There are many tests which are conducted to check the quality of concrete.

These tests are basically divided into two categories 1. Various Lab Test On Fresh Concrete. Under these, we have the following tests a) Slump Test ± Workability b) Compacting Factor c) Vee- Bee Test
2.Various Lab Test On Hardened Concrete.

There are two kinds of tests which are done on hardened concrete. These are non destructive test and destructive tests. In non destructive test, the sample is not destroyed and this test is very useful in determining the strength of existing buildings or structures where as in destructive test a sample is made and then destroyed to find out the strength of concrete.Compression test is the example of destructive test. Here are the nondestructive tests. a) Rebound Hammer Test b) Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
SLUMP TEST/WORKABILITY Slump test is used to determine the workability of fresh concrete. Slump test as per IS: 1199 ± 1959 is followed.The apparatus used for doing slump test are Slump cone and Tamping rod. Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by slump test. i) The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat of oil. ii) The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface. iii) The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete, each approximately to one-fourth of the height of the mould. iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are distributed evenly over the cross sectio n). v) After the top layer is rodded, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel. vi) The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the vertical direction. vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould an d that of the highest point of the subsided concrete is measured. viii) This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.

So the value of slump is specifically mentioned along the mix design and thus it should be checked as per your location. Slump depends on many factors like properties of concrete ingredients ± aggregates etc. If. How does a superplasticizer effect the slump of concrete? Answer 2 Value of Slump can be increased by the addition of chemical admixtures like mid-range or high-range water reducing agents (super -plasticizers) without changing the water/cement ratio. But in case of a wet concrete. which collapses or shears off laterally gives incorrect result and if this occurs. the slump may vary from 150 -175 mm or say 6-7 inches. the slump should be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared. Typical Questions Ques 1. Also temperature has its effect on slu mp value. How much time one should take to raise the cone? Answer 3 Once the cone is filled and topped off [ excessive concrete from top is cleared ] raise the cone within 5-10 seconds. Ques 3. should be recorded. Ques 4. the test should be repeated with another sample. So all these parameters should be kept in mind when deciding the ideal slump Ques 2. What is the ideal value of slump? Answer 1 In case of a dry sample. Any slump specimen. in the repeat test also. slump will be in the range of 25 -50 mm that is 1-2 inches. What are the dimensions of the cone used in Slump Test? Answer 3 The dimensions are Top Diameter ± 10cm Bottom Diameter ± 20cm Height ± 30cm COMPACTING FACTOR .Reporting of Results The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during the test. the specimen shears.

Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by compacting factor test. ii) The trap-door is opened so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper. v) When the concrete fully assumes a cylindrical shape. Compacting factor = (Weight of partially compacted concrete)/(Weight of fully compacted concrete) VEE-BEE TEST To determine the workability of fresh concrete by using a Vee -Bee consistometer as per IS: 1199 ± 1959. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed again. This is known as weight of partially compacted concrete. ii) The glass disc attached to the swivel arm is turned and placed on the top of the concrete in the pot. iii) The electrical vibrator is switched on and a stop -watch is started. v) The concrete in the cylinder is weighed. i) The sample of concrete is placed in the upper h opper up to the brim. vi) The cylinder is filled with a fresh sample of concrete and vibrated to obtain full compaction. iv) The excess concrete remaining above the top leve l of the cylinder is then cut off with the help of plane blades. i) A conventional slump test is performed. This weight is known as the weight of fully compacted concrete. placing the slump cone inside the cylindrical part of the consistometer.Compacting factor of fresh concrete is done to determine the worka bility of fresh concrete by compacting factor test as per IS: 1199 ± 1959. the stop -watch is switched . iv) Vibration is continued till the conical shape of the concrete disappears and the concrete assumes a cylindrical shape. Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by Vee -Bee consistometer. simultaneously. The apparatus used is Compacting factor apparatus. iii) The trap-door of the lower hopper is opened and the concrete is allowed to fall into the cylinder. The apparatus used is Vee -Bee consistometer.

i) Before commencement of a test.The consis tency of the concrete should be expressed in VB-degrees. ii) Apply light pressure on the plunger ± it will release it from the locked position and allow it to extend to the ready position for the test. Procedure to determine strength of hardened concrete by rebound hammer. Press the button after impact. When the plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of the concrete. the rebound hammer should be tested against the test anvil.) iv) Take the average of about 15 readings. . to get reliable results. which is equal to the time in seconds recorded above. REBOUND HAMMER Rebound hammer test is done to find out the compressive strength of concrete by using rebound hammer as per IS: 13311 (Part 2) ± 1992. keeping the instrument perpendicular to the test su rface. The compressive strength can be read directly from the graph provided on the body of the hammer. the p ring-controlled mass rebounds and the extent of such a rebound depends upon the surface hardness of the concrete. The underlying principle of the rebound hammer test is The rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its mass strikes. The rebound value is read f rom a graduated scale and is designated as the rebound number or rebound index. (Do not touch the button while depressing the plunger. in case it is not convenient to note the rebound reading in that position. Apply a gradual increase in pressure until the hammer impacts. iii) Press the plunger against the surface of the concrete. The time is noted. The surface hardness and therefore the rebound is taken to be related to the compressive strength of the immediately. for which the manufacturer of the rebound hammer indicates the range of readings on the anvil suitable for different types of rebound hammer.

Interpretation of Results The rebound reading on the indicator scale has been calibrated by the manufacturer of the rebound hammer for horizontal impact. The mean value of the display readings should be taken when the units digit hunts between two values. appropriate correction as given by the manufacturer is to be taken into account. which is the time in microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel the distance µL¶. homogeneity etc. When used i n any other position. Pulse velocity=(Path length/Travel time) . b) an external battery or c) the A. iv) Pulse velocity: Having determined the most suitable test points on the material to be tested. the transducers should be connected to the sockets marked ³TRAN´ and ´ REC´. uniform ity. Comparatively higher velocity is obtained when concrete quality is good in terms of density. Adjust the µSET REF¶ control until the reference bar transit time is obtained on the instrument read -out. that is. Apply couplant to the surfaces of the transducers and press it har d onto the surface of the material. it is recommended that the 0. The µV¶ meter may be operated with either: a) the internal battery. make careful measurement of the path length µL¶. as this can generate noise signals and errors in measurements. Apply a smear of grease to the transduc er faces before placing it on the opposite ends of the bar.1 microsecond range be selected for path length upto 400mm. Do not move the transducers while a reading is being taken. The underlying principle of this test is The method consists of measuring the time of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete being tested. on a vertical surface. ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY This test is done to assess the quality of concrete by ultrasonic pulse velocity method as per IS: 13311 (Part 1) ± 1992. iii) Range selection: For maximum accuracy.C line. to indicate the compressive strength. ii) Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the instrument zero. i) Preparing for use: Before switching on the µV¶ meter. Procedure to determine strength of hardened concrete by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. Continue holding the transducers onto the surface of the material until a consistent reading appe ars on the display. The pulse time for the bar is engraved on it.

If this is not done. . which have been evolved for characterizing the quality of concrete in structures in terms of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. incidence or absence of internal flaws. cracks and segregation. can thus be assessed using the guidelines given below. Interpretation of Results The quality of concrete in terms of uniformity.v) Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to prevent the two transducer leads from coming into close contact with each other when the transit time measurements are being taken.indicative of the level of workmanship employed. the receiver lead might pick -up unwanted signals from the transmitter lead and this would result in an incorrect display of the transit time. etc.

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