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Multiculturalism and Diaspora

Dr. Nagendra Kumar
Dept. of HSS, IIT Roorkee

What is Multiculturalism ?
 Describes societies which have many distinct cultural groups,
usually as a result of immigration.

 Is a view, or policy that immigrants, and others, should
preserve their cultures with the different cultures
interacting peacefully within one nation.

 Pluralistic multiculturalism views each culture or subculture in
a society as contributing unique and valuable cultural aspects
to the whole culture, is more concerned with preserving the
distinctions between cultures.

they are bound from their disparate geographical locations by a common vision. develop their autonomous cultural and social needs.therefore. memory or myth about their homelands. .Characteristics  The original community has spread from a homeland to two or more countries.  They have a belief that they will never be accepted by their host societies and .

. They or their descendants will return to the homeland should the conditions prove favorable. The communal consciousness and solidarity enables them to continue these activities.  They should continue to maintain support for homeland.

 Support for arts from cultures around the world. and the work force. television. They Have  Dual citizenship  Government support for newspapers.the military. and radio in minority languages.  Support for minority festivals. holidays. and celebrations.  Programs to encourage minority representation in politics. . education.  Acceptance of traditional and religious dress in schools . and society in general.

but the ideal India. ---------Rabindra Nath Tagore . has shed its beneficent shade away from its own birthplace….To study a banyan tree. The civilization of India. you not only must know its own soil. like the banyan tree.India can live and grow by spreading abroad—not the political India. for then you can know the true nature of its vitality. but also must trace the growth of its greatness in the future soil.

and speirein (Infinitive). .  Originally used to refer to the dispersion of Jews after the Babylonian exile in 586 BC and to aggregate of Jews or Jewish communities scattered in exile outside Palestine. ‘to spread’ or ‘to disperse’. literally meaning ‘to scatter’.Diaspora Defined  Derived from the Greek verb dia.

Indian Diaspora  Migration and dispersion are natural phenomena.  History is full of accounts of people of Indian subcontinent migrating to other parts of the world since ancient times for a variety of reasons. nomadism preceded their settlement. widely familiar both in the world of plants and in the animal kingdom  Among humans. .

Trinidad and Tobago (40%). Malaysia. Singapore. and Surinam (37%). Sri Lanka. United Kingdom and The United States of America.  Substantial minority in Hong Kong. South and East Africas.  Form the single largest ethnic community in Fiji (49%). Canada. Guyana (53%).  Have a significant presence in Australia.Indian Diaspora: Facts and Figures  Over 20 million people of Indian origin all over the world. Mauritius (74%). .

Transportation of indentured labourers(1834-1920)  ii. Passage or free emigration . Egypt.The Phases of Indian Migration  Ancient Times: A colony of Indian merchants lived permanently in Memphis.  During European Colonialism:  i. Kangani (Tamil—overseer) and maistry (Tamil— supervisor) labourers  iii. from about 500 BC.

 C. England and Canada. Emigration of skilled and unskilled labourers to West Asia .  B. Indian Diaspora in the Post colonial Period  Began after independence. Emigration of professionals and semi-professionals to USA. Emigration of Anglo-Indians to Australia and England.  A.

.  Shashi Tharoor  Sujata Massey (The  Amitav Ghosh Flower Master).  Jhumpa Lahiri ..).  Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni  Indira Ganesan  Bapsi Sidhawa (Inheritance)  Shauna Singh Baldwin.  Bharati Mukherjee  Kiran Desai (Hullabaloo  Anita Desai in.  Vikram Seth  Bharti Kirchner  Vikram Chandra (Sharmila's Book).. Important Writers of Indian Diaspora  Anjana Appachana  Salman Rushdie (Listening Now).

. Anjana Appachana (Listening Now). Kiran Desai (Hullabaloo in. Bharti Kirchner (Sharmila's Book).. .. Bharati Mukherjee and Bapsi Sidhwa. the number of titles by writers from the Indian diaspora makes a vivid impression. In any big bookstore in a large American city. Sujata Massey (The Flower Master).).Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni (Sister of My Heart). who have been publishing for about two decades. and Indira Ganesan (Inheritance) and Shauna Singh Baldwin. and the ones who have been around for less than about five years -. The writers include veterans Anita Desai.

Refugees .Professionals  Long term adaptation .Immigrants .Business people .Students . Adapting to Multicultural Environment  Short term adaptation .Resettlers .

Stages of Adaptations  Enculturation (Socialization)  Deculturation (Unlearning of old culture)  Acculturation (Acquiring some new culture)  Assimilation (Final result state) .

Social motivation .Culture shock  Long term adaptation .References . .Beliefs .Unfamiliar social and business practices .Effects of Adaptation  Short term adaptation.Attitude .

Adaptation as Problem  Cultural fatigue  Irritability  Insomnia  Psychosomatic disorder  Sense of uprootedness from familiar surrounding  Rejection of member in new society  Impotence due to new environment .

.Adaptation as a Learning Growth  Related to individual social and professional effectiveness with the new environment.  Anxiety gone and accustomed to new practices.  Language knowledge.

.  Mixing of cultures is a new trend and one has to accept it. .Solution.  Assimilation ( Cultural convergence )  Acceptance of Pluralism (Tolerance to multicultural)  Individuals of Minority culture do undergo change overtime and over generations.

Thank You .