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Constitution

What is it?
The constitution is the highest law of the land.

Broadly – the constitution is a set principles that aims to protect individual rights and it is a set of rules
that defines the relationship between the state and individuals.
Narrowly – it is a document that acts as a contract between citizen & state containing all these rules and
principles.

Do we have to have one?
Not all countries have written constitutions but they have constitutional principles in place.

Egypt’s first written constitution was enacted in 1923. Since then, there was another constitution intro-
duced in 1956 by Abdel Nasser when Egypt became a republic. It changed again when Egypt merged
with Syria then again when the merger was dissolved. When Sadat took over in 1971 another constitu-
tion (the present one) was introduced. Mubarak amended this 1971 constitution in 2005 and 2007. The
recent referendum that took place on 19 March 2011 amended some articles of this constitution.

What does the constitution contain?
• Fundamental and basic rights like the right to life & freedom, no slavery, freedoms of speech,
assembly, association and religion, equality and education.
• It creates and defines the 3 powers of state: executive, legislature and judiciary
• Principles governing the relationship between the state and individuals and between the 3 pow-
ers, specifying their powers and duties. These powers are the Executive (consisting of the presi-
dent, cabinet, ministers and government departments), the Legislative (Parliament) and the Judi-
ciary (courts).

Why is it important?
The constitution protects individuals’ rights and is one of the means used to guarantee the rule of law.

What’s the difference between constitution & law?
The constitution is the highest law of the land which provides the means to create Parliament and gives
it the power to pass laws. These laws must be in accordance with the articles of the constitution.

Whose responsibility is it to enforce the constitution & law?
Parliament enforces the constitution by making sure that laws created and amended are according to
the constitutional articles. The Executive and Judiciary make sure that the law passed by parliament is
enforced.

Next: Rights and Obligations

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‫ر‬,678'‫ا‬
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.‫د‬%&'‫ن *) ا‬,-./ 012‫ أ‬,‫ر ه‬,678'‫ا‬
.‫اد‬EFG‫ وا‬:I‫و‬JI‫ ا‬KLB :MNOI‫د ا‬JPQ‫د و‬ERI‫@ق ا‬TU VWPQ ‫<دئ‬YWI‫ ا‬K; :=@WZ; ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ – ا‬:;<= ‫@رة‬AB
K]‫ وآ^ ;@ا‬:I‫و‬JI‫ ا‬KLB ‫<دئ‬YWI‫` ا‬a‫ ه‬cd= ‫[@ي‬PQ JT= :B<fWB :TLg‫ و‬K= ‫<رة‬Y= ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ودة – ا‬JP; :RAB

6<>,?‫و‬
J=‫@ا‬M <€iJI ‫ا‬E[dZ‫ إ‬q€x;‫د و‬NYI‫` ا‬a‫ ه‬KjI‫ و‬:i‫ د\[@ر‬:TLg‫€< و‬iJI ~LI ‫ا‬E[dZ‚F ‫[@ب‬j; ‫ د\[@ر‬qI<OI‫د ا‬NB ^‫ى آ‬JI ~LI
.:i‫\[@ر‬JI‫<دئ ا‬YWI‫ ا‬mLYs[I ^u<\‫وو‬

EŒ<ŒxŒI‫ ا‬JŒYŒ= ^ŒYM K; 1956 ‫‰ =<م‬I‫ا‬JY[\‫ ا‬qQ ŠI‫ ذ‬JOB K;‫ و‬1923 ‫ع =<م‬Eُˆ 21‫ن ال‬ETI‫ ا‬VF EAWI :i‫ د\[@ر‬:TLg‫أول و‬
qŒQ .ŒI<ŒPŒ[ŒI‫ إŒ€Œ<ء ا‬Jx= :LI<Q ‫ة‬E; qg <i‫ و\@ر‬EA; I<PQ Jx= ‫ى‬E‫ة أ‬E; ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ ا‬EL‘Q .:i‫€@ر‬Wn EA; ŽPY‫;< أ‬Jx=
‫ و=Œ<م‬2005 ‫Œ<رك =Œ<م‬YŒ; JŒ€Œ= VŒF KŒLŒQEŒ; ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا ا‬a‫^ ه‬iJOQ qQ JTI‫ و‬qjPI‫ \<دات ا‬cI@Q <;Jx= 1971 ‫ د\[@ر‬kiEwQ
.‫@رة‬fI‫<م ا‬LM JOB 1971 ‫\[@ر‬JI ‫ت‬NiJOQ cd= 2011 ‫ ;<رس‬19 ‫@م‬i ‫[<ء‬R[\“‫ ا‬qQ JTI.2007

