.17 0.5 Q(actual) x10-3 0.1 0.3 Series1 0.

html .engineeringtoolbox.htm  http://www.com/venturi.pipeflowcalculations.com/orifice-nozzle-venturi-d_590.htm  http://www.lmnoeng.References  Essential of Fluid Mechanics : Fundamental and Applications John M.com/venturi/index. Cimbala & Yunus A. Cengel  http://www.