‫ر‬,678'‫ى ا‬,6:;
‫<ت‬LOWZI‫ ا‬Ki@jQ :iEU‫ و‬kWZ[I‫ ا‬:iEU‫ و‬ELYO[I‫ ا‬:iEU‫ و‬:i‫@د‬YOdI l‫ و‬:iEPI‫<ة وا‬LPI‫ ا‬mU ^f; :i‫ر‬an‫ و‬:L\<\‫@ق أ‬TU •
.<‫ه‬ELp‫ و‬qLdO[I‫ ا‬mU‫<واة و‬rWI‫ ا‬mU‫ و‬KiJI‫ة وا‬JLTOI‫ ا‬:iEU‫و‬
:Lu<vTI‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ وا‬:LOiEw[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ وا‬:iaLRx[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ ا‬::I‫و‬JI‫<ت ا‬sd\ ‫ث‬Ng ‫د‬JPi •
K; ^‫<ت آ‬Yn‫ ووا‬:sdrI‫ى ا‬J; ‫د‬JPQ zLU :I‫و‬JdI :gNfI‫<ت ا‬sdrI‫ ا‬KLB‫اد و‬EFG‫ وا‬:I‫و‬JI‫ ا‬KLB :MNOI‫د ا‬JPQ ‫<دئ‬Y; •
(:L;@jPI‫ ا‬Eu‫وا‬JI‫@زراء وا‬I‫~ ا‬dZ;‫ و‬:I‫و‬JI‫~ ا‬Lu‫ )ر‬:iaLRx[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ ا‬K; ‫@ن‬j[Q ‫<ت‬sdrI‫` ا‬a‫ ه‬.:I‫و‬JI‫<ت ا‬sd\
.(q‫<آ‬PWI‫ )ا‬:Lu<vTI‫ ا‬:sdrI‫<ن( وا‬WIEYI‫ )ا‬:LOiEw[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫وا‬

6<=‫أه‬
.‫<@ن‬TI‫ ا‬:sd\ ‫<ن‬WvI ‫دوات‬G‫ ا‬JU‫ أ‬V‫د وه‬ERI‫@ق ا‬TU VWPi ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬

‫ن‬,-.A'‫ر وا‬,678'‫ ا‬B<> ‫ا'!ق‬
`a‫ ه‬cd= •n@[i .‫<@ن‬TI‫ ا‬EiEW[I :sdrI‫‰ ا‬LsOi‫<ن و‬WIEYI‫ ا‬:p<LAI :dL\@I‫ ا‬EF@i‫د و‬NYI‫ ا‬VF ‫<@ن‬M cd=‫\[@ر ه@ أ‬JI‫ا‬
.‫\[@ر‬JI‫@اد ا‬WI <ًTF‫@ن و‬jQ ‫ أن‬KL‫@ا‬TI‫ا‬

‫ن؟‬,-.A'‫ر وا‬,678'‫ *!ض ا‬B2 ‫ول‬GH='‫ ا‬B;
:sdrI‫ وا‬:iaLRx[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ ا‬.‫\[@ر‬JI‫@اد ا‬WI <ًTF‫ و‬q[Q :IJOWI‫ وا‬:@jWI‫ ا‬KL‫@ا‬TI‫<‰ أن ا‬W— ‫ل‬N K; ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ض ا‬ERi ‫<ن‬WIEYI‫ا‬
.‫<ن‬WIEYI‫ ا‬EY= <‫ه‬EiEWQ qQ V[I‫ ا‬KL‫@ا‬TI‫ض ا‬EF K= ‫ن‬l‫™و‬r; :Lu<vTI‫ا‬

‫<ت‬Yn‫@ا‬I‫@ق وا‬TPI‫ ا‬:)'.6'‫ا‬

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‫ر‬,678'‫ا‬
‫ر؟‬,67‫) ا  د‬I"
.ŠM@TU ŠdxWvQ VI‫ إ‬V‫@اد د` ه‬WI‫€< ;@اد وا‬W\‫<ت ا‬n<U VF :Y‫آ‬E[;‫ و‬:B@[j; <€LMNQ ‫<دئ‬YWI‫ ا‬K; :=@WZ; cTYi ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬
.šOB k; ^;<O[Q ‫<س‬xI‫د إزاي ا‬JP[B ‫<ن‬W‫<س وآ‬xI‫ ا‬k; ‫@ا‬d;<O[i KLI‫™و‬rWI‫ وا‬:;@jPI‫د إزاي ا‬JP[B VI‫ إ‬V‫\[@ر ه‬JI‫<دئ ا‬Y;‫و‬

‫رك‬,67‫!ف د‬2‫ا‬
1956 :x\ JiJn ‫< د\[@ر‬Jx= cTB :i‫€@ر‬Wn ŽTB EA;‫ و‬cPxQ‫<روق ا‬F ŠdWI‫< ا‬WI <€iJOB‫ و‬1923 :x\ ‫أول د\[@ر آ<ن‬
`‫\[@ر د‬JI‫ل ا‬J= ‫<رك‬Y; .‫<رك‬Y; ‫<م‬i‫أ‬EW[\‫ ا‬VI‫ إ‬1971 :x\ JiJn ‫< د\[@ر‬Jx= cTB ‫<دات‬rI‫<م ا‬i‫<ن أ‬W‫ وآ‬.E<xI‫ ا‬JY= ‫<م‬i‫أ‬
.`‫\[@ر د‬JI‫ت ا‬NiJOQ cd= ‫ آ<ن‬2011 ‫ ;<رس‬19 ‫@م‬i ^AU VI‫[<ء إ‬R[\“‫ وا‬.2007 :x\ ‫ة‬E;‫ و‬2005 :x\ ‫ة‬E; – KLQE;

‫ر *< ا ؟‬,678'‫ ا‬,‫ه‬
E‫[›<ه‬Q Š‫Š إ‬TU‫Š و‬rR K= EYOQ‫ و‬qdj[Q Š‫Š إ‬TU‫ و‬:iEPI‫<ة وا‬LPI‫ ا‬VF ŠTU ‫ زي‬:L\<\G‫Š ا‬M@TU ‰LF ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬ •
.<‫ه‬ELp‫ و‬qLdO[I‫ ا‬VF ŠTU‫<واة و‬rWI‫ ا‬VF ŠTU‫Š و‬xi‫ د‬VF ŠTU‫و‬
(:L;@jPI‫<ت ا‬r\™WI‫@زراء وا‬I‫~ ا‬dZ;‫~ و‬LuEI‫ ا‬K= ‫<رة‬Y=) :iaLRx[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫ ا‬:JdYI‫ ا‬VF ‫<ت‬sd\ 3 ‫د‬JPLB ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬ •
VI‫ )إ‬:Lu<vTI‫ ا‬:sdrI‫@رى( وا‬wI‫~ ا‬dZ;‫• و‬OwI‫~ ا‬dZ; K; ‫@ن‬j[LB VI‫<ن إ‬WIEYI‫ ا‬K= ‫<رة‬Y=) :LOiEw[I‫ ا‬:sdrI‫وا‬
(q‫<آ‬PWI‫ ا‬V‫ه‬
.šOB k; :gNfI‫<ت ا‬sdrI‫<;^ ا‬O[Q ‫د إزاي‬JPLB ‫<ن‬W‫Š وآ‬Ld= :;@jPI‫ ا‬mU ‫د‬JPLB ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬ •

‫ '<؟‬JK; ‫ر‬,678'‫ ا‬,‫ه‬
.‫<@ن‬TI‫ ا‬:sd\ KWvLB VI‫<س وه@ إ‬xI‫@ق ا‬TU VWPLB ‫\[@ر‬JI‫ا‬

‫ن؟‬,-.A'‫ر وا‬,678'‫ ا‬B<> ‫وا  ا'!ق‬
.KL‫@ا‬TI‫@ا ا‬Y[jLB VI‫< دول إ‬W‫<ن وه‬WIEYI‫ ا‬VF ‫@رى‬wI‫• وا‬OwI‫~ ا‬dZ; ‫د‬JPLB VI‫ وه@ إ‬JdYI‫ ا‬VF ‫<@ن‬M cd=‫\[@ر ه@ أ‬JI‫ا‬
.‫\[@ر‬JI‫• ;@اد ا‬rU VwWQ ‫زم‬l `‫ د‬KL‫@ا‬TI‫وا‬

‫؟‬B<; N<'‫و‬GH; ‫ن‬,-.A'‫ وا‬B<; N<'‫و‬GH; ‫ر‬,678'‫ا‬
~B .‫<@ن‬TI‫• ا‬rU VwWi‫\[@ر و‬JI‫<دئ ا‬Y; VWPi ‰‫‰ أ‬Ld= •n‫ وا‬JU‫<ن آ^ وا‬w= <xx; JU‫ آ^ وا‬:LI‫™و‬r; ‫<@ن‬TI‫\[@ر وا‬JI‫ا‬
:L;@jPI‫<ت ا‬r\™WI‫@زراء وا‬I‫~ ا‬dZ;‫~ و‬LuEI‫ وا‬.‫\[@ر‬JI‫• ا‬rU cTYQ <€Y[jLB VI‫ إ‬KL‫@ا‬TI‫™ول إن ا‬rWI‫<ن ه@ ا‬WIEYI‫@;ً< ا‬W=
.‫<@ن‬TI‫• ا‬rU VwWi JU‫ إن آ^ وا‬:I‫™و‬r; ‫<ن‬W‫ آ‬V‫ ه‬q‫<آ‬PWI‫وا‬

‫<ت‬Yn‫@ا‬I‫@ق وا‬TPI‫ ا‬:)'.6'‫ا‬

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